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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195316/structural-hierarchy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-an-integrative-framework
#2
Hyunsik Kim, Cara M Keifer, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Nicholas R Eaton, Matthew D Lerner, Kenneth D Gadow
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. METHODS: The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186338/research-review-language-problems-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-meta-analytic-review
#3
REVIEW
Hannah Korrel, Kathryn L Mueller, Tim Silk, Vicki Anderson, Emma Sciberras
BACKGROUND: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have a higher risk of language problems compared with typically developing children, although the types of language problems experienced are less clear. This review aims to establish the types of language problems experienced by children with ADHD according to systematically reviewed literature and determine the empirical evidence for language problems in children with ADHD compared with non-ADHD controls...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185238/income-within-context-relative-income-matters-for-adolescent-social-satisfaction-and-mental-health
#4
Nicole S Sorhagen, Tabitha J Wurster
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that a mismatch between one's own socioeconomic status (SES) and the SES of the surrounding context can lead to maladaptive outcomes, such as increased social stigma and low levels of belongingness (Johnson, Richeson, & Finkel, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 2011, 838; Ostrove, The Journal of Social Issues, 59, 2003, 771). This study examines an adolescent population, as contextual comparisons should be especially salient at this time...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176347/explaining-the-sex-difference-in-dyslexia
#5
Anne B Arnett, Bruce F Pennington, Robin L Peterson, Erik G Willcutt, John C DeFries, Richard K Olson
BACKGROUND: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. METHODS: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates. We developed an analytic framework that can be applied to group differences in any psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: Males' overrepresentation in the low performance tail of the reading distribution was accounted for by mean and variance differences across sex...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158896/early-adversity-and-learning-implications-for-typical-and-atypical-behavioral-development
#6
Jamie L Hanson, Wouter van den Bos, Barbara J Roeber, Karen D Rudolph, Richard J Davidson, Seth D Pollak
BACKGROUND: Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151560/developmental-change-in-the-association-between-adolescent-depressive-symptoms-and-the-home-environment-results-from-a-longitudinal-genetically-informative-investigation
#7
Laurie J Hannigan, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley
BACKGROUND: Depression is already highly prevalent by late adolescence, indicating that research into its developmental emergence should consider earlier risk factors and environmental contexts. The home environment is a key context for children and adolescents throughout development. However, the nature of relationships that exist between aspects of the home environment and the development of depressive symptoms cannot be assumed. Genetically informative studies have been used to provide insights about the aetiology of such relationships, often finding them to be partly confounded by the influence of children's genes...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121012/research-review-the-effectiveness-of-multidimensional-family-therapy-in-treating-adolescents-with-multiple-behavior-problems-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Thimo M van der Pol, Machteld Hoeve, Marc J Noom, Geert Jan J M Stams, Theo A H Doreleijers, Lieke van Domburgh, Robert R J M Vermeiren
BACKGROUND: Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is a well-established treatment for adolescents showing both substance abuse and/or antisocial behavior. METHOD: The effectiveness of MDFT in reducing adolescents' substance abuse, delinquency, externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, and family malfunctioning was examined by means of a (three-level) meta-analysis, summarizing 61 effect sizes from 19 manuscripts (N = 1,488 participants). RESULTS: Compared with other therapies, the overall effect size of MDFT was significant, albeit small in magnitude (d = 0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121008/shared-familial-risk-factors-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-overweight-obesity-a-population-based-familial-coaggregation-study-in-sweden
#9
Qi Chen, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Arvid Sjölander, Eva Serlachius, Samuele Cortese, Stephen V Faraone, Catarina Almqvist, Henrik Larsson
BACKGROUND: Despite meta-analytic evidence for the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight/obesity, the mechanisms underlying the association are yet to be fully understood. METHODS: By linking multiple Swedish national and regional registers, we identified 472,735 index males born during 1973-1992, with information on body weight and height directly measured before they were conscripted for military service. We further identified 523,237 full siblings born during 1973-2002 for the index males...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102566/annual-research-review-understudied-populations-within-the-autism-spectrum-current-trends-and-future-directions-in-neuroimaging-research
#10
REVIEW
Allison Jack, Kevin A Pelphrey
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions that vary in both etiology and phenotypic expression. Expressions of ASD characterized by a more severe phenotype, including autism with intellectual disability (ASD + ID), autism with a history of developmental regression (ASD + R), and minimally verbal autism (ASD + MV) are understudied generally, and especially in the domain of neuroimaging. However, neuroimaging methods are a potentially powerful tool for understanding the etiology of these ASD subtypes...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094432/maltreatment-associated-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-co-twin-control-analysis
#11
Lisa Dinkler, Sebastian Lundström, Ruchika Gajwani, Paul Lichtenstein, Christopher Gillberg, Helen Minnis
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders in childhood and adulthood. Previous findings suggest that the association between CM and psychiatric disorders is partly causal and partly due to familial confounding, but few studies have investigated the mechanisms behind the association between CM and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Our objective was to determine whether maltreated children have an elevated number of NDDs and whether CM is a risk factor for an increased NDD 'load' and increased NDD symptoms when controlling for familial effects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059443/oppositional-defiant-disorder-dimensions-genetic-influences-and-risk-for-later-psychopathology
#12
Amy J Mikolajewski, Jeanette Taylor, William G Iacono
