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Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Maryam Akbari, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Kamran B Lankarani, Reza Tabrizi, Fariba Kolahdooz, Seyed Reza Khatibi, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles among patients with metabolic diseases. METHODS: We searched the following databases till October 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The relevant data were extracted and assessed for quality of the studies according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool...
July 7, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Christina M van der Beek, Emanuel E Canfora, Anna M Kip, Stefan H M Gorissen, Steven W M Olde Damink, Hans M van Eijk, Jens J Holst, Ellen E Blaak, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human gut microbiota play an important role in maintaining human health. Dietary fibers, i.e. prebiotics, are fermented by human gut microbiota into the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate. SCFAs promote fat oxidation and improve metabolic health. Therefore, the prebiotic inulin might be an effective dietary strategy to improve human metabolism. We aimed to investigate the acute metabolic effects of ingesting inulin compared with digestible carbohydrates and to trace inulin-derived SCFAs using stable isotope tracer methodology...
June 25, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Michael Doulberis, Christos Zeglinas, Fotini Artemaki, Elizabeth Vardaka, Georgia Deretzi, Evaggelia Giartza-Taxidou, Dimitri Tzivras, Efthymia Vlachaki, Evangelos Kazakos, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Christos S Mantzoros
Both Helicobacter pylori infection and metabolic syndrome present significant global public health burdens. Metabolic syndrome is closely related to insulin resistance, the major underlying mechanism responsible for metabolic abnormalities, and Helicobacter pylori infection has been proposed to be a contributing factor. There is growing evidence for a potential association between Helicobacter pylori infection and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and related morbidity, including abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, all of which increase mortality related to cardio-cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and malignancies...
June 21, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Aurélie Caillon, Kalina Duszka, Walter Wahli, Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Jordi Altirriba
BACKGROUND: Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endocannabinoid that controls food intake, energy expenditure and locomotor activity. Its anorexigenic effect appears to be mediated by PPARα, but the tissue where the presence of this receptor is required for OEA to inhibit feeding is unknown as yet. Previous studies point to a possible role of proximal enterocytes and neurons of the nodose ganglion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute intraperitoneal OEA effects on food intake, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and locomotor activity were studied in control mice (PPARα-loxP) and intestinal (Villin-Cre;PPARα-loxP) or nodose ganglion (Phox2B-Cre;PPARα-loxP) specific PPARα knockout mice placed in calorimetric cages...
June 21, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
John Wood, Margaret Chui Ling Tse, Xiuying Yang, Daniel Brobst, Zhixue Liu, Brian Pak Shing Pang, Wing Suen Chan, Aung Moe Zaw, Billy K C Chow, Keqiang Ye, Chi Wai Lee, Chi Bun Chan
BACKGROUND: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a small molecular weight compound that mimics the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The current study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of 7,8-DHF-induced body weight regulation. METHODS: Obese female C57/BL6 (20-week-old) mice that have been fed with high fat diet for 13 weeks were treated with 7,8-DHF for 9 weeks. Various biochemical and molecular analyses were performed to examine the signal transduction pathway, metabolite content, and mitochondrial mass in the animals...
June 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Alessandro Mantovani, Marco Dauriz, Christopher D Byrne, Amedeo Lonardo, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: It is currently uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumours. We performed a meta-analysis of relevant observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of colorectal adenomas and cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 2000 to November 2017 using pre-defined keywords to identify observational studies of asymptomatic adults undergoing screening colonoscopy, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by imaging or histology...
June 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Leonie C Ruddick-Collins, Neil A King, Nuala M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Assessment of whole body protein turnover (WBPT) can provide fundamental information about protein kinetics which underpins the conservation of lean tissue. Reliability and methodology studies on the measurement of WBPT are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effects of urine collection duration (9 versus 12 h) and the reproducibility of WBPT with the end product method calculated from ammonia as the end product. METHODS: WBPT was assessed in 21 healthy participants (11 M, 10F) on 2 test days...
June 19, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Dimitris Theofilatos, Panagiotis Fotakis, Efi Valanti, Despina Sanoudou, Vassilis Zannis, Dimitris Kardassis
BACKGROUND: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have numerous atheroprotective functions on various tissues including the endothelium. Therapies based on reconstituted HDL containing apoA-I (rHDL-apoA-I) have been used successfully in patients with acute coronary syndrome, peripheral vascular disease or diabetes but very little is known about the genomic effects of rHDL-apoA-I and how they could contribute to atheroprotection. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to understand the endothelial signaling pathways and the genes that may contribute to rHDL-apoA-I-mediated atheroprotection...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Viviana Vastolo, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Marco Ciccarelli, Luigi Albano, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Michele Longo, Francesco Beguinot, Paola Ungaro
BACKGROUND: The impact of nutrition on the evolution towards type 2 diabetes has recently received increasing attention because of the effect on chromatin structure and gene expression. PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of high-fat diet on chromatin remodelling and expression of Ped/Pea-15, a gene commonly overexpressed in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used mouse and cell models to investigate Ped/Pea-15 transcriptional regulation by high-fat diet and glucose, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Alessandro Mantovani, Stefano Bonapace, Gianluigi Lunardi, Matteo Salgarello, Clementina Dugo, Guido Canali, Christopher D Byrne, Stefania Gori, Enrico Barbieri, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that specific plasma ceramides are independently associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but it is currently unknown whether plasma ceramide levels are associated with stress-induced reversible myocardial ischemia. METHODS: We measured six previously identified high-risk plasma ceramide molecules [Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/20:0), Cer(d18:1/22:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1)] in 167 consecutive patients with established or suspected CAD who underwent either exercise or dypiridamole myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) for various clinical indications...
