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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783280/pericardial-cyst-cause-of-sudden-cardiac-death
#1
Marie Brix Ley, Maiken Kudahl Larsen
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783279/bone-area-histomorphometry
#2
Janna M Andronowski, Christian Crowder
Quantifying the amount of cortical bone loss is one variable used in histological methods of adult age estimation. Measurements of cortical area tend to be subjective and additional information regarding bone loss is not captured considering cancellous bone is disregarded. We describe whether measuring bone area (cancellous + cortical area) rather than cortical area may improve histological age estimation for the sixth rib. Mid-shaft rib cross-sections (n = 114) with a skewed sex distribution were analyzed...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783278/an-evidence-based-forensic-taxonomy-of-windows-phone-dating-apps
#3
Niken Dwi Wahyu Cahyani, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Nurul Hidayah Ab Rahman, Helen Ashman
Advances in technologies including development of smartphone features have contributed to the growth of mobile applications, including dating apps. However, online dating services can be misused. To support law enforcement investigations, a forensic taxonomy that provides a systematic classification of forensic artifacts from Windows Phone 8 (WP8) dating apps is presented in this study. The taxonomy has three categories, namely: Apps Categories, Artifacts Categories, and Data Partition Categories. This taxonomy is built based on the findings from a case study of 28 mobile dating apps, using mobile forensic tools...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783276/somnophilia-and-sexual-abuse-through-the-administration-of-ghb-and-gbl
#4
Mark Pettigrew
Somnophilia, the desire to have sex with an unconscious, sleeping, or comatose person who is unable to respond, is a sexual paraphilia that is seldom reported. The underlying desire is often overshadowed by the act of sexual violation and when using GHB or GBL to induce unconsciousness, as in the case presented here, the victim might not even be able to recall, for certain, that they have been sexually violated. A case study is offered of a somnophile who adulterated drinks to render young men unconscious, so he could rape them in that state, before progressing to administering drugs anally on the pretext of applying lubrication to the anus to facilitate sexual intercourse...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772072/the-forensic-confirmation-bias-a-comparison-between-experts-and-novices
#5
Claire A J van den Eeden, Christianne J de Poot, Peter J van Koppen
A large body of research has described the influence of context information on forensic decision-making. In this study, we examined the effect of context information on the search for and selection of traces by students (N = 36) and crime scene investigators (N = 58). Participants investigated an ambiguous mock crime scene and received prior information indicating suicide, a violent death or no information. Participants described their impression of the scene and wrote down which traces they wanted to secure...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772071/to-test-or-not-to-test-the-value-of-toxicology-in-a-delayed-overdose-death
#6
Erin E Walsh, Elisa N Shoff, Mary Elizabeth Zaney, George W Hime, Fintan Garavan, Diane M Boland
A case demonstrating the necessity of thorough death investigation processes where toxicology plays an active role is presented. A 33-year-old white man presented to the emergency room in respiratory distress after an overdose episode where he was revived on the scene by fire rescue. His condition continued to deteriorate and he expired 6 days after the initial incident. No admission specimens were available for testing; however, there were specimens drawn 4 and 5 days after the incident. Drug paraphernalia from the scene was obtained by the laboratory through collaboration with local law enforcement...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768663/death-of-a-female-prostitute-due-to-intestinal-obstruction-by-an-unknown-substance
#7
Marek Dokoupil, Klára Marecová, Petr Handlos, Petr Březina
A young adult black female, known to be a prostitute and suspected of smuggling narcotics, was found dead in her apartment in a state of early decomposition. Oval-shaped gray-white masses of exogenous origin protruded from the anus. The autopsy showed dilatation of the folds of the large intestine, which were almost completely filled with these oval-shaped gray-white masses of foreign material. The uterus was enlarged with multiple large leiomyomas. Toxicological tests of blood and the foreign material revealed no toxicologically relevant substances...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768653/n-ethyl-pentylone-related-deaths-in-alabama
#8
