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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217840/a-comparison-of-us-and-japanese-dental-restorative-care-present-on-service-members-recovered-from-the-wwii-era
#1
Calvin Y Shiroma
The documentation of dental materials used in the USA during the WWII era is readily available, while references for the Japanese are minimal. It was therefore important to build a photographic database of Japanese restorative care which could be utilized as a comparison tool for the deployed odontologist. The dental restorative care of approximately 400 US and 100 Japanese sets of remains was evaluated. Both countries share many similar restorative techniques to include collared crowns, full-coverage restorations, cantilever bridge/pontics to close spaces; restorative materials such as amalgam, gold, and zinc phosphate (temporary) restorations; and removable prostheses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217834/case-report-of-a-migrating-bullet-an-unusual-cause-of-postmortem-confusion
#2
Dennis J Chute, Kia Newman, Robert J Bready, Eric D Benjamin
Migrating bullets are rare sequelae of penetrating gunshot wounds. Such cases have been described in the neurosurgical literature because they can produce complications in the management of patients such as decline in neurologic status, delays in rehabilitation, and difficulties in bullet removal. In contrast, few postmortem reports have described this phenomenon. We report a case of a gunshot wound in which the projectile entered the left side of the head and traversed to the right frontal area as documented by CT scan on hospital admission...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#3
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205230/forensic-identification-of-bipartite-patella-misdiagnosed-as-patella-fracture
#4
Jingyuan Ma, Fang Shi, Chongya Huang, Shanzhi Gu
Bipartite patella is recognized as a developmental anomaly of ossification. Most of them are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally. Bipartite patella is sometimes misdiagnosed as a patella fracture, because the x-ray images of both these conditions may appear very similar. In this case, the patient complained of left knee pain after x-ray films revealed a fracture-like line in the left patella. The patient was then diagnosed as having a patella fracture. In China, the injury degree is categorized as serious injury, minor injury, and trivial injury...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205218/identification-of-mobile-phone-and-analysis-of-original-version-of-videos-through-a-delay-time-analysis-of-sound-signals-from-mobile-phone-videos
#5
Min Gu Hwang, Dong Hwan Har
This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205217/using-cluster-analysis-and-icp-ms-to-identify-groups-of-ecstasy-tablets-in-sao-paulo-state-brazil
#6
Camila Maione, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Loraine Rezende Togni, José Luiz da Costa, Andres Dobal Campiglia, Fernando Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço Barbosa
The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205216/the-diagnostic-value-of-quantitative-assessment-of-diatom-test-for-drowning-an-analysis-of-128-water-related-death-cases-using-microwave-digestion-vacuum-filtration-automated-scanning-electron-microscopy
#7
Jian Zhao, Chao Liu, Adham Sameer A Bardeesi, Yeda Wu, Yanbing Ma, Sunlin Hu, He Shi, Jianding Cheng
The value of diatom test for the diagnosis of drowning remains controversial. The conventional forensic diatom test with low sensitivity is not a useful tool to provide accurate information about diatom in the tissues and organs. To improve the sensitivity of the diatom test, we developed a novel method called the Microwave Digestion-Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method which resulted in a high recovery of diatoms. In this article, we analyzed 128 water-related death cases...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205214/the-reliability-of-facial-recognition-of-deceased-persons-on-photographs
#8
Zuzana Caplova, Zuzana Obertova, Daniele M Gibelli, Debora Mazzarelli, Tony Fracasso, Peter Vanezis, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
In humanitarian emergencies, such as the current deceased migrants in the Mediterranean, antemortem documentation needed for identification may be limited. The use of visual identification has been previously reported in cases of mass disasters such as Thai tsunami. This pilot study explores the ability of observers to match unfamiliar faces of living and dead persons and whether facial morphology can be used for identification. A questionnaire was given to 41 students and five professionals in the field of forensic identification with the task to choose whether a facial photograph corresponds to one of the five photographs in a lineup and to identify the most useful features used for recognition...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185294/coexistence-of-subdural-hematoma-and-a-rare-cardiopathy-in-an-infant-etiological-and-french-medicolegal-discussion