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to determine how well two oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions (irritable and headstrong/hurtful) assessed in childhood predict late adolescent psychopathology and the degree to which these outcomes can be attributed to genetic influences shared with ODD dimensions. METHODS: Psychopathology was assessed via diagnostic interviews of 1,225 twin pairs at ages 11 and 17. RESULTS: Consistent with hypotheses, the irritable dimension uniquely predicted overall internalizing problems, whereas the headstrong/hurtful dimension uniquely predicted substance use disorder symptoms...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035675/annual-research-review-on-the-relations-among-self-regulation-self-control-executive-functioning-effortful-control-cognitive-control-impulsivity-risk-taking-and-inhibition-for-developmental-psychopathology
#13
REVIEW
Joel T Nigg
BACKGROUND: Self-regulation (SR) is central to developmental psychopathology, but progress has been impeded by varying terminology and meanings across fields and literatures. METHODS: The present review attempts to move that discussion forward by noting key sources of prior confusion such as measurement-concept confounding, and then arguing the following major points. RESULTS: First, the field needs a domain-general construct of SR that encompasses SR of action, emotion, and cognition and involves both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991655/anger-irritability-as-a-mediator-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-risk-for-adolescent-alcohol-use-and-the-contribution-of-coping-skills
#14
Seth C Harty, Elizabeth M Gnagy, William E Pelham, Brooke S G Molina
BACKGROUND: Research on susceptibility to alcohol use disorder within the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population has begun to expand examination of putative moderators and mediators in order to develop effective treatments. Specific dysregulated emotions have been separately associated with ADHD and with alcohol use difficulties. The current study is the first to conjointly study these variables by testing anger-irritability as a mediator of ADHD risk for adolescent alcohol use...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976374/cognitive-therapy-as-an-early-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-trial-addressing-preliminary-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-action
#15
Richard Meiser-Stedman, Patrick Smith, Anna McKinnon, Clare Dixon, David Trickey, Anke Ehlers, David M Clark, Adrian Boyle, Peter Watson, Ian Goodyer, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: Few efficacious early treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents exist. Previous trials have intervened within the first month post-trauma and focused on secondary prevention of later post-traumatic stress; however, considerable natural recovery may still occur up to 6-months post-trauma. No trials have addressed the early treatment of established PTSD (i.e. 2- to 6-months post-trauma). METHODS: Twenty-nine youth (8-17 years) with PTSD (according to age-appropriate DSM-IV or ICD-10 diagnostic criteria) after a single-event trauma in the previous 2-6 months were randomly allocated to Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD; n = 14) or waiting list (WL; n = 15) for 10 weeks...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966784/hybrid-implementation-model-of-community-partnered-early-intervention-for-toddlers-with-autism-a-randomized-trial
#16
Stephanie Y Shire, Ya-Chih Chang, Wendy Shih, Suzanne Bracaglia, Maria Kodjoe, Connie Kasari
BACKGROUND: Interventions found to be effective in research settings are often not as effective when implemented in community settings. Considering children with autism, studies have rarely examined the efficacy of laboratory-tested interventions on child outcomes in community settings using randomized controlled designs. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen children with autism enrolled in public early intervention classrooms in low resource neighborhoods were randomized to Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement, and Regulation (JASPER) intervention or treatment as usual waitlist for 10 weeks with 1-month follow-up...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966780/annual-research-review-an-expanded-account-of-information-processing-mechanisms-in-risk-for-child-and-adolescent-anxiety-and-depression
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Y F Lau, Allison M Waters
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression occurring during childhood and adolescence are common and costly. While early-emerging anxiety and depression can arise through a complex interplay of 'distal' factors such as genetic and environmental influences, temperamental characteristics and brain circuitry, the more proximal mechanisms that transfer risks on symptoms are poorly delineated. Information-processing biases, which differentiate youth with and without anxiety and/or depression, could act as proximal mechanisms that mediate more distal risks on symptoms...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943285/annual-research-review-digital-health-interventions-for-children-and-young-people-with-mental-health-problems-a-systematic-and-meta-review
#18
REVIEW
Chris Hollis, Caroline J Falconer, Jennifer L Martin, Craig Whittington, Sarah Stockton, Cris Glazebrook, E Bethan Davies
BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions (DHIs), including computer-assisted therapy, smartphone apps and wearable technologies, are heralded as having enormous potential to improve uptake and accessibility, efficiency, clinical effectiveness and personalisation of mental health interventions. It is generally assumed that DHIs will be preferred by children and young people (CYP) given their ubiquitous digital activity. However, it remains uncertain whether: DHIs for CYP are clinically and cost-effective, CYP prefer DHIs to traditional services, DHIs widen access and how they should be evaluated and adopted by mental health services...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943284/annual-research-review-breaking-cycles-of-violence-a-systematic-review-and-common-practice-elements-analysis-of-psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-youth-affected-by-armed-conflict
#19
REVIEW
Felicity L Brown, Anne M de Graaff, Jeannie Annan, Theresa S Betancourt
BACKGROUND: Globally, one in 10 children live in regions affected by armed conflict. Children exposed to armed conflict are vulnerable to social and emotional difficulties, along with disrupted educational and occupational opportunities. Most armed conflicts occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where mental health systems are limited and can be further weakened by the context of war. Research is needed to determine feasible and cost-effective psychosocial interventions that can be delivered safely by available mental health workforces (including nonspecialists)...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917475/tipping-points-curvilinear-associations-between-activity-level-and-mental-development-in-toddlers
#20
Megan Flom, Madeleine Cohen, Kimberly J Saudino
BACKGROUND: The Theory of Optimal Stimulation (Zentall & Zentall, Psychological Bulletin, 94, 1983, 446) posits that the relation between activity level (AL) and cognitive performance follows an inverted U shape where midrange AL predicts better cognitive performance than AL at the extremes. METHODS: We explored this by fitting linear and quadratic models predicting mental development from AL assessed via multiple methods (parent ratings, observations, and actigraphs) and across multiple situations (laboratory play, laboratory test, home) in over 600 twins (2- and 3-year olds)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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