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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143333/the-effect-of-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizer-vapors-on-evidential-breath-alcohol-test-results
#1
Ellen Strawsine, Brian Lutmer
This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143327/location-of-artifacts-deposited-by-the-blow-fly-lucilia-cuprina-after-feeding-on-human-blood-at-simulated-indoor-crime-scenes
#2
Annalisa Durdle, Timothy J Verdon, Robert John Mitchell, Roland A H van Oorschot
Human DNA profiles can be obtained from fly artifacts (feces and regurgitant) when a fly has been feeding on biological material, sometimes 2 years after deposition. Morphological similarity between artifacts and spots of unaltered biological material make it difficult to distinguish between them, and presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests are unreliable in making the distinction. Knowing possible artifact locations will assist investigators in recognizing where DNA contamination might occur. Flies were released into a house with human blood available under a variety of different climatic and lighting conditions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143324/bioelectrical-impedance-as-a-technique-for-estimating-postmortem-interval
#3
Eriek S Hansen, Christiane Baigent, Sophia I Reck, Melissa Connor
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a critical component of death investigation. A cadaver can be hypothesized to be a resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit the impedance (Z) of which changes in a quantifiable manner as the cadaver decomposes. This hypothesis was tested using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equipment to apply a current with a fixed amplitude at a single frequency to four cadavers over time and measuring two components of Z, resistance (R) and reactance (Xc ). Quadratic regression analysis between Z and accumulated degree days (ADD) showed a statistically significant parabolic relationship...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143322/certifying-death-in-the-united-states
#4
Leah Ruiz, Brianne M Posey, Melanie-Angela Neuilly, Mary K Stohr, Craig Hemmens
Accurately identifying death and its causes is integral to the compilation of mortality data and ultimately to the operation of the criminal justice and public health systems. A clear understanding of who is in charge of such processes is paramount to establishing the quality, or lack thereof, of the information provided in death certificates. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of all state statutes identifying death investigators charged with classifying and certifying death in the United States. We found that state statutes designate a broad range of individuals as responsible for the classification and certification of death...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139119/effect-of-sterilants-on-amplification-and-detection-of-target-dna-from-bacillus-cereus-spores
#5
James M Robertson, Douglas L Anders, Francene Basalyga, Julie Millar, Donia Palomo Slack, Robert Bever
To conceal criminal activity of a bioterrorist or agroterrorist, the site of pathogen generation is often treated with sterilants to kill the organisms and remove evidence. As dead organisms cannot be analyzed by culture, this study examined whether DNA from sterilant-treated Bacillus cereus spores was viable for amplification. The spores were exposed to five common sterilants: bleach, Sterilox®, oxidizer foam (L-Gel), a peroxyacid (Actril®), and formaldehyde vapor. The spores were inoculated on typical surfaces found in offices and laboratories to test for environmental effects...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139116/correcting-the-count-improving-vital-statistics-data-regarding-deaths-related-to-obesity
#6
Brandi C McCleskey, Gregory G Davis, Daniel W Dye
Obesity can involve any organ system and compromise the overall health of an individual, including premature death. Despite the increased risk of death associated with being obese, obesity itself is infrequently indicated on the death certificate. We performed an audit of our records to identify how often "obesity" was listed on the death certificate to determine how our practices affected national mortality data collection regarding obesity-related mortality. During the span of nearly 25 years, 0.2% of deaths were attributed to or contributed by obesity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105777/temporal-trends-in-rainwater-tank-suicides-in-rijeka-croatia-a-30-year-study
#7
Antun Ferenčić, Ivan Šoša, Drazen Cuculic, Valter Stemberga, Roger W Byard