May 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Huan Liu, Wenjun Jiang, Xueru Chen, Guoying Chang, Lei Zhao, Xihua Li, Huiwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sidt2 is an integral lysosomal membrane protein. Previously, we generated a Sidt2 global knockout mouse and found impaired insulin secretion, along with skeletal muscle pathology. METHODS: A mouse model with a muscle-specific knockout of the Sidt2 gene (Sidt2f/f Cre) had been generated, to which extensive morphologic study as well as functional study was applied to investigate the direct role of Sidt2 on skeletal muscle tissue in vivo. Secondly, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway was examined by Western blot and immunostaining...
May 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Nikolaos Perakakis, Jagriti Upadhyay, Wael Ghaly, Joyce Chen, Pavlina Chrysafi, Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the adipose tissue derived hormone leptin controls reproductive function by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in response to energy deficiency. Here, we evaluate the activins-follistatins-inhibins (AFI) axis during acute (short-term fasting in healthy people) and chronic energy deficiency (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea due to strenuous exercise [HA]) and investigate their relation to leptin and reproductive function in healthy subjects and subjects with HA...
May 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Patricia C Borck, Thiago M Batista, Jean F Vettorazzi, Gabriela M Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Dongyin Guan, Antonio C Boschero, Elaine Vieira, Mitchell A Lazar, Everardo M Carneiro
OBJECTIVE: The exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts the biological rhythms and has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) display a critical role in fine-tuning the circadian system and energy metabolism. In this study, we aimed to assess whether altered miRNAs expression in the liver underlies metabolic disorders caused by disrupted biological rhythms. RESULTS: We found that C3H/HePas mice exposed to ALAN developed obesity, and hepatic steatosis, which was paralleled by decreased expression of Rev-erbα and up-regulation of its lipogenic targets ACL and FAS in liver...
May 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
David R Jacobs, Kristina S Petersen, Karianne Svendsen, Emilio Ros, Carol B Sloan, Lyn M Steffen, Linda C Tapsell, Penny M Kris-Etherton
The PREDIMED clinical trial provided strong evidence that a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) could help prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in high risk middle-aged/older people. This report considers the feasibility of replicating PREDIMED in the U.S., including recommendations for dietary and behavioral principles. A 14-point Mediterranean diet Adherence Score (MEDAS) guided the PREDIMED MedDiet recommendations. At baseline MEDAS points were ~8.5. During intervention this score increased to nearly 11 in MedDiet vs...
May 5, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
BACKGROUND: Metformin has anticancer effects, but whether it can reduce the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is not known. METHODS: A total of 15,486 ever-users and 15,486 never-users of metformin matched by propensity score were enrolled from among patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed during the period 1999-2005 and who were found in the reimbursement database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance. The patients were followed until December 31, 2011...
May 2, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Guo-En Wang, Yi-Fang Li, Yu-Jia Zhai, Lian Gong, Jing-Yu Tian, Mo Hong, Nan Yao, Yan-Ping Wu, Hiroshi Kurihara, Rong-Rong He
OBJECTIVE: Acylcarnitine metabolism disorder contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are, however, few ideal medications for NAFLD, which work by targeting acylcarnitine metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of theacrine, a rare purine alkaloid isolated from Camellia assamica var. kucha, against acylcarnitine metabolism disorder in NAFLD. METHODS: The pharmacological activities of theacrine were studied using high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 J mice models...
May 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Natalia Lucía Rukavina Mikusic, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Ana Uceda, Julieta Sofía Del Mauro, Marcela Pandolfo, Mariela Mercedes Gironacci, Ana María Puyó, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Marcelo Roberto Choi
BACKGROUND: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) and the renal dopaminergic system (RDS) act as autocrine and paracrine systems to regulate renal sodium management and inflammation and their alterations have been associated to hypertension and renal damage. Nearly 30-50% of hypertensive patients have insulin resistance (IR), with a strong correlation between hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of an imbalance between RAS and RDS associated to IR, hypertension and kidney damage induced by fructose overload (FO), as well as to establish their prevention, by pharmacological inhibition of RAS with losartan...
May 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Hafiane Anouar, Stella S Daskalopoulou
The term extracellular vesicles (EVs) describes membrane vesicles released into the extracellular space by most cell types. EVs have been recognized to play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. They are known to contain various bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Although the nomenclature of EVs is not entirely standardized, they are considered to include exosomes, microparticles or microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. EVs are believed to play important roles in a wide range of biological processes...
May 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Fang Yuan, Lin Zhang, Yang Cao, Wei Gao, Can Zhao, Yuan Fang, Kamyar Zahedi, Manoocher Soleimani, Xiang Lu, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Cold and β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation...
April 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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