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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403655/fsh-inhibits-amh-to-support-ovarian-estradiol-synthesis-in-infantile-mice
#1
Marie Devillers, Florence Petit, Victoria Cluzet, Charlotte M François, Frank Giton, Ghislaine Garrel, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji, Celine J Guigon
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian function in cyclic females, notably by preventing premature FSH-mediated follicular growth and steroidogenesis. Its expression in growing follicles is controlled by FSH and by estradiol (E2). In infantile females, there is a transient increase in the activity of the gonadotrope axis, as reflected by elevated levels of both gonadotropins and E2. We previously demonstrated in mice that elevated FSH concentrations are necessary to induce E2 production by preantral/early antral follicles through the stimulation of aromatase expression without supporting their growth...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400036/vincamine-as-a-gpr40-agonist-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#2
Te Du, Liu Yang, Xu Xu, Xiaofan Shi, Xin Xu, Jian Lu, Jianlu Lv, Xi Huang, Jing Chen, Heyao Wang, Ji-Ming Ye, Lihong Hu, Xu Shen
Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid extracted from madagascar periwinkle, is clinically used for the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, while also treated as a dietary supplement with nootropic function. Given the neuronal protection of vincamine and the potency of β-cell amelioration in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we investigated the potential of vincamine in protecting β-cells and ameliorating glucose homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that vincamine could protect INS-832/13 cells function by regulating G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/cAMP/Ca2+/IRS2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, while increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via modulating GPR40/cAMP/Ca2+/CaMKII pathway, which reveals a novel mechanism underlying GPR40-mediated cell protection and GSIS in INS-832/13 cells...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400034/histone-demethylase-lsd1-and-biological-sex-impact-on-blood-pressure-and-aldosterone-production
#3
Yuefei Huang, Pei Yee Ting, Tham M Yao, Tsuyoshi Homma, Danielle Brooks, Isis A Katayama Rangel, Gail K Adler, Jose R Romero, Jonathan S Williams, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams
Human risk allele carriers of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and LSD1 deficient mice have salt sensitive hypertension for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that LSD1 deficiency causes dysregulation of aldosterone's response to salt intake resulting in increased cardiovascular risk factors [blood pressure and microalbumin]. Furthermore, we determined the effect of biological sex on these potential abnormalities. To test our hypotheses, LSD1 male and female heterozygote knockout (LSD1+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were assigned to two age groups: 18 weeks and 36 weeks...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400033/exhaustive-acute-exercise-induced-er-stress-is-attenuated-in-il-6-knockout-mice
#4
Ana Paula Pinto, Alisson Luiz da Rocha, Eike Kohama, Rafael Gaspar, Fernando Simabuco, Fabiani Frantz, Leandro Pereira Moura, Jose Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo Ropelle, Ellen Cristini de Freitas, As da Silva
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation relationship occurs at different levels and is essential for the adequate homeostatic function of cellular systems, becoming harmful when chronically engaged. Intense physical exercise enhances serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). In response to a chronic exhaustive physical exercise protocol, our research group verified an increase of the IL-6 concentration and ER stress proteins in extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and soleus. Based on these results, we hypothesized that IL-6 knockout mice would demonstrate a lower modulation in the ER stress proteins compared to the wild-type mice...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400032/the-er%C3%AE-membrane-pool-modulates-the-proliferation-of-pituitary-tumours
#5
Liliana Del Valle Sosa, Juan Pablo Petiti, Florencia Picech, Sabrina Chumpen, Juan Pablo Nicola, Pablo Anibal Pérez, Ana Lucía De Paul, Javier Valdez Taubas, Silvina Gutiérrez, Alicia I Torres
The molecular mechanisms underlying the ERα nuclear/cytoplasmic pool that modulates pituitary cell proliferation have been widely described, but it is still not clear how ERα is targeted to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to analyse ERα palmitoylation and the plasma membrane ERα (mERα) pool, and their participation in E2-triggered membrane-initiated signalling in normal and pituitary tumour cell growth. Cell cultures were prepared from anterior pituitaries of female Wistar rats and tumour GH3 cells, and treated with 10nM of estradiol (E2)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400031/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-and-ovarian-aging-in-mares
#6
Renata Uliani, Alan J Conley, Cynthia Jo Corbin, Aimê M Friso, Luciana Maciel, Marco Alvarenga
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is used as a marker of follicle population numbers and potential fertility in several species including horses but limited data exist across the lifespan. No one has decreased ovarian reserve experimentally to investigate whether a corresponding, quantitative decrease in AMH results. Concentrations of AMH across the lifespan were compiled from 1101 equine females sampled from birth to >33 years of age. Young and old mares (averaging 6 and 19 years) were hemi-ovariectomized and circulating AMH was assessed before and daily thereafter for 15 days...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400030/chronic-estrogen-affects-tida-neurons-through-il-1%C3%AE-and-no-effects-of-aging
