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Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137912/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-increases-risk-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Alessandro Mantovani, Gianluigi Zaza, Christopher D Byrne, Amedeo Lonardo, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies examined the prognostic impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the extent to which NAFLD may confer risk of incident CKD is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CKD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 1, 2000 to August 31, 2017 using pre-defined keywords to identify large observational cohort studies with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by biochemistry, fatty liver index or ultrasonography...
November 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129821/association-between-lipoprotein-a-and-proprotein-convertase-substilisin-kexin-type-9-in-patients-with-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-a-case-control-study
#2
Di Sun, Sha Li, Xi Zhao, Na-Qiong Wu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Ying Gao, Ping Qing, Chuan-Jue Cui, Geng Liu, Jing Sun, Qian Dong, Jian-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: Recent data have suggested an important role of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and proprotein convertase substilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in both general population and family hypercholesterolemia (FH), while the relation of Lp(a) to PCSK9 has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between plasma PCSK9 and Lp(a)in patients with heterozygous FH (HeFH)...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129820/deactivation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-infiltrating-macrophages-by-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-surgery-mediates-improvement-of-beta-cell-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Dong Wu, Zhi-Bo Yan, Yu-Gang Cheng, Ming-Wei Zhong, Shao-Zhuang Liu, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery could improve pancreatic beta cell function, thereby leading to the remission of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon is yet to be revealed. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in infiltrating macrophages plays an important role in the modulation of beta cell function after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126696/coordination-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-re-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
Hashim Islam, Brittany A Edgett, Brendon J Gurd
The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is proposed to coordinate skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis through the integrated induction of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription. This paradigm is based largely on experiments demonstrating PGC-1α's ability to co-activate various nuclear transcription factors that increase the expression of mitochondrial genes, as well PGC-1α's direct interaction with mitochondrial transcription factor A within mitochondria to increase the transcription of mitochondrial DNA...
November 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113813/altered-glucose-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-what-s-glp-1-got-to-do-with-it
#6
REVIEW
Eric P Smith, Georgina Polanco, Abid Yaqub, Marzieh Salehi
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. The two widely performed weight-loss procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), alter postprandial glucose pattern and enhance gut hormone secretion immediately after surgery before significant weight loss. This weight-loss independent glycemic effects of GB has been attributed to an accelerated nutrient transit from stomach pouch to the gut and enhanced secretion of insulinotropic gut factors; in particular, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113812/differential-associations-of-lower-cardiac-vagal-tone-with-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion-in-recently-diagnosed-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Dan Ziegler, Alexander Strom, Gidon Bönhof, Sonja Püttgen, Kálmán Bódis, Volker Burkart, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Daniel F Markgraf, Michael Roden
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear to which extent altered insulin sensitivity/secretion contribute to the development of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) characterized by diminished heart rate variability (HRV). We hypothesised that lower HRV is differentially associated with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study included participants from the German Diabetes Study with type 1 (n=275) or type 2 diabetes (n=450) with known diabetes duration ≤1 year and glucose-tolerant controls (n=81)...
November 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#8
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108900/irisin-and-leptin-concentrations-in-relation-to-obesity-and-developing-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-and-a-prospective-case-control-study-nested-in-the-normative-aging-study
#9
Ayse Sahin-Efe, Jagriti Upadhyay, Byung-Joon Ko, Fadime Dincer, Kyung Hee Park, Alexandra Migdal, Pantel Vokonas, Christos Mantzoros
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between irisin and leptin levels in obesity and insulin resistance in a cross sectional study. To assess the potential role of irisin and leptin as a predictive marker of T2DM using a nested case-control study. METHODS: Both studies were designed within the longitudinal VA NAS cohort. The cross sectional study involved 111 non obese and 105 obese subjects who were subdivided into two groups based on their fasting glucose tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108899/kallmann-syndrome-phenotype-and-genotype-of-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#10
M I Stamou, N A Georgopoulos
Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency (IGD) IGD is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in many different genes are able to explain ~40% of the causes of IGD, with the rest of cases remaining genetically uncharacterized. While most mutations are inherited in X-linked, autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive pattern, several IGD genes are shown to interact with each other in an oligogenic manner. In addition, while the genes involved in the pathogenesis of IGD act on either neurodevelopmental or neuroendocrine pathways, a subset of genes are involved in both pathways, acting as "overlap genes"...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107598/bone-metabolism-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-hypothalamic-amenorrhea
#11
Sharon H Chou, Christos Mantzoros
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance...
October 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106945/activation-of-the-sting-irf3-pathway-promotes-hepatocyte-inflammation-apoptosis-and-induces-metabolic-disorders-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
J T Qiao, C Cui, L Qing, L S Wang, T Y He, F Yan, F Q Liu, Y H Shen, X G Hou, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common result of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hepatocyte injury and metabolic disorders are hallmarks of NAFLD. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its downstream factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) trigger inflammatory reaction in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA. STING has recently been shown to play an important role in early alcoholic liver disease. However, little is known about the role of STING-IRF3 pathway in hepatocyte injury...
