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Journal of Forensic Sciences

Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Andrzej Ossowski, Marta Diepenbroek, Tomasz Kupiec, Milena Bykowska-Witowska, Grażyna Zielińska, Teresa Dembińska, Andrzej Ciechanowicz
As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Danielle Flores, Amy L Miller, Angelique Showman, Caitlyn Tobita, Lori M N Shimoda, Carl Sung, Alexander J Stokes, Jeffrey K Tomberlin, David O Carter, Helen Turner
Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Christine Tartaro, David Lester
Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years.
October 3, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Johan J Dempers, Jean Coldrey, Elsie H Burger, Vonita Thompson, Shabbir A Wadee, Hein J Odendaal, Mary Ann Sens, Brad B Randall, Rebecca D Folkerth, Hannah C Kinney
The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Thiago F Soares, Simao D Vasconcelos
Nocturnal flight of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a controversial issue in forensic entomology. We performed two field experiments to investigate the diurnal and nocturnal activity of six blow fly species in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Initially, nocturnal (17:30-05:30) versus diurnal (05:30-17:30) flight activity was investigated. Only 3.9% of adults were collected at night, mostly the native species Mesembrinella bicolor, and nocturnal oviposition did not occur. In the second experiment, collection of adults took place at the following intervals: 05:30-08:30, 08:30-11:30, 11:30-14:30, and 14:30-17:30...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Cuimei Liu, Zhendong Hua, Yanping Bai
Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Amanda O Fisher-Hubbard, Kilak Kesha, Francisco Diaz, Chantel Njiwaji, PaoLin Chi, Carl J Schmidt
The Valsalva maneuver is used in clinical medicine for the diagnosis and/or treatment of various cardiovascular conditions. It can also be used in activities of daily living, such as defecation. Due to the cardiovascular effects produced during the Valsalva maneuver, it may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions and could be a trigger of sudden cardiac death. The incidence and prevalence of death following Valsalva maneuver in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease, or "commode cardia," has not been examined...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Sara Gioia, Massimo Lancia, Antonella Mencacci, Mauro Bacci, Fabio Suadoni
Since its introduction, colonoscopy has played an important role as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and screening tool. In general, colonoscopy is regarded as a safe procedure, but complications may occur. The most dreaded of these complications is colonic perforation. Bacteremia postprocedure may occur, and although it is not uncommon, it rarely results in clinically significant complications. Patients with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) are a high-risk population for bacteremia, which may leads to bowel wall overstepping by the bacteria...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Wendy C Regoeczi, Sven Granath, Rania Issa, Thomas Gilson, Joakim Sturup
Research on homicides followed by suicides has largely relied on very localized samples and relatively short time spans of data. As a result, little is known about the extent to which patterns within cases of homicide-suicides are geographically specific. The current study seeks to help fill this gap by comparing twenty years of homicide-suicide data for Sweden and a large U.S. county. Although some of the underlying patterns in the two countries are similar (e.g., decreasing rates), a number of important differences emerge, particularly with respect to incidence, weapons used, perpetrator age, and relationship of the perpetrator to the victim...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Ming Di Leom, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Ray Hunt
Mobile devices have become ubiquitous in almost every sector of both private and commercial endeavors. As a result of such widespread use in everyday life, many users knowingly and unknowingly save significant amounts of personal and/or commercial data on these mobile devices. Thus, loss of mobile devices through accident or theft can expose users-and their businesses-to significant personal and corporate cost. To mitigate this data leakage issue, remote wiping features have been introduced to modern mobile devices...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Yu Du, Hong-Nian Jin, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Ye Xue, Bao-Li Zhu, Da-Wei Guan, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Pulmonary edema is a common finding in fatal methamphetamine intoxication. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study investigated the molecular pathology of alveolar damage involving pulmonary edema in forensic autopsy cases. Seven candidate reference genes (RPL13A, YWHAZ, GUSB, SDHA, GAPDH, B2M, and ACTB) were evaluated in the lung by the geNorm module in qBase(plus) software. RPL13A, YWHAZ, and GUSB were identified as the most stable reference genes. Using these validated reference genes, intrapulmonary mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), claudin-5 (CLDN-5), and aquaporins (AQPs) were examined...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Rachel Claire Aland, Alan Piper, Edward Gosden
