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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927697/absence-of-11-keto-reduction-of-cortisone-and-11-ketotestosterone-in-the-model-organism-zebrafish
#1
Maria Tsachaki, Arne Meyer, Benjamin Weger, Denise V Kratschmar, Janina Tokarz, Jerzy Adamski, Heinz-Georg Belting, Markus Affolter, Thomas Dickmeis, Alex Odermatt
Zebrafish are widely used as model organism. Their suitability for endocrine studies, drug screening and toxicity assessements depends on the extent of conservation of specific genes and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and human. Glucocorticoids consist of inactive 11-keto (cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone) and active 11β-hydroxyl forms (cortisol, corticosterone). In mammals, two 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2) interconvert active and inactive glucocorticoids, allowing tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927696/gene-expression-signature-a-powerful-approach-for-drug-discovery-in-diabetes
#2
Smithamol Sithara, Tamsyn Crowley, Ken Walder, Kathryn Aston-Mourney
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in prevalence at an alarming rate around the world. Much effort has gone into the discovery and design of anti-diabetic drugs, however those already available are unable to combat the underlying causes of the disease and instead only moderate the symptoms. The reason for this is that T2D is a complex disease and attempts to target one biological pathway are insufficient to combat the full extent of the disease. Additionally, the underlying pathophysiology of this disease is yet to be fully elucidated making it difficult to design drugs that target the mechanisms involved...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913573/thyroid-hormones-induce-browning-of-white-fat
#3
Noelia Martinez, José María Moreno-Navarrete, Cristina Contreras, Eva Rial-Pensado, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, José M Fernández-Real, Miguel López
The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might be also an important thermogenic mechanism...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913572/very-low-density-lipoprotein-vldl-induced-signals-mediating-aldosterone-production
#4
Ying-Ying Tsai, William E Rainey, Wendy B Bollag
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure, and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke, and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which s correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#5
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#6
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) report. National Institute of Health documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States . Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The impact of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888197/islet-adaptations-in-fetal-sheep-persist-following-chronic-exposure-to-high-norepinephrine
#7
Xiaochuan Chen, Amy C Kelly, Dustin T Yates, Antoni R Macko, Ronald M Lynch, Sean W Limesand
Complications in pregnancy elevate fetal norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Previous studies in NE-infused sheep fetuses revealed that sustained exposure to high NE resulted in lower expression of α2-adrenergic receptors in islets and increased insulin secretion responsiveness after acutely terminating the NE infusion. In this study, we determined if the compensatory increase in insulin secretion following chronic elevation of NE is independent of hyperglycemia in sheep fetuses and whether it is persistent in conjunction with islet desensitization to NE...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885055/17b-estradiol-improves-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-through-pgc1b
#8
Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Antonia Nadal-Casellas, Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Francisco José García-Palmer, Am Proenza, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Llado
Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described in many rat tissues, with females showing larger and more functional mitochondria. The family of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) plays a central role in the regulatory network governing mitochondrial biogenesis and function, but little is known about the different contribution of hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B in these processes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 17b-estradiol (E2) in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in liver and assess the contribution of both hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B as mediators of these effects...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885054/impact-of-uteroplacental-insufficiency-on-postnatal-rat-male-gonad
#9
Valentina Pampanini, Daniela Germani, Antonella Puglianiello, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Ahmed Reda, Iuliia Savchuk, Kristin Ros Kjartansdóttir, Stefano Cianfarani, Olle Soder
BACKGROUND: Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction can affect gonadal development of the offspring and have an impact on reproductive health. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of intrauterine growth restricted induced by uterine artery ligation on the postnatal rat testis. METHODS: Pregnant rats underwent uterine artery ligation at day 19 of gestation. Offspring were sacrificed at 5, 20 and 40 days post-partum (dpp). At sacrifice, one gonad was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and processed for RNA and steroid extraction...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885053/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-deficiency-alters-the-gut-microbiome-response-to-western-diet
#10
Jethro S Johnson, Monica N Opiyo, Marian Thomson, Karim Gharbi, Jonathan R Seckl, Andreas Heger, Karen Chapman
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high fat diet. However, the influence of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol and fat-enriched 'western' diet...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879339/mct8-deficiency-in-purkinje-cells-disrupts-embryonic-chicken-cerebellar-development
#11
Joke Delbaere, Pieter Vancamp, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Mary J Green, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
Inactivating mutations in the human SLC16A2 gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) result in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome accompanied by severe locomotor deficits. The underlying mechanisms of the associated cerebellar maldevelopment were studied using the chicken as a model. Electroporation of an MCT8-RNAi vector into the cerebellar anlage of a 3-day-old embryo allowed knockdown of MCT8 in Purkinje cell precursors. This resulted in downregulation of the thyroid hormone responsive gene RORα and the Purkinje cell specific differentiation marker LHX1/5 at day 6...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872197/plasma-exosomes-are-enriched-in-hsp70-and-modulated-by-stress-and-cortisol-in-rainbow-trout