Although drowning in rainwater tanks is a generally rare phenomenon, this method for suicide has been observed in parts of Croatia. Review of autopsy records at the University of Rijeka, Croatia, was undertaken from 1987 to 2016 to examine this phenomenon. Of 469 drowning deaths, there were 35 suicides in rainwater tanks (7.5%). Overall drowning deaths showed no temporal trends. In contrast, suicidal drownings in rain water tanks showed a marked decline over the years, with 15 cases in 1987-1991, seven in 1992-1996, six in 1997-2001, six in 2002-2006, one in 2007-2011, and none in 2012-2016...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098711/child-fatalities-in-dammam-a-call-for-child-fatality-reviews-in-arab-countries
#8
Dalia Mohammed Alsaif, Osama M Almadani, Salah Ali Almoghannam, Dina Hamdi, Maram A Al-Farayedhi, Magdy A Kharosha
Identifying children's risk exposure is the first step toward mortality prevention. This retrospective study determined the causes of child fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Death reports of children and adolescents from 1999 to 2015 (N = 157) were analyzed. Boys represented most cases (69%) and there were two age peaks (1-5 years and 16-18 years). Accidents (typically immersion) defined the main death circumstance (51%) followed by homicide (25%). Only 33% of cases underwent autopsy, and the most common cause of death was head injury (27%) followed by firearm injury...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098708/enhanced-visualization-of-latent-fingermarks-on-rough-aluminum-surfaces-using-sequential-au-and-zn-zns-zno-depositions
#9
Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Ismail Mekkaoui Alaoui, Sriram Guddala, S Anantha Ramakrishna
Detection and visualization of fingermarks on rough and diffuse surfaces is a relatively challenging task. We succeeded in developing latent fingermarks on scratched and rough aluminum surfaces by sequential deposition of a thin layer of gold followed by one of zinc or zinc-based compounds on the fingermarks. The best image enhancement was achieved with sequential Au and ZnS depositions. Using this combination, we could enhance the visualization of latent fingermarks aged over 65 days in normal conditions...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098704/use-of-xylazine-in-drug-facilitated-crimes
#10
Jatupon Krongvorakul, Saranya Auparakkitanon, Satariya Trakulsrichai, Pitsucha Sanguanwit, Jetjamnong Sueajai, Nantida Noumjad, Winai Wananukul
Human xylazine poisoning is uncommon. This report describes the use of xylazine for intentional poisoning with criminal intent. Two incidents occurred within 3 weeks: the first involved one victim, and the second involved two victims. The clinical presentations were brief coma, bradycardia, hypotension, and hyperglycemia. The victims recalled having been given a drink from a stranger in a hospital waiting room before loss of consciousness. In the first case, general drug screening by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) revealed xylazine in the gastric contents, but liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) of serum did not...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098694/measuring-the-frequency-occurrence-of-handwritten-numeral-characteristics
#11
Thomas W Vastrick, Ellen Schuetzner, Kelsey Osborn
The premise of this follow-up sister study to "Measuring the Frequency Occurrence of Handwriting and Handprinting Characteristics" was to collect a representative population sampling of numerals and assess how many participants utilize each of the predetermined characteristics as found in their specimens. A total of 1410 handwriting specimen forms were collected from across the United States and pared to 1025 to obtain a proper representative sample of the U.S. adult population based on the same demographics used in the original 2017 study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084359/self-strangulation-turning-into-partial-hanging-for-a-suicide-victim
#12
Rajanikanta Swain, Mantaran Singh Bakshi, Shivani Dhaka, Krishna Kumar Singh, Asit Kumar Sikary
Hanging is the most common asphyxial method of suicide, whereas suicide by strangulation is unusual. Here, we are reporting a particular methodology of the asphyxial method of suicide in which a case of self-strangulation culminated into partial hanging. A 30-year-old male wrapped one end of the cable wire around his neck. He then passed the other end over a curtain rod and tied that end around the right hand. He pulled the hand down, using the curtain rod as a fulcrum, to tighten the noose around the neck in an attempt to strangulate himself...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084352/potential-use-in-forensics-of-a-novel-hybrid-gelatin-dynamic-impact-assessment
#13
Teodora Zecheru, Alexandru Dena, Marius Cîrmaci, Ciprian Său, Cătălin Zaharia, Claudiu Lăzăroaie
Ballistic gelatin as simulant of the human body and organs is a support in forensics. After having obtained very good results for a new gelatin-based composite in terms of physicochemical and rheological properties, this study focused on this material's mechanical behavior during stabbing and shooting versus bovine and porcine organs and standard ballistic gelatin. The hybrid gelatin has a predominantly elastic behavior at 23°C, whereas the elastic modulus becomes practically constant in the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084351/arterial-perfusion-a-useful-technique-for-evaluating-incised-wounds
