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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006340/hypothalamic-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-gene-delivery-reduces-fat-mass-in-male-mice
#1
Kim Eerola, Siru Virtanen, Laura Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Minying Cai, Victor Hruby, Mikko Savontaus, Eriika Savontaus
γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long-term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R-agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967051/mir-876-3p-regulates-glucose-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-targeting-adiponectin
#2
Sujith Rajan, Ganesh Panzade, Ankita Srivastava, Kripa Shankar, Rajesh Pandey, Durgesh Kumar, Sanchita Gupta, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Muheeb Beg, Raj Kumar Mishra, Ravi Shankar, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
miRNA have been known to regulate diverse cellular and molecular functions. In the earlier study, we have reported that adipocytes differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on 72hr chronic insulin (CI) treatment exhibit insulin resistance (IR). Present study has further explored above model to investigate the role of early expressed miRNAs within human adipocytes to modulate differential adipokine expression as observed during IR. Our results highlight that miR-876-3p regulate glucose homeostasis and its dysregulation lead to IR...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967050/kisspeptin-and-the-control-of-emotions-mood-and-reproductive-behaviour
#3
Edouard Ga Mills, Waljit Singh Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos
Reproduction is fundamental for the survival of all species and requires meticulous synchronisation of a diverse complement of neural, endocrine and related behaviours. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene), is now a well-established orchestrator of reproductive hormones, acting upstream of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Beyond the hypothalamus, kisspeptin is also expressed in limbic and paralimbic brain regions, which are areas of the neurobiological network implicated in sexual and emotional behaviours...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941503/igf3-activates-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-to-stimulate-spermatogonial-differentiation-in-zebrafish
#4
Diego Safian, Jan Bogerd, Rüdiger Schulz
Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) is a major regulator of spermatogenesis, targeting somatic cell functions in the testes. We reported previously that zebrafish Fsh promoted the differentiation of type A undifferentiated spermatogonia (Aund) by stimulating the production of factors that advance germ cell differentiation, such as androgens, insulin-like peptide 3 (Insl3) and insulin-like growth factor 3 (Igf3). In addition, Fsh also modulated the transcript levels of several other genes, including some belonging to the Wnt signaling pathway...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941502/sodium-butyrate-supplementation-ameliorates-diabetic-inflammation-in-db-db-mice
#5
Youhua Xu, Chenlin Gao, Hengli Guo, Wenqian Zhang, Wei Huang, Shanshan Tang, Wenjun Gan, Yong Xu, Hua Zhou, Quan Zhu
Endotoxemia has been recognized to be closely accompanied with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is responsible for many diabetic complications. Recent study suggests the potential role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from microbiota metabolite, on T2DM. Gut-leak is a key event in diabetic-endotoxemia. To investigate if butyrate could ameliorate diabetic-endotoxemia, both in vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out in the present study. The effect of butyrate supplementation on blood HbA1c and inflammatory cytokines were determined in db/db mice; gut barrier integrity and expression of tight junction proteins were investigated both in vivo and in vitro...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929987/sex-specific-changes-in-postnatal-gh-and-prl-secretion-in-somatotrope-lepr-null-mice
#6
Melody Allensworth-James, Angela Odle, Anessa Haney, Melanie MacNicol, Angus MacNicol, Gwen V Childs
The developing pituitary is a rapidly changing environment that is constantly meeting the physiological demands of the growing organism. During early postnatal development, the anterior pituitary is refining patterns of anterior hormone secretion in response to numerous genetic factors. Our lab previously developed a somatotrope leptin receptor (LEPR) deletion mouse model that had decreased lean body mass, disrupted metabolism, decreased GH stores and was GH deficient as an adult. To understand how deletion of LEPR in somatotropes altered GH, we turned our attention to postnatal development...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914933/cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-2-regulates-bone-mass-and-prevents-diabetic-bone-loss
#7
Ghania Ramdani, Nadine Schall, Hema Kalyanaraman, Nisreen Wahwah, Sahar Moheize, Jenna J Lee, Robert L Sah, Alexander Pfeifer, Darren E Casteel, Renate B Pilz
