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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720645/influences-of-manganese-on-pubertal-development
#1
W Les Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
The onset of puberty is the result of complex neuroendocrine interactions within hypothalamic region of the brain, as well as from genetic and environmental influences. These interactions ultimately result in the increased synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone (LHRH). Manganese (Mn) is an essential environmental element known for years to be involved in numerous mammalian physiological processes, including growth and reproductive function. Studies in recent years have shown the ability of Mn to cross the blood-brain barrier and act within the hypothalamus to influence the timing of puberty...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716975/metabolic-phenotype-in-the-mouse-model-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#2
Iris Boraschi-Diaz, Josephine T Tauer, Omar El Rifai, Delphine Guillemette, Geneviève Lefebvre, Frank Rauch, Mathieu Ferron, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable bone fragility disorder, usually caused by dominant mutations in genes coding for collagen type I alpha chains, COL1A1 or COL1A2. Osteocalcin is now recognized as a bone-derived regulator of insulin secretion and sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Since OI is associated with increased rates of bone formation and resorption, we hypothesized that the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are increased in OI. The objective of this study was to determine changes in osteocalcin and to elucidate the metabolic phenotype in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse, a model of dominant OI caused by a Col1a1 mutation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710249/amyloid-precursor-protein-in-pancreatic-islets
#3
Joshua Kulas, Kendra Puig, Colin K Combs
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated for its role in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), a plaque forming peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological evidence suggests type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for AD. The pancreas is an essential regulator of blood glucose levels through the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic dysfunction is a well characterized consequence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study we have examined the expression and processing of pancreatic APP to test the hypothesis that APP may play a role in pancreatic function and the pathophysiology of diabetes...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710248/microrna-9-regulates-fetal-alcohol-induced-changes-in-d2-receptor-to-promote-prolactin-production
#4
Omkaram Gangisetty, Shaima Jabbar, Olivia Wynne, Dk K Sarkar
Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) is known to increase prolactin (PRL) secretion from the pituitary lactotropes. In this study we determined whether microRNAs (miRs) are involved in FAE induced alteration in PRL release. We employed a rat animal model of FAE involving feeding pregnant Fisher 344 rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 to 21 (AF). Both cyclic and estradiol implanted FAE females showed increased levels of plasma PRL and pituitary PRL mRNA but reduced levels of pituitary dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and its short spliced form (D2S)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676526/dexamethasone-increases-production-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-the-sheep-brain
#5
Michele O Wilson, Bryony A McNeill, Graham K Barrell, Timothy C R Prickett, Eric A Espiner
Although C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has high abundance in brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the source and possible factors regulating its secretion within the central nervous system (CNS) are unknown. Here we report the dynamic effects of a single IV bolus of dexamethasone or saline solution on plasma, CSF, CNS and pituitary tissue content of CNP products in adult sheep, along with changes in CNP gene expression in selected tissues. Both CNP and NTproCNP (the amino-terminal product of proCNP) in plasma and CSF showed dose responsive increases lasting 12-16 h after dexamethasone whereas other natriuretic peptides were unaffected...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676525/tnfrp55-deficiency-promotes-the-development-of-ectopic-endometriotic-like-lesions-in-mouse
#6
Sandra Silvina Vallcaneras, Federica Ghersa, Juan Ignacio Bastón, María Belén Delsouc, Gabriela Meresman, Marilina Casais
Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease depending on estradiol, with TNF-α being one of the most representative cytokines involved in its pathogenesis. TNF-α acts through its bond to the TNFRp55 and TNFRp75 membrane receptors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the TNFRp55 deficiency on the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions. Endometriosis was induced surgically in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, wild type (WT) and TNFRp55-/- (KO). After four weeks, the peritoneal fluid was collected and the lesions were counted, measured with a caliper, removed, weighed, fixed or kept at -80°C...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676524/in-utero-vitamin-d-deficiency-predisposes-offspring-to-long-term-adverse-adipose-tissue-effects
#7
Anthony Michael Belenchia, Sarah Ashley Johnson, Mark R Ellersieck, Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld, Catherine Ann Peterson
