Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Forensic Sciences

Joseph Donfack, Hilda S Castillo
It is generally accepted within the forensic trace evidence community that a postmortem root band (PMRB) can appear in the root of hairs attached to remains during decomposition. Presently, the specific sequences of events and/or exact molecular signals that lead to the formation of a PMRB are not well understood. The published literature addressing the abiotic and biotic factors that correlate with the formation of PMRBs is reviewed and a conceptual model for the formation of PMRBs is proposed.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Margaret Cocks, Inbal Sander, Barbara Crain
A complete academic autopsy includes an external examination with inspection of gross dermatologic findings. At our institution, the postmortem examination also includes a standard skin biopsy. We determined the microscopic yield of this standard postmortem skin biopsy and the overall frequency of macroscopic dermatologic diagnoses. We reviewed 389 complete autopsies conducted between 2012 and 2014. Both microscopic and macroscopic dermatologic diagnoses were analyzed. A macroscopic dermatologic diagnosis was made in 32% of cases while a microscopic diagnosis was recorded in 10% of cases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
George Christofidis, Joanne Morrissey, Jason W Birkett
There are many different fingermark visualization techniques available, and the choice of methodology employed may be dependent on the surface type. This comprehensive review of the scientific literature evaluates the methodologies of fingermark enhancement methods that are applicable to metallic surfaces; optical, physical, chemical, and physicochemical methods are critically discussed. Methods that are currently used and those that have the potential to reduce the cost and time required to process evidence and increase the recovery rates are considered and are assessed against the Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST) and the International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) guidelines...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Samuel P Prahlow, Joseph A Prahlow
As forensic scientists and physicians, forensic pathologists are duty-bound to perform their examinations with integrity and professionalism. The practice of medicine requires knowledge regarding the history and presentation of the patient. In forensic pathology, the history includes scene and other investigative information, and the decedent's medical and social history. Such information is important for the correct certification of the cause and manner of death. Herein, the authors present a case originally thought by police and death investigators to represent a sexual-assault-related homicide, as an elderly female's body was found partially nude, and apparently beaten, on the muddy floor of her horse barn...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Can Wang, Lawrence M Wein
Motivated by the debate over how to deal with the huge backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the U.S.A., we construct and analyze a mathematical model that predicts the expected number of hits (i.e., a new DNA profile matches a DNA sample in the criminal database) as a function of both the proportion of the backlog that is tested and whether the victim-offender relationship is used to prioritize the kits that are tested. Refining the results in Ref. (Criminol Public Policy, 2016, 15, 555), we use data from Detroit, where government funding was used to process ≈15% of their backlog, to predict that prioritizing stranger kits over nonstranger kits leads to only a small improvement in performance (a 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lehi Sudy Dos Santos, Palloma Vieira Muterlle
Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Allyse B Harris, Wendy M Gunther, Amy P Fantaskey, Lawrence B Weinstein
We present the case of a windblown beach umbrella inflicting fatal penetrating blunt force to the chest of a 55-year-old female beachgoer. A postmortem examination and detailed case history review were performed which revealed left ventricular trauma, determined to be the cause of death. Using recorded wind speeds from the date of the incident and the weight of the umbrella, we were able to calculate the pressure with which the umbrella struck the victim to be 16,000 PSI. Witness reports, medical records, scene details, and examination of a rental beach umbrella allowed the forensic pathologist to conclude that the object causing this woman's death was a windblown beach umbrella...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jay M Poupko, William Lee Hearn, Federico Rossano
Several studies have reported on wide-spread contamination of U.S. paper currency with cocaine and to a lesser extent other illicit drugs. Canines are trained and employed to search for and alert to drugs. Canine alert to currency has been used as evidence that currency has been directly involved in illicit drug trafficking to justify currency seizure and forfeiture. This assertion, particularly when the only evidence is based upon canine alert, has been challenged in the courts considering that most currency in circulation is contaminated with cocaine...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jeffrey E Fournier, Victoria Northrup, Donaldo D Canales, Christa Moore, Jennifer L Shea
HbA1c is used in forensic toxicology to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) and those with poor glycemic control prior to death. HbA1c is typically measured in whole blood collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The effect of other additives, including sodium fluoride (NaF), is unclear. Furthermore, the assessment of short- and long-term stability of HbA1c has produced conflicting results. In this study, we collected paired postmortem blood samples in EDTA and NaF tubes (n = 142) to assess their comparability for HbA1c measurement...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Meghan R McKinnon, Ellie K Simpson, Maciej Henneberg
Previous studies have used longitudinal samples to investigate growth of the skeletal aspects of the face, although far less has been done on facial soft tissue. This study uses a larger sample than previous studies on the same data (Denver and Fels growth series) to explore covariation of bony and soft facial dimensions comprehensively from childhood to adulthood. A total of 1036 lateral cephalometric radiographs were digitized from 60 individuals, and distances between facial landmarks were measured using ImageJ...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Asit Kumar Sikary, Mahesh Kumar, Shivani Dhaka, Arulselvi Subramanian
Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Le Wang, Man Chen, Bo Wu, Yi-Cheng Liu, Guang-Feng Zhang, Li Jiang, Xiu-Lan Xu, Xing-Chun Zhao, An-Quan Ji, Jian Ye
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to genotype forensic short tandem repeat (STR) markers for individual identification and kinship analysis. STR data from several NGS platforms have been published, but forensic application trials using the Ion S5™ XL system have not been reported. In this work, we report sensitivity, reproducibility, mixture, simulated degradation, and casework sample data on the Ion Chef™ and S5™ XL systems using an early access 25-plex panel. Sensitivity experiments showed that over 97% of the alleles were detectable with down to 62 pg input of genomic DNA...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Aran Kim, Seung-Jin Ryu, Jihye Lee, Hyun Jung
In forensic science, developing latent fingermarks using powders is a critical, general method to identify individuals. Photoluminescent Eu(Phen)2 complex intercalated clay hybrids have been used to improve the visualization of fingermarks on nonporous (glass and polymer film) and semiporous (euro and dollar banknotes) substrates. An ion exchange reaction has been successfully used to intercalate Eu(Phen)2 complex ions into the interlayer spacing of two different Na+ -clays, Na+ -montmorillonite and Na+ -hectorite, with different primary particle sizes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Graeme Horsman
With an increase in the creation and maintenance of personal websites, web content management systems are now frequently utilized. Such systems offer a low cost and simple solution for those seeking to develop an online presence, and subsequently, a platform from which reported defamatory content, abuse, and copyright infringement has been witnessed. This article provides an introductory forensic analysis of the three current most popular web content management systems available, WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla! Test platforms have been created, and their site structures have been examined to provide guidance for forensic practitioners facing investigations of this type...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lauren Wilson, Michelle Gahan, Chris Lennard, James Robertson
Forensic biometrics is the application of forensic science principles to physical and behavioral characteristics. Forensic biometrics is a secondary sub-system in the forensic science "system of systems," which describes forensic science as a sub-system in the larger criminal justice, law enforcement, intelligence, and military system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss biometrics in the military domain and integration into the wider forensic science system of systems. The holistic system thinking methodology was applied to the U...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Benedita Ferreira-Silva, Margarida Fonseca-Cardoso, Maria João Porto, Teresa Magalhães, Laura Cainé
Biological evidence of sexual assault is one of the most difficult sample types to analyze in forensic laboratories. Y-STR markers are thus a valuable tool for analyzing these samples. The aim of this project was to compare three Y-STR commercial kits by analyzing their amplification performance on casework samples. Overall, 247 trace samples were analyzed with a Yfiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex® Y23 (Promega® ) System and AmpFLSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Penny McCardle, Elizabeth Stojanovski
The aim of this research was to identify characteristics specific to a machete and katana on three different bone types. One machete and two katanas were used to produce cut marks on Sus scrofa rib, flat and long bones. Fifty-nine cuts were produced by the katanas and 38 by the machete. The presence of flaking, feathering, peeling, micropeeling, chattering, microcurvature, scoop defect, and exit notch was noted, and bivariate associations between each characteristic and weapon type were assessed using Pearson's chi-square tests for independence and logistic regression models developed...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jacqueline M Berger, James T Pokines, Tara L Moore
Criminal dismemberment is accomplished using a variety of tools and frequently used to dispose or facilitate the transport of human remains in an attempt to hinder forensic investigation. The present research examined features that may differentiate cuts made in bone by various commercially available reciprocating saw blades. The partial limbs of adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were used as a proxy for human remains and were cut using five reciprocating saw blades and a hand-powered hacksaw...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Supawon Srettabunjong
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is an uncommon consequence of head and face infection, but a rare complication after craniofacial fracture. In this case, SCST developed in a 13-year-old girl following a minor fall during volleyball, with impact and resulting abrasive contusion of the left forehead. She developed watery rhinorrhea, progressive headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and left proptosis with blurred vision, and was admitted to hospital 3 days after injury. Drowsiness, high-grade fever, severe headache, left ocular pain with marked periorbital swelling, and paralysis of extraocular eye movements developed...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Alyssa J Badgley, Ellen M Jesmok, David R Foran
Previous research has revealed the potential of soil bacterial profiling for forensic purposes; however, investigators have not thoroughly examined fluctuations in microbial profiles from soil aged on evidence. In this research, soils collected from multiple habitats were placed on evidence items and sampled over time, and then bacterial profiles were generated via next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA locus. Bacterial abundance charts and nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots provided visual representation of bacterial profiles temporally, while supervised classification was used to statistically associate evidence to a source...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"