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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631433/forensic-radiology-pitfalls-ct-imaging-in-gunshot-wounds-of-the-head
#1
Mark A Giffen, Jason A Powell, Jerri McLemore
Computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasingly used in emergency departments and trauma services and is being offered as a supplemental tool with autopsy in coroner's and medical examiner's offices throughout the United States. The availability of CT images in lieu of traditional X-rays for medicolegal autopsies may lead to misinterpretation of images for forensic pathologists who are not familiar with these types of images. Forensic pathologists must become familiar with CT imaging, the basis of CT image formation and how to interpret CT images appropriately...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631395/a-univariate-approach-to-sex-estimation-for-the-fragmentary-upper-limb
#2
Rosanne Bongiovanni, Carrie B LeGarde
Although there are numerous reliable multivariate models for sex estimation, many scenarios, both forensic and archaeological, result in the recovery of fragmentary remains, which prevents the collection of various standard measurements. The purpose of this research was to establish metric applications for sex estimation from the distal humerus and distal radius of European/American Whites and American Blacks. Data for this research were retrieved from a sample consisting of a larger database from multiple skeletal collections...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631383/benford-s-law-for-quality-assurance-of-manner-of-death-counts-in-small-and-large-databases
#3
Jeremy Daniels, Samantha-Jo Caetano, Dirk Huyer, Andrew Stephen, John Fernandes, Alice Lytwyn, Fred M Hoppe
To assess if Benford's law, a mathematical law used for quality assurance in accounting, can be applied as a quality assurance measure for the manner of death determination. We examined a regional forensic pathology service's monthly manner of death counts (N = 2352) from 2011 to 2013, and provincial monthly and weekly death counts from 2009 to 2013 (N = 81,831). We tested whether each dataset's leading digit followed Benford's law via the chi-square test. For each database, we assessed whether number 1 was the most common leading digit...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631318/bupropion-overdose-resulted-in-a-pharmacobezoar-in-a-fatal-bupropion-wellbutrin-%C3%A2-sustained-release-overdose-postmortem-distribution-of-bupropion-and-its-major-metabolites
#4
Gregory Schmit, Evy De Boosere, Jessica Vanhaebost, Arnaud Capron
Bupropion (BUP) overdose commonly causes generalized seizures and central nervous system depression. The case of a 28-year-old woman who died from a massive lethal overdose with sustained-release bupropion (Wellbutrin(®) 300 mg) is herein presented. The autopsy revealed the presence of a pharmacobezoar consisting of at least 40 tablets in the stomach. Determination of bupropion and its active metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threobupropion, erythrobupropion) was achieved by a liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#5
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631292/validation-of-reduced-reagent-volumes-in-the-implementation-of-the-quantifiler-%C3%A2-trio-quantification-kit
#6
Yoonjung Cho, Hyo Sook Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Moonhee Park, Hansol Kwon, Yang Han Lee, Dong Sub Lee
The Quantifiler(®) Trio Quantification Kit has been developed to quantify the total amount of amplifiable and human male DNA in samples and to estimate the extent of DNA degradation. To minimize the cost of DNA quantification, we evaluated kit performance using a reduced volume of reagents (1/10-volume) using DNA samples of varying types and concentrations. Our results demonstrated concordance between the manufacturer's method and the low-volume method for DNA quantification, DNA degradation index estimation, and human male DNA quantification...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631278/effects-of-different-temperatures-on-the-development-of-dermestes-frischii-and-dermestes-undulatus-coleoptera-dermestidae-comparison-between-species
#7
Simonetta Lambiase, Giulia Murgia, Roberto Sacchi, Michele Ghitti, Valeria di Lucia
Dermestidae could be useful in forensic investigations to assess the PMI as adults and larvae colonize dried remains. We reared two species of Dermestidae (Dermestes frischii and Dermestes undulatus) to understand the effects of different temperatures on the length of their whole life cycle and on their immature stages. Both species were reared at 23°C ± 0.5, RH 75% and at 26°C ± 0.5, 75% RH. Our result shows that the temperature is the main factor that influences the development of those species; in fact, increasing temperature leads to a shorter development cycle (59...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631272/a-unique-fatal-moose-attack-mimicking-homicide
