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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223314/attenuation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-signaling-by-growth-hormone-gh
#1
Lorena Gonzalez, Johanna Gabriela Miquet, Pablo E Irene, María Eugenia Díaz, Soledad P Rossi, Ana Isabel Sotelo, Mónica B Frungieri, Cristal M Hill, Andrzej Bartke, Daniel Turyn
Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of Erk1/2 and Akt signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219934/gja1-acts-downstream-of-acvr1-to-regulate-uterine-decidualization-via-hand2
#2
Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Peng Yue, Kai Wang, Zhan-Qing Yang, Hong-Liang Zhang, Shuang Geng, Bin Guo
Although Gja1 has been proved to play an important role in uterine decidualization, its regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that Gja1 was highly expressed in the decidual cells and promoted the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 which were two well-known differentiation markers for decidualization. Further analysis revealed that Gja1 might act downstream of Acvr1 and cAMP to regulate the differentiation of uterine stromal cells. Administration of cAMP analogue 8-Br-cAMP to Acvr1 siRNA-transfected stromal cells resulted in an obvious increase of Gja1 expression, whereas PKA inhibitor H89 impeded the induction of Gja1 elicited by Acvr1 overexpression, indicating that cAMP-PKA signal mediates the regulation of Acvr1 on Gja1 expression...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219933/akt-signalling-as-a-mediator-of-cardiac-adaptation-to-low-birth-weight
#3
Kimberley Cw Wang, Kimberley J Botting, Song Zhang, Caroline McMillen, Doug A Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine insults, such as poor nutrition and placental insufficiency, can alter cardiomyocyte development and this can have significant long-term implications for heart health. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that low birth weight babies have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. In addition, intrauterine growth restriction can result in increased left ventricular hypertrophy, which is the strongest predictor for poor health outcomes in cardiac patients. The mechanisms responsible for these associations are not clear, but a suboptimal intrauterine environment can program alternative expression of genes such as cardiac IGF-2/H19, IGF-2R and AT1R through either an increase or decrease in DNA methylation or histone acetylation at specific loci...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213399/continuous-model-of-conceptus-implantation-to-the-maternal-endometrium
#4
Kazuhiko Imakawa, Rulan Bai, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi, Kazuya Kusama
As placental morphology as well as trophoblast characteristics exhibit wide diversity across mammalian species, underling molecules were also thought to vary greatly. In the majority of cases, however, regardless of the mode of implantation, physiological and biochemical processes in conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium including the kinds of gene expression and their products are now considered to share many similarities. In fact, recent progress has identified that in addition to the hormones, cytokines, proteases and cell adhesion molecules classically characterized, molecules related to lymphocyte homing and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are all required for the progression of conceptus implantation to placentation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196954/metformin-and-thyroid-disease
#6
Xianghui Meng, Shuhang Xu, Guofang Chen, Michael Derwahl, Chao Liu
An intriguing area of research in thyroidology is the recently discovered association of insulin resistance with thyroid functional and morphological abnormalities. Individuals with hyperinsulinemia have larger thyroid gland and a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancer. Accordingly, patients treated with metformin have a smaller thyroid volume and a lower risk of incident goiter, thyroid nodule and cancer. Multiple studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that metformin can inhibit the growth of thyroid cells and different types of thyroid cancer cells by affecting the insulin/IGF-1 and mTOR pathways...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184001/igfbp-4-regulates-adult-skeletal-growth-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#7
David E Maridas, Victoria E DeMambro, Phuong T Le, Subburaman Mohan, Cliff Rosen
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins are critical mediators of skeletal growth. Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is highly expressed in osteoblasts and inhibits IGF-1 actions in vitro. Yet, in vivo studies suggest that it could potentiate IGF-1 and IGF-2 actions. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP-4 might potentiate the actions of IGF-1 on the skeleton. To test this, we comprehensively studied 8 and 16-week-old Igfbp4-/- mice. Both male and female adult Igfbp4-/- mice had marked growth retardation with reductions in body weight, body and femur lengths, fat proportion and lean mass at 8 and 16 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184000/angptl6-expression-is-coupled-with-mitochondrial-oxphos-function-to-regulate-adipose-fgf21
#8
