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Journal of Forensic Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930827/reasons-for-lack-of-consensus-in-forensic-pathologist-interpretation-of-photographs-of-patterns-of-injury-of-the-skin
#1
William R Oliver
In a previous study, a survey-based analysis of pathologist diagnoses of patterned injury in which participants were asked makes diagnoses from photographs in the absence of history or context. The level of consensus was low. A follow-up survey was created to ask those who responded to the first survey why they answered as they did or why they were unsure of their answers. The most common reason for lack of consensus was that the lesion was nonspecific. Responses invoking ambiguity were more common than those that indicated a confident difference in diagnosis...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930824/a-rare-case-of-poisoning-with-a-volatile-substance-quantitative-determination-of-n-butane-in-postmortem-tissue
#2
Jean Hiquet, Emilie Christin, Florence Tovagliaro, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Veronique Dumestre-Toulet, Sophie Gromb-Monnoyeur
Poisoning with volatile substances remains exceptional. Authors report the case of a married couple who were found in a car with a butane gas bottle: the woman was dead and her husband alleged it was an unsuccessful suicide pact. A specific research of volatile substances on postmortem samples with headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following a quantitative determination was performed. The n-butane concentrations detected were composed of 610 μg/L (cardiac blood), 50 μg/kg (brain), 134 μg/kg (lungs), 285 μg/kg (liver), and 4090 μg/kg (heart) and were compatible with the rare lethal concentrations evoked in the literature...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930820/a-bayesian-approach-to-age-at-death-estimation-from-osteoarthritis-of-the-shoulder-in-modern-north-americans
#3
Ashley L Brennaman, Kim R Love, Jonathan D Bethard, James T Pokines
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a marker of degeneration within the skeleton, frequently associated with age. This study quantifies the correlation between OA and age-at-death and investigates the utility of shoulder OA as a forensic age indicator using a modern North American sample of 206 individuals. Lipping, surface porosity, osteophyte formation, eburnation, and percentage of joint surface affected were recorded on an ordinal scale and summed to create composite scores that were assigned a specific phase. Spearman's correlation indicated a positive relationship between each composite score and age (right shoulder = 0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930816/trichobezoar-in-vagina-assessment-for-child-sexual-abuse-and-diagnostic-result-of-forensic-science
#4
Özlem Bağ, Buğra Han Acar, Şenol Öztürk, Sevay Alşen, Çiğdem Ecevit
Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930814/septic-ketoacidosis-a-potentially-lethal-entity-with-renal-tubular-epithelial-vacuolization
#5
Chong Zhou, Roger W Byard
Fatal ketoacidosis due to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and starvation may produce characteristic basal vacuolization of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC). Septic ketoacidosis has recently been recognized clinically as a distinct condition in which septicemia can lead to elevation of ketones and various anions unrelated to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or caloric deprivation. We report four lethal cases with significantly elevated vitreous ketones secondary to sepsis and/or severe localized infection in individuals with no history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or starvation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921312/the-prevalence-of-paraphernalia-found-at-the-scene-of-drug-related-deaths
#6
Jason G Lozano, Nicole L Healy, D Kimberley Molina
Many illicit drugs involve the use of paraphernalia, and the presence of paraphernalia found at the scene of death may suggest that the death is drug-related. Few sources of objective data are available regarding the prevalence of drug paraphernalia found at the scene of drug-related deaths or the likelihood of a death with drug paraphernalia found at the scene to be drug-related. This study reviews the deaths which were investigated by the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in an attempt to provide objective data...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921304/hyperthermia-thermal-injuries-and-death-from-a-forced-convection-heat-source-a-case-report-and-experimental-model
#7
Amanda O Fisher-Hubbard, LokMan Sung, Sean A Hubbard, Leigh Hlavaty
Heat-related deaths of children are most often encountered in the context of enclosed vehicles in summer months. Deviating from this, a 16-month-old boy was found unresponsive in a stroller that was placed adjacent to a space heater during mid-winter. The cause of death was hyperthermia and thermal injuries. Manner of death determination was difficult due to alleged surrounding circumstances. To understand the time-course of this child's injuries, a child death scene investigation was performed; the stroller and space heater were recovered...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921301/a-very-unusual-accidental-mechanical-asphyxia-of-choking-with-a-whole-solea-solea
#8
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Giulio Mannocchi, Paola Pugnetti, Alessandro Santurro, Aldo Maggiordomo, Simona Zaami
The case here reported involves a schizophrenic 19-year-old girl under treatment with clotiapine, which was well tolerated except for a moderate dry mouth. The woman ingested a whole sole (Solea solea), which caused a very rapid death by choking. A complete autopsy was performed 24 h later, as well as histological and toxicological analysis. At autopsy, the sole was wedged in the esophagus causing a choking ab extrinseco. The fish had a length of 18 cm and a maximum width of 6 cm, weighing 188.7 g. Toxicological analysis detected 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921297/self-identified-vampirism-and-risk-for-false-positives-a-case-example-of-team-homicide-and-implications-for-forensic-behavioral-science
#9
D J Williams
Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#10
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921288/objective-evaluation-of-subclass-characteristics-on-breech-face-marks
#11
Fabiano Riva, Rob Hermsen, Erwin Mattijssen, Pascal Pieper, Christophe Champod
Subclass characteristics can be found on the breech face marks left on spent cartridge cases. Even if they are assumed to be rare and their reported number is small, they can potentially lead to false associations. Subclass characteristics have been studied empirically allowing examiners to recognize them and to understand in which conditions they are produced. Until now, however, their influence on the identification process has not been studied from a probabilistic point of view. In this study, we aim at measuring the effect of these features on the strength of association derived from examinations involving subclass characteristics...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907244/analyzing-the-dynamics-and-morphology-of-cast-off-pattern-at-different-speed-levels-using-high-speed-digital-video-imaging
