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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718918/a-rapid-confirmatory-test-for-body-fluid-identification
#1
Stephanie T Young, Joshua R Moore, Clifton P Bishop
We have developed a technique that allows investigators to confirm the presence of blood, semen, and/or saliva in a crime scene sample. It is a confirmatory test where multiple samples can be processed in less than an hour, and it is potentially portable, permitting samples to be processed at the crime scene. Samples at a scene giving a positive result can be further processed while those failing to do so may be ignored. There is a large and growing backlog of DNA evidence in the USA, slowing down the criminal justice system...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#2
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718908/death-from-butane-inhalation-abuse-in-teenagers-two-new-case-studies-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Véronique Alunni, Yvan Gaillard, François Castier, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti, Gérald Quatrehomme
The ready availability of butane makes butane abuse frequent. Fatalities are rare. This study presents two cases of death by butane overdose. The postmortem analyses were carried out using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It revealed femoral blood butane concentrations of 18 and 22 mg/L, respectively, as well as specific combinations of adjuvants in each victim. In one of the victims, brain and fatty tissue also contained butane, pointing to chronic consumption. The originality of this study is to show that the identification of specific combinations of adjuvants can be helpful for identifying the brand of deodorant used...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718907/usb-storage-device-forensics-for-windows-10
#4
Ayesha Arshad, Waseem Iqbal, Haider Abbas
Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718882/an-analysis-on-the-choice-of-alpha-level-in-the-osteometric-pair-matching-of-the-os-coxa-scapula-and-clavicle
#5
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study compares the use of 0.05 and 0.10 alpha levels with the updated osteometric pair-matching model on two samples of the os coxa, scapula, and clavicle. The samples include the Forensic Data Bank, and the osteometric sorting reference used within the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. Mixed-effects two-way analyses of variance were used to analyze bilateral asymmetry in the standard measurements. In total, 3,793,566 t-tests were conducted for osteometric pair-matching analysis. The results indicate high levels of exclusion power, and accuracy can be obtained with the os coxa and scapula...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718881/identification-of-bodies-by-unique-serial-numbers-on-implanted-medical-devices
#6
Melissa M Blessing, Peter T Lin
Visual identification is the most common identification method used by medical examiners but is not always possible. Alternative methods include X-ray, fingerprint, or DNA comparison, but these methods require additional resources. Comparison of serial numbers on implanted medical devices is a rapid and definitive method of identification. To assess the practicality of using this method, we reviewed 608 consecutive forensic autopsies performed at a regional medical examiner office. Of these, 56 cases required an alternative method of identification due to decomposition (n = 35), gunshot wound (n = 9), blunt trauma (n = 6), or charring (n = 6)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691776/a-simple-method-of-vntr-d1s80-locus-allelic-ladder-construction-for-capillary-electrophoresis-based-genotyping
#7
Ju Yeon Jung, Su-Ji Kim, Yu-Li Oh, Si-Keun Lim, Yang Han Lee, Jung Ho Hwang
VNTR D1S80 locus genotyping has been largely replaced in forensics by STR. As the statute of limitations on murder cases was abolished in the Republic of Korea in July 2015, the demand for re-analysis of DNA from unresolved murder cases has increased. The National Forensic Service includes several recorded D1S80 genotypes as crucial clues. Here, we re-established the D1S80 analysis system using capillary electrophoresis and confirmed the reproducibility of the system by comparison with the genotypes of eight DNA samples that had been analyzed using PAGE in 2006...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691774/bite-mark-analysis-in-foodstuffs-and-inanimate-objects-and-the-underlying-proofs-for-validity-and-judicial-acceptance
#8
Fernando Rivera-Mendoza, Stella Martín-de-Las-Heras, Pablo Navarro-Cáceres, Gabriel M Fonseca
Even though one of the first bite mark cases was Doyle v. State in 1954 (a bitten cheese case), the research has focused on bite marks inflicted in human skin. As published Papers, Case Reports, or Technical Notes can constitute precedents which are relied upon in making the legal arguments and a considerable amount of case law exists in this area, we present a systematic review on bite mark analysis in foodstuffs and inanimate objects and their underlying proofs for validity and judicial acceptance according to Daubert rulings...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691773/visualization-of-aged-fingerprints-with-an-ultraviolet-laser
#9
Norimitsu Akiba, Kenro Kuroki, Kenji Kurosawa, Ken'ichi Tsuchiya
Detection of aged fingerprints is difficult because they can degrade over time with exposure to light, moisture, and temperature. In this study, aging fingerprints were visualized by time-resolved spectroscopy with an ultraviolet-pulsed laser. Fingerprints were prepared on glass slides and paper and then stored under three lighting conditions and two humidity conditions for up to a year. The fluorescence intensities of the fingerprints decreased with time. Samples were stored in the dark degraded less than in sunlight or under a fluorescent lamp...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691753/effect-of-aging-and-surface-interactions-on-the-diffusion-of-endogenous-compounds-in-latent-fingerprints-studied-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#10
Kelly C O'Neill, Young Jin Lee
The ability to determine the age of fingerprints would be immeasurably beneficial in criminal investigations. We explore the possibility of determining the age of fingerprints by analyzing various compounds as they diffuse from the ridges to the valleys of fingerprints using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The diffusion of two classes of endogenous fingerprint compounds, fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TGs), was studied in fresh and aged fingerprints on four surfaces...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691746/a-fully-automatic-method-for-comparing-cartridge-case-images
#11
Xiao Hui Tai, William F Eddy
When a gun is fired, it leaves marks on cartridge cases that are thought to be unique to the gun. In current practice, firearms examiners inspect cartridge cases for "sufficient agreement," in which case they conclude that they come from the same gun, testifying in courts as such. A 2016 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report questioned the scientific validity of such analysis (President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC, Executive Office of the President)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691733/sudden-death-due-to-coronary-arteritis
