journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Forensic Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547887/quantifying-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-human-cranium-a-preliminary-analysis-of-a-novel-method
#1
Ana M Casado
In forensic anthropology, sexually dimorphic cranial features are traditionally visually assessed and scored using an ordinal scale, which is highly subjective. This study quantifies six cranial features using original three-dimensional coordinate measurements to provide greater accuracy in sex estimation. Cranial features include supraorbital ridges, glabella, external occipital protuberance, nuchal protuberances, mastoid processes, and frontal bosses. Measurements were taken using coordinate calipers from 158 White and Black male and female crania from the Maxwell Documented Collection at University of New Mexico and Tennessee's Bass Collection...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547850/detection-of-contact-traces-of-powdery-substances
#2
Wojciech Pawłowski, Łukasz Matyjasek, Monika Karpińska
The current practice in securing the contact traces of chemical substances taken from clothes belonging to a person suspected of manual handling explosives is focused on pockets and cuffs. The outerwear worn by people who had contact with fluorescent powders that simulate explosives and drugs was the subject of this study. Clothes were first exposed to the test substance for a period of time and then analyzed by fluorescence methods to determine the location of the highest quantity of traces. The results obtained from the study confirm that the areas with the highest concentration of powdery traces are different from those suggested by current forensic practice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547802/the-power-of-exclusion-using-automated-osteometric-sorting-pair-matching
#3
Jeffrey James Lynch, John Byrd, Carrie B LeGarde
This study compares the original pair-matching osteometric sorting model (J Forensic Sci 2003;48:717) against two new models providing validation and performance testing across three samples. The samples include the Forensic Data Bank, USS Oklahoma, and the osteometric sorting reference used within the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. A computer science solution to generating dynamic statistical models across a commingled assemblage is presented. The issue of normality is investigated showing the relative robustness against non-normality and a data transformation to control for normality...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542948/the-capability-of-raman-microspectroscopy-to-differentiate-printing-inks
#4
Chelsea E Johnson, Paul Martin, Katherine A Roberts, Tatiana Trejos, Ruthmara Corzo, Jose R Almirall, Alan M Safer
This study applies Raman microspectroscopy to differentiate the chemical components in printing inks of different brands, colors, and type using the 532 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. Spectra were collected from 319 inks (78 inkjet, 76 toner, 79 offset, and 86 intaglio) representing various colors. Comparisons were performed to calculate discrimination capability percentages for each ink type. Overall, Raman microspectroscopy differentiates according to the following hierarchy: intaglio (96%), inkjet (92%), offset (90%), and toner (61%)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542917/characterizing-the-performance-of-pipe-bombs
#5
Jimmie C Oxley, James L Smith, Evan T Bernier, Fredrick Sandstrom, Gregory G Weiss, Gunther W Recht, David Schatzer
Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542816/identification-of-microorganisms-isolated-from-counterfeit-and-unapproved-decorative-contact-lenses
#6
Adrian D Land, Katie L Penno, Jennifer L Brzezinski
All contact lenses (corrective/noncorrective) are considered Class II or Class III medical devices under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which also states that contact lenses can only be obtained with a prescription. The Forensic Chemistry Center of the US Food & Drug Administration has examined over 300 decorative, noncorrective contact lenses obtained without a prescription. Our observations indicate that 60% of the counterfeit lenses and 27% of the unapproved lenses examined were positive for microbial contamination...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542737/intraobserver-error-in-macromorphoscopic-trait-data
#7
Kelly R Kamnikar, Amber M Plemons, Joseph T Hefner
As part of a much larger investigation into the use of macromorphoscopic trait data by forensic anthropologists to estimate ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains, we conducted a fourteen-year (2002-2016) intraobserver error study. Motivated by the development of a large macromorphoscopic database-which will potentially utilize data collected in 2002-quantification of observer error, the impact of technological improvements in macromorphoscopic trait data collection and observer experience is necessary...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543548/fate-and-behavior-of-gunshot-residue-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Lauren S Blakey, George P Sharples, Kal Chana, Jason W Birkett
A review of the literature concerning the fate and behavior of gunshot residue (GSR) is presented. A number of concomitant parameters including firearm and ammunition type, plume and GSR material characteristics, travel distances, chemical composition and GSR morphology are critically discussed in relation to their effects on the distribution and deposition, transfer and persistence processes of GSR. The underlying mechanisms associated with such processes are also considered. Knowledge of these processes on GSR materials could provide valuable information concerning scene preservation and subsequent forensic sampling...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543087/death-due-to-complications-of-bowel-obstruction-following-raw-poppy-seed-ingestion
#9
Leah M Schuppener, Robert F Corliss
Eating poppy seeds can cause a positive urine drug screen, but it is unknown whether ingesting large quantities can result in opiate intoxication or toxicity. A 54-year-old woman with intractable vomiting was found unresponsive at home and later pronounced dead. At autopsy, a cast-like large bowel obstruction composed of poppy seeds was identified. Postmortem blood morphine level was < 10 ng/mL. Cause of death was determined to be complications of a bowel obstruction secondary to poppy seed ingestion. Deaths related to eating poppy seeds have not been described in the literature...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542808/ascending-aortic-rupture-through-a-penetrating-atherosclerotic-ulcer-a-rare-cause-of-sudden-unexpected-death
#10
Supawon Srettabunjong