Daniel Atherton, Daniel Dye, C Andrew Robinson, Rachel Beck
n-Ethyl pentylone (NEP) is a chemical substance derived from cathinone. Synthetic cathinones are an evolving group of drugs with stimulating, mind-altering effects sometimes referred to as novel or new psychoactive substances (NPS). There is scarce information in the medical literature regarding forensic cases in which NEP is detected in toxicological testing. We present four fatalities involving NEP from Alabama in 2017. Deaths were attributed to NEP toxicity in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768652/differences-between-homicides-committed-by-lone-and-multiple-offenders-in-korea
#9
Jisun Park, Joon Tag Cho
The aim of this study was to differentiate between homicides committed by multiple offenders and homicides committed by lone offenders. Using data on homicide incidents that occurred in South Korea between 1985 and 2008, we compared 134 homicides committed by multiple offenders, with 369 homicides committed by lone offenders. A greater proportion of homicides committed by multiple offenders involved injuries to the victim's head compared to homicides by lone offenders. Homicides committed by multiple offenders were more likely to involve blunt instruments and ligatures, whereas homicides by lone offenders were more likely to involve sharp instruments...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768651/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-reports-of-fatal-cases
#10
Mahra Nourbakhsh, Angela Miller, Jeff Gofton, Graham Jones, Bamidele Adeagbo
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is one of the more clinically challenging effects of cannabis consumption. It is characterized by cyclic attacks of nausea and vomiting in chronic cannabinoid users and learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing. The deaths of a 27-year-old female, a 27-year-old male, and a 31-year-old male with a history of CHS are reported. The decedents had a history of cyclical nausea and vomiting, chronic cannabinoid use and negative laboratory, radiological and endoscopic findings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758097/persistence-of-polydimethylsiloxane-condom-lubricants
#11
Leah S Tottey, Sally A Coulson, Gerhard E Wevers, Laura Fabian, Heather McClelland, Mickayla Dustin
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used to lubricate condoms. The detection of PDMS on swabs from complainants can be used to support an allegation of sexual assault. Previous research has focused on establishing analytical techniques for detecting PDMS. This research examined the persistence of PDMS on the penis, in the vagina, in the mouth, and on skin. The longest PDMS detection times were 20 h on the penis, 35 h in the vagina, and 52 h on skin. PDMS was detected up to 4 h in the mouth if the participant did not eat or drink and up to 9 h if the participant slept...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758093/effects-of-human-electro-muscular-incapacitation-hemi-devices-on-cardiovascular-changes-in-anesthetized-swine-as-measured-by-transesophageal-echocardiography-tee
#12
Jacob R Werner, W Bosseau Murray, Mary J Kennett, David M Jenkins, Edward Liszka, Edward L Hughes
The abundance of, and reliance upon, human electro-muscular incapacitation (HEMI) devices, especially in law enforcement, has generated scrutiny and examination of these technologies. The purpose of this study was to examine cardiovascular effects resulting from typical (5 sec) and longer activation (20 sec) HEMI applications studying myocardial function and peripheral vascular system using a combination of invasive cardiovascular catheters and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Six healthy swine (Sus scrofa) 3-5 months in age and weighing between 60 and 86 kg were anesthetized and exposed to the TASER Model X26 waveform while transesophageal echocardiography was performed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758091/z-transform-method-for-pairwise-osteometric-pair-matching
#13
Julia D Warnke-Sommer, Jeffrey James Lynch, Sachin S Pawaskar, Franklin E Damann
A new pairwise osteometric pair-matching approach based on the Z-transform method is presented. In contrast to previous methods that perform a global t-test on the summed skeletal element pair measurement distances, this approach performs t-tests on each individual distance, facilitating the capture of measurement-specific variation. This new approach is compared to published pairwise sorting methods using a standard reference dataset of postcranial remains maintained by the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758085/utilization-of-x-ray-computed-tomography-for-the-exclusion-of-a-specific-caliber-and-bullet-type-in-a-living-shooting-victim
#14
Adriaan A S Marais, Herman J Dicks