#7
Ebony Gilbreath, LakshmiKripa Jagannathan, Madhan Subramanian, Priya Balasubramanian, Katrina Linning, Sheba MohanKumar, Puliyur MohanKumar
Women are chronically exposed to estrogens through oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy or environmental estrogens. We hypothesized that chronic exposure to low levels of estradiol-17β (E2) can induce inflammatory and degenerative changes in the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system leading to reduced dopamine synthesis and hyperprolactinemia. Young (Y; 3-4 months) and middle-aged (MA; 10-12 months) Sprague-Dawley rats that were intact or ovariectomized (OVX), were either sham-implanted or implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet (20ng E2/day for 90 days)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400058/mif-deficiency-promotes-adiposity-in-fructose-fed-mice
#8
Ljupka Gligorovska, Biljana Bursac, Sanja Kovacevic, Natasa Velickovic, Gordana Matić, Ana Djordjevic
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammation, regulation of energy metabolism and glucocorticoid action. Chronic low-grade inflammation may be caused by fructose intake, contributing to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) dysfunction. Since MIF is a known antagonist of glucocorticoid signaling, and deregulated glucocorticoid signaling can contribute to lipid metabolism disturbances, we hypothesized that altered MIF signaling might underlie fructose-induced adiposity through glucocorticoid action...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400057/baicalin-alleviates-hyperglycemia-induced-endothelial-impairment-1-via-nrf2
#9
Gen Chen, Xiangjuan Chen, Chao Niu, Xiaozhong Huang, Ning An, Jia Sun, Shuai Huang, Weijian Ye, Santie Li, Yingjie Shen, Jiaojiao Liang, Weitao Cong, Litai Jin
Baicalin is the major component found in Scutellaria baicalensis root, a widely used herb in traditional Chinese medicine, which exhibits strong anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities. The present work was devoted to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Baicalin against diabetes-induced oxidative damage, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Diabetic mice, induced by streptozotocin (STZ), were treated with intraperitoneal Baicalin injections...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400056/kisspeptin-and-the-regulation-of-the-reproductive-axis-in-domestic-animals
#10
REVIEW
Christopher J Scott, Jessica L Rose, Allan J Gunn, Briony M McGrath
The control of reproductive processes involves the integration of a number of factors from the internal and external environment, with the final output signal of these processes being the pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. These factors include the feedback actions of sex steroids, feed intake and nutritional status, season/photoperiod, pheromones, age and stress. Understanding these factors and how they influence GnRH secretion and hence reproduction is important for the management of farm animals...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400046/role-of-gper-in-the-anterior-pituitary-gland-focusing-on-lactotroph-function
#11
María Andrea Camilletti, Alejandra Inés Abeledo Machado, Jimena Ferraris, Pablo Aníbal Pérez, Erika Yanil Faraoni, Daniel Pisera, Silvina Gutiérrez, Graciela Diaz-Torga
Ovarian steroids control a variety of physiological functions. They exert actions through classical nuclear steroid receptors, but rapid non-genomic actions through specific membrane steroid receptors have been also described. In this study, we demonstrate that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is expressed in the rat pituitary gland and, at a high level, in the lactotroph population. Our results revealed that ~40% of the anterior pituitary cells are GPER-positive and ~35% of the lactotrophs are GPER-positive...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400045/influence-of-at1-blockers-on-obesity-and-stress-induced-eating-of-cafeteria-diet
#12
Viktorija Gustaityte, Martina Winkler, Ines Stoelting, Walter Raasch
Based on findings that treatment with AT1 receptor blocker (ARB) prevents diet-induced obesity and that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is stimulated by AngII and blocked by ARBs, we aimed to investigate whether ARB treatment can reduce stress-induced eating of cafeteria diet (CD) , thus contributing to alterations in eating behavior. Sprague Dawley rats were fed with chow or CD and treated with telmisartan (TEL, 8mg/kg/d) or vehicle. At weeks 2 and 12, rats were stressed over 5 consecutive days by restraint stress (RS, 4h) and by additional shaking at d5...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400038/androgens-modulate-glucocorticoid-receptor-activity-in-adipose-tissue-and-liver
#13
Dieuwertje C E Spaanderman, Mark Nixon, Jacobus C Buurstede, Hetty Cm Sips, Maaike Schilperoort, Eline N Kuipers, Emma A Backer, Sander Kooijman, Patrick C N Rensen, Natalie Z M Homer, Brian R Walker, Onno C Meijer, Jan Kroon
Glucocorticoid signaling is context-dependent, and in certain scenarios glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are able to engage with other members of the nuclear receptor subfamily. Glucocorticoid signaling can exert sexually dimorphic effects, suggesting a possible interaction with androgen sex hormones. We therefore set out to determine the crosstalk between glucocorticoids and androgens in metabolic tissues including white adipose tissue, liver and brown adipose tissue. Thereto we exposed male C57BL/6J mice to elevated levels of corticosterone in combination with an androgen receptor (AR) agonist or an AR antagonist...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400037/aav8-mediated-gene-transfer-of-microrna-132-improves-beta-cell-function-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#14
Niels L Mulder, Rick Havinga, Joost L Kluiver, Albert K Groen, Janine K Kruit
