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Journal of Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143557/iugr-impairs-cardiomyocyte-growth-and-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#1
Sonnet S Jonker, Daniel Kamna, Dan Loturco, Jenai Kailey, Laura D Brown
Placental insufficiency causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a common complication of pregnancy. In skeletal muscle, IUGR reduces fetal myofibril size, reduces myoblast proliferation, and reduces expression of genes in cell cycle regulation clusters. The myocardium is striated like skeletal muscle, and IUGR also reduces cell cycle activity and maturation in cardiomyocytes, despite cardiac output preferentially directed to the coronary circulation. We hypothesized that cardiomyocyte growth restriction would be accompanied by similar changes in cell cycle regulation genes, and would reduce cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, number, maturity and size...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139929/changes-in-insulin-glucagon-and-er-stress-precede-immune-activation-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
Jennifer A Crookshank, Daniel Serrano, Gen-Sheng Wang, Christopher Patrick, Baylie S Morgan, Marie-France Pare, Fraser W Scott
It is unknown whether there is a gene signature in pancreas which is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We performed partial pancreatectomies on 30 day preinsulitic, diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats to prospectively identify factors involved in early prediabetes. Microarrays of the biopsies revealed downregulation of ER stress, metabolism and apoptosis. Based on these results, additional investigations compared gene expression in control (BBc) and BBdp rats age ~8, 30 and 60 days using RT-qPCR. Neonates had increased ER stress gene expression in pancreas...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139928/altered-colonic-sensory-and-barrier-functions-by-crf-roles-of-tlr4-and-il-1
#3
Tsukasa Nozu, Saori Miyagishi, Rintaro Nozu, Kaoru Takakusaki, Okumura Toshikatsu
Visceral allodynia and increased colonic permeability are considered to be crucial pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and immune-mediated mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to these changes in IBS, but the precise roles have not been determined. We explored these issues in rats in vivo. The threshold of visceromotor response, i.e., abdominal muscle contractions induced by colonic balloon distention was electrophysiologically measured. Colonic permeability was estimated by quantifying the absorbed Evans blue in colonic tissue...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121579/minor-role-of-mature-adipocyte-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-high-fat-induced-obesity
#4
Alessandra Feraco, Andrea Armani, Riccardo Urbanet, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Vincenzo Marzolla, Frederic Jaisser, Massimiliano Caprio
Obesity is a major risk factor that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression is increased in the adipose tissue of obese patients and several studies provide evidence that MR pharmacological antagonism improves glucose metabolism in genetic and diet-induced mouse models of obesity. In order to investigate whether the lack of adipocyte MR is sufficient to explain these beneficial metabolic effects, we generated a mouse model with inducible adipocyte-specific deletion of Nr3c2 gene encoding MR (adipo-MRKO)...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121578/efficacy-of-targeting-bone-specific-gip-receptor-in-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss
#5
Guillaume Mabilleau, Benoit Gobron, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Rodolphe Perrot, Daniel Chappard
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodeling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP receptors are expressed in several tissues in the body and little is known about the direct versus indirect effects of GIP on bone remodeling and quality. The aims of the present study were to validate two new GIP analogues, called [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag and [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30, that specifically target either bone or whole body GIP receptors, respectively; and to ascertain the beneficial effects of GIP therapy on bone in a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121577/inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-adipogenesis-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-maged1
#6
Qinghua Wang, Jing Tang, Shujun Jiang, Zan Huang, Anying Song, Siyuan Hou, Xiang Gao, Hai-Bin Ruan
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator of adipogenesis and a target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs; therefore, identifying novel regulators of PPARγ action in adipocytes is essential for the future development of therapeutics for diabetes. MAGE family member D1 (MAGED1), by acting as an adaptor for ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathways and a co-factor for transcription, plays an important role in neural development, cell differentiation, and circadian rhythm...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121576/glyphosate-based-herbicide-enhances-the-uterine-sensitivity-to-estradiol-in-rats
#7
Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, María M Milesi, Enrique H Luque, Jorgelina Varayoud