October 26, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080814/sleep-devices-wearables-and-nearables-informational-and-interventional-consumer-and-clinical
#13
Matt T Bianchi
The field of sleep is in many ways ideally positioned to take full advantage of advancements in technology and analytics that is fueling the mobile health movement. Combining hardware and software advances with increasingly available big datasets that contain scored data obtained under gold standard sleep laboratory conditions completes the trifecta of this perfect storm. This review highlights recent developments in consumer and clinical devices for sleep, emphasizing the need for validation at multiple levels, with the ultimate goal of using personalized data and advanced algorithms to provide actionable information that will improve sleep health...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080813/arginine-reverses-growth-hormone-resistance-through-the-inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-inflammatory-pathway
#14
Jingren Xu, Canjun Zhu, Mengyuan Zhang, Qingchun Tong, Xiaojuan Wan, Zhengrui Liao, Xingcai Cai, Yaqiong Xu, Yexian Yuan, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Qianyun Xi, Yong Xu, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone stimulates growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression and secretion. In the presence of insufficient nutrients, GH increases, whereas IGF-1 expression becomes severely suppressed, leading to GH resistance. This study aimed to explore the effect of arginine (Arg) on GH resistance during malnutrition and to describe its underlying mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with Arg for 1 h or subjected to caloric restriction with Arg supplement in drinking water for 18 days...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080812/juvenile-paget-disease
#15
Stergios A Polyzos, Tim Cundy, Christos S Mantzoros
Juvenile Paget disease (JPD) is a rare disorder, mainly caused by mutations in the gene TNFRSF11B that encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG). Loss of OPG action causes generalized, extremely rapid bone turnover. The clinical manifestations are both skeletal - progressive skeletal deformity that develops in childhood - and extra-skeletal, including hearing loss, retinopathy, vascular calcification and internal carotid artery aneurysm formation. The severity of the phenotype seems to be related to the severity of TNFRSF11B gene deactivation...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080811/genetics-of-sost-sost-in-sclerosteosis-and-van-buchem-disease-animal-models
#16
Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela G Loots
Sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease (VBD) are two rare autosomal recessive disorders that results from osteoblast hyperactivity, in which progressive bone overgrowth leads to very dense bones, distortion of the face, and entrapment of cranial nerves. Sclerosteosis is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SOST gene which encodes a secreted glycoprotein, sclerostin. VBD is caused by a noncoding deletion that removes a SOST-specific regulatory element in bone. In bone, SOST is expressed predominantly by osteocytes and sclerostin suppress bone formation by inhibiting the canonical Wnt signaling pathway...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066285/understanding-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-pathophysiology-and-clinical-outcomes
#17
Spyridon N Karras, Carol L Wagner, V Daniel Castracane
This critical time frame of intrauterine life development is considered of major importance on the metabolic imprinting of overall health of the offspring, in later life. This requires a delicate immune balance that nurtures the allogeneic fetus, while maintaining reactivity against pathogens. Dysregulation of these tightly controlled biophenomena at a systemic and placental level, have been considered as a potential mechanism mediating pathogenesis of preeclampsia and spontaneous birth. In this context, vitamin D has been considered as a significant regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
October 21, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051043/lysyl-oxidase-and-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#18
Emilie Pastel, Emily Price, Kajsa Sjöholm, Laura J McCulloch, Nikolaj Rittig, Neil Liversedge, Bridget Knight, Niels Moller, Per-Arne Svensson, Katarina Kos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme crucial for collagen fibre crosslinking and thus for fibrosis development. Fibrosis is characterised by a surplus of collagen fibre accumulation and is amongst others also a feature of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) which has been linked with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that in type 2 diabetes and obesity LOX expression and activity will be increased as a consequence of worsening AT dysfunction. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterisation of LOX in human AT...
October 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051042/bone-disease-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#19
Polyzois Makras, Athanasios D Anastasilakis
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disease of high bone turnover, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) especially at cortical sites, and increased risk of fractures at all skeletal sites. Early diagnosis during the last decades resulted in milder forms of bone involvement. New methods of imaging and validation such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and trabecular bone score provide evidence of disturbed bone microarchitecture and explain further the increased risk of fractures at both cortical and trabecular skeletal sites...
October 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051041/retinal-vasculature-and-5-year-metabolic-syndrome-among-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Ling-Jun Li, Kok Hian Tan, Izzuddin M Aris, Ryan Eyn Kidd Man, Alfred Tau Liang Gan, Yap Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Peter Gluckman, Tien Yin Wong, Ecosse Lamoureux
BACKGROUND: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the association between second-trimester retinal microvasculature and 5-year MetS incidence in women with GDM. METHODS: A total of 142 mothers with GDM were recruited and followed up 5 years after delivery. Retinal photography was performed at 26-28 weeks gestation and metabolic outcomes were assessed at the 5-year postpartum follow-up visit. GDM and MetS were defined based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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