MicroRNAs have emerged as essential regulators of beta-cell function and beta-cell proliferation. One of these microRNAs, miR-132, is highly induced in several obesity models and increased expression of miR-132 in vitro modulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic benefits of miR-132 overexpression on beta-cell function in vivo. To overexpress miR-132 specifically in beta-cells, we employed adeno-associated virus (AAV8) mediated gene transfer using the rat insulin promoter in a double-stranded, self-complementary AAV vector to overexpress miR-132...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400070/obesity-fertility-and-pregnancy-can-we-intervene-to-improve-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca Reynolds, Adrienne Gordon
Rates of obesity among women of reproductive age have risen dramatically in recent decades. Obesity impacts on health of women across their reproductive lifespan with adverse effects on not only fertility and short term complications of pregnancy, but also on longer term health outcomes for both women and their children. This places considerable burden and cost on health services. Here we review the evidence linking maternal obesity to adverse fertility, pregnancy and longer-term health outcomes for women and their children...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400069/endothelial-cell-mineralocorticoid-receptors-oppose-vegf-induced-gene-expression-and-angiogenesis
#16
Achim Lother, Lisa Deng, Michael Huck, David Fürst, Jessica Kowalski, Jennifer Susanne Esser, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, Lutz Hein
Aldosterone is a key factor in adverse cardiovascular remodeling by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in different cell types. Endothelial MR activation mediates hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis. Cardiovascular remodeling is often accompanied by impaired angiogenesis, which is a risk factor for the development of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the impact of MR in endothelial cells on angiogenesis. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertension was associated with capillary rarefaction in the heart of wildtype mice but not of mice with cell type-specific MR deletion in endothelial cells...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389902/mir-15a-mir-16-1-expression-inversely-correlates-with-cyclin-d1-levels-in-men1-pituitary-nets
#17
Kate E Lines, Paul J Newey, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rebecca Dyar, Gerard V Walls, Mike R Bowl, Rajesh V Thakker
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the combined occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary and pancreatic islet tumours, and is due to mutations of the MEN1 gene, which encodes the tumour suppressor protein menin. Menin has multiple roles in genome stability, transcription, cell division and proliferation, but its mechanistic roles in tumourigenesis remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are non-coding single stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and have been associated with tumour development, although the contribution of miRNAs to MEN1-associated tumourigenesis and their relationship with menin expression are not fully understood...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389900/microrna-93-mediates-cabergoline-resistance-by-targeting-atg7-in-prolactinoma
#18
Zerui Wu, Lin Cai, Jianglong Lu, Cheng De Wang, Jiaqing Guan, Xianbin Chen, Jinsen Wu, Weiming Zheng, Zhebao Wu, Qun Li, Zhipeng Su
To date, the management of dopamine agonist (DA)-resistant prolactinomas remains a major clinical problem. Previously, we determined that miRNA-93 expression increases in DA-resistant prolactinomas; however, the role of miRNA-93 in the DA resistance remains largely unexplored. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of tumor cells to cabergoline (CAB) and the autophagy changes in MMQ and GH3 cells after miRNA-93 overexpression or inhibition. We used bioinformatics to identify the potential target of miRNA-93...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143557/iugr-impairs-cardiomyocyte-growth-and-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#19
Sonnet S Jonker, Daniel Kamna, Dan Loturco, Jenai Kailey, Laura D Brown
Placental insufficiency causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a common complication of pregnancy. In skeletal muscle, IUGR reduces fetal myofibril size, reduces myoblast proliferation, and reduces expression of genes in cell cycle regulation clusters. The myocardium is striated like skeletal muscle, and IUGR also reduces cell cycle activity and maturation in cardiomyocytes, despite cardiac output preferentially directed to the coronary circulation. We hypothesized that cardiomyocyte growth restriction would be accompanied by similar changes in cell cycle regulation genes, and would reduce cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, number, maturity and size...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139929/changes-in-insulin-glucagon-and-er-stress-precede-immune-activation-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Jennifer A Crookshank, Daniel Serrano, Gen-Sheng Wang, Christopher Patrick, Baylie S Morgan, Marie-France Pare, Fraser W Scott
It is unknown whether there is a gene signature in pancreas which is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We performed partial pancreatectomies on 30 day preinsulitic, diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats to prospectively identify factors involved in early prediabetes. Microarrays of the biopsies revealed downregulation of ER stress, metabolism and apoptosis. Based on these results, additional investigations compared gene expression in control (BBc) and BBdp rats age ~8, 30 and 60 days using RT-qPCR. Neonates had increased ER stress gene expression in pancreas...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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