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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810074/preliminary-data-on-the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-in-moderating-the-link-between-psychopathy-and-aggression-in-a-nonforensic-sample
#1
Tiziana Lanciano, Antonietta Curci, Francesca Guglielmi, Emanuela Soleti, Ignazio Grattagliano
This short report presents preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in moderating the relationship between psychopathy and aggression in a nonforensic sample. A sample of 109 volunteer men was administered the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence Test in individual sessions. Correlation and moderation analyzes showed that, at low levels of EI (in terms of strategic ability to understand and manage one's own and others' emotions), people scoring high on the total PPI-R and impulsivity dimension seemed to be both reactively and proactively aggressive...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810073/implications-of-pseudologia-fantastica-in-criminal-forensic-evaluations-a-review-and-case-report
#2
Richard L Frierson, Kaustubh G Joshi
Pseudologia fantastica, a psychological phenomenon that has been described in the literature for at least a century, is an understudied and poorly understood entity. Sometimes referred to as pathological lying, pseudologia fantastica involves disproportionate fabrication that may be present for many years or a lifetime. In a forensic context, it can significantly complicate the evaluation of capacity to stand trial and, in certain jurisdictions, criminal responsibility. We review the current literature regarding pseudologia fantastica and present a case to highlight the clinical and forensic challenges it may create...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810070/the-appearance-taste-and-concentrations-of-zolpidem-dissolved-in-still-water-and-carbonated-beverages
#3
Gunhild Heide, Knut Hjelmeland, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Ritva Karinen, Gudrun Høiseth
Zolpidem is a sedative that could be used to drug victims, but its suitability to dissolve in drinks is unknown. In this small study, we added either crushed or whole tablets of zolpidem hemitartrate to carbonated beverages or still water to observe how this affected the taste and appearance. Also, concentrations were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at different time intervals. Two crushed tablets (20 mg) in cider (250 mL) lead to a maximum concentration of 84 mg/L zolpidem base after 30 min, while the corresponding concentration after adding fifteen tablets (150 mg) was 467 mg/L...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810069/homicide-rates-in-lithuania
#4
Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Sigitas Laima, Gerda Andriuskeviciute, Eleonora Jurolaic, Algimantas Jasulaitis
Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810068/putrefaction-an-additional-complicating-factor-in-the-assessment-of-freshwater-drownings-in-rivers
#5
Roger W Byard
Background hypothesis: That bodies immersed in freshwater (rivers) may show greater changes of decomposition than bodies immersed in saltwater (sea). Fifty de-identified river drownings and 50 sea drownings were randomly selected from autopsy files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia and assessed for decomposition. RESULTS: The river cases consisted of 43 males and seven females (M:F 6:1); age range of 2-92 years (mean 46.8 years); decomposition-16/50 (32%); postmortem interval 1-14 days, average 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766877/munchausen-by-proxy-a-qualitative-investigation-into-online-perceptions-of-medical-child-abuse
#6
Anoushka P A Anderson, Marc D Feldman, Joanne Bryce
In Munchausen by proxy (MBP) maltreatment, increasingly termed "medical child abuse" (MCA), a caregiver fabricates or induces illness in another. The perpetrator's goal for the behavior is to meet personal emotional needs by forcing unnecessary or misguided medical or psychological treatment. Generally, a mother is the perpetrator and her child is the victim. There is a serious lack of research into most aspects of MCA, and this study is the first to utilize the anonymity of an Internet forum to investigate victims' first-hand experiences of, and the public's opinions about, suspected and confirmed MCA...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766722/fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-potential-complication-of-mdma-ecstasy-use
#7
John D Gilbert, Roger W Byard
A 19-year-old woman with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was found dead in bed having allegedly recently taken ecstasy and consumed alcohol. At autopsy, there were microhemorrhages in the brain with subnuclear vacuolization and Armanni-Ebstein changes in renal tubules. Biochemical analyses confirmed diabetic ketoacidosis (vitreous glucose-46.5 mmol/L; β-OH butyrate-13.86 mmol/L.). Toxicological analyses of blood showed a low level of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) (0.01 mg/L), with acetone but no alcohol or other common drugs...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766718/left-ventricular-aneurysm-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-a-29-year-old-man
#8
Supawon Srettabunjong
Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766717/unplanned-complex-suicide-a-consideration-of-multiple-methods
#9
Navneet Ateriya, Tanuj Kanchan, Raghvendra Singh Shekhawat, Puneet Setia, Ashish Saraf
Detailed death investigations are mandatory to find out the exact cause and manner in non-natural deaths. In this reference, use of multiple methods in suicide poses a challenge for the investigators especially when the choice of methods to cause death is unplanned. There is an increased likelihood that doubts of homicide are raised in cases of unplanned complex suicides. A case of complex suicide is reported where the victim resorted to multiple methods to end his life, and what appeared to be an unplanned variant based on the death scene investigations...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766714/psychophysiological-responses-of-people-with-psychopathic-tendencies-to-the-concealed-information-test
#10
Hyeon-Gi Hong, Hee-Song Kim, Hyung-Ki Ji, Ki-Pyoung Kim, Jungeun Lee, Sue Hyun Jung, Myoung-Ho Hyun