#9
Lucile Tuchtan, Catherine Lebreton-Chakour, Barthélemy Tosello, Marjolaine Oger, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti, Christophe Bartoli
During legal proceedings following the unexpected death of an infant, the magistrate calls on an expert to clarify the causes of death and to decide on the course to be taken. A report was made following the death of a 7-month-old baby girl after recovery from cardiac arrest when investigations of the cause revealed a subdural hematoma (SDH). We discuss the interconnection of these two entities and their role in the lethal process. In this infant, two distinct lesions with medicolegal implications were simultaneously present: on the one hand histiocytoid cardiopathy, and on the other hand SDH, which could result from ill-treatment...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185266/life-beyond-life-an-easy-way-to-derive-lung-fibroblasts-from-cadavers
#10
Sophie Colomb, Corinne Bareil, Eric Baccino, Jean-Philippe Berthet, Lucie Knabe, Isabelle Vachier, Arnaud Bourdin
Several protocols have illustrated the possibility of deriving cells, such as fibroblasts, from different organs. These techniques generally concern organs sampled from living persons, but have already been described for cadavers, especially concerning the skin and tendons. We present, for the first time, an easy way to derive pulmonary fibroblasts from a lung tissue sampled from a cadaver and directly culture plated. The fibroblast output was checked daily. We obtained lung fibroblasts from 3 (60%) cadavers and 2 (100%) living persons...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185261/bloodstains-on-leather-examination-of-false-negatives-in-presumptive-test-and-human-hemoglobin-test
#11
Ana Castelló, Francesc Francès, Fernando Verdú
Presumptive tests for blood are very simple and sensitive tests used in the search for evidence. They also provide initial information on the nature of stains. A second test can confirm their nature. However, these tests can present false-negative results for different reasons. Some of those reasons have been studied, while others, those caused by the substrate material that contains the stain, are less well known. This work studies the effect of one component of a leather substrate-quebracho extract-on presumptive and human hemoglobin blood tests...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185256/quantitative-differentiation-of-bloodstain-patterns-resulting-from-gunshot-and-blunt-force-impacts
#12
Sonya Siu, Jennifer Pender, Faye Springer, Frederic Tulleners, William Ristenpart
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) provides significant evidentiary value in crime scene interpretation and reconstruction. In this work, we develop a quantitative methodology using digital image analysis techniques to differentiate impact bloodstain patterns. The bloodstain patterns were digitally imaged and analyzed using image analysis algorithms. Our analysis of 72 unique bloodstain patterns, comprising more than 490,000 individual droplet stains, indicates that the mean drop size in a gunshot spatter pattern is at most 30% smaller than the mean drop stain size in blunt instrument patterns...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181237/determination-of-time-since-death-using-vitreous-humor-tryptophan
#13
Niha Ansari, Shobhana K Menon
Determination of time since death (TSD) plays very important role in forensic examination as it narrows down field of suspects and aids in deceased identification. This study utilizes the fluorescence property of vitreous humor (VH) tryptophan to determine TSD using o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The detection limit of these fluorometric studies was found to be 8 ppb indicating sensitivity and high accuracy in TSD determination. The study was performed on selected 76 cadaver with known TSD ranging from 3 to 90 h. Excellent correlation between VH tryptophan and TSD was obtained with a coefficient of correlation R(2) = 0...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168714/application-of-the-stephan-et-al-chest-radiograph-comparison-method-to-decomposed-human-remains
#14
Mariyam I Isa, Joseph T Hefner, Michael A Markey
This manuscript describes the use of comparative radiography of the chest to facilitate positive identification of human remains in advanced stages of decomposition. The method reported by Stephan et al. for positive identification of dry, disarticulated skeletal elements was used on semifleshed, decomposing remains. Positive identification was established through multiple points of concordance observed in radiographs of the left and right clavicles and the C5-T1 vertebrae. This case study demonstrates the applicability of the Stephan et al...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168702/biparietal-thinning-accidental-death-by-a-fall-from-standing-height