Seul Gi Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Min Jeong Choi, Min Jeong Ryu, Saetbyel Jung, Hyo Kyun Chung, Joon Young Chang, Yong Kyung Kim, Seong Eun Lee, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Hoil Choi, Dong Seok Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Chul-Ho Lee, Yuichi Oike, Minho Shong
Recent studies revealed that the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is coupled with the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, thereby stimulating the secretion of non-cell-autonomous factors, which may control systemic energy metabolism and longevity. However, the nature and roles of non-cell-autonomous factors induced in adipose tissue in response to reduced OXPHOS function remain to be clarified in mammals. CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) is an essential mitoribosomal protein for the intramitochondrial production of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS subunits...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183999/gain-of-function-%C3%AE-catenin-in-uterine-mesenchyme-leads-to-impaired-implantation-and-decidualization
#9
Amanda Lynn Patterson, Jamieson Pirochta, Stephanie Tufano, Jose Teixeira
Embryo implantation and endometrial decidualization are critical events that occur during early pregnancy in humans and mice, and perturbation in either can result in infertility. WNT signaling through the canonical β-catenin pathway plays a pivotal role in embryonic Müllerian duct development, postnatal uterine maturation, and establishment of pregnancy. Loss of β-catenin in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme (MDM)-derived stroma and myometrium results in impaired decidualization and infertility; whereas gain of function (GOF) results in formation of mesenchymal tumors and sub-fertility attributed to malformed oviducts...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154004/sub-erythemal-ultraviolet-radiation-reduces-metabolic-dysfunction-in-already-overweight-mice
#10
Naomi Fleury, Martin Feelisch, Prue Hart, Richard Weller, Jordan Smoothy, Vance Bruce Matthews, Shelley Gorman
Exposure to sunlight may limit cardiometabolic risk. In our previous studies, regular exposure to sub-erythemal (non-burning) ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reduced signs of adiposity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. Some of the observed effects were dependent on skin release of nitric oxide following UVR exposure. Here, we examine the effects of sub-erythemal UVR on signs of adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in already overweight mice, comparing the effects of two sunlamps with distinct emitted light spectra...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148717/blockage-of-androgen-and-administration-of-estrogen-induce-transdifferentiation-of-testis-into-ovary
#11
Hongjuan Shi, Tian Gao, Zhilong Liu, Lina Sun, Xiaolong Jiang, Lili Chen, Deshou Wang
Induction of sex reversal of XY fish has been restricted to the sex undifferentiated period. In the present study, differentiated XY tilapia were treated with Trilostane (TR), Metopirone (MN) and Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) (inhibitor of 3β-HSD, Cyp11b2 and 11β-HSD respectively) alone, or in combination with 17β-estrodiol (E2) from 30 to 90 dah (days after hatching). At 180 dah, E2 alone resulted in 8.3%, and TR, MN and GA alone resulted in no secondary sex reversal (SSR), while TR+E2, MN+E2 and GA+E2 resulted in 88...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138003/the-effects-of-liraglutide-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity-studied-by-metabolomics
#12
Martina Buganova, Helena Pelantova, Martina Holubova, Blanka Sediva, Lenka Maletinska, Blanka Zelezna, Jaroslav Kunes, Petr Kacer, Marek Kuzma, Martin Haluzik
Liraglutide is the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, it has been demonstrated to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. While the major modes of liraglutide action are well-known, its detailed action at the metabolic level has not been studied. To this end, we explored the effect of 2-week liraglutide treatment in C57BL/6 male mice with obesity and diabetes induced by 13 weeks of high-fat diet using NMR spectroscopy to capture the changes in urine metabolic profile induced by the therapy...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138002/high-fat-feeding-unmasks-variable-insulin-responses-in-male-c57bl-6-mouse-substrains
#13
Rebecca L Hull, Joshua R Willard, Matthias D Struck, Breanne M Barrow, Gurkirat S Brar, Sof Andrikopoulos, Sakeneh Zraika
Mouse models are widely used for elucidating mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. Genetic background profoundly affects metabolic phenotype; therefore selecting the appropriate model is critical. While variability in metabolic responses between mouse strains is now well-recognized, it also occurs within C57BL/6 mice, of which several substrains exist. This within-strain variability is poorly understood, and could emanate from genetic and/or environmental differences. To better define the within-strain variability, we performed the first comprehensive comparison of insulin secretion from C57BL/6 substrains 6J, 6JWehi, 6NJ, 6NHsd, 6NTac and 6NCrl...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130411/tissue-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-is-differentially-regulated-during-illness-in-mice
#14
Anita Boelen, Anne H van der Spek, Flavia F Bloise, Emmely Marije de Vries, Olga V Surovtseva, Hermina C van Beeren, Mariette T Ackermans, Joan Kwakkel, Eric Fliers