NO/cGMP signaling is important for bone remodeling in response to mechanical and hormonal stimuli, but the downstream mediator(s) regulating skeletal homeostasis are incompletely defined. We generated transgenic mice expressing a partly-activated, mutant cGMP-dependent protein kinase type 2 (PKG2R242Q ) under control of the osteoblast-specific Col1a1 promoter to characterize the role of PKG2 in post-natal bone formation. Primary osteoblasts from these mice showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in basal and total PKG2 activity; they proliferated faster and were resistant to apoptosis compared to cells from wild type mice...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914932/mtor-signaling-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-mediates-the-anorectic-action-of-estradiol
#8
Ismael González-García, Pablo Blanco, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, Miguel López
Current evidence suggests that estradiol (E2), the main ovarian steroid, modulates energy balance by regulating both feeding and energy expenditure at the central level, through the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that the hypothalamic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a well-established nutrient sensor and modulator of appetite and puberty, could also mediate the anorectic effect of E2. Our data showed that, ovariectomy (OVX) elicited a marked downregulation of the mTOR signaling in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an effect that was reversed by either E2 replacement or central estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonism...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895718/impact-of-prematurity-for-pancreatic-islet-and-beta-cell-development
#9
Frank H Bloomfield
As increasing numbers of babies born preterm survive into adulthood, it is becoming clear that, in addition to the well-described risks of neurodevelopmental sequelae, there also are increased risks for non-communicable diseases, including diabetes. Epidemiological studies indicate that risks are increased even for birth at late preterm and early term gestations and for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, factors related to preterm birth likely affect development of the fetal and neonatal beta-cell in addition to effects on peripheral insulin sensitivity...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895717/diet-induced-thermogenesis-fake-friend-or-foe
#10
Ken Ho
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is energy dissipated as heat after a meal, contributing 5-15% to total daily EE. There has been a long interest in the intriguing possibility that a defect in DIT predisposes to obesity. However the evidence is conflicting, DIT is usually quantified by indirect calorimetry which does not measure heat. Using gas exchange, indirect calorimetry measures total post-prandial EE which comprises heat energy produced from brown adipose tissue (BAT) and energy required for processing and storing nutrients...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875164/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-obesity-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#11
Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat
Obesity is a multifaceted, chronic, low-grade inflammation disease characterized by excess accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue. It is often associated with the development of cardiovascular disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes. Under pathological conditions like in obesity, adipose tissue secretes bioactive molecules called "adipokines", including cytokines, hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is evidence suggesting that oxidative stress, in particular the ROS imbalance in adipose tissue, may be the mechanistic link between obesity and its associated cardiovascular and metabolic complications...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875163/biochemical-and-clinical-aspects-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#12
Sara Sadeghi Ellingwood, Alan Cheng
The synthesis of glycogen represents a key pathway for the disposal of excess glucose while its degradation is crucial for providing energy during exercise and times of need. The importance of glycogen metabolism is also highlighted by human genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in the enzymes involved. In this review, we provide a basic summary on glycogen metabolism and some of the clinical aspects of the classical Glycogen Storage Diseases. Disruptions in glycogen metabolism usually result in some level of dysfunction in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney and/or brain...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875162/sfe-european-medal-corticosteroids-and-the-brain
#13
Marian Joëls
The brain is continuously exposed to varying levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones such as corticosterone in rodents and cortisol in humans. Natural fluctuations occur due to ultradian and circadian variation or are caused by exposure to stressful situations. Brain cells express two types of corticosteroid receptors, i.e. mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, which differ in distribution and affinity. These receptors can mediate both rapid non-genomic and slow gene-mediated neuronal actions. As a consequence of these factors, natural (e...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794231/stk25-regulates-oxidative-capacity-and-metabolic-efficiency-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Silva Sütt, Emelie Cansby, Alexandra Paul, Manoj Amrutkar, Esther Nunez Duran, Nagaraj M Kulkarni, Marcus Ståhlman, Jan Borén, Jurga Laurencikiene, Brian W Howell, Sven Enerbäck, Margit Mahlapuu
