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Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739679/two-populations-of-cytoplasmic-dynein-contribute-to-spindle-positioning-in-c-elegans-embryos
#1
Ruben Schmidt, Lars-Eric Fielmich, Ilya Grigoriev, Eugene A Katrukha, Anna Akhmanova, Sander van den Heuvel
The position of the mitotic spindle is tightly controlled in animal cells as it determines the plane and orientation of cell division. Contacts between cytoplasmic dynein and astral microtubules (MTs) at the cell cortex generate pulling forces that position the spindle. An evolutionarily conserved Gα-GPR-1/2(Pins/LGN)-LIN-5(Mud/NuMA) cortical complex interacts with dynein and is required for pulling force generation, but the dynamics of this process remain unclear. In this study, by fluorescently labeling endogenous proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that dynein exists in two distinct cortical populations...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739678/meis-homeodomain-proteins-facilitate-parp1-artd1-mediated-eviction-of-histone-h1
#2
Ann-Christin Hau, Britta Moyo Grebbin, Zsuzsa Agoston, Marie Anders-Maurer, Tamara Müller, Anja Groß, Jasmine Kolb, Julian D Langer, Claudia Döring, Dorothea Schulte
Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) and myeloid ecotropic viral integration site (MEIS) proteins control cell fate decisions in many physiological and pathophysiological contexts, but how these proteins function mechanistically remains poorly defined. Focusing on the first hours of neuronal differentiation of adult subventricular zone-derived stem/progenitor cells, we describe a sequence of events by which PBX-MEIS facilitates chromatin accessibility of transcriptionally inactive genes: In undifferentiated cells, PBX1 is bound to the H1-compacted promoter/proximal enhancer of the neuron-specific gene doublecortin (Dcx) Once differentiation is induced, MEIS associates with chromatin-bound PBX1, recruits PARP1/ARTD1, and initiates PARP1-mediated eviction of H1 from the chromatin fiber...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739677/correction-phosphoglycerate-mutase-1-regulates-dntp-pool-and-promotes-homologous-recombination-repair-in-cancer-cells
#3
Jia Qu, Wenyi Sun, Jie Zhong, Hao Lv, Mingrui Zhu, Jun Xu, Nan Jin, Zuoquan Xie, Minjia Tan, Shu-Hai Lin, Meiyu Geng, Jian Ding, Min Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733327/cenp-a-and-topoisomerase-ii-antagonistically-affect-chromosome-length
#4
A-M Ladouceur, Rajesh Ranjan, Lydia Smith, Tanner Fadero, Jennifer Heppert, Bob Goldstein, Amy Shaub Maddox, Paul S Maddox
The size of mitotic chromosomes is coordinated with cell size in a manner dependent on nuclear trafficking. In this study, we conducted an RNA interference screen of the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleome in a strain carrying an exceptionally long chromosome and identified the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A and the DNA decatenizing enzyme topoisomerase-II (topo-II) as candidate modulators of chromosome size. In the holocentric organism C. elegans, CENP-A is positioned periodically along the entire length of chromosomes, and in mitosis, these genomic regions come together linearly to form the base of kinetochores...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733326/ann-miller-shaping-cells-and-scientists
#5
Marie Anne O'Donnell
Miller studies how the cytoskeleton controls cellular shape change.
