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Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939615/regulation-of-mitotic-spindle-assembly-factor-numa-by-importin-%C3%AE
#1
Chih-Chia Chang, Tzu-Lun Huang, Yuta Shimamoto, Su-Yi Tsai, Kuo-Chiang Hsia
Ran-guanosine triphosphatase orchestrates mitotic spindle assembly by modulation of the interaction between Importin-α/-β and spindle assembly factors (SAFs). The inhibition of SAFs performed by importins needs to be done without much sequestration from abundant nuclear localization signal (NLS) -containing proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine NLS-binding selectivity and that inhibit activity of Importin-β-regulated SAFs (e.g., nuclear mitotic apparatus protein [NuMA]) remain undefined...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939614/the-duration-of-mitosis-and-daughter-cell-size-are-modulated-by-nutrients-in-budding-yeast
#2
Ricardo M Leitao, Douglas R Kellogg
The size of nearly all cells is modulated by nutrients. Thus, cells growing in poor nutrients can be nearly half the size of cells in rich nutrients. In budding yeast, cell size is thought to be controlled almost entirely by a mechanism that delays cell cycle entry until sufficient growth has occurred in G1 phase. Here, we show that most growth of a new daughter cell occurs in mitosis. When the rate of growth is slowed by poor nutrients, the duration of mitosis is increased, which suggests that cells compensate for slow growth in mitosis by increasing the duration of growth...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939613/structural-plasticity-of-the-living-kinetochore
#3
Karthik Dhatchinamoorthy, Manjunatha Shivaraju, Jeffrey J Lange, Boris Rubinstein, Jay R Unruh, Brian D Slaughter, Jennifer L Gerton
The kinetochore is a large, evolutionarily conserved protein structure that connects chromosomes with microtubules. During chromosome segregation, outer kinetochore components track depolymerizing ends of microtubules to facilitate the separation of chromosomes into two cells. In budding yeast, each chromosome has a point centromere upon which a single kinetochore is built, which attaches to a single microtubule. This defined architecture facilitates quantitative examination of kinetochores during the cell cycle...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939612/margot-quinlan-muscling-in-on-oogenesis
#4
Marie Anne O'Donnell
Quinlan investigates how the cytoskeleton polarizes oocytes.
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935633/sequence-dependent-cargo-recognition-by-snx-bars-mediates-retromer-independent-transport-of-ci-mpr
#5
Boris Simonetti, Chris M Danson, Kate J Heesom, Peter J Cullen
Endosomal recycling of transmembrane proteins requires sequence-dependent recognition of motifs present within their intracellular cytosolic domains. In this study, we have reexamined the role of retromer in the sequence-dependent endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). Although the knockdown or knockout of retromer does not perturb CI-MPR transport, the targeting of the retromer-linked sorting nexin (SNX)-Bin, Amphiphysin, and Rvs (BAR) proteins leads to a pronounced defect in CI-MPR endosome-to-TGN transport...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935632/cargo-selective-snx-bar-proteins-mediate-retromer-trimer-independent-retrograde-transport
#6
Arunas Kvainickas, Ana Jimenez-Orgaz, Heike Nägele, Zehan Hu, Jörn Dengjel, Florian Steinberg
The retromer complex, which recycles the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), is thought to consist of a cargo-selective VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 trimer and a membrane-deforming subunit of sorting nexin (SNX)-Bin, Amphyphysin, and Rvs (BAR; SNX-BAR) proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that heterodimers of the SNX-BAR proteins, SNX1, SNX2, SNX5, and SNX6, are the cargo-selective elements that mediate the retrograde transport of CI-MPR from endosomes to the TGN independently of the core retromer trimer...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931556/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-lead-tumor-invasion-through-integrin-%C3%AE-3-dependent-fibronectin-assembly
#7
Youmna Attieh, Andrew G Clark, Carina Grass, Sophie Richon, Marc Pocard, Pascale Mariani, Nadia Elkhatib, Timo Betz, Basile Gurchenkov, Danijela Matic Vignjevic
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant cells of the tumor stroma. Their capacity to contract the matrix and induce invasion of cancer cells has been well documented. However, it is not clear whether CAFs remodel the matrix by other means, such as degradation, matrix deposition, or stiffening. We now show that CAFs assemble fibronectin (FN) and trigger invasion mainly via integrin-αvβ3. In the absence of FN, contractility of the matrix by CAFs is preserved, but their ability to induce invasion is abrogated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928133/a-new-rab7-effector-controls-phosphoinositide-conversion-in-endosome-maturation
#8
James E Casanova, Bettina Winckler
Endosome maturation requires a coordinated change in the Rab GTPase and phosphoinositide composition of the endosomal membrane. In this issue, Liu et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201705151) identify WDR91 as a ubiquitous Rab7 effector that inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity on endosomes and is critical for endosome maturation, viability, and dendrite growth of neurons in vivo.
