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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899903/socs3-expression-in-sf1-cells-regulates-adrenal-differentiation-and-exercise-performance
#1
João Ab Pedroso, Pedro Omori Ribeiro de Mendonça, Marco As Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi, Jose Donato
Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870888/cell-secreted-vesicles-containing-micrornas-as-regulators-of-gamete-maturation
#2
Juliano C da Silveira, Ana Clara F C M de Avila, Hannah L Garrett, Jason Bruemmer, Quinton Winger, Gerrit Bouma
Mammalian gamete maturation requires extensive signaling between germ cells and their surrounding somatic cells. In the ovary, theca cells, mural granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocyte all secrete factors throughout follicle growth and maturation that are critical for ovulation of a high quality oocyte with the competence to develop into an embryo. Similarly, maturation of sperm occurs as it transits the epididymis during which epididymal epithelium and sperm exchange secretory factors that are required for sperm to gain motility and fertility...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870887/appetite-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-responses-to-intense-aerobic-exercise-of-different-duration
#3
Adrian Holliday, Andrew K Blannin
This study investigated the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age=21±2 years; BMI=21.0±1.6 kg•m-2; VO2max=61.6±6.0 mL• kg-1• min-1) completed four trials, within a maximum 28-day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15-minutes exercise bout (15-MIN); 30-minute exercise bout (30-MIN) and 45-minute exercise bout (45-MIN)...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855317/novel-skeletal-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#4
Guillaume Mabilleau, Marie Pereira, Chantal Chenu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to bone fragility and predisposes to increased risk of fracture, poor bone healing and other skeletal complications. In addition, some anti-diabetic therapies for T2DM can have notable detrimental skeletal effects. Thus an appropriate therapeutic strategy for T2DM should not only be effective in re-establishing good glycaemic control but also in minimising skeletal complications. There is increasing evidence that Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists, now greatly prescribed for the treatment of T2DM, have beneficial skeletal effects although the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855316/stem-progenitor-cells-in-pituitary-organ-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#5
Scott Haston, Saba Manshaei, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855315/eplerenone-prevented-obesity-induced-inflammasome-activation-and-glucose-intolerance
#6
Tsutomu Wada, Akari Ishikawa, Eri Watanabe, Yuto Nakamura, Yusuke Aruga, Hayate Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Onogi, Hiroe Honda, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Daisuke Koya, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Obesity-associated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance; however, influences of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibition remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of MR inhibition using eplerenone, a selective MR antagonist, in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Eplerenone prevented excessive body weight gain and fat accumulation, ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and enhanced energy metabolism...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851750/food-in-synchrony-with-melatonin-and-corticosterone-relieves-constant-light-disturbed-metabolism
#7
Adrian Báez-Ruiz, Natali Guerrero-Vargas, Fernando Cázarez Márquez, Elizabeth Sabath, Maria Basualdo, Roberto Salgado, Carolina Escobar, Ruud Buijs
Circadian disruption is associated with metabolic disturbances such as hepatic-steatosis (HS), obesity and type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that HS, resulting from constant-light (LL) exposure is due to an inconsistency between signals related to food intake and endocrine driven suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) outputs. Indeed exposing rats to LL induced locomotor, food intake and hormone arrhythmicity together with development of HS. We investigated whether providing temporal signals such as 12-hour food availability or driving a corticosterone plus melatonin rhythm could restore rhythmicity and prevent the metabolic disturbances under LL conditions in male rats...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851749/the-thermogenic-effect-of-nesfatin-1-requires-recruitment-of-the-melanocortin-system
#8
Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Sogol Gachkar, Olaf Jöhren, Jens Mittag, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
