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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921603/trace-dna-sampling-success-from-evidence-items-commonly-encountered-in-forensic-casework
#1
Renata Dziak, Amy Peneder, Alicia Buetter, Cecilia Hageman
Trace DNA analysis is a significant part of a forensic laboratory's workload. Knowing optimal sampling strategies and item success rates for particular item types can assist in evidence selection and examination processes and shorten turnaround times. In this study, forensic short tandem repeat (STR) casework results were reviewed to determine how often STR profiles suitable for comparison were obtained from "handler" and "wearer" areas of 764 items commonly submitted for examination. One hundred and fifty-five (155) items obtained from volunteers were also sampled...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921600/injury-patterns-sustained-in-fatal-motor-vehicle-collisions-with-driver-s-third-generation-airbag-deployment
#2
Mariya Kuk, Michael J Shkrum
The Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario database for 2011-2012 was used to compare fatal injury patterns in drivers whose third-generation airbags deployed compared to first- and second-generation airbag deployments and airbag nondeployments with and without seatbelt use. There were 110 frontal and offset frontal crashes analyzed. The small sample size meant that the odds of craniocerebral, cervical spinal, thoracic, and abdominal injuries were not statistically different for airbag generation, deployment status, and seatbelt use; however, the risk of fatal thoracic injuries in third- and second-generation cases was increased...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886225/the-role-of-forensic-botany-in-solving-a-case-scientific-evidence-on-the-falsification-of-a-crime-scene
#3
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Pietrantonio Ricci
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886221/an-improved-version-of-a-tool-mark-comparison-algorithm
#4
Jeremy R Hadler, Max D Morris
Chumbley et al. (2010) described a statistically based algorithm for comparing pairs of tool marks. They presented empirical evidence that the algorithm produces well-separated similarity score values for "matching" and "non-matching" pairs of tool marks. However, the algorithm has two substantial weaknesses. First, it is "uncalibrated" in the sense that error rates can be determined only through empirical investigation. Second, it relies on a randomized test and can lead to different similarity scores when the algorithm is repeatedly applied to the same pair of tool marks...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886216/identification-of-1-2-3-dihydro-1h-inden-5-yl-2-ethylamino-pentan-1-one-bk-ivp-in-a-seized-drug-exhibit
#5
Audra Curry Yovanovich, John V Goodpaster, Robert E Minto
To circumvent the law by evading regulation and obscuring their identities in routine analyses, numerous substituted cathinones have entered the illicit drug market. These compounds have been coined "bath salts" by users. In the described case, the laboratory received an unknown white powder for controlled substances identification. The sample could not be immediately identified using standard methods and procedures. Ultimately, the structure was elucidated using GC-MS, NMR, FTIR, GC-SPIR, UV, and color tests to be 1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)pentan-1-one (bk-IVP), a cathinone analog with a rarely observed nonoxygenated bicyclic ring system...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886214/suicidal-decapitation-by-hanging-a-population-based-study
#6
Roger W Byard, John D Gilbert
A prospective study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA over a 15-year period from July 2002 to June 2017 for all cases of adult (>18 years) suicidal hangings with decapitation. A total of 1446 cases of suicidal hangings were identified from a general population of approximately 1.5 million (1206 males-age range 18-97 years, average 42.6; and 240 females-age range 18-96 years, average 40.1). Only three cases of decapitation were found, all from long-drop hangings; these consisted of three males (ages 32-55 years; average 45 years)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886207/the-biological-effects-of-kambo-is-there-a-relationship-between-its-administration-and-sudden-death
#7
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Vittorio Fineschi, Simona Magi, Pasqualina Castaldo, Graziella Viscomi, Salvatore Amoroso, Pietrantonio Ricci
Kambo is a substance obtained from the skin secretions of a frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, popular in the Amazon region, which is administered via the transdermal route. We report a case of 42-year-old man found dead in his house. Near the corpse, a plastic box labeled as "Kambo sticks" was found. The man was a chronic consumer of Kambo and no previous pathology or genetic disease emerged in clinical history from the declaration of his general practitioner. Autopsy investigations and toxicological analysis were performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851106/dxage-a-new-method-for-age-at-death-estimation-based-on-femoral-bone-mineral-density-and-artificial-neural-networks