Spontaneous rupture of the aorta through an atherosclerotic lesion without preexisting aortic aneurysm, dissection, or history of trauma is very rare. Without prompt aortic repair, all cases result in sudden death with a definitive diagnosis made only intraoperatively or during autopsy. The phenomenon has been uniformly found in individuals with hypertension. The author reports a sudden unexpected death caused by spontaneous rupture of the ascending aorta in a 57-year-old man with a history of hypertension...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523757/evaluation-of-a-freezer-mill-for-bone-pulverization-prior-to-dna-extraction-an-improved-workflow-for-str-analysis
#11
Emely Morales Colón, Mireya Hernández, Mariel Candelario, María Meléndez, Tracey Dawson Cruz
Traditional methods for bone pulverization typically generate heat, risking stability of DNA sample. SPEX™ has developed cryogenic grinders which introduce liquid nitrogen to cool the sample and aid in the grinding process. In this study, the Freezer Mill 6970 EFM was used with two DNA extraction methods and routine downstream STR analysis procedures. DNA from as little as 0.1 g of bone powder was used to develop full STR profiles after freezer mill pulverization, and the method was reproducible. Further, no contamination was detected upon cleaning/reuse of the sample vials...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516461/effects-of-high-g-impact-on-physical-electrical-and-optical-characteristics-of-light-emitting-diodes
#12
Xin Wen, Brandon Okraszewski, Pragun Babber, James Cash, Stephen Cain, David Klotzkin
Previously, one of the tools available in automotive or aircraft accident analysis was the examination of the indicator bulbs. Currently, indicator bulbs have been largely replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Here a series of studies was carried out on impact effects on LEDs to determine whether their properties change after impact, and whether it is related to its working status (lit or unlit). The LEDs were measured before mechanical shock with a series of tests, including current-voltage, current-light, bandwidth, subject to impact ranging from 450 g to 2000 g, and then retested...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516444/toxicological-analysis-of-opiates-from-alternative-matrices-collected-from-an-exhumed-body
#13
Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Giovanni Ottaviani, Giovanna Tassoni, Rino Froldi, Mariano Cingolani
In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508571/commentary-on-pratt-ss-losier-bj-moulden-hm-chaimowitz-ga-incapacity-of-the-mind-secondary-to-medication-misuse-as-a-not-criminally-responsible-defense-j-forensic-sci-2017-62-1-267-9
#14
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508544/a-decision-tree-for-nonmetric-sex-assessment-from-the-skull
#15
Natalie R Langley, Beatrix Dudzik, Alesia Cloutier
This study uses five well-documented cranial nonmetric traits (glabella, mastoid process, mental eminence, supraorbital margin, and nuchal crest) and one additional trait (zygomatic extension) to develop a validated decision tree for sex assessment. The decision tree was built and cross-validated on a sample of 293 U.S. White individuals from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. Ordinal scores from the six traits were analyzed using the partition modeling option in JMP Pro 12. A holdout sample of 50 skulls was used to test the model...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508521/an-incidental-diffuse-midline-glioma-found-at-autopsy
#16
Meggen Walsh, William Hamilton, Vektra Casler, Anthony Yachnis
This case shows an unexpected midline glioma found at autopsy. Two siblings were riding on a single bicycle on the side of a road. The 13-year-old brother was seated and steering the bicycle, while the 14-year-old sister held onto the back. The bicycle veered left into traffic and was struck by a vehicle. The siblings were admitted to the local Level 1 trauma center, but both later succumbed to injuries. Autopsies were performed on the children, including brains for neuropathologic evaluation. The brother was found to have an infiltrating astrocytoma located in the left middle cerebellar peduncle, with extension to the pons and medulla...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508472/fatal-ingestion-of-chlumsky-disinfectant-solution
#17
Petr Handlos, Matěj Uvíra, Klára Marecová, Marie Staňková, Margita Smatanová, Igor Dvořáček, Marek Joukal
A 32-year-old pregnant woman in the 25th week of pregnancy underwent oral glucose tolerance screening at the diabetologist's. Later that day, she was found dead in her apartment possibly poisoned with Chlumsky disinfectant solution (solutio phenoli camphorata). An autopsy revealed chemical burns in the digestive system. The lungs and the brain showed signs of severe edema. The blood of the woman and fetus was analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and revealed phenol, its metabolites (phenyl glucuronide and phenyl sulfate) and camphor...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508395/reiteration-of-the-statistical-basis-of-dna-source-attribution-determinations-in-view-of-the-attorney-general-s-directive-on-reasonable-scientific-certainty-statements
#18
LETTER
Tamyra R Moretti, Bruce Budowle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493427/dna-identification-of-commingled-human-remains-from-the-cemetery-relocated-by-flooding-in-central-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#19
Jasmina Čakar, Amela Pilav, Mirela Džehverović, Anesa Ahatović, Sanin Haverić, Jasmin Ramić, Damir Marjanović
The floods in Bosnia and Herzegovina in May 2014 caused landslides all over the country. In the small village of Šerići, near the town of Zenica, a landslide destroyed the local cemetery, relocated graves, and commingled skeletal remains. As the use of other physical methods of identification (facial recognition, fingerprint analysis, dental analysis, etc.) was not possible, DNA analysis was applied. DNA was isolated from 20 skeletal remains (bone and tooth samples) and six reference samples (blood from living relatives) and amplified using PowerPlex(®) Fusion and PowerPlex(®) Y23 kits...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493344/recreational-sporting-activity-vehicle-related-deaths
#20
Samuel P Prahlow, Andrew Renner, Abigail J Grande, Joyce deJong, Joseph A Prahlow
Deaths occurring in the setting of nonprofessional, vehicle-related, recreational sporting activities occurring on land or in water during warm or winter months represent a diverse group of cases. These deaths tend to involve scenarios where the participants are purposefully attempting to enjoy themselves prior to experiencing sudden, catastrophic accidents resulting in lethal outcomes. Ultimately, many of the deaths are related to the high speed at which these vehicle-related activities normally occur. Three broad categories of factors may play contributory roles in death: human factors, vehicle factors, and environmental factors...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
journal
journal
23812
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"