Nesfatin-1 is a bioactive polypeptide expressed both in the brain and peripheral tissues and involved in the control of energy balance by reducing food intake. Central administration of nesfatin-1 significantly increases energy expenditure, as demonstrated by a higher dry heat loss; yet, the mechanisms underlying the thermogenic effect of central nesfatin-1 remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to investigate whether the increase in energy expenditure induced by nesfatin-1 is mediated by the central melanocortin pathway, which was previously reported to mediate central nesfatin-1´s effects on feeding and numerous other physiological functions...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835453/aip-and-the-somatostatin-system-in-pituitary-tumours
#9
Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Marta Korbonits
Classic somatostatin analogues aimed at somatostatin receptor type 2, such as octreotide and lanreotide, represent the first-line treatment for acromegaly, which normally decrease hormone secretion and reduce tumour size; nevertheless, patients with a germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene, AIP, develop young-onset acromegaly, poorly responsive to pharmacological therapy. In this review, we summarise the most recent studies on AIP-related pituitary adenomas, paying special attention to: the causes of the resistance to treatment in acromegaly; the somatostatin receptor profile in the somatotrophinoma, especially type 2, and type 5 and its truncated variants; the role of G proteins in this pathology; the use of pasireotide, a novel multi-ligand somatostatin analogues; and the role of ZAC1, a zinc-finger protein which, among other functions, acts as a key mediator in octreotide response in somatotrophinoma models and, interestingly, its expression is linked to AIP...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814440/mechanical-hormonal-and-metabolic-influences-on-blood-vessels-blood-flow-and-bone
#10
Rhonda D Prisby
Bone tissue is highly vascularized due to the various roles bone blood vessels play in bone and bone marrow function. For example, the vascular system is critical for bone development, maintenance and repair, and provides O2, nutrients, waste elimination, systemic hormones, and precursor cells for bone remodeling. Further, bone blood vessels serve as egress and ingress routes for blood and immune cells to and from the bone marrow. It is becoming increasingly clear that the vascular and skeletal systems are intimately linked in metabolic regulation and physiological and pathological processes...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808080/characterization-of-the-human-thyroid-epigenome
#11
Celia Siu, Sam Michael Wiseman, Sitanshu Gakkhar, Alireza Heravi-Moussavi, Misha Bilenky, Annaick Carles, Thomas Sierocinski, Angela Tam, Eric Yang Zhao, Katayoon Kasaian, Richard A Moore, Andrew J Mungall, Blair Walker, Thomas Thomson, Marco A Marra, Martin Hirst, Steven Jones
The thyroid gland, necessary for normal human growth and development, functions as an essential regulator of metabolism by the production and secretion of appropriate levels of thyroid hormone. However, assessment of abnormal thyroid function may be challenging suggesting a more fundamental understanding of normal function is needed. One way to characterize normal gland function is to study the epigenome and resulting transcriptome within its constituent cells. This study generates the first published reference epigenomes for human thyroid from four individuals using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794003/antenatal-early-postnatal-hypothyroidism-alters-arterial-tone-regulation-in-2-week-old-rats
#12
Svetlana I Sofronova, Dina K Gaynullina, Anastasia A Shvetsova, Anna A Borzykh, Ekaterina K Selivanova, Anna P Sharova, Andrey A Martyanov, Olga S Tarasova
The mechanisms of vascular alterations resulting from early thyroid hormones deficiency are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism would alter the activity of endothelial NO-pathway and Rho-kinase pathway, which are specific for developing vasculature. Dams were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU, 7 ppm) in drinking water during gestation and 2 weeks after delivery, their progeny had normal body weight but markedly reduced blood levels of thyroid hormones (ELISA)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778866/lack-of-nod2-attenuates-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-via-inhibition-of-osteoclasts
#13
K Ke, Oj Sul, Sw Chung, Jh Suh, H-S Choi
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. It interacts with serine-threonine kinases to induce activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which is important for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) signaling. We tested the idea that NOD2 modulates bone metabolism via an action on osteoclasts (OCs). The absence of NOD2 reduced ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice, and lowered the area and the activity of OCs, by impairing RANKL signaling...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716975/metabolic-phenotype-in-the-mouse-model-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#14