#12
Gabrielle Gabarrou, Céline Guilbeau-Frugier, Anthony Blanc, Norbert Telmon, Frederic Savall
We report the case of a middle-aged man, without medical history, who suddenly died at his workplace. The autopsy highlighted a pathological heart macroscopically, with multiple small white areas on the left myocardium. Coronary dissection revealed a pseudotumoural fibromyxoid aspect within the anterior interventricular artery (AIVA) and the left main coronary trunk, including reduction in their diameter with tight stenosis. Microscopic examination of these arteries showed fibroinflammatory wall destruction...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683519/a-ballistics-examination-of-firearm-injuries-involving-breast-implants
#13
Christopher J Pannucci, Adam J Cyr, Neal G Moores, Jason B Young, Martin Szegedi
This ballistics study examines whether saline breast implants can decrease tissue penetration in firearm injuries. We hypothesize that the fluid column within a saline breast implant can alter bullet velocity and/or bullet pattern of mushrooming. The two experimental groups included saline implants with 7.4 cm projection and a no implant group. The experimental design allowed the bullet to pass-through an implant and into ballistics gel (n = 10) or into ballistics gel without passage through an implant (n = 11)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678413/disseminated-neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-with-escherichia-coli-coinfection
#14
Kacy Krehbiel, Veena Singh
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an uncommon disease that rarely presents as sudden unexpected death of a previously healthy newborn. Clinical manifestations are variable; signs and symptoms may be subtle and nonspecific. Neonatal infection may present with mucocutaneous (skin, eye, and/or mouth), disseminated, or central nervous system disease. Morbidity and mortality are dependent upon disease presentation and treatment. The infection is most frequently transmitted during the peripartum period, although the majority of mothers have no known history of HSV infection at the time of delivery...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678377/cascading-bias-of-initial-exposure-to-information-at-the-crime-scene-to-the-subsequent-evaluation-of-skeletal-remains
#15
Sherry Nakhaeizadeh, Ruth M Morgan, Carolyn Rando, Itiel E Dror
Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that investigated the potential cascading effects of initial exposure to extraneous context upon subsequent decision-making. Participants investigated a mock crime scene, which included the excavation of clandestine burials that had a male skeletal cast dressed either in female or gender neutral clothing. This was followed by a forensic anthropological assessment of the skeletal remains, with a control group assessing the same male skeletal cast without any clothing context...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664651/refining-stable-oxygen-and-hydrogen-isoscapes-for-the-identification-of-human-remains-in-mississippi
#16
Monica M Warner, Amber M Plemons, Nicholas P Herrmann, Laura A Regan
Isoscape refinement is an essential component for accurately predicting region-of-origin in forensic investigations involving isotope analysis of unidentified human remains. Stable oxygen (δ(18) O) and hydrogen (δ(2) H) isotopes were measured from 57 tap water samples collected across Mississippi to model refined isoscapes for the state. A tap water conversion equation, δ(18) Otw =1.64 δ(18) Op-31.35, was developed for the southeastern USA to test the prediction accuracy of the δ(18) Otw isoscape using individuals with known residential histories...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662311/complex-suicide-by-self-stabbing-and-drowning-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#17
Pierre-Antoine Peyron, Thierry Casper, Olivier Mathieu, Yuri Musizzano, Eric Baccino
Sharp force injuries and drowning are methods exceptionally combined in complex suicides. We report a challenging case of complex suicide by self-stabbing and drowning that illustrates the difficulty in discriminating between homicide and suicide in such circumstances of death. The corpse of a young man was found submerged in a river, stabbed nine times with two wounds that had penetrated the thorax and had caused lung injuries and a hemopneumothorax. The postmortem and histological examinations were consistent with a death caused by drowning, but the manner of death still remained undetermined...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649754/characterization-and-differentiation-of-geometric-isomers-of-3-methylfentanyl-analogs-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#18
Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Yuko T Iwata, Hiroki Segawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Hiroyuki Inoue
The cis and trans isomers of 3-methylfentanyl and its three analogs were chemically synthesized, and these compounds were characterized and differentiated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The cis and trans isomers of the 3-methylfentanyl analogs were completely separated by GC/MS. Although the high temperature of the GC injection port caused thermal degradation of β-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl, the degradation was completely suppressed by trimethylsilyl derivatization...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649704/latent-fingermark-development-on-thermal-paper-using-1-2-indanedione-zinc-and-polyvinylpyrrolidone
#19
Sungwook Hong, Minseok Kim, Seoungho Yu
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been used in combination with 1,2-indanedione (1,2-IND) and ZnCl2 (Zn) to develop latent fingermarks. The results show that the optimal ratio of 1,2-IND/Zn:PVP is 1.0:0.4 (the concentration of PVP is 8%) for developing fingermark. The developed formulation was tested on the surfaces of 12 kinds of thermal papers. The variation in the fingermark development efficiency was observed within the same and among different kinds of thermal papers. The fingermark development efficiency was mostly better on the thermally sensitive surface compared to the thermally nonsensitive surface...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643444/how-media-exposure-relates-to-laypersons-understanding-of-psychopathy
#20
Michael E Keesler, David DeMatteo
While conceptualization of psychopathy has evolved, so too has the public's relationship with psychology changed. Concurrently, portrayal of psychopaths has made several shifts, both through nonfiction sources and in popular film and television. Psychopathic villains of the mid-20th century have made space for a growing cast of protagonist psychopaths. This study examined whether a relationship existed between exposure to fictional psychopaths and how lay individuals conceptualize psychopathy. Specifically, this study explored conceptualization differences based on exposure to antagonist versus protagonist fictional psychopaths...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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