This study was designed to investigate differences in psychophysiological responses among individuals with psychopathic tendencies. A total 40 students were participated and were divided into two groups based on Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) scores: a high psychopathic tendency group selected from the top 5% of LSRP scores, and a low psychopathic tendency group selected from the bottom 5% of LSRP scores. All participants were instructed to perform a mock crime and complete the concealed information test (CIT)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766713/comparison-between-temperature-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-of-bacterial-16s-rdna-and-diatom-test-for-diagnosis-of-drowning
#11
Nozomi Idota, Hajime Tsuboi, Marin Takaso, Misa Tojo, Takako Kinebuchi, Mami Nakamura, Hiroaki Ichioka, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
When a body is discovered in water, it is difficult to conclude whether the cause of death was drowning, even today. Although diatom testing by the digestive method is classical, we hypothesized that aquatic bacteria, as well as diatoms, might be detected in drowned bodies, and conducted temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE)-targeting 16S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the site water, and from heart blood and liver samples from 27 bodies concluded as drowning deaths by autopsy and subjected to TGGE after amplification of 16S rDNA by polymerase chain reaction...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749069/fatal-fat-embolism-after-penis-enlargement-by-autologous-fat-transfer-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Brita Zilg, Petra Råsten-Almqvist
Fat embolism is an incidental finding in cases of long bone fractures or other trauma, but it is also associated with liposuction and autologous fat transfer, a procedure where fat from liposuction is injected back into the same patient's face, breast, buttocks or penis. We here present a case of sudden death by fat embolism in a healthy young male, caused by a simple penis enlargement procedure, in which fat was injected into the penis shaft. We suggest that the risk of fat embolization might be higher when pretraumatized tissue is subjected to fat injection, like in this case, where a penis elongation was performed before the fat injection...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731577/commentary-on-gibbons-j-mojica-a-peele-m-human-electrical-muscular-incapacitation-and-effects-on-qtc-interval-j-forensic-sci-https-doi-org-10-1111-1556-4029-13490-epub-2017-april-17
#13
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731575/the-automation-of-regression-modeling-in-osteometric-sorting-an-ordination-approach
#14
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study compares the original osteometric sorting association method with an ordination approach across all combinations of the humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula. This includes both the original prediction interval and t-statistic approaches. Standard measurements are utilized in the models with full measurements combined and without length measurements. The sample is the osteometric sorting reference from the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. A full set of performance statistics is provided...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731536/commentary-on-lockhart-jj-satya-murti-s-diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-bias-reduction-strategies-in-the-forensic-and-clinical-sciences-j-forensic-sci-https-doi-org-10-1111-1556-4029-13453-epub-2017-feb-23
#15
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731504/authors-response
#16
LETTER
Joseph J Lockhart, Saty Satya-Murti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731501/eyeball-position-in-facial-approximation-accuracy-of-methods-for-predicting-globe-positioning-in-lateral-view
#17
Pavla Zednikova Mala, Jana Veleminska
This study measured the accuracy of traditional and validated newly proposed methods for globe positioning in lateral view. Eighty lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from Central Europe were taken, and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. The anteroposterior eyeball position was estimated as the most accurate method based on the proportion of the orbital height (SEE = 1.9 mm) and was followed by the "tangent to the iris method" showing SEE = 2.4 mm. The traditional "tangent to the cornea method" underestimated the eyeball projection by SEE = 5...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731499/the-frontal-sinus-cavity-exhibits-sexual-dimorphism-in-3d-cone-beam-ct-images-and-can-be-used-for-sex-determination
#18
Isabela G G Choi, Eduardo F Duailibi-Neto, Thiago L Beaini, Renan L B da Silva, Israel Chilvarquer
Few studies have assessed the use of the frontal sinus cavities for sex differentiation. In this study, a new methodology was used to assess the reliability of CBCT images of the frontal sinus cavity for determining sex based on the sexual dimorphism found in this anatomical structure. The survey sample consisted of 130 scans that were reconstructed three-dimensionally. 3D images of the cavity volume in the frontal, lateral, and basal views were exported in TIFF. The following variables were measured in a second program: area, perimeter, bounding rectangle, ellipse fit, circularity, aspect ratio, roundness, solidity, and Feret's diameter...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718918/a-rapid-confirmatory-test-for-body-fluid-identification
#19
Stephanie T Young, Joshua R Moore, Clifton P Bishop
We have developed a technique that allows investigators to confirm the presence of blood, semen, and/or saliva in a crime scene sample. It is a confirmatory test where multiple samples can be processed in less than an hour, and it is potentially portable, permitting samples to be processed at the crime scene. Samples at a scene giving a positive result can be further processed while those failing to do so may be ignored. There is a large and growing backlog of DNA evidence in the USA, slowing down the criminal justice system...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#20
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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