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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773580/resistin-inhibits-neuronal-autophagy-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#1
Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al-Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crepin, Mohammed Taouis
Autophagy is as a non-selective degradation pathway induced in energy-deprived cells and in non-starved cells by participating in cellular inflammatory responses mainly through the elimination of injured and aged mitochondria that constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species. We have previously reported that resistin/TLR4 signaling pathway induces inflammation and insulin resistance in neuronal cell. However, the impact of resistin-induced inflammation on neuronal autophagy is unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that resistin-induced neuroinflammation could be attributed, at least partially, to the impairment of autophagy pathways in neuronal cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743343/multiple-effects-of-cold-exposure-on-livers-of-male-mice
#2
Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith Ch Friesema, Axel Pn Themmen, Jenny A Visser
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete triglycerides (TGs) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743342/the-role-of-obesity-and-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Patrik Šimják, Anna Cinkajzlová, Kateřina Anderlová, Antonín Pařízek, Milos Mraz, Michal Kršek, Martin Haluzik
Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in patients with no history of diabetes prior to gestation. It is the most common complication of pregnancy. The underlying pathophysiology shares some common features with type 2 diabetes mellitus combining relatively insufficient insulin secretion with increased peripheral insulin resistance. While a certain degree of insulin resistance is the physiological characteristics of the second half of pregnancy, it is significantly more pronounced in patients with gestational diabetes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743341/involvement-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-dysfunction-in-virus-induced-type-1-diabetes
#4
James C Needell, Madalyn Brown, Danny Zipris
The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains poorly understood. We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to better understand the role of the innate immune system in the mechanism of virus-induced disease. We observed that infection with KRV results in cell influx into visceral adipose tissue soon following infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. In sharp contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue is free of cellular infiltration, whereas β-cell inflammation and diabetes are observed beginning on day 14 post-infection...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743340/androgen-and-estrogen-action-on-male-physical-activity-a-story-beyond-muscle
#5
Ferran Jardi, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Nari Kim, Rougin Khalil, Brigitte Decallonne, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Physical inactivity is a pandemic that contributes to several chronic diseases and poses a significant burden on health care systems worldwide. The search for effective strategies to combat sedentary behavior has led to an intensification of the research efforts to unravel the biological substrate controlling activity. A wide body of preclinical evidence makes a strong case for sex steroids regulating physical activity in both genders, albeit the mechanisms implicated remain unclear. The beneficial effects of androgens on muscle as well as on other peripheral functions might play a role in favoring adaptation to exercise...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724864/empowering-thyroid-hormone-research-in-human-subjects-using-omics-technologies
#6
Maik Pietzner, Tim Kacprowski, Nele Friedrich
OMICs subsume different physiological layers including the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Recent advances in analytical techniques allow for the exhaustive determination of bio-molecules in all OMICs levels from less invasive human specimens such as blood and urine. Investigating OMICs in deeply characterized population-based or experimental studies has led to seminal improvement of our understanding of genetic determinants of thyroid function, identified putative thyroid hormone target genes and thyroid hormone-induced shifts in the plasma protein and metabolite content...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720540/porcupine-inhibitors-impair-trabecular-and-cortical-bone-mass-and-strength-in-mice
#7
Thomas Funck-Brentano, Karin H Nilsson, Robert Brommage, Petra Henning, Ulf H Lerner, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Martine Cohen-Solal, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, Claes Ohlsson
