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Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348149/in-memoriam-ben-barres
#1
Nicola J Allen, Richard Daneman
Ben Barres, professor of neurobiology at Stanford University and member of the JCB editorial board for over 15 years, passed away on December 27, 2017, after a lengthy battle with pancreatic cancer. Ben left an indelible mark on the scientific community as a scientist, an advocate for equality, and an unbelievably supportive mentor. As a scientist his creative approaches led him to remarkable discoveries about the importance of glial cells in the brain, and his passion elevated these cells from the "other cells in the brain" to a significant place in the consciousness of neurobiology...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348148/replication-timing-kept-in-line
#2
Rachel J O'Neill, Michael J O'Neill
Accurate and synchronous replication timing between chromosome homologues is essential for maintaining chromosome stability, yet how this is achieved has remained a mystery. In this issue, Platt et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201707082) identify antisense LINE (L1) transcripts within long noncoding RNAs as the critical factor in maintaining synchronous chromosome-wide replication timing.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348147/bao-liang-song-loving-biology-in-the-time-of-cholesterol
#3
Marie Anne O'Donnell
Song studies the trafficking and biological activities of cholesterol.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348146/the-ins-and-outs-of-mitofusins
#4
Marta Giacomello, Luca Scorrano
Mitofusins are outer membrane proteins essential for mitochondrial fusion. Their accepted topology posits that both N and C termini face the cytoplasm. In this issue, Mattie et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201611194) demonstrate instead that their C termini reside in the intermembrane space. These findings call for a revision of the current models of mitochondrial fusion.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339438/quantifying-exosome-secretion-from-single-cells-reveals-a-modulatory-role-for-gpcr-signaling
#5
Frederik Johannes Verweij, Maarten P Bebelman, Connie R Jimenez, Juan J Garcia-Vallejo, Hans Janssen, Jacques Neefjes, Jaco C Knol, Richard de Goeij-de Haas, Sander R Piersma, S Rubina Baglio, Matthijs Verhage, Jaap M Middeldorp, Anoek Zomer, Jacco van Rheenen, Marc G Coppolino, Ilse Hurbain, Graça Raposo, Martine J Smit, Ruud F G Toonen, Guillaume van Niel, D Michiel Pegtel
Exosomes are small endosome-derived extracellular vesicles implicated in cell-cell communication and are secreted by living cells when multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with the plasma membrane (PM). Current techniques to study exosome physiology are based on isolation procedures after secretion, precluding direct and dynamic insight into the mechanics of exosome biogenesis and the regulation of their release. In this study, we propose real-time visualization of MVB-PM fusion to overcome these limitations. We designed tetraspanin-based pH-sensitive optical reporters that detect MVB-PM fusion using live total internal reflection fluorescence and dynamic correlative light-electron microscopy...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339437/spr2-protects-minus-ends-to-promote-severing-and-reorientation-of-plant-cortical-microtubule-arrays
#6
Masayoshi Nakamura, Jelmer J Lindeboom, Marco Saltini, Bela M Mulder, David W Ehrhardt
The cortical microtubule arrays of higher plants are organized without centrosomes and feature treadmilling polymers that are dynamic at both ends. The control of polymer end stability is fundamental for the assembly and organization of cytoskeletal arrays, yet relatively little is understood about how microtubule minus ends are controlled in acentrosomal microtubule arrays, and no factors have been identified that act at the treadmilling minus ends in higher plants. Here, we identify Arabidopsis thaliana SPIRAL2 (SPR2) as a protein that tracks minus ends and protects them against subunit loss...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339436/rewired-notch-p53-by-numb-ing-mdm2
#7
Hyungsoo Kim, Ze'ev A Ronai
Although numerous pathways are known to control the tumor suppressor protein p53, coordinated regulation of the p53-Notch axis by Numb may have an even more remarkable impact. In this issue, Colaluca at al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201709092) reveal an unexpected role of a newly characterized Numb splice variant in the regulation of p53, which may have significant implications for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer.