Whole-body energy homoeostasis at over-nutrition critically depends on how well adipose tissue remodels in response to excess calories. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase (STK)25 as a critical regulator of ectopic lipid storage in non-adipose tissue and systemic insulin resistance in the context of nutritional stress. Here, we investigated the role of STK25 in regulation of adipose tissue dysfunction in mice challenged with a high-fat diet. We found that overexpression of STK25 in high-fat-fed mice resulted in impaired mitochondrial function and aggravated hypertrophy, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis in adipose depots...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743343/multiple-effects-of-cold-exposure-on-livers-of-male-mice
#15
Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith Ch Friesema, Axel Pn Themmen, Jenny A Visser
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete triglycerides (TGs) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743342/the-role-of-obesity-and-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Patrik Šimják, Anna Cinkajzlová, Kateřina Anderlová, Antonín Pařízek, Milos Mraz, Michal Kršek, Martin Haluzik
Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in patients with no history of diabetes prior to gestation. It is the most common complication of pregnancy. The underlying pathophysiology shares some common features with type 2 diabetes mellitus combining relatively insufficient insulin secretion with increased peripheral insulin resistance. While a certain degree of insulin resistance is the physiological characteristics of the second half of pregnancy, it is significantly more pronounced in patients with gestational diabetes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012715/transcriptional-activity-of-oestrogen-receptors-in-the-course-of-embryo-development
#17
Sara Della Torre, Gianpaolo Rando, Clara Meda, Paolo Ciana, Luisa Ottobrini, Adriana Maggi
Oestrogens are well-known proliferation and differentiation factors that play an essential role in the correct development of sex-related organs and behaviour in mammals. With the use of the ERE-Luc reporter mouse model, we show herein that throughout mouse development, oestrogen receptors (ERs) are active starting from day 12 post conception. Most interestingly, we show that prenatal luciferase expression in each organ is proportionally different in relation to the germ layer of the origin. The luciferase content is highest in ectoderm-derived organs (such as brain and skin) and is lowest in endoderm-derived organs (such as liver, lung, thymus and intestine)...
September 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945982/int-767-prevents-nash-and-promotes-visceral-fat-brown-adipogenesis-and-mitochondrial-function
#18
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
The bile acid receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), regulate multiple pathways, including glucose and lipid metabolism. In a rabbit model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, long-term treatment with the dual FXR/TGR5 agonist INT-767 reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. INT-767 significantly improves the hallmarks of insulin resistance in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and induces mitochondrial and brown fat-specific markers...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929986/the-delayed-effects-of-antibiotics-in-type-2-diabetes-friend-or-foe
#19
Lihong Fu, Yixuan Qiu, Linyan Shen, Canqi Cui, Shuang Wang, Shujie Wang, Yun Xie, Xinjie Zhao, Xianfu Gao, Guang Ning, Aifang Nie, Yanyun Gu
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that the delayed effect of antibiotics (abx) on gut microbiota after its cessation is not as favorable as its immediate effect on host metabolism. However, it is not known how the diverse abx-dependent metabolic effects influence diabetic subjects and how gut microbiota is involved. Here, we treated db/db mice with abx cocktail for 12 days and discontinued for 24 days. We found that db/db mice showed decreased body weight and blood glucose after abx treatment, which rapidly caught up after abx cessation...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875165/critical-role-for-the-tsc1-mtorc1-pathway-in-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-pdx1-deficient-mice
#20
Juan Sun, Liqun Mao, Hongyan Yang, Decheng Ren
Mutations in the pancreatic duodenal homeobox ( PDX1 ) gene are associated with diabetes in humans. Pdx1 -haploinsufficient mice also develop diabetes, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. To this end, we knocked down Pdx1 gene expression in mouse MIN6 insulinoma cells. Pdx1 suppression not only increased apoptotic cell death but also decreased cell proliferation, which was associated with a decrease in activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We found that in Pdx1 -deficient mice, tuberous sclerosis 1 ( Tsc1 ) ablation in pancreatic β-cells restores β-cell mass, increases β-cell proliferation and size, decreases the number of TUNEL-positive cells and restores glucose tolerance after glucose challenge...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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