The fetal period represents an important window of susceptibility for later obesity and metabolic disease. Maternal Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy is a global concern that may have long-lasting consequences on offspring metabolic health. We sought to determine whether a VDD in utero environment affects fetal adipose tissue development and offspring metabolic disease predisposition in adulthood. Furthermore, we sought to explore the extent to which the VDD intrauterine environment interacts with genetic background or postnatal environment to influence metabolic health...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676523/macrophage-11%C3%AE-hsd1-deficiency-promotes-inflammatory-angiogenesis
#8
Zhenguang Zhang, Agnes E Coutinho, Janet Tak Yun Man, Tiina M J Kipari, Patrick Hadoke, Donald M Salter, Jonathan R Seckl, Karen Chapman
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1) predominantly converts inert glucocorticoids into active forms, thereby contributing to intracellular glucocorticoid levels. 11β-HSD1 is dynamically regulated during inflammation, including in macrophages where it regulates phagocytic capacity. The resolution of inflammation in some disease models including inflammatory arthritis, is impaired by 11β-HSD1 deficiency or inhibition. However, 11β-HSD1 deficiency/inhibition also promotes angiogenesis, which is beneficial in mouse models of surgical wound healing, myocardial infarction or obesity...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615294/pituitary-stem-cell-regulation-who-is-pulling-the-strings
#9
Benoit Cox, Heleen Roose, Annelies Vennekens, Hugo Vankelecom
The pituitary gland plays a pivotal role in the endocrine system, steering fundamental processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction and coping with stress. The adult pituitary contains resident stem cells which are highly quiescent in homeostatic conditions. However, the cells show marked signs of activation during processes of increased cell remodeling in the gland, including maturation at neonatal age, adaptation to physiological demands, regeneration upon injury, and growth of local tumors. Although functions of pituitary stem cells are slowly but gradually uncovered, their regulation largely remains virgin territory...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611211/metabolic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dapagliflozin-and-liraglutide-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Anthony J Bjourson, Maurice O'Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
This study assessed the metabolic and neuroprotective actions of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in combination with the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide in dietary-induced diabetic mice. Mice administered low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) on a high fat diet received dapagliflozin, liraglutide, dapagliflozin-plus-liraglutide (DAPA-Lira) or vehicle once-daily over 28 days. Energy intake, body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at regular intervals. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, hormone and biochemical analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry, novel object recognition, islet and brain histology were examined...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611210/hb-egf-regulates-prss56-expression-during-mouse-decidualization-via-egfr-erk-egr2-signaling-pathway
#11
JIe Liu, Fei Gao, Yue-Fang Liu, Hai-Ting Dou, Jia-Qi Yan, Zong-Min Fan, Zeng-Ming Yang
Embryo implantation and decidualization are key steps for successful reproduction. Although numerous factors have been identified to be involved in embryo implantation and decidualization, the mechanisms underlying these processes are still unclear. Based on our preliminary data, Prss56, a trypsin-like serine protease, is strongly expressed at implantation site in mouse uterus. However, the expression, regulation and function of Prss56 during early pregnancy are still unknown. In mouse uterus, Prss56 is strongly expressed in the subluminal stromal cells at implantation site on day 5 of pregnancy compared to inter-implantation site...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611209/the-highly-overlapping-actions-of-lh-signaling-and-fsh-signaling-on-zebrafish-spermatogenesis
#12
Yuxin Xie, Lianhe Chu, Yun Liu, Kathy W Y Sham, Jianzhen Li, Christopher H K Cheng
Gonadotropin signaling plays a pivotal role in the spermatogenesis of vertebrates, but how gonadotropins regulate the process in non-mammalian species remains elusive. Using a gene knockout approach in zebrafish, we have previously demonstrated the non-canonical action of gonadotropin signaling on spermatogenesis by analyzing four single mutant lines (lhb, lhr, fshb and fshr) and three double mutant lines (lhb;fshb, lhr;fshr and fshb;lhr). In this study, we further investigated the actions of gonadotropins on the testis by establishing three other double mutant zebrafish lines (lhb;lhr, fshb;fshr and lhb;fshr)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576872/origin-of-a-rapidly-evolving-homeostatic-control-system-programming-testis-function
#13
Pengli Bu, Shintaro Yagi, Kunio Shiota, Sheik Alam, Jay Vivian, Michael W Wolfe, Mohammad Rumi, Damayanti Chakraborty, Kaiyu Kubota, Pramod Dhakal, Michael Soares
Mammals share common strategies for regulating reproduction, including a conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis yet individual species exhibit differences in reproductive performance. In this report, we describe the discovery of a species-restricted homeostatic control system programming testis growth and function. Prl3c1 is a member of the prolactin gene family and its protein product (PLP-J) was discovered as a uterine cytokine contributing to the establishment of pregnancy. We utilized mouse mutagenesis of Prl3c1 and revealed its involvement in the regulation of the male reproductive axis...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576871/steap4-its-emerging-role-in-metabolism-and-homeostasis-of-cellular-iron-and-copper
#14