WNT signalling is involved in the tumorigenesis of various cancers and regulates bone homeostasis. Palmitoleoylation of WNTs by Porcupine is required for WNT activity. Porcupine inhibitors are under development for cancer therapy. As the possible side effects of Porcupine inhibitors on bone health are unknown, we determined their effects on bone mass and strength. Twelve-week-old C57BL/6N female mice were treated by the Porcupine inhibitors LGK974 (Low dose = 3 mg/kg/day; High dose = 6 mg/kg/day) or Wnt-C59 (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for three weeks...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720539/its-reticulated-the-liver-at-the-heart-of-atherosclerosis
#8
Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Sunil K Noothi, Michelle Christine Flynn, Andrew Murphy
Platelets play a critical role in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and even more so in the ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Low-dose aspirin remains the mainstay of antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients by reducing the risk of myocardial ischemia (MI), stroke, or death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, antiplatelet therapies lose their efficacy in people with diabetes mellitus (DM), increasing the risk of future atherothrombotic events. The molecular mechanisms that promote platelet hyperactivity remain unclear but could be due to glycation-induced conformational changes of platelet membranes resulting in impaired aspirin entry, or less-efficient acetylation/compensatory increase in COX-2 expression in newborn platelets...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720538/sympathetic-innervation-regulates-macrophage-activity-in-rat-with-polycystic-ovary
#9
Florencia Figueroa, Gisela Mendoza, Dario Cardozo, Fabian Mohamed, Liliana Oliveros, Myriam Liliana Forneris
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a low grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovarian hyperinnervation. The aim of this work is to investigate whether in vivo bilateral superior ovarian nerve (SON) section in adult rats with estradiol valerate induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO rats) affects macrophage spleen cells (MФ) and modifies the steroidogenic ability of their secretions. Culture media of MФ from PCO rats and PCO rats with SON section (PCO-SON rats) were used to stimulate in vitro intact ovaries...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720537/isosteviol-ameliorates-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-rats-by-inhibiting-erk-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#10
Shenggao Tang, Xiaoyu Liu, Ji-Ming Ye, Tingting Hu, Yingying Yang, Ting Han, Wen Tan
Diabetes induced injury of myocardium, defined as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), accounts for significant mortality and morbidity in diabetic population. Alleviation of DCM by a potent drug remains considerable interests in experimental and clinical researches because hypoglycemic drugs cannot effectively control this condition. Here we explored the beneficial effects of isosteviol sodium (STVNa) on type 1 diabetes induced DCM and the potential mechanisms involved. Male Wistar rats were induced to diabetes by injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674343/impacts-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrition-on-glucagon-regulation-and-hepatic-signalling-in-sheep
#11
Bishnu Adhikari, Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
To evaluate the long-term impacts of early life nutritional manipulations on glucagon secretion and hepatic signalling, thirty-six twin pregnant ewes during their last trimester were exposed to NORM (fulfilling 100% of daily energy/protein requirements), HIGH (fulfilling 150/110% of daily energy/protein requirements) or LOW (50% of NORM) diets. Twin lambs were assigned after birth to a moderate (CONV) or high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet until six months. Then responses in plasma glucagon concentrations and glucagon ratios relative to previously reported values for insulin, glucose and lactate were determined after intravenous bolus injections of glucose or propionate (fed and 2-days fasting state)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674342/app-deficiency-results-in-resistance-to-obesity-but-impairs-glucose-tolerance-upon-high-fat-feeding
#12
Juliane Czeczor, Amanda Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie De Jong, Darren Henstridge, Peter Meikle, Mark Febbraio, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the Aβ peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APP deficiency on obesity-induced alterations in systemic metabolism...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666152/phenylmethimazole-abrogates-diet-induced-inflammation-glucose-intolerance-and-nafld
#13
Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank L Schwartz, Kelly D McCall
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases and has become the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. High fat (HF) diets promote an increased uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes, which initiates steatosis and induces lipotoxicity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Activation and signaling of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by FFAs induces inflammation evident in NAFLD and insulin resistance...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661800/chorionic-somatomammotropin-impacts-early-fetal-growth-and-placental-gene-expression