#12
Erin Faught, Lynsi Henrickson, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Exosomes are endosomally-derived vesicles that are secreted from cells and contain a suite of molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids. Recent studies suggest the possibility that exosomes in circulation may be affecting recipient target cell function, but the modes of action are unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exosomes are in circulation in fish plasma and that these vesicles are enriched with heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Exosomes were isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plasma using differential centrifugation and their presence confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and the exosomal marker acetylcholinesterase...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821469/removal-of-mouse-ovary-fat-pad-affects-sex-hormones-folliculogenesis-and-fertility
#13
Hong-Hui Wang, Qian Cui, Teng Zhang, Lei Guo, Ming-Zhe Dong, Yi Hou, Zhen-Bo Wang, Wei Shen, Jun-Yu Ma, Qing-Yuan Sun
As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue distributes widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In human, both underweight and overweight women are hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799464/muscle-injury-and-impaired-function-and-insulin-resistance-in-chromogranin-a-knockout-mice
#14
Kechun Tang, Teresa Pasqua, Angshuman Biswas, Sumana Mahata, Jennifer Tang, Alisa Tang, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Amiya Sinha-Hikim, Nai-Wen Chi, Nick Webster, Angelo Corti, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is widely expressed in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues as well as in the central nervous system. We observed CgA expression (mRNA and protein) in the gastrocnemius (GAS) muscle and found that performance of CgA-deficient Chga-KO mice in treadmill exercise was impaired. Supplementation with CgA in Chga-KO mice restored exercise ability suggesting a novel role for endogenous CgA in skeletal muscle function. Chga-KO mice display (i) lack of exercise-induced stimulation of pAKT, pTBC1D1 and phospho-p38 kinase signaling, (ii) loss of GAS muscle mass, (iii) extensive formation of tubular aggregates (TA), (iv) disorganized cristae architecture in mitochondria, (v) increased expression of the inflammatory cytokines Tnfα, Il6 and Ifnɣ, and fibrosis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799463/estrogen-receptors-and-esterol-dependent-neuroprotective-actions-a-pilot-study
#15
Ekaterine Tskitishvili, Christel Pequeux, Carine Munaut, Renaud Viellevoye, Michelle Nisolle, Agnes Noel, Jean-Michel Foidart
Estetrol (E4) has strong antioxidative, neuro- and angiogenic effects in neural system resulting in attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We aimed to define the role of estrogen receptors in E4-dependent actions in neuronal cell cultures and prove the promyelinating effect of E4. In vitro the antioxidative and cell survival/proliferating effects of E4 on H202-induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell cultures were studied by using different combinations of specific inhibitors for ERα (MPP dihydrochloride), ERβ (PHTTP), GPR30 (G15) and palmytoilation (2-BR)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754933/prenatal-corticosterone-programs-sex-specific-adrenal-adaptations-in-mouse-offspring
#16
James Sm Cuffe, Eleanor L Turton, Lisa K Akison, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress can impair fetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33µg/kg/h for 60h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting altered adrenal function may precede disease...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754932/nesfatin-1-functions-and-physiology-of-a-novel-regulatory-peptide
#17
Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
Nesfatin-1 was identified in 2006 as a potent anorexigenic peptide involved in the regulation of homeostatic feeding. It is processed from the precursor-peptide NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) which is expressed both in the central nervous system as well as in the periphery, from where it can access the brain via non-saturable transmembrane diffusion. In hypothalamus and brainstem, nesfatin-1 recruits the oxytocin-, the melancortin- and other systems to relay its anorexigenic properties. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 peptide expression in reward-related areas suggests that nesfatin-1 might also be involved in hedonic feeding...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758953/absorption-and-distribution-of-estradiol-from-male-seminal-emissions-during-mating
#18
Denys deCatanzaro, Tyler J Pollock
Estradiol-17β (E2) plays critical roles in female maturation, sexual receptivity, ovulation, and fertility. In many mammals, contact with males can similarly affect these female parameters, while male excretions contain significant quantities of E2 We administered radiolabeled estradiol ([(3)H]E2) to male mice in doses representing a small fraction of their endogenous E2 These males were paired with sexually-receptive females, and radioactivity was traced into the females' systems. In Experiment 1, males were given [(3)H]E2 at 24 and 1 h prior to mating...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679426/is-the-canine-corpus-luteum-an-insulin-sensitive-tissue
#19
Liza Margareth Sousa, Renata Silva, Vanessa Fonseca, Rafael Leandro, Thiago Di Vincenzo, Ana Bárbara Alves-Wagner, Ubiratan Fabres Machado, Paula Papa
This study aimed to determine in the canine corpus luteum throughout the diestrus: 1) the influence of insulin on glucose utilization; 2) the regulation of genes potentially involved; and 3) the influence of hypoxia on glucose transporter expression and steroidogenesis, after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Glucose uptake by luteal cells increased 2.7 folds (P<0.05) in response to insulin; a phenomenon related to increased expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660201/time-of-day-dependent-adaptation-of-the-hpa-axis-to-predictable-social-defeat-stress
#20
Christiane Koch, Manuela S Bartlang, Jana Thabea Kiehn, Lisa Lucke, Nadine Naujokat, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Stefan O Reber, Henrik Oster
In modern societies, the risk of developing a whole array of affective and somatic disorders is associated with the prevalence of frequent psychosocial stress. Therefore, a better understanding of adaptive stress responses and their underlying molecular mechanisms is of high clinical interest. In response to an acute stressor each organism can either show passive freezing or active fight-or-flight behavior, with activation of sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis providing the necessary energy for the latter by releasing catecholamines and glucocorticoids (GC)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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