A bystander claimed to have been shot by a police officer, and CT scans were used to match qualitative and quantitative aspects of the unremoved bullet with police issued 9 mm Luger ammunition. CT scan methodology proved a valid approach for the measurement of bullets based on calculated measurement capability and correlation with "gold standard" physical measurement by vernier caliper. Measurements regarding length and base diameter, as well as length/diameter ratio, were insufficient to unambiguously identify a specific caliber, or a bullet of specific mass within a caliber class...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742296/timing-and-appearance-of-postmortem-root-banding-in-nonhuman-mammals
#15
Adam H Richard, Jack Hietpas, JoAnn Buscaglia, Keith L Monson
A study was undertaken using nonhuman mammal specimens to better understand environmental influences on postmortem hair root band (PMRB) formation and to see whether PMRBs would occur in nonhuman mammal hairs in a similar fashion to human hairs. Carcasses from surrounding roadways were the primary source of specimens for this study, augmented by donated deceased domestic pets. Sections of pelt from each specimen were placed in controlled environmental conditions while the remainder of the carcass was left in a secure outdoor setting...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734521/translating-behavioral-science-into-practice-a-framework-to-determine-science-quality-and-applicability-for-police-organizations
#16
REVIEW
Kimberley A McClure, Katherine L McGuire, Denis M Chapan
Policy on officer-involved shootings is critically reviewed and errors in applying scientific knowledge identified. Identifying and evaluating the most relevant science to a field-based problem is challenging. Law enforcement administrators with a clear understanding of valid science and application are in a better position to utilize scientific knowledge for the benefit of their organizations and officers. A recommended framework is proposed for considering the validity of science and its application. Valid science emerges via hypothesis testing, replication, extension and marked by peer review, known error rates, and general acceptance in its field of origin...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694673/an-assessment-of-the-skeletal-fracture-patterns-resulting-from-fatal-high-%C3%AB-3-m-free-falls
#17
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The injury patterns resulting from fatal high (˃3 m) free falls have previously been documented in clinical and medico-legal contexts; however, details relating specifically to the skeletal blunt force trauma (BFT) have been limited. This study aimed to augment what is known of the skeletal fracture patterns resulting from fatal high free falls. Skeletal trauma was analyzed from full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 95 individuals who died following a high free fall. Fracture patterns were documented using the five general anatomical regions, axial and appendicular regions, and postcranial unilateral and bilateral regions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684945/-it-s-going-to-be-extra-fun-analysis-of-an-atypical-case-of-teen-homicide-as-leisure-behavior
#18
D J Williams, Jolene Vincent
Recently, scholars in literary criminology and leisure sciences have begun to explore the role of broader leisure culture in potentially shaping fantasy development, planning, preparation, and execution in specific cases of expressive homicide. This brief report focuses on an unusual case of expressive homicide, wherein two teen offenders in Idaho collaborated to murder a female classmate as an intentional leisure activity. Prior to the murder, the offenders created a videotape describing how they planned to commit this (and additional) murders...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684944/comparing-categorical-and-probabilistic-fingerprint-evidence
#19
Brandon Garrett, Gregory Mitchell, Nicholas Scurich
Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684943/the-diagnostic-implications-of-two-cases-of-known-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-the-cal-milano-cemetery-skeletal-collection
#20
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Cristina Cattaneo
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common erosive arthropathy and is of particular interest to forensic sciences. However, its diagnosis on bones remains challenging. We examined two skeletons from the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection diagnosed with the pathology during life, to test the validity of the diagnostic criteria on bones. The first showed typical lesions of RA described in the literature. The second exhibited secondary osteoarthrosis, suggesting long-standing RA. A differential diagnosis including all four seronegative spondyloarthropathies, erosive osteoarthritis, gout and neuropathic arthropathy was also considered...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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