Illness induces major modifications in central and peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism, so-called nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). As a result, organ specific changes in local TH availability occur depending on the type and severity of illness. Local TH availability is of importance for the regulation of the tissue specific TH target genes and determined by the interplay between deiodinating enzymes, TH transport and TH receptor (TR) expression. In the present study we evaluated changes in TH transport, deiodination, and TR expression, the resulting tissue TH concentrations and the expression of TH target genes in liver and muscle in three animal models of illness...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130410/mechanisms-for-pacap-induced-prolactin-gene-expression-in-grass-carp-pituitary-cells
#15
Chengyuan Lin, Xue Jiang, Mulan He, Ling Zhao, Tao Huang, Zhaoxiang Bian, Anderson O L Wong
In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic hormone with diverse functions but its role in prolactin (PRL) regulation is highly controversial. To shed light on PRL regulation by PACAP in fish model, grass carp pituitary cells was used as a model to examine the receptor specificity and signal transduction for PACAP modulation of PRL gene expression in the carp pituitary. Using RT-PCR, PACAP-selective PAC-I receptor was detected in carp lactotrophs. In carp pituitary cells, nanomolar doses of PACAP, but not VIP, could elevate PRL secretion and protein production with concurrent rise in PRL mRNA and these stimulatory effects were blocked by PACAP antagonist but not VIP antagonist...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130409/reduced-metabolism-in-the-hypothalamus-of-the-anorectic-anx-anx-mouse
#16
Ulrika Bergström, Charlotte Lindfors, Marie Svedberg, Jeanette E Johansen, Jenny Häggkvist, Martin Schalling, Rolf Wibom, Abram Katz, Ida Ak Nilsson
The anorectic anx/anx mouse exhibits a mitochondrial complex I dysfunction that is related to aberrant expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and transmitters regulating food intake. Hypothalamic activity, i.e. neuronal firing and transmitter release, is dependent on glucose utilization and energy metabolism. To better understand the role of hypothalamic activity in anorexia, we assessed carbohydrate and high energy phosphate metabolism, in vivo and in vitro, in the anx/anx hypothalamus. In the fasted state, hypothalamic glucose uptake in the anx/anx mouse was reduced by ~50% of that seen in wild type (wt) mice (P<0...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130408/hormone-deprivation-alters-mitochondrial-function-and-lipid-profile-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Sandra Zárate, Mariana Astiz, Natalia Magnani, Mercedes Imsen, Florencia Merino, Silvia Álvarez, Analía Reinés, Adriana Seilicovich
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common hallmark in aging. In the female, reproductive senescence is characterized by loss of ovarian hormones, many of whose neuroprotective effects converge upon mitochondria. Mitochondria functional integrity is dependent on membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition, parameters also affected during aging. The effect of long-term ovarian hormone deprivation upon mitochondrial function and its putative association with changes in mitochondrial membrane lipid profile in the hippocampus, an area primarily affected during aging and highly responsive to ovarian hormones, is unknown...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130407/a-putative-role-for-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-in-optimising-ovarian-reserve-expenditure
#18
Michael W Pankhurst
The mammalian ovary has a finite supply of oocytes which are contained within primordial follicles where they are arrested in a dormant state. The number of primordial follicles in the ovary at puberty is highly variable between females of the same species. Females that enter puberty with a small ovarian reserve are at risk of a shorter reproductive lifespan, as their ovarian reserve is expected to be depleted faster. One of the roles of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is to inhibit primordial follicle activation which slows the rate at which the ovarian reserve is depleted...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096436/angiotensin-ii-induces-differential-insulin-action-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#19
Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096433/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-prolactinoma-in-mice-overexpressing-hcg%C3%AE-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-1
#20
Erika Yanil Faraoni, María Andrea Camilletti, Alejandra Inés Abeledo Machado, Laura Daniela Ratner, Fernanda De Fino, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Susana B Rulli, Graciela Diaz-Torga
Female transgenic mice that overexpress the human chorionic gonadotrophin β subunit (hCGβ+) develop prolactinomas, while hCGβ+ males do not. The high levels of circulating hCG induces massive luteinization in the ovary of hCGβ+ females, and progesterone becomes the primary steroid hormone produced, but estradiol remains at physiological level. The involvement of high levels of progesterone in lactotroph proliferation is not clearly understood; hence the pathogenesis of prolactinomas in hCGβ+ females remains unclear...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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