Time may elapse between examination of marks inflicted on the body and comparison with a potential weapon. Two-dimensional photographs may be inadequate for effective comparison of a three-dimensional mark with a putative instrument. Taking a cast and producing a positive image results in a lasting three-dimensional record. This project aimed to develop and demonstrate the accuracy of an easy technique for production of long-lasting positive images (using plaster of Paris and dental alginate). Casts of facial features of embalmed cadavers were used to produce a positive image of the face (death mask)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Erwin J A T Mattijssen, K Dieter H Pater, Reinoud D Stoel
For shooting scene reconstruction purposes, knowledge about the ricochet behavior of bullets provides valuable information. In this study, the critical ricochet angles of four cartridge types were established on plain float glass. The estimates of the critical ricochet angles varied between cartridge types and were 21.0° for .32 Auto FMJ bullets, 15.8° for 9 mm Luger FMJ bullets, 17.6° for .45 Auto FMJ bullets, and 21.3° for 9 mm Luger, Action NP bullets. The corresponding ricochet and deflection angles per incidence angle varied depending on the state of the ricocheted bullets...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Pasquale Giugliano, Francesco Massoni, Antonello Crisci, Serafino Ricci
Lesions of the digestive tract due to barotrauma resulting from compressed air application are not common, are rarely lethal, and largely affect the sigmoid and descending colon. Moreover, their pathogenic mechanism is a topic of discussion because these lesions have multiple characteristics. Here, the authors describe an autoptic case of death from lesions of the ascending and transverse segments, with perforations and bleeding suffusions as well as ischemic areas covered the colonic wall that was extremely thinned, congested, and hemorrhagic, with considerable flattening leading to disappearance of the mucosal folds and with numerous petechial hemorrhages...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Christos Christodoulou, Filippos Koutsaftis, Athanassios Douzenis
Frequency and gender differences of psychiatric medication intake in a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area were investigated with a particular focus on the implications for suicide prevention. Data were collected from the toxicological analyses of the suicide cases of the period November 2007-October 2009. Information was available for 262 individuals, 196 men (74.8%) and 66 women (25.2%); 109 of these (41.6%) were receiving psychiatric medication(s). Women were statistically more frequently under treatment: antidepressants (32...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Asit Kumar Sikary, Rajanikanta Swain, Shivani Dhaka, Sudhir K Gupta, Abhishek Yadav
In suicide pact, two or more victims mutually agree and execute to end their lives together by predetermined method, preferably by hanging, drowning, gunshot, or poisoning. The victims are usually spouses, lovers, or friends, and the reasons behind such steps are various. In this reported suicide pact, husband-wife duo jumped from the terrace of a 12-meter-high building with their wrist bound to each other. Although they jumped together, the injury patterns were completely different. The man landed on head sustaining mainly craniocerebral injuries, and the wife landed on feet sustaining long bone injuries...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Michael C Taylor, Terry L Laber, Paul E Kish, Glynn Owens, Nikola K P Osborne
This study was designed to produce the first baseline measure of the reliability of bloodstain pattern classifications on fabric surfaces. Experienced bloodstain pattern analysts classified bloodstain patterns on pairs of trousers that represented three fabric substrates. Patterns also varied in type (impact, cast-off, expiration, satellite stains from dripped blood, and transfer) and extent. In addition, case summaries that accompanied each pattern contained contextual cues that either supported the correct answer (i...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Joseph T Hefner, Michael W Warren
Achondroplasia (chondrodystrophia) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder affecting approximately 1 in 26,000 live births and is the most common cause of dwarfism in humans. Disproportionate short stature and a suite of craniofacial characteristics typify achondroplasia. The literature available for differential diagnosis of the disorder relies primarily on the postcranial skeleton. In this paper, a possible case of achondroplasia is presented. The cranium presents a unique suite of cranial and craniofacial dysmorphologies...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Elizabeth Evans, Carolina Costrino, Claudimir L do Lago, Carlos D Garcia, Claude Roux, Lucas Blanes
A portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) was used to determine the inorganic ionic profiles of three pharmaceutical samples and precursors of two illicit drugs (contemporary samples of methylone and para-methoxymethamphetamine). The LODs ranged from 0.10 μmol/L to 1.25 μmol/L for the 10 selected cations, and from 0.13 μmol/L to 1.03 μmol/L for the eight selected anions. All separations were performed in less than 6 min with migration times and peak area RSD values ranging from 2 to 7%...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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