#8
Petur Gudmannsson, Johan Berge, Henrik Druid, Göran Ericsson, Anders Eriksson
Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608506/temperature-dependent-development-of-parasarcophaga-similis-meade-1876-and-its-significance-in-estimating-postmortem-interval
#9
Lijun Yang, Yu Wang, Liangliang Li, Jiangfeng Wang, Min Wang, Yingna Zhang, Jun Chu, Kun Liu, Yiding Hou, Luyang Tao
Flesh flies are commonly found insects on decaying corpses that appears slightly later than blowflies, and their development patterns are significant indicators for minimum postmortem interval (PMImin ) estimation. In this study, the flesh fly Parasarcophaga similis (Meade 1876) was reared at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 35°C to examine indicators for estimating their age. We generated three development models, including isomorphen diagram, isomegalen diagram, and thermal summation model...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605046/smartphone-and-tablet-applications-for-crime-scene-investigation-state-of-the-art-typology-and-assessment-criteria
#10
Simon Baechler, Anthony Gélinas, Rémy Tremblay, Karely Lu, Frank Crispino
The use of applications on mobile devices is gradually becoming a new norm in everyday life, and crime scene investigation is unlikely to escape this reality. The article assesses the current state of research and practices by means of literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and a survey conducted among crime scene investigators from Canada and Switzerland. Attempts at finding a particular strategy to guide the development, usage, and evaluation of applications that can assist crime scene investigation prove to be rather challenging...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605025/fingerprint-change-not-visible-but-tangible
#11
Francesca V Negri, Annamaria De Giorgi, Cecilia Bozzetti, Anna Squadrilli, Pier Giorgio Petronini, Francesco Leonardi, Luigi Bisogno, Luciano Garofano
Hand-foot syndrome, a chemotherapy-induced cutaneous toxicity, can cause an alteration in fingerprints causing a setback for cancer patients due to the occurrence of false rejections. A colon cancer patient was fingerprinted after not having been able to use fingerprint recognition devices after 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fingerprint images were digitally processed to improve fingerprint definition without altering the papillary design. No evidence of skin toxicity was present. Two months later, the situation returned to normal...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605024/a-unique-type-of-birth-trauma-mistaken-for-abuse
#12
Carolyn V Isaac, Jered B Cornelison, Rudolph J Castellani, Joyce L deJong
Pediatric abusive head trauma is a challenging subject across many disciplines. Of particular importance is the identification of mimics of abuse, so cause and manner of death can be properly assigned. We present the case of suspected child abuse involving an infant who presented unresponsive to the hospital with hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and bilateral parietal fractures. An autopsy revealed fractures associated with organizing scalp hemorrhage and gross leptomeningeal congestion and hemorrhage. The fractures were circular with external displacement, rounded margins, and subperiosteal new bone formation indicative of healing...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605023/the-modern-compound-bow
#13
LokMan Sung, Kilak Kesha, Sarah Avedschmidt, Kelly Root, Leigh Hlavaty
Bows and arrows are ancient weapons that have risen and fallen as the preeminent armaments used by man. Because of the ubiquity of firearms, fatalities from archery injuries in the United States have radically declined. However, when deaths involving this weapon do present themselves, the paucity of reference materials can be a hurdle for forensic pathologists and other forensic scientists. This article will provide a brief history of the origins of the bow and the inception of the compound bow. Comparing and contrasting the structures comprising a traditional bow to those of the modern compound bow will provide insight into how these components function in unison to propel arrows...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605022/forensic-analysis-of-stains-on-fabric-using-direct-analysis-in-real-time-ionization-with-high-resolution-accurate-mass-mass-spectrometry
#14
Sara E Kern, John B Crowe, Jonathan J Litzau, Douglas T Heitkemper