#14
Neil E I Langlois, Roger W Byard
A 54-year-old woman was found deceased with incised wounds of both sides of her neck and both wrists. Postmortem CT scanning revealed air in the heart and in the dural veins in continuity with air in the right jugular vein. Death was due to incised wounds of the wrist and neck with blood loss and air embolism. The manner of death was suicide. At autopsy, perfusion of the thoracic ascending aorta produced a fine stream of water emanating from an incised wound of the right ulnar artery with no significant leakage of water from the wound of the left wrist...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084345/a-gis-based-quantitative-approach-for-the-search-of-clandestine-graves-italy
#15
Roberta Somma, Maria Cascio, Massimiliano Silvestro, Eliana Torre
Previous research on the RAG color-coded prioritization systems for the discovery of clandestine graves has not considered all the factors influencing the burial site choice within a GIS project. The goal of this technical note was to discuss a GIS-based quantitative approach for the search of clandestine graves. The method is based on cross-referenced RAG maps with cumulative suitability factors to host a burial, leading to the editing of different search scenarios for ground searches showing high-(Red), medium-(Amber), and low-(Green) priority areas...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059717/weapon-use-in-korean-homicide-differences-between-homicides-involving-sharp-and-blunt-instruments
#16
Jisun Park, Hyeonseo Son
On the basis of information regarding 276 homicides committed in South Korea between 1987 and 2008, we compared offenders' and victims' characteristics, injury locations, weapon-related behavior, and offending behavior between homicides involving sharp and blunt instruments. The victims of sharp-force homicide were much younger relative to those of blunt-force homicide. In addition, homicides involving blunt instruments were more likely to be committed by offenders who lived with the victims. Most sharp-force homicides involved injuries to the torso, while blunt-force homicides involved mainly head injuries...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059715/suicide-by-medication-overdose-in-prison-a-study-of-three-cases
#17
Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Berland-Benhaim, Lucile Tuchtan-Torrents, Pascal Kintz, Georges Leonetti, Anne-Laure Pelissier-Alicot
Suicide is one of the principal causes of mortality in a prison environment. Although suicide by medication overdose is less frequent than suicide by hanging, self-strangulation, or vein cutting, it raises questions as to how the medications are obtained, particularly in view of the specific organization of the medication circuit in prisons. We present three cases of suicide by medication overdose involving different therapeutic classes with different distribution circuits and review the regulatory requirements and the measures that could be taken to prevent such suicides...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059713/lone-actor-terrorist-attack-planning-and-preparation-a-data-driven-analysis
#18
Bart Schuurman, Edwin Bakker, Paul Gill, Noémie Bouhana
This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059707/judicial-murder-suicides-in-van-diemen-s-land
#19
Roger W Byard, Hamish Maxwell Stewart
On the morning of December 17, 1827, nine convicts were executed by public hanging in Hobart Town, the capital of the British colony of Van Diemen's Land (now the Australian state of Tasmania). Two months previously they had drowned senior Constable George Rex on Small Island, which was part of the penal settlement at Macquarie Harbor, in front of five bound and gagged witnesses. They offered no defence at their trial. Examination of the Tasmanian colonial convict records shows that "suicide by lottery" involved convicts choosing two men, one to die and the other to kill him...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044577/development-and-validation-of-a-virtual-examination-tool-for-firearm-forensics
#20
Pierre Duez, Todd Weller, Marcus Brubaker, Richard E Hockensmith, Ryan Lilien
The transition from 2D imaging to 3D scanning in the discipline of firearms and toolmark analysis is likely to provide examiners an unprecedented view of microscopic surface topography. The digital examination of measured 3D surface topographies has been referred to as virtual microscopy (VM). The approach offers several potential advantages over traditional comparison microscopy. Like any new analytic method, VM must be validated prior to its use in a crime laboratory. This paper describes one of the first validation studies of virtual microscopy...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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