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Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Kwok Leung Ong, Nicholas Hui, Andrzej S Januszewski, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Aimin Xu, Rana Fayyad, David A DeMicco, Alicia J Jenkins, Anthony C Keech, David D Waters, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
BACKGROUND: Higher plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels predict incident cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes patients. However, whether FGF21 levels predict cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients in the general population is unknown. We investigated whether FGF21 levels predict major cardiovascular event (MCVE) in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial participants. METHODS: After 8-week run-in on atorvastatin 10 mg/day, 10,001 patients with stable coronary disease in the TNT trial were randomized to 10 mg or 80 mg/day of atorvastatin for a median of 4...
November 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Michael Leutner, Peter Klimek, Christian Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Jürgen Harreiter, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Sabina Baumgartner-Parzer, Giovanni Pacini, Stefan Thurner, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
BACKGROUND: The influential role of incretin hormones on glucose metabolism in patients with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been investigated thoroughly, but there has been little examination of the effect of incretins and ectopic lipids on altered glucose profiles, especially severe hypoglycemia in pregnant women with RYGB. METHODS: In this prospective clinical study, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were conducted in 25 women with RYGB during pregnancy, 19 of normal weight (NW) and 19 with obesity (OB) between the 24th and the 28th weeks of pregnancy, and 3 to 6 months post-partum...
November 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jelena Vekic, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Aleksandra Stefanovic, Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic, Vesna Spasojevic-Kalimanovska
Obesity, a pandemic of the modern world, is intimately associated with dyslipidemia, which is mainly driven by the effects of insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory adipokines. However, recent evidence suggests that obesity-induced dyslipidemia is not a unique pathophysiological entity, but rather has distinct characteristics depending on many individual factors. In line with that, in a subgroup of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals, dyslipidemia is less prominent or even absent. In this review, we will address the main characteristics of dyslipidemia and mechanisms that induce its development in obesity...
November 14, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Konstantinos I Avgerinos, Nikolaos Spyrou, Christos S Mantzoros, Maria Dalamaga
Continuously rising trends in obesity-related malignancies render this disease spectrum a public health priority. Worldwide, the burden of cancer attributable to obesity, expressed as population attributable fraction, is 11.9% in men and 13.1% in women. There is convincing evidence that excess body weight is associated with an increased risk for cancer of at least 13 anatomic sites, including endometrial, esophageal, renal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas; hepatocellular carcinoma; gastric cardia cancer; meningioma; multiple myeloma; colorectal, postmenopausal breast, ovarian, gallbladder and thyroid cancers...
November 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Charles J Glueck, Naila Goldenberg
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has multiple etiologies including ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism, neuro-endocrine and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, and disorders of peripheral insulin resistance. Obesity is neither necessary nor sufficient for the PCOS phenotype, and the association of PCOS with obesity is not universal, with national, cultural, and ethnic differences. Obesity, particularly visceral adiposity which is common in obese and non-obese women with PCOS, amplifies and worsens all metabolic and reproductive outcomes in PCOS...
November 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jonathan Barlow, Thomas P J Solomon
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we aimed to examine real-time effects of molecules released by contracting skeletal muscle on the insulin secretory function of β-cells using a novel perifusion platform. We hypothesised that media conditioned by contracting skeletal muscle will influence insulin secretion and mitochondrial energy metabolism in β-cells under normal and type-2 diabetic conditions. METHODS: INS-1832/3 pseudoislets were perifused with media from C2C12 myotubes treated with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS; 40 V, 1...
November 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ling-Jun Li, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Izzuddin M Aris, Christos Mantzoros, Marie-France Hivert, Emily Oken
OBJECTIVES: Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue that promotes satiety, and some evidence suggests that greater early life leptin exposure prevents excessive adiposity gain in later life. However, few studies have analyzed dynamic changes in leptin throughout childhood in relation to later cardio-metabolic health. Our study aims to identify distinct leptin trajectories in childhood, and to examine their associations with cardio-metabolic outcomes in adolescence. METHODS: Among children in the Project Viva cohort born 1999-2002 in Massachusetts, we used latent class growth models to identify leptin trajectories independent of maternal BMI, child sex, race/ethnicity, size at birth and current age and size among 1360 children with leptin measured at least once at birth, early childhood (mean 3...
November 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Alejandro López Suárez
Overweight and obesity constitute a global pandemic with devastating consequences that affect >2 billion people. Obesity plays a central role in morbidity and mortality of diseases of multiple organs and systems, and it is a major contributor to the growing incidence of cancer. There is now sufficient level of evidence for the association between overweight and 11 types of cancer, among which are two of the most common cancers worldwide, those of the colorectum and postmenopausal breast. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol intake also account for the burden of cancer by promoting obesity...