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326288/drosophila-big-bang-regulates-the-apical-cytocortex-and-wing-growth-through-junctional-tension
#8
Giorgos Tsoumpekos, Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#9
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321170/an-interaction-between-myosin-10-and-the-cell-cycle-regulator-wee1-links-spindle-dynamics-to-mitotic-progression-in-epithelia
#10
Joshua C Sandquist, Matthew E Larson, Sarah Woolner, Zhiwei Ding, William M Bement
Anaphase in epithelia typically does not ensue until after spindles have achieved a characteristic position and orientation, but how or even if cells link spindle position to anaphase onset is unknown. Here, we show that myosin-10 (Myo10), a motor protein involved in epithelial spindle dynamics, binds to Wee1, a conserved regulator of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Wee1 inhibition accelerates progression through metaphase and disrupts normal spindle dynamics, whereas perturbing Myo10 function delays anaphase onset in a Wee1-dependent manner...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321169/the-actin-mrtf-srf-transcriptional-circuit-controls-tubulin-acetylation-via-%C3%AE-tat1-gene-expression
#11
Jaime Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Bernabé-Rubio, Javier Casares-Arias, Laura Rangel, Laura Fernández-Martín, Isabel Correas, Miguel A Alonso
The role of formins in microtubules is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which INF2, a formin mutated in degenerative renal and neurological hereditary disorders, controls microtubule acetylation. We found that silencing of INF2 in epithelial RPE-1 cells produced a dramatic drop in tubulin acetylation, increased the G-actin/F-actin ratio, and impaired myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, which is known to be repressed by increased levels of G-actin...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317530/the-polarity-protein-angiomotin-p130-controls-dendritic-spine-maturation
#12
Michael Wigerius, Dylan Quinn, Antonios Diab, Leanne Clattenburg, Annette Kolar, Jiansong Qi, Stefan R Krueger, James P Fawcett
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for the structural changes in dendritic spines that lead to the formation of new synapses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying spine formation are well characterized, the events that drive spine maturation during development are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Angiomotin (AMOT-130) is necessary for spine stabilization. AMOT-130 is enriched in mature dendritic spines and functions to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton by coupling F-actin to postsynaptic protein scaffolds...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317529/chemical-waves-in-cell-and-developmental-biology
#13
REVIEW
Victoria E Deneke, Stefano Di Talia
Many biological events, such as the propagation of nerve impulses, the synchronized cell cycles of early embryogenesis, and collective cell migration, must be coordinated with remarkable speed across very large distances. Such rapid coordination cannot be achieved by simple diffusion of molecules alone and requires specialized mechanisms. Although active transport can provide a directed and efficient way to travel across subcellular structures, it cannot account for the most rapid examples of coordination found in biology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317528/sphingolipids-activate-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-surveillance-pathway
#14
Francisco Piña, Fumi Yagisawa, Keisuke Obara, J D Gregerson, Akio Kihara, Maho Niwa
Proper inheritance of functional organelles is vital to cell survival. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress surveillance (ERSU) pathway ensures that daughter cells inherit a functional ER. Here, we show that the ERSU pathway is activated by phytosphingosine (PHS), an early biosynthetic sphingolipid. Multiple lines of evidence support this: (1) Reducing PHS levels with myriocin diminishes the ability of cells to induce ERSU phenotypes. (2) Aureobasidin A treatment, which blocks conversion of early intermediates to downstream complex sphingolipids, induces ERSU...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311228/tpxl-1-activates-aurora-a-to-clear-contractile-ring-components-from-the-polar-cortex-during-cytokinesis
#15
Sriyash Mangal, Jennifer Sacher, Taekyung Kim, Daniel Sampaio Osório, Fumio Motegi, Ana Xavier Carvalho, Karen Oegema, Esther Zanin
During cytokinesis, a signal from the central spindle that forms between the separating anaphase chromosomes promotes the accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell equator, while a signal from the centrosomal microtubule asters inhibits accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell poles. However, the molecular identity of the inhibitory signal has remained unknown. To identify molecular components of the aster-based inhibitory signal, we developed a means to monitor the removal of contractile ring proteins from the polar cortex after anaphase onset...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311227/src-and-confinement-dependent-fak-activation-causes-e-cadherin-relaxation-and-%C3%AE-catenin-activity
