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Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Stergios A Polyzos, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Amirhosssein Sahebkar, Željko Reiner, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Gianna Ferretti, Arrigo F G Cicero
AIM: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic and prothrombotic lipoprotein. Our aim was to quantify the extended-release nicotinic acid Lp(a) reducing effect with a meta-analysis of the available randomized clinical trials. METHODS: A meta-analysis and random-effects meta-regression were performed on data pooled from 14 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published between 1998 and 2015, comprising 17 treatment arms, which included 9013 subjects, with 5362 in the niacin arm...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ivan R B Godoy, Edgar Leonardo Martinez-Salazar, Alireza Eajazi, Pedro R Genta, Miriam A Bredella, Martin Torriani
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. METHODS: We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular plane to hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Tomoki Sato, Yuma Yoshida, Akihito Morita, Nobuko Mori, Shinji Miura
BACKGROUND: Glucose is used as an energy source in many organs and obtained from dietary carbohydrates. However, when the external energy supply is interrupted, e.g., during fasting, carbohydrates preserved in the liver and glycogenic precursors derived from other organs are used to maintain blood glucose levels. Glycerol and glycogenic amino acids derived from adipocytes and skeletal muscles are utilized as glycogenic precursors. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), an NAD(+)/NADH-dependent enzyme present in the cytosol, catalyzes the reversible conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ivor B Asztalos, Joi A Gleason, Sakine Sever, Reyhan Gedik, Bela F Asztalos, Katalin V Horvath, Michael L Dansinger, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the independent effects of EPA and DHA on lipid and apolipoprotein levels, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers of CVD risk, using doses often used in the general population. DESIGN: A blinded, randomized 6-week trial was performed in 121 healthy, normolipidemic subjects who received olive oil placebo 6g/d, EPA 600mg/d, EPA 1800mg/d, or DHA 600mg/d...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Sang-Man Jin, Yong Joo Hong, Jae Hwan Jee, Ji Cheol Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Moon-Kyu Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: Low serum albumin concentration is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. However, high serum albumin level appears to be linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to dissect the relative contributions of baseline and change in serum albumin concentration to the risk of incident metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This was a 5-year (63,060 person-years) retrospective longitudinal study of 12,567 participants without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in a health screening program...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Mirjam A Lips, Jan Bert van Klinken, Hanno Pijl, Ignace Janssen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Frits Koning, Vanessa van Harmelen
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss interventions such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and very low calorie diets (VLCD) lead to improvement of glucose metabolism in obese individuals with type-2 diabetes. Weight loss can also positively influence the unfavorable inflammatory profile associated with obesity. However, a direct comparison of the effect of VLCD and RYGB on systemic inflammation is lacking. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was investigated in age- and BMI-matched morbidly obese T2DM women by determining the number and activation- or memory status of peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry, in addition to measuring circulating levels of cytokines and CRP...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Cheryl L Rock, Shirley W Flatt, Bilge Pakiz, Elizabeth L Quintana, Dennis D Heath, Brinda K Rana, Loki Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Tami Rubinek, Shiri Shahmoon, Ayelet Shabtay-Orbach, Michal Ben Ami, Yael Levy-Shraga, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Yonatan Yeshayahu, Ram Doolman, Rina Hemi, Hannah Kanety, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
CONTEXT: Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys, which can be cleaved and shed to act as a circulating hormone. Several lines of evidence suggest a tight interaction between klotho and the GH-IGF-I axis. We showed previously that klotho levels are decreased in pediatric patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Our aim now is to investigate the effect of GH therapy on klotho levels in these patients and to elucidate the role of IGF-1 in mediating secretion of klotho...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Hye Jin Yoo, Soon Young Hwang, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Eun Mi Lee, Eung Joo Kim, Seung-Woon Rha, Chang Gyu Park, Dong Joo Oh, Hong Seog Seo