In a previous work, we detected that postnatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) alters uterine development in prepubertal rats causing endometrial hyperplasia and increasing cell proliferation. Our goal was to determine whether exposure to low-dose of a GBH during postnatal development might enhance the sensitivity of the uterus to an estrogenic treatment. Female Wistar pups were subcutaneously injected with saline solution (control) or GBH using the reference dose (2 mg/kg/day, EPA) on postnatal days (PND) 1, 3, 5, and 7...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121575/adipocyte-hdac4-activation-leads-to-beige-adipocyte-expansion-and-reduced-adiposity
#8
Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Peter A Hecker, Yun Zhang, Biao Wang
Numerous studies have suggested that beige adipocyte abundance is correlated with improved metabolic performance, but direct evidence showing that beige adipocyte expansion protects animals from the development of obesity is missing. Previously, we have described that the Liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) regulates beige adipocyte renaissance in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through a class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4)-dependent mechanism. This study investigates the physiological impact of persistent beige adipocyte renaissance in energy homeostasis in mice...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089683/prenatal-undernutrition-affects-the-phenotypes-of-pcos-model-rats
#9
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Rie Yanagihara, Yuri Yamamoto, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is among the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age, its etiology remains poorly understood. From the perspective of developmental origins of health and disease, some studies have investigated the relationship between low birth weight and the prevalence of PCOS and/or PCOS phenotypes in humans; however, the results of these studies were inconclusive. Here, we evaluated the effects of prenatal undernutrition on the metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS model rats...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089682/oxtr-overexpression-leads-to-abnormal-mammary-gland-development-in-mice
#10
Dan Li, Yan Ji, Chunlan Zhao, Yapeng Yao, Anlan Yang, Honghong Jin, Yang Chen, Mingjun San, Jing Zhang, Mingjiao Zhang, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng, Yaowu Zheng
Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a G-protein coupled receptor and known for regulation of maternal and social behaviors. Null mutation (Oxtr-/-) leads to defects in lactation due to impaired milk ejection and maternal nurturing. Overexpression of OXTR has never been studied. To define the functions of OXTR overexpression, a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses mouse Oxtr under β-actin promoter was developed (++Oxtr). ++Oxtr mice displayed advanced development and maturation of mammary gland, including ductal distention, enhanced secretory differentiation and early milk production at non-pregnancy and early pregnancy...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089681/increased-susceptibility-to-ovx-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ucp1-null-mice
#11
Stephanie L Clookey, Rebecca J Welly, Terese M Zidon, MIchelle L Gastecki, Makenzie L Woodford, Zachary I Grunewald, Nathan C Winn, Dusti Eaton, Natalia G Karasseva, Harrold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla, Victoria Vieira-Potter
Premenopausal females are protected against adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, until loss of ovarian hormone production (e.g., menopause). There is some evidence that females have greater brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic capacity. Because BAT mass correlates inversely with insulin resistance, we hypothesized that increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression contributes to the superior metabolic health of females. Given that UCP1 transiently increases in BAT following ovariectomy (OVX), we hypothesized that UCP1 may 'buffer' OVX-mediated metabolic dysfunction...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072426/mitochondria-as-a-target-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-implications-for-type-2-diabetes
#12
Laura Marroqui, Eva Tuduri, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal, Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, heterogeneous syndrome characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction or death. Among several environmental factors contributing to type 2 diabetes development, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been receiving special attention. These chemicals include a wide variety of pollutants, from components of plastic to pesticides, with the ability to modulate endocrine system function. EDCs can affect multiple cellular processes, including some related to energy production and utilization, leading to alterations in energy homeostasis...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072425/fasting-decreases-plasma-fgf21-in-obese-subjects-and-the-expression-of-fgf21-receptors-in-adipose-tissue-in-both-lean-and-obese-subjects
#13
Eva B Nygaard, Cathrine Ørskov, Thomas P Almdal, Henrik Vestergaard, Birgitte Andersen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator of energy and lipid metabolism. FGF21 is highly expressed in liver while FGF21 receptors (Beta-klotho (KLB) and FGFR1c) are highly expressed in white adipose tissues (WAT). Plasma FGF21 has been shown to be increased after 7-10 days of fasting but oppositely plasma FGF21 is also increased in obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of 60 hours of fasting on plasma FGF21 levels in obese and lean subjects and to determine the gene expression of KLB and FGFR1c in the subcutaneous WAT before, during and after 60 hours of fasting...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072424/role-of-rfrp-3-in-the-development-of-cold-stress-induced-polycystic-ovary-phenotype-in-rats