#16
Charlène Gayrard, Clément Bernaudin, Théophile Déjardin, Cynthia Seiler, Nicolas Borghi
In epithelia, E-cadherin cytoplasmic tail is under cytoskeleton-generated tension via a link that contains β-catenin. A cotranscription factor, β-catenin, is also active in morphogenetic processes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. β-Catenin signaling appears mechanically inducible and was proposed to follow phosphorylation-induced β-catenin release from E-cadherin. Evidence for this mechanism is lacking, and whether E-cadherin tension is involved is unknown. To test this, we combined quantitative fluorescence microscopies with genetic and pharmacological perturbations of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced cells in culture...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301867/protease-signaling-regulates-apical-cell-extrusion-cell-contacts-and-proliferation-in-epithelia
#17
Antonino Schepis, Adrian Barker, Yoga Srinivasan, Eaman Balouch, Yaowu Zheng, Ian Lam, Hilary Clay, Chung-Der Hsiao, Shaun R Coughlin
Mechanisms that sense and regulate epithelial morphogenesis, integrity, and homeostasis are incompletely understood. Protease-activated receptor 2 (Par2), the Par2-activating membrane-tethered protease matriptase, and its inhibitor, hepatocyte activator inhibitor 1 (Hai1), are coexpressed in most epithelia and may make up a local signaling system that regulates epithelial behavior. We explored the role of Par2b in matriptase-dependent skin abnormalities in Hai1a-deficient zebrafish embryos. We show an unexpected role for Par2b in regulation of epithelial apical cell extrusion, roles in regulating proliferation that were opposite in distinct but adjacent epithelial monolayers, and roles in regulating cell-cell junctions, mobility, survival, and expression of genes involved in tissue remodeling and inflammation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288153/l1-retrotransposon-antisense-rna-within-asar-lncrnas-controls-chromosome-wide-replication-timing
#18
Emily J Platt, Leslie Smith, Mathew J Thayer
Mammalian cells replicate their chromosomes via a temporal replication program. The ASAR6 and ASAR15 genes were identified as loci that when disrupted result in delayed replication and condensation of entire human chromosomes. ASAR6 and ASAR15 are monoallelically expressed long noncoding RNAs that remain associated with the chromosome from which they are transcribed. The chromosome-wide effects of ASAR6 map to the antisense strand of an L1 retrotransposon within ASAR6 RNA, deletion or inversion of which delayed replication of human chromosome 6...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288152/cytotoxic-granule-endocytosis-depends-on-the-flower-protein
#19
Hsin-Fang Chang, Stefanie Mannebach, Andreas Beck, Keerthana Ravichandran, Elmar Krause, Katja Frohnweiler, Claudia Fecher-Trost, Claudia Schirra, Varsha Pattu, Veit Flockerzi, Jens Rettig
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill target cells by the regulated release of cytotoxic substances from granules at the immunological synapse. To kill multiple target cells, CTLs use endocytosis of membrane components of cytotoxic granules. We studied the potential calcium dependence of endocytosis in mouse CTLs on Flower, which mediates the calcium dependence of synaptic vesicle endocytosis in Drosophila melanogaster Flower is predominantly localized on intracellular vesicles that move to the synapse on target cell contact...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284668/parp1-dependent-eviction-of-the-linker-histone-h1-mediates-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-neuronal-activation
#20
Gajendra Kumar Azad, Kenji Ito, Badi Sri Sailaja, Alva Biran, Malka Nissim-Rafinia, Yasuhiro Yamada, David T Brown, Takumi Takizawa, Eran Meshorer
Neuronal stimulation leads to immediate early gene (IEG) expression through calcium-dependent mechanisms. In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the transcriptional responses after neuronal stimulation, but relatively little is known about the changes in chromatin dynamics that follow neuronal activation. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, biochemical fractionations, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that KCl-induced depolarization in primary cultured cortical neurons causes a rapid release of the linker histone H1 from chromatin, concomitant with IEG expression...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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