#14
Kimberly M Jeckel, Alexander C Boyarko, Gerrit Bouma, Quinton Winger, Russ V Anthony
Several developmental windows, including placentation, must be negotiated to establish and maintain pregnancy. Impaired placental function can lead to pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in increased infant mortality and morbidity. It has been hypothesized that chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH), plays a significant role in fetal development, potentially by modifying maternal and fetal metabolism. Recently, using lentiviral-mediated in vivo RNA interference in sheep, we demonstrated significant reductions in near-term (135 days of gestation; dGA) fetal and placental size, and altered fetal liver gene expression, resulting from CSH deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643115/chronic-at1-blockade-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-oletf-rats
#15
Ruben Rodriguez, Jacqueline N Minas, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Daisuke Nakano, David G Parkes, A Nishiyama, Rudy M Ortiz
Obesity is associated with the inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which increases arterial pressure, impairs insulin secretion, and decreases peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity. RAS blockade reverses these detriments; however, it is not clear whether the disease state of the organism and treatment duration determine the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the benefits of acute vs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636364/bufalin-suppresses-endometriosis-progression-by-inducing-pyroptosis-and-apoptosis
#16
Yeon Jean Cho, Jiyeun E Lee, Mi Jin Park, Bert W O'Malley, Sang Jun Han
The steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 isoform/estrogen receptor (ER)-β axis has an essential role in endometriosis progression. In this context, therefore, bufalin was employed as a 'tool compound' to evaluate inhibitors of SRC in alternative endometriosis treatment. Bufalin effectively suppressed the growth of primary human endometrial stroma cells isolated from endometriosis patients compared to women without endometriosis and immortalized human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells expressing the SRC-1 isoform compared to their parental cells in vitro...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636363/estrogen-receptor-subtypes-dictate-the-proliferative-nature-of-the-mammary-gland
#17
Genevieve V Dall, Sam Hawthorne, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Jessica Vieusseux, Wanfu Wu, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, David Byrne, Leigh Murphy, Gail Risbridger, Kara Britt
Estrogen induces proliferation of breast epithelial cells and is responsible for breast development at puberty. This tightly regulated control is lost in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers, which comprise over 70% of all breast cancers. Currently breast cancer diagnosis and treatment considers only the α isoform of ER, however there is a second ER, ERβ. Whilst ERα mediates estrogen-driven proliferation of the normal breast in puberty and breast cancers, ERβ has been shown to exert an anti-proliferative effect on the normal breast...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632215/soluble-klotho-causes-hypomineralization-in-klotho-deficient-mice
#18
Tomoko Minamizaki, Yukiko Konishi, Kaoru Sakurai, Hirotaka Yoshioka, Jane E Aubin, Katsuyuki Kozai, Yuji Yoshiko
The type I transmembrane protein αKlotho (Klotho) serves as a coreceptor for the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in kidney, while a truncated form of Klotho (soluble Klotho, sKL) is thought to exhibit multiple activities, including acting as a hormone, but whose mode(s) of action in different organ systems remains to be fully elucidated. FGF23 is expressed primarily in osteoblasts/osteocytes and aberrantly high levels in the circulation acting via signaling through an FGF receptor (FGFR)-Klotho coreceptor complex cause renal phosphate wasting and osteomalacia...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615477/leptin-stimulates-aromatase-in-the-growth-plate-limiting-catch-up-growth-efficiency
#19
Majdi Masarwi, Raanan Shamir, Moshe Phillip, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In-vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615476/neuronostatin-exerts-actions-on-pituitary-that-are-unique-from-its-sibling-peptide-somatostatin
#20
Raul M Luque, Rhonda D Kineman
Neuronostatin, a somatostatin gene-encoded peptide, exerts important physiological and metabolic actions in diverse tissues. However, the direct biological effects of neuronostatin on pituitary function of humans and primates are still unknown. This study used baboon (Papio anubis) primary pituitary cell cultures, a species that closely models human physiology, to demonstrate that neuronostatin inhibits basal, but not ghrelin-/GnRH-stimulated, GH and LH secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, without affecting the secretion of other pituitary hormones (prolactin, ACTH, FSH, TSH) or changing mRNA levels...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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