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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536294/the-interfaces-between-vitamin-d-sleep-and-pain
#1
Daniela Leite de Oliveira, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen
The role of vitamin D in osteomineral metabolism is well known. Several studies have suggested its action on different biological mechanisms, such as nociceptive sensitivity and sleep-wake cycle modulation. Sleep is an important biological process regulated by different regions of the central nervous system, mainly the hypothalamus, in combination with several neurotransmitters. Pain, which can be classified as nociceptive, neuropathic and psychological, is regulated by both the central and peripheral nervous systems...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#2
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533421/mineralocorticoid-receptor-activation-and-specificity-conferring-mechanisms-a-short-history
#3
John W Funder
The mineralocorticoid receptor (henceforth MR) was first characterized 45 years ago (Funder 1972, Rousseau 1972), a decade and a half before its successful cloning (Arriza 1987) to which this issue of the Journal is dedicated. Aldosterone had been isolated and characterized 20 years before the MR: its initial name was electrocortin, reflecting its ability to promote electrolyte transport across epithelial membranes, rapidly changed to its familiar, current name aldosterone. What prompted the change was the finding of a unique aldehyde group at carbon18 of the steroid molecule, the physiological significance of which only became clear many years later (Funder 1988, Edwards 1988)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#4
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515141/glucagon-induced-extracellular-camp-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#5
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhenning Zhang, Bing Luan
Hormonal signals help to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver during periods of fasting. Glucagon, a pancreas-derived hormone induced by fasting, promotes gluconeogenesis through induction of intracellular cAMP production. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation but the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Here we reported that following the acute induction of gluconeogenic genes Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression through CREB, glucagon triggers a second delayed phase of fatty acid oxidation genes Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Aox) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) expression via extracellular cAMP...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512117/the-interaction-of-mc3r-and-mc4r-with-mrap2-acth-%C3%AE-msh-and-agrp-in-chickens
#6
Jiannan Zhang, Xin Li, Yawei Zhou, Lin Cui, Jing Li, Chenlei Wu, Yiping Wan, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The interaction of melanocortin-4 (MC4R) and melanocortin-3 (MC3R) receptors with proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides (e.g. α-MSH), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) is suggested to play critical roles in energy balance of vertebrates. However, evidence on their interaction in birds remains scarce. Our study aims to reveal their interaction in chickens and the results showed that: 1) chicken (c-)MC3R and cMC4R expressed in CHO cells can be activated by α-MSH and ACTH1-39 equipotently, monitored by a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system; 2) cMC3R and cMC4R, when co-expressed with cMRAP2 (or cMRAP, a cMRAP2 homolog), show increased sensitivity to ACTH treatment and thus likely act as ACTH-preferring receptors, and the interaction between cMC3R/cMC4R and cMRAP2 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation assay; 3) both cMC3R and cMC4R display constitutive activity when expressed in CHO cells, as monitored by Dual-luciferase reporter assay, and cMRAP2 (and cMRAP) can modulate their constitutive activity; 4) AgRP inhibits the constitutive activity of cMC3R/cMC4R, and it also antagonizes ACTH/α-MSH action on cMC4R/cMC3R, indicating that AgRP functions as the inverse agonist and antagonist for both receptors...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500085/the-most-common-vices-of-men-can-damage-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-next-generation
#7
Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox, Michelle Lane
There is growing evidence from animal and human studies that demonstrate that acquired paternal traits can impair both a male's fertility and the health of his offspring, including advanced age, smoking, stress, trauma, under-nutrition, infection, toxin exposure, and obesity. Curiously, many of these factors manifest as impaired neurological, behavioural, and/or metabolic functioning in offspring. The underlying molecular mechanisms that respond to the paternal environment and act as vectors of intergenerational transmission are beginning to emerge...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500084/bisphenol-a-promotes-hepatic-lipid-deposition-involving-kupffer-cell-m1-polarization-in-male-mice
#8
Qiong Lv, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Juan Yi, Lulu Liu, Shumin Yang, Danting Li, Jinbo Hu, Ting Luo, Mei Mei, Ying Song, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Qifu Li
Bisphenol A (BPA), as one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, is considered to promote hepatic lipid deposition, but the mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. The polarization of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays an important role in hepatic inflammation by promoting pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype (M1KCs), which contributes to dysregulated lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of KC polarization in BPA-induced hepatosteatosis in male mice. In this study, we examined hepatic lipid contents and quantified M1KC in BPA-treated CD1 mice, and further explored the interaction between KCs and hepatocytes by using conditional HepG2 cell culture...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500083/hepatic-thyroid-signaling-of-heat-stressed-late-pregnant-and-early-lactating-cows
#9
Joachim Weitzel, Thorsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, Björn Kuhla
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490443/peripheral-insulin-resistance-in-ilk-depleted-mice-by-reduction-of-glut4-expression
#10
Marco Hatem-Vaquero, Mercedes Griera, Andrea Garcia-Jerez, Alicia Luengo, Julia Alvarez-Hernandez, Jose Antonio Rubio-Garcia, Laura Calleros, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodriguez-Puyol, Sergio de Frutos
The development of insulin resistance is characterized by the impairment of glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Extracellular matrix changes are induced when the metabolic dysregulation is sustained. The present work was devoted to analyze the possible link between the extracellular-to-intracellular mediator integrin linked kinase (ILK) and the peripheral tissue modification that leads to glucose homeostasis impairment. Mice with general depletion of ILK in adulthood (cKD-ILK) maintained in a chow diet exhibited increased glycaemia and insulinemia concurrently with a reduction of the expression and membranes presence of GLUT4 in the insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues compared with their wildtype littermates (WT)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490442/dexamethasone-and-sex-regulate-placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-in-mice