We compared heart rate variability (HRV) values according to the following body size phenotypes: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy but normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy but obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). We retrospectively analyzed a dataset from 1200 participants who had visited the Cardiovascular Center at Korea University Guro Hospital between March 2009 and February 2014 and underwent Holter monitoring for 24h. HRV was calculated from standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals (SDANN), and root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) measurements, and study subjects were classified according to body mass index (BMI) and presence or absence of metabolic syndrome...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yossi Dagon, Christos S Mantzoros, Young-Bum Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jheelam Banerjee, Antje Bruckbauer, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown leucine (Leu) to activate Sirt1 by lowering its KM for NAD(+), thereby amplifying the effects of other sirtuin activators and improving insulin sensitivity. Metformin (Met) converges on this pathway both indirectly (via AMPK) and by direct activation of Sirt1, and we recently found Leu to synergize with Met to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control while achieving ~80% dose-reduction in diet-induced obese mice. Accordingly, we sought here to define the mechanism of this interaction...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Julie A Dumas, Janice Y Bunn, Joshua Nickerson, Karen I Crain, David B Ebenstein, Emily K Tarleton, Jenna Makarewicz, Matthew E Poynter, Craig Lawrence Kien
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that a higher ratio of palmitic acid (PA)/oleic acid (OA) in the diet induces inflammation, which may result in deficient brain insulin signaling, and, secondarily, impaired physical activity, sleep efficiency, and cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that lowering the typical dietary PA/OA would affect the activation of relevant brain networks during a working memory task and would also lower secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra, Anjaneyulu Kowluru, Binit Kumar
AIM: In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the retina and the mitochondria are damaged, resulting in accelerated apoptosis. Dyslipidemia is also considered as one of the major factors in its development, and our aim is to investigate the compounding effect of hyperlipidemia in retinopathy. METHODS: Retinal ROS, mitochondrial damage and vascular pathology were investigated in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, type 2 diabetes model), during the age that spans from hyperlipidemia/pre-hyperglycemia (6weeks), to severe hyperglycemia/moderate hyperlipidemia (~12weeks), and ultimately to severe hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (20-40weeks)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Eugene Han, Myoung Soo Kim, Yu Seun Kim, Eun Seok Kang
The success rate of organ transplantation has been increasing with advances in surgical and pharmacological techniques. However, the number of solid organ transplant recipients who require metabolic disease management is also growing. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation and is associated with risks of graft loss, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. Other risk factors for PTDM include older age, genetic background, obesity, hepatitis C virus infection, hypomagnesemia, and use of immunosuppressant agents (corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Georgios Α Triantafyllou, Christos S Mantzoros
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the role of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main aim was the evaluation of serum activin A and follistatin levels in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD vs. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Fifteen patients with nonalcoholic simple steatosis (SS), 16 with steatohepatitis (NASH), and 52 (24 lean and 28 obese) controls were recruited. Activin A and follistatin were measured using ELISA...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Cécile Faure, Keyne Charlot, Stéphane Henri, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Olivier Hue, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
OBJECTIVE: The effect of physical activity on food intake regulation may be moderated by environmental temperature. The aim of the study was to determine the single and combined effects of metabolic activity and temperature on energy intake and its hormonal regulation. METHODS: A randomized crossover study was conducted in the laboratory. Ten healthy and physically active young Afro-Caribbean men participated in four experimental sessions (rest at 22°C and 31°C and cycling at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake at 22°C and 31°C, all for 40 min)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Eugene Han, Yong-Ho Lee, Gyuri Kim, So Ra Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong-Soo Cha
INTRODUCTION: Although sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, its influence on albuminuria has not been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sarcopenia and albuminuria in the general population. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 2326 subjects aged ≥20years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2008-2011. Appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess sarcopenia, which was defined as ASM divided by body mass index, as recommended by the international consensus meeting of the National Institutes of Health...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Thomas J Weber, Eileen K Sawyer, Scott Moseley, Tatjana Odrljin, Priya S Kishnani
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare metabolic bone disease caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline (TNSALP) phosphatase gene, which manifests as rickets and/or osteomalacia with systemic complications and affects patients of all ages. The burden of disease is poorly characterized in adult patients. AIMS: We assessed patient-reported burden of disease using two surveys reasonably specific for HPP symptomatology, the Hypophosphatasia Impact Patient Survey (HIPS) and the Hypophosphatasia Outcomes Study Telephone interview (HOST)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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