A rapid technique using direct analysis in real-time (DART) ambient ionization coupled to a high-resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS) was employed to analyze stains on an individual's pants suspected to have been involved in a violent crime. The victim was consuming chocolate ice cream at the time of the attack, and investigators recovered the suspect's pants exhibiting splatter stains. Liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection (LC-MS) and stereoscopic light microscopy (SLM) were also utilized in this analysis...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605021/scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-sem-edx-a-rapid-diagnostic-tool-to-aid-the-identification-of-burnt-bone-and-contested-cremains
#15
Sarah T D Ellingham, Tim J U Thompson, Meez Islam
This study investigates the use of Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) as a diagnostic tool for the determination of the osseous origin of samples subjected to different temperatures. Sheep (Ovis aries) ribs of two experimental groups (fleshed and defleshed) were burned at temperatures of between 100°C and 1100°C in 100°C increments and subsequently analyzed with the SEM-EDX to determine the atomic percentage of present elements. Three-factor ANOVA analysis showed that neither the exposure temperature, nor whether the burning occurred with or without soft tissue present had any significant influence on the bone's overall elemental makeup (p > 0...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605020/report-of-increasing-overdose-deaths-that-include-acetyl-fentanyl-in-multiple-counties-of-the-southwestern-region-of-the-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania-in-2015-2016
#16
Jessica B Dwyer, Jennifer Janssen, Todd M Luckasevic, Karl E Williams
Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597975/domestic-predation-of-an-elder-a-fatal-dog-attack-case
#17
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Jocelyn Pollard, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
We present the case of a 91-year-old woman lived alone at her home with two domestic dogs, that is,, a Labrador Retriever and a Staffordshire Bull Terrier and found dead. The investigation of the scene revealed that the Bull Terrier's jawbone and chest were covered with blood. The autopsy revealed multiple, histologically confirmed, life-threatening skin and bone lacerations without scavenging marks. The punctures and tearing of each of the wounds on the skin were compatible with bites. A left humeral fracture and multiple fractures of the right facial bones were observed...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597948/identification-of-a-carbonized-body-using-implanted-surgical-plates-the-importance-of-computed-tomography
#18
Vanessa Moreira Andrade, Christian Abreu Stibich, Paulo Maurício de Santa Martha, Casimiro Abreu Possante de Almeida, Andrea de Castro Domingos Vieira
In addition to clinical examination, forensic odontologists can use diagnostic imaging as an auxiliary method for identification. This paper reports a case where forensic odontologists from the Afrânio Peixoto Legal Medicine Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) positively identified a carbonized and partially calcined body using oral and maxillofacial imaging. The cadaver showed several metallic plates fixed with metallic screws on bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium. Family members provided spiral computed tomography scans of the skull and a panoramic radiograph that were acquired after an accident that required surgical procedures...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597943/identification-of-eight-synthetic-cannabinoids-including-5f-akb48-in-seized-herbal-products-using-dart-tof-ms-and-lc-qtof-ms-as-nontargeted-screening-methods
#19
Katherine N Moore, Demetra Garvin, Brian F Thomas, Megan Grabenauer
Synthetic cannabinoids are sprayed onto plant material and smoked for their marijuana-like effects. Clandestine manufacturers modify synthetic cannabinoid structures by creating closely related analogs. Forensic laboratories are tasked with detection of these analog compounds, but targeted analytical methods are often thwarted by the structural modifications. Here, direct analysis in real time coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-TOF-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) are presented as a screening and nontargeted confirmation method, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597940/-undoing-or-symbolic-reversal-at-homicide-crime-scenes
#20
Maria Russell, Louis B Schlesinger, Maria Leon, Samantha Holdren
A closed case file review of a nonrandom national sample of 975 homicides disclosed 11 cases (1.13%) of undoing, wherein offenders engaged in crime scene behavior that has been considered an attempt to symbolically reverse the murder. The frequency of the various methods of undoing involved the use of blankets to cover the victim's body (55%), positioning the body (55%), use of a bed or couch (42%), washing the body (36%), using pillows (36%), as well as removing clothing and adding other types of adornments (27%)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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