#11
James Sm Cuffe, Zarqa Saif, Anthony V Perkins, Karen M Moritz, Vicki L Clifton
Maternal dexamethasone exposure in the mouse impairs placental development and programs adult disease in a sexually dimorphic manner. Glucocorticoids bind to different glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms to regulate gene transcription and cellular signaling. We hypothesized that sexually dimorphic placental responses to glucocorticoids are due to differences in GR isoforms present in the placenta. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice were exposed to saline or dexamethasone from E12.5 until E14.5 (1µg/kg/h) before the collection of placentae...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483805/treating-the-dysfunctional-placenta
#12
Colin Peter Sibley
Placental dysfunction underlies major obstetric diseases such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Whilst there has been a little progress in prophylaxis there are still no treatments for placental dysfunction in normal obstetric practice. However, a combination of increasingly well described in vitro systems for studying the human placenta, together with the availability of more appropriate animal models of pre-eclampsia and FGR, has facilitated a recent surge in work aimed at repurposing drugs and therapies, developed for other conditions, as treatments for placental dysfunction...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468933/the-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice-overexpressing-neuropeptide-y-in-noradrenergic-neurons
#13
Liisa Ailanen, Suvi T Ruohonen, Laura Vähätalo, Katja Tuomainen, Kim Eerola, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Matias Röyttä, Asta Laiho, Markku Ahotupa, Helena Gylling, Eriika Savontaus
A gain-of-function polymorphism in human neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene (rs16139) associates with metabolic disorders and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Similarly, mice overexpressing NPY in noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPY(DBH)) display obesity and impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, the metabolic syndrome -like phenotype was characterized and mechanisms of impaired hepatic fatty acid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in pre-obese (2-month-old) and obese (4-7-month-old) OE-NPY(DBH) mice were elucidated...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468932/evolution-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-sequence-structure-and-function
#14
Michael E Baker, Yoshinao Katsu
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is descended from a corticoid receptor (CR), which has descendants in lamprey and hagfish, cyclostomes (jawless fish), a taxon that evolved at the base of the vertebrate line. A distinct MR and GR first appear in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), such as sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras. Skate MR has a strong response to corticosteroids that are mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in humans. The half-maximal responses (EC50s) for skate MR for the mineralocorticoids aldosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone are 0...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455432/skeletal-energy-homeostasis-a-paradigm-of-endocrine-discovery
#15
Karla Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nicholas M Morton, Vicky E MacRae, Will Cawthorn
Throughout the last decade, significant developments in cellular, molecular, and mouse models have revealed major endocrine functions of the skeleton. More recent studies have evolved the interplay between bone-specific hormones, the skeleton, marrow adipose tissue, muscle and the brain. This review focuses on literature from the last decade, addressing endocrine regulation of global energy metabolism via the skeleton. In addition, we will highlight several recent studies that further our knowledge of new endocrine functions of some organs; explore remaining unanswered questions; and, finally, we will discuss future directions for this more complex era of bone biology research...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455431/hypothalamic-effects-of-neonatal-diet-reversible-and-only-partially-leptin-dependent
#16
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Julie Quach, Sarah J Spencer
Early life diet influences metabolic programming, increasing the risk for long-lasting metabolic ill-health. Neonatally overfed rats have an early increase in leptin that is maintained long-term and is associated with a corresponding elevation in body weight. However, the immediate and long-term effects of neonatal overfeeding on hypothalamic anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) / neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitry, and if these are directly mediated by leptin, have not yet been examined...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455430/endocrine-targets-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#17
Hsiu-Chi Lee, S-J Sean Tsai
Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450646/effect-of-mitotane-on-mouse-ovarian-follicle-development-and-fertility
#18
Federica Innocenti, Lidia Cerquetti, Serena Pezzilli, Barbara Bucci, Vincenzo Toscano, Rita Canipari, Antonio Stigliano
Mitotane (MTT) is an adrenolytic drug used in advanced and adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, in Cushing's disease and in ectopic syndrome. However, knowledge about its effects on the ovary is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of MTT on the ovary using in vivo and in vitro models. The study was performed in CD1 mice and in the COV-434 human ovarian granulosa cell line. We examined ovarian morphology, follicle development, steroidogenesis and procreative function in mice and the effect of MTT on cell growth in vitro...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442508/aging-human-body-changes-in-bone-muscle-and-body-fat-with-consequent-changes-in-nutrient-intake
#19
Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Wendimere Reilly, Owen J Kelly, Jasminka Z Ilich
Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442507/protein-kinase-stk25-aggravates-the-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease-in-mice
#20
Esther Nunez Duran, Belen Chanclon, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt-Asterholm, Emelie Cansby, Margit Mahlapuu
Characterising the molecular networks that negatively regulate pancreatic β-cell function is essential for understanding the underlying pathogenesis and developing new treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of ectopic fat storage, meta-inflammation, and fibrosis in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of progression of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease in the context of chronic exposure to dietary lipids in mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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