#12
Sebastian Niko Kunz, Jiri Adamec, Christina Grove
During a bloodstain pattern analysis, one of the essential tasks is to distinguish between different kinds of applied forces as well as to estimate their level of intensity. In this study, high-speed digital imaging has been used to analyze the formation of cast-off patterns generated by a simulated backswing with a blood-bearing object. For this purpose, 0.5 mL blood was applied evenly over the last 5 cm of a blade simulant. Bloodstains were created through the controlled acceleration of a backswing at different speed levels between 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907243/an-optimized-centrifugal-method-for-separation-of-semen-from-superabsorbent-polymers-for-forensic-analysis
#13
Lucy R Camarena, Bailey K Glasscock, Demi Daniels, Nicolle Ackley, Marybeth Sciarretta, Sarah J Seashols-Williams
Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907242/a-city-wide-investigation-of-the-isotopic-distribution-and-source-of-tap-waters-for-forensic-human-geolocation-ground-truthing
#14
Momoko Ueda, Lynne S Bell
Human geolocation is prefaced on the accuracy of the geographic precision of mapped isotopic values for drinking water. As most people live in cities, it becomes important to understand city water supplies and how the isotopic values uniquely reflect that city. This study investigated the isotopic distribution of δ(2) H and δ(18) O from sourced tap waters that were collected from across the Metro Vancouver (MV) area (n = 135). The results revealed that the isotopic values reflect their water sources with a range of 5...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907241/cheiloscopy-lip-print-inter-rater-reliability
#15
Winnie Furnari, Malvin N Janal
Lip print analysis, or cheiloscopy, has the potential to join fingerprints and retinal scans as an additional method to determine human identification. This preliminary study sought to determine agreement among 20 raters, forensic odontologists, using an often referenced system that categorizes lip prints into six classes related to the dominant pattern of vertical, horizontal, and intersecting lines. Lip prints were taken from 13 individuals, and raters categorized eight distinct regions of each print. In addition to ratings made while viewing the actual prints, the raters repeated the exercise using photographs of the lip prints...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907240/photo-realistic-statistical-skull-morphotypes-new-exemplars-for-ancestry-and-sex-estimation-in-forensic-anthropology
#16
Jodi Caple, Carl N Stephan
Graphic exemplars of cranial sex and ancestry are essential to forensic anthropology for standardizing casework, training analysts, and communicating group trends. To date, graphic exemplars have comprised hand-drawn sketches, or photographs of individual specimens, which risks bias/subjectivity. Here, we performed quantitative analysis of photographic data to generate new photo-realistic and objective exemplars of skull form. Standardized anterior and left lateral photographs of skulls for each sex were analyzed in the computer graphics program Psychomorph for the following groups: South African Blacks, South African Whites, American Blacks, American Whites, and Japanese...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907239/dental-age-estimation-pattern-recognition-of-root-canal-widths-of-mandibular-molars-a-novel-mandibular-maturity-marker-at-the-18-year-threshold
#17
Graham J Roberts, Victoria S Lucas, Manoharan Andiappan, Fraser McDonald
The final stage of third molar development is used to assign a subject to above the 18-year threshold. Some subjects exhibiting this final stage are less than 18 years. Radiographs from 1000 females and 1000 males age 16.00-25.99 years were examined. Each half-year age band comprised 50 females and 50 males. Three categories of root canal widths (RCW) of the LL6, LL7, and LL8 [FDI 36, 37, and 38] were defined. Reproducibility was achieved by re-assessing the same subjects 12 months apart. For females, the minimum value for RCW-A was 16...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907238/an-assessment-of-how-facial-mimicry-can-change-facial-morphology-implications-for-identification
#18
Daniele Gibelli, Danilo De Angelis, Pasquale Poppa, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
The assessment of facial mimicry is important in forensic anthropology; in addition, the application of modern 3D image acquisition systems may help for the analysis of facial surfaces. This study aimed at exposing a novel method for comparing 3D profiles in different facial expressions. Ten male adults, aged between 30 and 40 years, underwent acquisitions by stereophotogrammetry (VECTRA-3D(®) ) with different expressions (neutral, happy, sad, angry, surprised). The acquisition of each individual was then superimposed on the neutral one according to nine landmarks, and the root mean square (RMS) value between the two expressions was calculated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907237/tricyclic-antidepressants-found-in-pilots-fatally-injured-in-civil-aviation-accidents
#19
Zeki Dulkadir, Arvind K Chaturvedi, Kristi J Craft, Jeffery S Hickerson, Kacey D Cliburn
Prevalence of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has not been explored in pilots. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident and the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology and medical certification databases were searched for pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents. During 1990-2012, CAMI received bio-samples of pilots from 7037 aviation accidents. Of these, 2644 cases were positive for drugs. TCAs were present in 31. TCA blood concentrations ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907236/suicide-by-intentional-air-embolism
#20
Gábor Simon, Evelin Rácz, Mátyás Mayer, Veronika Heckmann, Dénes Tóth, Zsolt Kozma
Venous air embolism occurs when air enters the venous system. The main causes of venous air embolism include medical procedures, neck and head trauma, and injuries of the genitals. Self-induced suicidal (and intentional) air embolism is extremely rare. The authors report a rare case of a suicidal air embolism committed using a self-made tool composed of a plastic bottle and an infusion set, injecting nearly 2000 mL of air into the cubital vein. The toxicological analysis suggested that midazolam, together with air, was also injected into the circulation using the same bottle and infusion set...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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