#14
Valentina Squicciarini, Raul Riquelme, Kathryn Wilsterman, George E Bentley, Hernan Lara
RFamide-related peptide (RFRP-3), is a regulator of GnRH secretion from the brain, but it can also act in human ovary to influence steroidogenesis. We aimed to study the putative local role of RFRP-3 in the ovary and its potential participation in the development of a polycystic ovary phenotype induced by chronic sympathetic stress (cold stress). We used adult Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control and stressed groups. In both groups we studied the effect of intraovarian exposure to RFRP-3 on follicular development and plasma ovarian steroid concentrations...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072423/how-can-a-binary-switch-within-the-pars-tuberalis-control-seasonal-timing-of-reproduction
#15
Shona Hiedi Wood
Life in seasonally changing environments is challenging. Biological systems not only have to respond directly to the environmental challenges, but schedule life history events in anticipation of seasonal changes. The cellular and molecular basis of how these events are scheduled is unknown. Cellular decision-making processes in response to signals above certain thresholds regularly occur i.e. cellular fate determination, apoptosis, firing of action potentials. Binary switches, the result of cellular decision-making processes, are defined as a change in phenotype between two stable states...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049823/impact-of-mr-on-mature-adipocytes-in-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Tomoaki Hayakawa, Tomomi Minemura, Toshiharu Onodera, Jihoon Shin, Yosuke Okuno, Atsunori Fukuhara, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Active glucocorticoid levels are elevated in the adipose tissue of obesity due to the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. Glucocorticoids can bind and activate both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and pharmacological blockades of MR prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. To determine the significance of MR in adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific MR knockout mice (AdipoMR-KO) and fed them high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found that adipocyte-specific deletion of MR did not affect the body weight, fat weight, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049822/maternal-obesity-impairs-skeletal-development-in-adult-offspring
#17
Jin Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, HaiJun Zhao, Alexander W Alund, Kartik Shankar
Intrauterine or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) have substantial influences on adult offspring health; however, studies of HFD-induced maternal obesity on regulation of adult offspring bone formation are sparse. Here, we investigated the effects of HFD-induced maternal obesity on both fetal and adult offspring skeletal development. We found that HFD-induced maternal obesity significantly decreased fetal skeletal development, but enhanced fetal osteoblastic cell senescence signaling and significantly increased the expression of inflammatory factors of the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in osteo-progenitors...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021809/thyroid-hormones-stimulate-l-arginine-transport-in-human-endothelial-cells
#18
Marta Toral, Rosario Jimenez, Sebastián Montoro-Molina, Miguel Romero, Rosemary Wangensteen, Juan Duarte, Félix Vargas
Thyroid hormone activity is associated with L-arginine metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production, which participate in the cardiovascular manifestations of thyroid disorders. L-arginine transporters play an important role in activating L-arginine uptake and NO production. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on L-arginine transporters in endothelial cells have not yet been evaluated. We measured L-arginine uptake, mRNA expression of L-arginine transporters, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and NO generation after the administration of T3, T4, and the T3 analog, 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid TRIAC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006340/hypothalamic-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-gene-delivery-reduces-fat-mass-in-male-mice
#19
Kim Eerola, Siru Virtanen, Laura Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Minying Cai, Victor Hruby, Mikko Savontaus, Eriika Savontaus
γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long-term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R-agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967051/mir-876-3p-regulates-glucose-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-targeting-adiponectin
#20
Sujith Rajan, Ganesh Panzade, Ankita Srivastava, Kripa Shankar, Rajesh Pandey, Durgesh Kumar, Sanchita Gupta, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Muheeb Beg, Raj Kumar Mishra, Ravi Shankar, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
miRNA have been known to regulate diverse cellular and molecular functions. In the earlier study, we have reported that adipocytes differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on 72hr chronic insulin (CI) treatment exhibit insulin resistance (IR). Present study has further explored above model to investigate the role of early expressed miRNAs within human adipocytes to modulate differential adipokine expression as observed during IR. Our results highlight that miR-876-3p regulate glucose homeostasis and its dysregulation lead to IR...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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