Rachel T Scarl, C Martin Lawrence, Hannah M Gordon, Craig S Nunemaker
Preserving energy homeostasis in the presence of stressors such as proinflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload is crucial to maintaining normal cellular function. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4 (STEAP4), a metalloreductase involved in iron and copper homeostasis, is thought to play a potentially important role in the cellular response to inflammatory stress. Genome-wide association studies have linked various mutations in STEAP4 with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576870/role-of-mir-383-and-mir-146b-in-different-propensities-to-obesity-in-male-mice
#15
Shu-Fang Xia, Xiao-Mei Duan, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Li-Mei Chen, Yan-Jun Kang, Peng Wang, Xue Tang, Yong-Hui Shi, Guowei Le
The study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of hepatic microRNAs (miRs) in regulating local thyroid hormone (TH) action and ultimately different propensities to high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. When obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) mice were fed high-fat diet for 7 weeks, OP mice showed apparent hepatic steatosis, with significantly higher body weight and lower hepatic thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) expression and type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) activity than OR mice. Next-generation sequencing technology revealed that 13 miRs in liver were dysregulated between the two phenotypes, of which 8 miRs were predicted to target on Dio1 or TRb...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576869/triiodothyroacetic-acid-in-health-and-disease
#16
Stefan Groeneweg, Robin P Peeters, Theo J Visser, W Edward Visser
Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial for development and metabolism of many tissues. The physiological relevance and therapeutic potential of TH analogs have gained attention in the field for many years. In particular, the relevance and use of 3,3',5- triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac, TA3) has been explored over the last decades. Although TA3 closely resembles the bioactive hormone T3, differences in transmembrane transport and receptor isoform-specific transcriptional activation potency exist. For these reasons, the application of TA3 as a treatment for resistance to TH (RTH) syndromes, especially MCT8 deficiency, is topic of ongoing research...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#17
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515141/glucagon-induced-extracellular-camp-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#18
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhenning Zhang, Bing Luan
Hormonal signals help to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver during periods of fasting. Glucagon, a pancreas-derived hormone induced by fasting, promotes gluconeogenesis through induction of intracellular cAMP production. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation but the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Here we reported that following the acute induction of gluconeogenic genes Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression through CREB, glucagon triggers a second delayed phase of fatty acid oxidation genes Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Aox) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) expression via extracellular cAMP...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512117/the-interaction-of-mc3r-and-mc4r-with-mrap2-acth-%C3%AE-msh-and-agrp-in-chickens
#19
Jiannan Zhang, Xin Li, Yawei Zhou, Lin Cui, Jing Li, Chenlei Wu, Yiping Wan, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The interaction of melanocortin-4 (MC4R) and melanocortin-3 (MC3R) receptors with proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides (e.g. α-MSH), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) is suggested to play critical roles in energy balance of vertebrates. However, evidence on their interaction in birds remains scarce. Our study aims to reveal their interaction in chickens and the results showed that: 1) chicken (c-)MC3R and cMC4R expressed in CHO cells can be activated by α-MSH and ACTH1-39 equipotently, monitored by a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system; 2) cMC3R and cMC4R, when co-expressed with cMRAP2 (or cMRAP, a cMRAP2 homolog), show increased sensitivity to ACTH treatment and thus likely act as ACTH-preferring receptors, and the interaction between cMC3R/cMC4R and cMRAP2 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation assay; 3) both cMC3R and cMC4R display constitutive activity when expressed in CHO cells, as monitored by Dual-luciferase reporter assay, and cMRAP2 (and cMRAP) can modulate their constitutive activity; 4) AgRP inhibits the constitutive activity of cMC3R/cMC4R, and it also antagonizes ACTH/α-MSH action on cMC4R/cMC3R, indicating that AgRP functions as the inverse agonist and antagonist for both receptors...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500085/the-most-common-vices-of-men-can-damage-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-next-generation
#20
Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox, Michelle Lane
There is growing evidence from animal and human studies that demonstrate that acquired paternal traits can impair both a male's fertility and the health of his offspring, including advanced age, smoking, stress, trauma, under-nutrition, infection, toxin exposure, and obesity. Curiously, many of these factors manifest as impaired neurological, behavioural, and/or metabolic functioning in offspring. The underlying molecular mechanisms that respond to the paternal environment and act as vectors of intergenerational transmission are beginning to emerge...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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