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724527/the-spread-of-prion-like-proteins-by-lysosomes-and-tunneling-nanotubes-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Guiliana Soraya Victoria, Chiara Zurzolo
Progression of pathology in neurodegenerative diseases is hypothesized to be a non-cell-autonomous process that may be mediated by the productive spreading of prion-like protein aggregates from a "donor cell" that is the source of misfolded aggregates to an "acceptor cell" in which misfolding is propagated by conversion of the normal protein. Although the proteins involved in the various diseases are unrelated, common pathways appear to be used for their intercellular propagation and spreading. Here, we summarize recent evidence of the molecular mechanisms relevant for the intercellular trafficking of protein aggregates involved in prion, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724526/lysosomes-convene-to-keep-the-synapse-clean
#7
Natalia L Kononenko
In neurons, lysosomes regulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor levels at the plasma membrane, although their presence at distal dendrites is controversial. In this issue, Goo et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704068) show for the first time that neuronal activity positions lysosomes at the dendritic spines to facilitate synaptic remodeling through local protein degradation.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724525/trim37-a-novel-e3-ligase-for-pex5-mediated-peroxisomal-matrix-protein-import
#8
Wei Wang, Zhi-Jie Xia, Jean-Claude Farré, Suresh Subramani
Most proteins destined for the peroxisomal matrix depend on the peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), which require the PTS receptor PEX5, whose deficiency causes fatal human peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs). TRIM37 gene mutations cause muscle-liver-brain-eye (mulibrey) nanism. We found that TRIM37 localizes in peroxisomal membranes and ubiquitylates PEX5 at K464 by interacting with its C-terminal 51 amino acids (CT51), which is required for PTS protein import. PEX5 mutations (K464A or ΔCT51), or TRIM37 depletion or mutation, reduce PEX5 abundance by promoting its proteasomal degradation, thereby impairing its functions in cargo binding and PTS protein import in human cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716844/microglia-control-the-glycinergic-but-not-the-gabaergic-synapses-via-prostaglandin-e2-in-the-spinal-cord
#9
Yasmine Cantaut-Belarif, Myriam Antri, Rocco Pizzarelli, Sabrina Colasse, Ilaria Vaccari, Sylvia Soares, Marianne Renner, Radhouane Dallel, Antoine Triller, Alain Bessis
Microglia control excitatory synapses, but their role in inhibitory neurotransmission has been less well characterized. Herein, we show that microglia control the strength of glycinergic but not GABAergic synapses via modulation of the diffusion dynamics and synaptic trapping of glycine (GlyR) but not GABAA receptors. We further demonstrate that microglia regulate the activity-dependent plasticity of glycinergic synapses by tuning the GlyR diffusion trap. This microglia-synapse cross talk requires production of prostaglandin E2 by microglia, leading to the activation of neuronal EP2 receptors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716843/strength-in-numbers-phosphofructokinase-polymerization-prevails-in-the-liver
#10
Elma Zaganjor, Jessica B Spinelli, Marcia C Haigis
Numerous metabolic enzymes assemble into filamentous structures, which are thought to serve additional regulatory functions. In this issue, Webb et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201701084) show that the liver-specific isoform of phosphofructokinase-1 forms filaments in vitro and localizes as puncta in cells along the plasma membrane. This suggests spatial organization of glycolysis in higher organisms.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716842/outer-nuclear-membrane-protein-kuduk-modulates-the-linc-complex-and-nuclear-envelope-architecture
#11
Zhao-Ying Ding, Ying-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Cheng Huang, Myong-Chol Lee, Min-Jen Tseng, Ya-Hui Chi, Min-Lang Huang
Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes spanning the nuclear envelope (NE) contribute to nucleocytoskeletal force transduction. A few NE proteins have been found to regulate the LINC complex. In this study, we identify one, Kuduk (Kud), which can reside at the outer nuclear membrane and is required for the development of Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicles and NE morphology of myonuclei. Kud associates with LINC complex components in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Loss of Kud increases the level but impairs functioning of the LINC complex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710328/de-novo-telomere-addition-at-chromosome-breaks-dangerous-liaisons
#12
Dmitri Churikov, Vincent Géli
Telomerase counteracts the loss of terminal DNA sequences from chromosome ends; however, it may erroneously add telomeric repeats to DNA double-strand breaks. In this issue, Ouenzar et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201610071) uncover cell cycle-dependent sequestration of the telomerase RNA in nucleoli, a process that excludes telomerase from DNA repair sites.