#8
David Navega, João d'Oliveira Coelho, Eugénia Cunha, Francisco Curate
Age at death estimation in adult skeletons is hampered, among others, by the unremarkable correlation of bone estimators with chronological age, implementation of inappropriate statistical techniques, observer error, and skeletal incompleteness or destruction. Therefore, it is beneficial to consider alternative methods to assess age at death in adult skeletons. The decrease in bone mineral density with age was explored to generate a method to assess age at death in human remains. A connectionist computational approach, artificial neural networks, was employed to model femur densitometry data gathered in 100 female individuals from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851096/quantifying-macrophages-and-hemosiderin-in-pediatric-dura-mater
#9
Alison Krywanczyk, Elizabeth A Bundock
Determining the age of a subdural hematoma at autopsy is of great interest for medicolegal purposes. The appearance of pigment-laden macrophages is often referenced as evidence that the subdural hematoma is 3-4 days old. However, understanding the significance of macrophages and hemosiderin requires understanding the histology of infant dura. Samples of grossly unremarkable dura taken from 17 pediatric autopsies were identified and histologically confirmed to lack subdural neomembrane. CD68 immunostaining and Prussian blue staining was performed...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834611/a-molecular-method-to-detect-wound-cells-in-bloodstains-resultant-of-sharp-force-injuries-for-crime-scene-reconstruction
#10
Donald J Johnson, David E Raymond, Cynthia Chen, Matthew Quon, Julian Lis, Mo Re Choi, Christopher Lopez, Aileen Han, Ray D de Leon, Cynthia Bir
Previous research by the authors on an animal model showed that bloodstains can contain additional information about their somatic origin in the form of wound cells. Bloodstains produced by a gunshot wound to the head were distinguished from bloodstains produced by a gunshot wound to the chest by testing the stains for a brain microRNA marker. In this study, the effectiveness of the technique was examined on blood drops shed externally from a stab wound to the liver of rat carcasses. Specifically, investigations were conducted on the liver microRNA marker, rno-mir-122-3p, with the QIAGEN miScript System, and PCR analysis...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834609/application-of-3d-laser-scanner-to-forensic-engineering
#11
Chan-Seong Park, Hong-Pil Jeon, Kwang-Soo Choi, Jin-Pyo Kim, Nam-Kyu Park
In the case of building collapses and overturned structures, a three-dimensional (3D) collapse or overturn model is required to reconstruct the accident. As construction sites become increasingly complex and large, 3D laser scanning is sometimes the best tool to accurately document and store the site conditions. This case report presents one case of a structure collapse and one case of an overturned crane reconstructed by a 3D laser scanner. In the case of structural collapse of a prefabricated shoring system, a 3D model reconstructed all the members successfully, a task that is nearly impossible using a scale such as a tape measure...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834580/the-physical-effects-of-contact-and-close-distance-gunfire-on-sweatshirt-fleece
#12
Michael A Kusluski
Powder stippling caused by the impact of propellant particles during close-distance gunfire has been previously described on skin and solid objects only. Additionally, radial tearing has been described as clear evidence of a contact-distance shot, requiring no further testing. Patterns of discrete perforating holes (referred to here as "stippling perforations") and other physical damage on sweatshirt fleece fabrics were prepared. Using the firearm and ammunition in this study, stippling perforations were observed to a maximum muzzle-to-target distance of 35 cm (10 inches)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834569/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-criminal-extremity-new-evidence-for-sexual-homicide
#13
Matt DeLisi, Eric Beauregard
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a wide range of behavioral, health, and psychiatric deficits and have recently been used to study the development of serious offending careers. Unfortunately, this research paradigm has largely ignored forensic populations. This study utilized the adverse childhood experiences framework to examine the associations between exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences on sexual homicide using a sample of 616 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders from Canada 85 of whom committed sexual homicide...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834547/high-resolution-melting-hrm-of-hypervariable-mitochondrial-dna-regions-for-forensic-science
#14