#15
Robert W Mann, Masahiko Kobayashi, Alan L Schiller
Biparietal thinning resulting in bilateral and symmetrical resorption and loss of thickness of the parietal bones is an uncommon to rare condition in the anthropological and clinical literature. This enigmatic condition of unknown etiology was first reported in the 18th century and has been variously described as a nonmetric trait, anatomical variant, anomaly, and pathology. Biparietal thinning presents grossly and radiographically as oval-shaped depressions in 0.25-0.8% and 0.4-0.5% of individuals and with a higher frequency in females over the age of 60 years...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168695/forensic-considerations-in-cases-of-myotonic-dystrophy-at-autopsy
#16
Kimberley J Omond, Roger W Byard
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a chronic, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant disorder with delayed muscle relaxation after contraction, distal skeletal muscle weakness, and atrophy. It has a reduced life expectancy due predominantly to respiratory failure or sudden cardiac death. The mortality rate is approximately 7.3 times greater than the general population with a mean age at death of 53 years. Degeneration of the cardiac conduction system causes atrioventricular block, arrhythmias, and ventricular failure...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168694/the-optimization-of-electrophoresis-on-a-glass-microfluidic-chip-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#17
Jun P Han, Jing Sun, Le Wang, Peng Liu, Bin Zhuang, Lei Zhao, Yao Liu, Cai X Li
Microfluidic chips offer significant speed, cost, and sensitivity advantages, but numerous parameters must be optimized to provide microchip electrophoresis detection. Experiments were conducted to study the factors, including sieving matrices (the concentration and type), surface modification, analysis temperature, and electric field strengths, which all impact the effectiveness of microchip electrophoresis detection of DNA samples. Our results showed that the best resolution for ssDNA was observed using 4...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168691/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-first-rib-a-comparative-approach-using-metric-and-geometric-morphometric-analyses
#18
Jeffrey James Lynch, Peter Cross, Vivienne Heaton
This research investigated the sexual dimorphism of the first human rib using geometric morphometric and metric approaches on a sample of 285 specimens containing European Americans and African Americans from the Hamann-Todd collection. Metric measurements were investigated for sexual dimorphism and ancestral differences using univariate statistics. Four type II landmarks and 40 sliding semi-landmarks were placed outlining the dorsal and ventral curvatures of the ribs. Landmark data were processed using Generalized Procrustes Analyses with Procrustes distance sliding, and the subsequent coordinates were investigated for sexual dimorphism and ancestral differences using Procrustes ANOVAs...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168690/postmortem-serum-tryptase-levels-with-special-regard-to-acute-cardiac-deaths
#19
Ning Xiao, Dong-Ri Li, Qi Wang, Fu Zhang, Yan-Geng Yu, Hui-Jun Wang
An elevated serum tryptase concentration is considered a specific marker for systemic mast cell activation, a central feature of anaphylaxis. However, in some cases of acute cardiovascular death, high concentrations of serum tryptase are also observed. We compared the postmortem serum tryptase concentrations in 74 cases assigned to the following four groups: anaphylactic deaths (Group A, n = 20), acute cardiac deaths (Group ACD, n = 30), acute dissecting aneurysm ruptures (Group ADA, n = 10), and controls (Group C, n = 14)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168688/repeat-coronary-artery-dissection-in-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Casey P Bitting, Ross E Zumwalt
Non-atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (NA-SCAD) is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality with a propensity for young, healthy, and often peripartum women. NA-SCAD etiology is poorly understood, with possible hormonal and hereditary mechanisms. Current treatment strategies range from conservative management (often showing resolution on angiographic follow-up) to invasive angiographic procedures. Rarely, NA-SCAD has recurred in another coronary artery, ranging hours to years later. We report NA-SCAD of the right coronary artery (RCA) in a 30-year old, 3-month postpartum female with an additional autopsy finding of remote myocardial infarction (MI) in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery territory...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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