November 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Kerstin Rohde, Maria Keller, Lars la Cour Poulsen, Matthias Blüher, Peter Kovacs, Yvonne Böttcher
Obesity is among the most threatening health burdens worldwide and its prevalence has markedly increased over the last decades. Obesity maybe considered a heritable trait. Identifications of rare cases of monogenic obesity unveiled that hypothalamic circuits and the brain-adipose axis play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, appetite, hunger and satiety. For example, mutations in the leptin gene cause obesity through almost unsuppressed overeating. Common (multifactorial) obesity, most likely resulting from a concerted interplay of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, is clearly linked to genetic predisposition by multiple risk variants, which, however only account for a minor part of the general BMI variability...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Eleni Pilitsi, Olivia M Farr, Stergios A Polyzos, Nikolaos Perakakis, Eric Nolen-Doerr, Aimilia-Eirini Papathanasiou, Christos S Mantzoros
Obesity is a chronic disease with a continuously rising prevalence that currently affects more than half a billion people worldwide. Energy balance and appetite are highly regulated via central and peripheral mechanisms, and weight loss triggers a homeostatic response leading to weight regain. Lifestyle and behavioral modifications are the cornerstones of obesity management; however, they often fail to achieve or sustain long-term weight loss. Pharmacotherapy added onto lifestyle modifications results in an additional, albeit limited, weight reduction...
October 31, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Takafumi Ando, Paolo Piaggi, Clifton Bogardus, Jonathan Krakoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy expenditure measured under sedentary conditions predicts weight change but evidence that directly measured VO2 max is associated with weight change is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the associations of VO2 max with measures of predominantly sedentary 24-h thermogenesis, and subsequent weight change. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven individuals (162 females; 27 Blacks, 72 Caucasians, and 258 American Indians) had measures of body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and intermittent treadmill run test for assessment of VO2 max...
October 29, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Anatoli Petridou, Aikaterina Siopi, Vassilis Mougios
Obesity is a multifactorial disease with increasing incidence and burden on societies worldwide. Obesity can be managed through everyday behavioral changes involving energy intake and energy expenditure. Concerning the latter, there is strong evidence that regular exercise contributes to body weight and fat loss, maintenance of body weight and fat reduction, and metabolic fitness in obesity. Appropriate exercise programs should ideally combine large negative energy balance, long-term adherence, and beneficial effects on health and well-being...
October 29, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Anastasia Kyselova, Hanna Hinrichsmeyer, Sven Zukunft, Alexander W Mann, Imke Dornauf, Ingrid Fleming, Voahanginirina Randriamboavonjy
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, a biomarker for potential cardiovascular disease in PCOS patients is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with PCOS and 22 healthy controls were included in the present study and amino acid profiling was performed on fasting plasma samples. Circulating microparticles were characterized by FACS analysis and complemented with enzyme activity assays...
October 24, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Shiki Okamoto, Nur Farehan Asgar, Shigefumi Yokota, Kumiko Saito, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimer with α1 or α2 catalytic subunits, acts as an energy sensor and regulates cellular homeostasis. Whereas AMPKα1 is necessary for myogenesis in skeletal muscle, the role of AMPKα2 in myogenic differentiation and energy metabolism-related gene expressions has remained unclear. We here examined the specific roles of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in the myogenic differentiation and mitochondria and energy metabolism-related gene expressions in C2C12 cells...
October 22, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Günter Päth, Nikolaos Perakakis, Christos S Mantzoros, Jochen Seufert
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation into insulin producing β-cells, but they raise ethical concerns and bear, like iPSC, the risk of tumours...
October 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Vasilios Karageorgiou, Theodoros G Papaioannou, Ioannis Bellos, Krystallenia Alexandraki, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Christodoulos Stefanadis, George P Chrousos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: Artificial pancreas is a technology that minimizes user input by bridging continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump treatment, and has proven safety in the adult population. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of closed-loop (CL) systems in the glycemic control of non-adult type 1 diabetes patients in both a pairwise and network meta-analysis (NMA) context and investigate various parameters potentially affecting the outcome. METHODS: Literature was systematically searched using the MEDLINE (1966-2018), Scopus (2004-2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999-2018), Clinicaltrials...
October 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Pierre-Gilles Blanchard, Rafael J Moreira, Érique de Castro, Alexandre Caron, Marie Côté, Maynara L Andrade, Tiago E Oliveira, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, France Anne Dias, Yves Gélinas, Renata Guerra-Sá, Yves Deshaies, William T Festuccia
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether PPARγ modulates adipose tissue BCAA metabolism, and whether this mediates the attenuation of obesity-associated insulin resistance induced by pharmacological PPARγ activation. METHODS: Mice with adipocyte deletion of one or two PPARγ copies fed a chow diet and rats fed either chow, or high fat (HF) or HF supplemented with BCAA (HF/BCAA) diets treated with rosiglitazone (30 or 15 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were evaluated for glucose and BCAA homeostasis...
October 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ji A Seo, Young-Bum Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Limei Liu, Yanjun Liu, Xiaoxu Ge, Xipeng Liu, Chen Chen, Yanzhong Wang, Ming Li, Jun Yin, Juan Zhang, Yating Chen, Rong Zhang, Yanyan Jiang, Weijing Zhao, Di Yang, Taishan Zheng, Ming Lu, Langen Zhuang, Meisheng Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Heterozygous inactivating mutations in GCK are associated with defects in pancreatic insulin secretion and/or hepatic glycogen synthesis leading to mild chronic hyperglycemia of maturity onset diabetes of young type 2 (MODY2). However, the effect of naturally occurring GCK mutations on the pathogenesis for MODY2 hyperglycemia remains largely unclear, especially in the Asian population. The aim of this study is to explore the potential pathogenicity of novel GCK mutations related to MODY2...
September 23, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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