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706108/novel-function-of-a-dynein-light-chain-in-actin-assembly-during-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#13
Kristen B Farrell, Seth McDonald, Andrew K Lamb, Colette Worcester, Olve B Peersen, Santiago M Di Pietro
Clathrin- and actin-mediated endocytosis is essential in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Tda2 is a novel protein of the endocytic machinery necessary for normal internalization of native cargo in yeast. Tda2 has not been classified in any protein family. Unexpectedly, solving the crystal structure of Tda2 revealed it belongs to the dynein light chain family. However, Tda2 works independently of the dynein motor complex and microtubules. Tda2 forms a tight complex with the polyproline motif-rich protein Aim21, which interacts physically with the SH3 domain of the Arp2/3 complex regulator Bbc1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701426/dynamics-of-in-vivo-asc-speck-formation
#14
Paola Kuri, Nicole L Schieber, Thomas Thumberger, Joachim Wittbrodt, Yannick Schwab, Maria Leptin
Activated danger or pathogen sensors trigger assembly of the inflammasome adaptor ASC into specks, large signaling platforms considered hallmarks of inflammasome activation. Because a lack of in vivo tools has prevented the study of endogenous ASC dynamics, we generated a live ASC reporter through CRISPR/Cas9 tagging of the endogenous gene in zebrafish. We see strong ASC expression in the skin and other epithelia that act as barriers to insult. A toxic stimulus triggered speck formation and rapid pyroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701425/self-sorting-of-nonmuscle-myosins-iia-and-iib-polarizes-the-cytoskeleton-and-modulates-cell-motility
#15
Maria S Shutova, Sreeja B Asokan, Shefali Talwar, Richard K Assoian, James E Bear, Tatyana M Svitkina
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is uniquely responsible for cell contractility and thus defines multiple aspects of cell behavior. To generate contraction, NMII molecules polymerize into bipolar minifilaments. Different NMII paralogs are often coexpressed in cells and can copolymerize, suggesting that they may cooperate to facilitate cell motility. However, whether such cooperation exists and how it may work remain unknown. We show that copolymerization of NMIIA and NMIIB followed by their differential turnover leads to self-sorting of NMIIA and NMIIB along the front-rear axis, thus producing a polarized actin-NMII cytoskeleton...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701424/more-than-a-mere-supply-of-monomers-g-actin-pools-regulate-actin-dynamics-in-dendritic-spines
#16
Katalin Schlett
Synaptic activity reshapes the morphology of dendritic spines via regulating F-actin arborization. In this issue, Lei et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201612042) reports a novel, G-actin-dependent regulation of actin polymerization within spine heads. They show that actin monomer levels are elevated in spines upon activity, with G-actin immobilized by the local enrichment of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) within the spine plasma membrane.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696227/translational-regulation-of-viral-secretory-proteins-by-the-5-coding-regions-and-a-viral-rna-binding-protein
#17
Johan Nordholm, Jeanne Petitou, Henrik Östbye, Diogo V da Silva, Dan Dou, Hao Wang, Robert Daniels
A primary function of 5' regions in many secretory protein mRNAs is to encode an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting sequence. In this study, we show how the regions coding for the ER-targeting sequences of the influenza glycoproteins NA and HA also function as translational regulatory elements that are controlled by the viral RNA-binding protein (RBP) NS1. The translational increase depends on the nucleotide composition and 5' positioning of the ER-targeting sequence coding regions and is facilitated by the RNA-binding domain of NS1, which can associate with ER membranes...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696226/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-stably-clusters-its-genomes-across-generations-to-maintain-itself-extrachromosomally
#18
Ya-Fang Chiu, Arthur U Sugden, Kathryn Fox, Mitchell Hayes, Bill Sugden
Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696225/glypican-6-promotes-the-growth-of-developing-long-bones-by-stimulating-hedgehog-signaling
#19
Mariana Capurro, Tomomi Izumikawa, Philippe Suarez, Wen Shi, Marzena Cydzik, Tomoyuki Kaneiwa, Jean Gariepy, Luisa Bonafe, Jorge Filmus
Autosomal-recessive omodysplasia (OMOD1) is a genetic condition characterized by short stature, shortened limbs, and facial dysmorphism. OMOD1 is caused by loss-of-function mutations of glypican 6 (GPC6). In this study, we show that GPC6-null embryos display most of the abnormalities found in OMOD1 patients and that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is significantly reduced in the long bones of these embryos. The Hh-stimulatory activity of GPC6 was also observed in cultured cells, where this GPC increased the binding of Hh to Patched 1 (Ptc1)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687668/tubulin-isotype-specificity-in-neuronal-migration-tuba8-can-t-fill-in-for-tuba1a
#20
Takeshi Kawauchi
Several tubulin isotypes, including Tuba1a, are associated with brain malformations. In this issue, Belvindrah et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607074) show that Tuba1a and Tuba8 differentially regulate microtubule organization in neurons, and they provide insights into the mechanisms by which Tuba1a mutations disrupt adult mouse brain morphology.
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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