Iris Boraschi-Diaz, Josephine T Tauer, Omar El Rifai, Delphine Guillemette, Geneviève Lefebvre, Frank Rauch, Mathieu Ferron, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable bone fragility disorder, usually caused by dominant mutations in genes coding for collagen type I alpha chains, COL1A1 or COL1A2. Osteocalcin is now recognized as a bone-derived regulator of insulin secretion and sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Since OI is associated with increased rates of bone formation and resorption, we hypothesized that the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are increased in OI. The objective of this study was to determine changes in osteocalcin and to elucidate the metabolic phenotype in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse, a model of dominant OI caused by a Col1a1 mutation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676525/tnfrp55-deficiency-promotes-the-development-of-ectopic-endometriotic-like-lesions-in-mouse
#15
Sandra Silvina Vallcaneras, Federica Ghersa, Juan Ignacio Bastón, María Belén Delsouc, Gabriela Meresman, Marilina Casais
Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease depending on estradiol, with TNF-α being one of the most representative cytokines involved in its pathogenesis. TNF-α acts through its bond to the TNFRp55 and TNFRp75 membrane receptors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the TNFRp55 deficiency on the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions. Endometriosis was induced surgically in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, wild type (WT) and TNFRp55-/- (KO). After four weeks, the peritoneal fluid was collected and the lesions were counted, measured with a caliper, removed, weighed, fixed or kept at -80°C...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676524/in-utero-vitamin-d-deficiency-predisposes-offspring-to-long-term-adverse-adipose-tissue-effects
#16
Anthony Michael Belenchia, Sarah Ashley Johnson, Mark R Ellersieck, Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld, Catherine Ann Peterson
The fetal period represents an important window of susceptibility for later obesity and metabolic disease. Maternal Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy is a global concern that may have long-lasting consequences on offspring metabolic health. We sought to determine whether a VDD in utero environment affects fetal adipose tissue development and offspring metabolic disease predisposition in adulthood. Furthermore, we sought to explore the extent to which the VDD intrauterine environment interacts with genetic background or postnatal environment to influence metabolic health...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870994/conditional-deletion-of-ell2-induces-murine-prostate-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#17
Laura E Pascal, Khalid Z Masoodi, June Liu, Xiaonan Qiu, Qiong Song, Yujuan Wang, Yachen Zang, Tiejun Yang, Yao Wang, Lora H Rigatti, Uma Chandran, Leandro M Colli, Ricardo Z N Vencio, Yi Lu, Jian Zhang, Zhou Wang
Elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2 (ELL2) is an RNA Pol II elongation factor with functional properties similar to ELL that can interact with the prostate tumor suppressor EAF2. In the prostate, ELL2 is an androgen response gene that is upregulated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We recently showed that ELL2 loss could enhance prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration, and that ELL2 gene expression was downregulated in high Gleason score prostate cancer specimens. Here, prostate-specific deletion of ELL2 in a mouse model revealed a potential role for ELL2 as a prostate tumor suppressor in vivoEll2-knockout mice exhibited prostatic defects including increased epithelial proliferation, vascularity and PIN lesions similar to the previously determined prostate phenotype in Eaf2-knockout mice...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838947/key-signaling-pathways-in-thyroid-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Miguel A Zaballos, Pilar Santisteban
Whole genome sequencing approaches have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic lesions responsible for the onset, progression and dedifferentiation of various types of thyroid carcinomas. Through these efforts, the MAPK and PI3K signaling cascades have emerged as the main activation pathways implicated in thyroid tumorigenesis. The nature of these essential pathways is highly complex, with hundreds of components, multiple points of crosstalk, different subcellular localizations and with the ability to potentially regulate many cellular processes...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808079/the-impact-of-iugr-on-pancreatic-islet-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#19
REVIEW
Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765264/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-training-in-adipose-tissue-do-not-require-fgf21
#20
Jay W Porter, Joe L Rowles, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity; it also improves adipocyte metabolism and reduces adipose tissue inflammation through poorly defined mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein whose insulin-sensitizing properties are predominantly mediated via receptor signaling in adipose tissue (AT). Recently, FGF21 has also been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, an association between exercise and increased circulating FGF21 levels has been reported in some, but not all studies...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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