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928132/seca-mediates-cotranslational-targeting-and-translocation-of-an-inner-membrane-protein
#9
Shuai Wang, Chien-I Yang, Shu-Ou Shan
Protein targeting to the bacterial plasma membrane was generally thought to occur via two major pathways: cotranslational targeting by signal recognition particle (SRP) and posttranslational targeting by SecA and SecB. Recently, SecA was found to also bind ribosomes near the nascent polypeptide exit tunnel, but the function of this SecA-ribosome contact remains unclear. In this study, we show that SecA cotranslationally recognizes the nascent chain of an inner membrane protein, RodZ, with high affinity and specificity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923977/prepatterning-by-rhogefs-governs-rho-gtpase-spatiotemporal-dynamics-during-wound-repair
#10
Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Jeffrey M Verboon, Susan M Parkhurst
Like tissues, single cells are subjected to continual stresses and damage. As such, cells have a robust wound repair mechanism comprised of dynamic membrane resealing and cortical cytoskeletal remodeling. One group of proteins, the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is critical for this actin and myosin cytoskeletal response in which they form distinct dynamic spatial and temporal patterns/arrays surrounding the wound. A key mechanistic question, then, is how these GTPase arrays are formed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923976/catch-and-release-14-3-3-controls-ncd-in-meiotic-spindles
#11
Mary Dasso
During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, spindle assembly occurs without centrosomes and relies on signals from chromosomes. Beaven et al. (2017. J. Cell. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704120) show that 14-3-3 proteins bind and inhibit a key microtubule motor, Ncd, during oogenesis, but Aurora B releases Ncd inhibition near chromosomes, allowing Ncd to work in the right time and place.
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923975/control-of-actin-polymerization-via-the-coincidence-of-phosphoinositides-and-high-membrane-curvature
#12
Frederic Daste, Astrid Walrant, Mikkel R Holst, Jonathan R Gadsby, Julia Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Daniel Brook, Marcel Mettlen, Elin Larsson, Steven F Lee, Richard Lundmark, Jennifer L Gallop
The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P2, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis. Both Cdc42⋅guanosine triphosphate and SNX9 activate N-WASP-WIP- and Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916712/identification-of-new-channels-by-systematic-analysis-of-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane
#13
Vivien Krüger, Thomas Becker, Lars Becker, Malayko Montilla-Martinez, Lars Ellenrieder, F-Nora Vögtle, Helmut E Meyer, Michael T Ryan, Nils Wiedemann, Bettina Warscheid, Nikolaus Pfanner, Richard Wagner, Chris Meisinger
The mitochondrial outer membrane is essential for communication between mitochondria and the rest of the cell and facilitates the transport of metabolites, ions, and proteins. All mitochondrial outer membrane channels known to date are β-barrel membrane proteins, including the abundant voltage-dependent anion channel and the cation-preferring protein-conducting channels Tom40, Sam50, and Mdm10. We analyzed outer membrane fractions of yeast mitochondria and identified four new channel activities: two anion-preferring channels and two cation-preferring channels...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912125/blm-helicase-regulates-dna-repair-by-counteracting-rad51-loading-at-dna-double-strand-break-sites
#14
Dharm S Patel, Sarah M Misenko, Joonyoung Her, Samuel F Bunting
The BLM gene product, BLM, is a RECQ helicase that is involved in DNA replication and repair of DNA double-strand breaks by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. During HR, BLM has both pro- and anti-recombinogenic activities, either of which may contribute to maintenance of genomic integrity. We find that in cells expressing a mutant version of BRCA1, an essential HR factor, ablation of BLM rescues genomic integrity and cell survival in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks. Improved genomic integrity in these cells is linked to a substantial increase in the stability of RAD51 at DNA double-strand break sites and in the overall efficiency of HR...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912124/kindlin-2-recruits-paxillin-and-arp2-3-to-promote-membrane-protrusions-during-initial-cell-spreading
#15
Ralph T Böttcher, Maik Veelders, Pascaline Rombaut, Jan Faix, Marina Theodosiou, Theresa E Stradal, Klemens Rottner, Roy Zent, Franz Herzog, Reinhard Fässler