Alípio Dos Santos Rocha, Isis Salviano Soares de Amorim, Tatiana de Almeida Simão, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca, Rodrigo Grazinoli Garrido, Andre Luiz Mencalha
Forensic strategies commonly are proceeding by analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, new additional strategies have been proposed for forensic science. Thus, this article standardized the high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA for forensic analyzes. For HRM, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from eight individuals were extracted from mucosa swabs by DNAzol reagent, samples were amplified by PCR and submitted to HRM analysis to identify differences in hypervariable (HV) regions I and II. To confirm HRM, all PCR products were DNA sequencing...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834545/sex-estimation-from-human-cranium-forensic-and-anthropological-interest-of-maxillary-sinus-volumes
#15
Thomas Radulesco, Justin Michel, Julien Mancini, Patrick Dessi, Pascal Adalian
Sex estimation is a key objective of forensic science. We aimed to establish whether maxillary sinus volumes (MSV) could assist in estimating an individual's sex. One hundred and three CT scans were included. MSV were determined using three-dimensional reconstructions. Two observers performed three-dimensional MSV reconstructions using the same methods. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were statistically compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (α = 5%). Both intra- and interobserver reproducibility were perfect regarding MSV; both ICCs were 100%...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834542/the-accuracy-and-applicability-of-3d-modeling-and-printing-blunt-force-cranial-injuries
#16
Julie Edwards, Tracy Rogers
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the accuracy of 3D models and 3D prints of cranial blunt force trauma, to evaluate the applicability and limitations of modeling such injuries. Three types of cranial blunt force lesions were documented (hinge, depressed, and comminuted) using three forms of surface scanning (laser, structured light scanner, and photogrammetry) at two different quality settings (standard and high). 3D printed models of the lesions were produced using two different materials (a gypsum-like composite powder called VisiJet(®) PXL and an acrylic engineered composite plastic called VisiJet(®) M3 in crystal colour)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834541/sudden-unexpected-deaths-due-to-intracranial-meningioma-presentation-of-six-fatal-cases-review-of-the-literature-and-a-discussion-of-the-mechanisms-of-death
#17
Lorenzo Gitto, Giorgio Bolino, Stephen J Cina
Deaths due to meningiomas are routinely diagnosed in clinical practice because this neoplasm tends to present with the typical progression of neurological deficits. On the other hand, sudden unexpected deaths due to meningiomas are rarely described in the literature. The study presents six fatal cases of previously undiagnosed intracranial meningiomas from the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office from 1998 to 2014. The most common explanation of the mechanism of sudden death due to intracranial neoplasms is a rapid increase in intracranial pressure produced by the mass effect of the neoplasm...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833161/rare-death-via-histamine-poisoning-following-crab-consumption-a-case-report
#18
Yang Yu, Ping Wang, Ligong Bian, Shijun Hong
Histamine poisoning (scombroid food poisoning) is a toxicity syndrome that results from eating spoiled fish. To date, however, few poisoning (or mortality) cases have been reported in relation to crab consumption. Here, we describe a very uncommon case in which a 37-year-old woman and her 14-year-old son ate cooked crabs (Scylla serrata), resulting in the death of the female. Samples of vomitus, food residue, liver tissue, gastric content, intestinal content, and cardiac blood were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833136/a-study-on-the-estimation-of-postmortem-interval-based-on-environmental-temperature-and-concentrations-of-substance-in-vitreous-humor
#19
Mingzhen Yang, Huijun Li, Tiantong Yang, Zijiao Ding, Shifan Wu, Xingang Qiu, Qian Liu
A method to determine postmortem interval (PMI) based on environmental temperature and the concentrations of vitreous humor (VH) molecules were explored. Rabbit carcasses were placed in a chamber at 5, 15, 25, or 35°C, and 80-100 μL of VH was collected with the double-eye alternating micro-sampling method every 12 h. A Roche DPPI biochemical analyzer was used to measure the concentrations of six substances in VH samples. The interpolation function model and mixed-effect model were employed for data fitting to establish equations for PMI estimation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833117/an-evidence-based-forensic-taxonomy-of-windows-phone-communication-apps
#20
Niken Dwi Wahyu Cahyani, Ben Martini, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Nurul Hidayah Ab Rahman, Helen Ashman
Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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