Cell spreading requires the coupling of actin-driven membrane protrusion and integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The integrin-activating adaptor protein kindlin-2 plays a central role for cell adhesion and membrane protrusion by directly binding and recruiting paxillin to nascent adhesions. Here, we report that kindlin-2 has a dual role during initial cell spreading: it binds paxillin via the pleckstrin homology and F0 domains to activate Rac1, and it directly associates with the Arp2/3 complex to induce Rac1-mediated membrane protrusions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904000/correction-dynamics-of-in-vivo-asc-speck-formation
#16
Paola Kuri, Nicole L Schieber, Thomas Thumberger, Joachim Wittbrodt, Yannick Schwab, Maria Leptin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903999/cdc42-regulates-junctional-actin-but-not-cell-polarization-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-epidermis
#17
Yuliya Zilberman, Joshua Abrams, Dorian C Anderson, Jeremy Nance
During morphogenesis, adherens junctions (AJs) remodel to allow changes in cell shape and position while preserving adhesion. Here, we examine the function of Rho guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42 in AJ formation and regulation during Caenorhabditis elegans embryo elongation, a process driven by asymmetric epidermal cell shape changes. cdc-42 mutant embryos arrest during elongation with epidermal ruptures. Unexpectedly, we find using time-lapse fluorescence imaging that cdc-42 is not required for epidermal cell polarization or junction assembly, but rather is needed for proper junctional actin regulation during elongation...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899994/heterodimeric-capping-protein-is-required-for-stereocilia-length-and-width-regulation
#18
Matthew R Avenarius, Jocelyn F Krey, Rachel A Dumont, Clive P Morgan, Connor B Benson, Sarath Vijayakumar, Christopher L Cunningham, Deborah I Scheffer, David P Corey, Ulrich Müller, Sherri M Jones, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Control of the dimensions of actin-rich processes like filopodia, lamellipodia, microvilli, and stereocilia requires the coordinated activity of many proteins. Each of these actin structures relies on heterodimeric capping protein (CAPZ), which blocks actin polymerization at barbed ends. Because dimension control of the inner ear's stereocilia is particularly precise, we studied the CAPZB subunit in hair cells. CAPZB, present at ∼100 copies per stereocilium, concentrated at stereocilia tips as hair cell development progressed, similar to the CAPZB-interacting protein TWF2...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893839/mitochondrial-fission-facilitates-the-selective-mitophagy-of-protein-aggregates
#19
Jonathon L Burman, Sarah Pickles, Chunxin Wang, Shiori Sekine, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Zhe Zhang, Alice M Youle, Catherine L Nezich, Xufeng Wu, John A Hammer, Richard J Youle
Within the mitochondrial matrix, protein aggregation activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy to mitigate proteotoxicity. We explore how autophagy eliminates protein aggregates from within mitochondria and the role of mitochondrial fission in mitophagy. We show that PINK1 recruits Parkin onto mitochondrial subdomains after actinonin-induced mitochondrial proteotoxicity and that PINK1 recruits Parkin proximal to focal misfolded aggregates of the mitochondrial-localized mutant ornithine transcarbamylase (ΔOTC)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887438/-silencing-of-retrotransposons-by-setdb1-inhibits-the-interferon-response-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Trinna L Cuellar, Anna-Maria Herzner, Xiaotian Zhang, Yogesh Goyal, Colin Watanabe, Brad A Friedman, Vasantharajan Janakiraman, Steffen Durinck, Jeremy Stinson, David Arnott, Tommy K Cheung, Subhra Chaudhuri, Zora Modrusan, Jonas Martin Doerr, Marie Classon, Benjamin Haley
A propensity for rewiring genetic and epigenetic regulatory networks, thus enabling sustained cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, and the ability to evade the immune system, is vital to cancer cell propagation. An increased understanding of how this is achieved is critical for identifying or improving therapeutic interventions. In this study, using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) human cell lines and a custom CRISPR/Cas9 screening platform, we identify the H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 as a novel, negative regulator of innate immunity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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