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Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336982/il-6-receptor-blockade-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-via-inhibiting-inflammasome-in-mice
#1
Rui Wu, Xuanchen Liu, Jianyong Yin, Huijuan Wu, Xiulei Cai, Niansong Wang, Youcun Qian, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a key mediator in inflammation, immune responses and glucose metabolism. In this study, we assessed the effects of an IL-6 receptor antibody on diabetic nephropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Twelve week old male db/db mice were treated with Tocilizumab (an IL-6 receptor antibody), normal IgG1 control antibody, insulin or normal saline for 12 weeks. Renal injury, inflammation and insulin resistance were assessed...
January 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320716/distinct-roles-of-systemic-and-local-actions-of-insulin-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#3
Takumi Kitamoto, Kenichi Sakurai, Eun Young Lee, Koutaro Yokote, Domenico Accili, Takashi Miki
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic β-cell mass and function are critical in glucose homeostasis. Their regulatory mechanisms have been studied principally under experimental conditions of reduced β-cell numbers, such as β-cell ablation and partial pancreatectomy. In the present study, we generated an opposite mouse model with an excessive amount of ectopic β-cells, and analyzed its consequence on β-cell mass and survival. METHODS: Mice underwent sub-renal transplantation (SRT) of pseudo-islets generated from a pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 or intra-pancreatic transplantation (IPT) of MIN6 cells, and morphological and functional changes of their endocrine pancreata were analyzed...
January 7, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309748/turner-syndrome-transition-from-childhood-to-adolescence
#4
Ioanna Kosteria, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Transition from pediatric to adult care for young women with Turner Syndrome (TS) is characterized by high drop-out rates and inadequate follow-up, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The complexity of the health issues young women with TS face or new problems that may arise warrants a well-structured and efficiently coordinated gradual transition plan, which is adapted to the individual needs of the emerging young adult and is based on interdisciplinary communication between physicians. In order to achieve a high level of care, it is important for the patient to be sincerely informed about her condition but also supported throughout this critical period of rising responsibility and autonomy by an experienced, multidisciplinary team...
January 5, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309747/inflammation-a-key-player-linking-obesity-with-malignancies
#5
EDITORIAL
Chrysoula Boutari, Christos S Mantzoros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307520/skeletal-muscle-ceramides-and-daily-fat-oxidation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#6
Nicholas T Broskey, Diana N Obanda, Jeffrey H Burton, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ectopic accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle and the formation of deleterious lipid intermediates is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Similarly, impaired fat oxidation (metabolic inflexibility) are predictors of weight gain and the development of T2DM; however, no study has investigated the relation between muscle ceramide accumulation and 24-h macronutrient oxidation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationships between whole body fat oxidation and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation in obese non-diabetic individuals (ND) and in people with obesity and T2DM...
January 4, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307519/the-history-of-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-development-of-standards-for-patient-safety-and-efficacy
#7
REVIEW
Blaine T Phillips, Scott A Shikora
Weight loss surgery, also referred to as bariatric surgery, has been in existence since the 1950's. Over the decades, it has been demonstrated to successfully achieve meaningful and sustainable weight loss in a large number of patients who undergo these procedures. Additionally, the benefits observed across a number of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, are often to a degree, independent of the weight loss, thus the term "metabolic bariatric surgery (MBS)" has become a better descriptor...
January 4, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305947/deviations-in-energy-sensing-predict-long-term-weight-change-in-overweight-native-americans
#8
Alessio Basolo, Susanne B Votruba, Sascha Heinitz, Jonathan Krakoff, Paolo Piaggi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0±7.9years, body fat: 39.7±9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305946/a-whole-grain-diet-reduces-peripheral-insulin-resistance-and-improves-glucose-kinetics-in-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jacob M Haus, Julianne Filion, Mangesh R Pagadala, Jean-Philippe Godin, Sunil Kochhar, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
BACKGROUND: Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38±2 yrs.; BMI, 34.0±1.1kg/m2). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6-2H2]-glucose and [U-13C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291429/curcumin-potentiates-cholesterol-lowering-effects-of-phytosterols-in-hypercholesterolaemic-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Jessica J A Ferguson, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND: Dietary phytosterols (PS) are well-known hypocholesterolaemic agents. Curcumin elicits hypolipidaemic and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical studies, however, consistent findings in humans are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Concurrent PS and curcumin supplementation may exhibit enhanced hypocholesterolaemic and anti-inflammatory effects to optimise cardio-protection. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of dietary intervention with PS with or without curcumin on blood lipids (primary outcome) in hypercholesterolaemic individuals...
December 29, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289515/conditioned-medium-from-contracting-skeletal-muscle-cells-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunction-of-endothelial-cells
#11
Yihe Zhao, Nana Li, Zhu Li, Da Zhang, Liming Chen, Zhi Yao, Wenyan Niu
OBJECTIVE: Obese adipose tissue has been characterized with chronic inflammation associated with elevated secretion of inflammatory cytokines and declined secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines which can impair endothelial function in an endocrine manner. Adipose tissue hypoxia plays a role in the changes of cytokines. Physical exercise / muscle contraction may help preventing cardiovascular disease through improving insulin resistance and endothelium function. However the mechanism is unclear...
December 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289514/nutrient-excess-and-autophagic-deficiency-explaining-metabolic-diseases-in-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Gustav van Niekerk, André duToit, Ben Loos, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the driving forces behind the development of metabolic diseases. Conversely, caloric restriction and exercise have proven to be the most effective strategies in combating metabolic diseases. Interestingly, exercise and caloric restriction share a common feature: both represent a potent mechanism for upregulating autophagy. Autophagy is rapidly induced by nutrient deprivation, and conversely, inactivated by amino acids as well as growth factors (e.g. insulin). Here, we review evidence demonstrating that autophagy may indeed be attenuated in metabolic tissue such as liver, muscle, and adipose, in the context of obesity...
December 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288691/a-prospective-study-of-the-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-restrictive-and-obstructive-lung-function-impairment-the-saku-study
#13
Nao Sonoda, Akiko Morimoto, Yukako Tatsumi, Kei Asayama, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Satoshi Izawa, Yuko Ohno
BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of diabetes on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. METHODS: This 5-year prospective study included 7524 participants aged 40-69years without lung function impairment at baseline who underwent a comprehensive medical check-up between April 2008 and March 2009 at Saku Central Hospital. Diabetes was defined by fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl), HbA1c≥6.5% (48mmol/mol), or a history of diabetes, as determined by interviews conducted by the physicians...
December 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273469/circulating-triacylglycerols-but-not-pancreatic-fat-associate-with-insulin-secretion-in-healthy-humans
#14
Bettina Nowotny, Sabine Kahl, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Roshan Livingstone, Peter J Nowotny, Valerie Stamm, Christian Herder, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices...
December 19, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253490/restricted-feeding-for-9h-in-the-active-period-partially-abrogates-the-detrimental-metabolic-effects-of-a-western-diet-with-liquid-sugar-consumption-in-mice
#15
Lauren N Woodie, Yuwen Luo, Michael J Wayne, Emily C Graff, Bulbul Ahmed, Ann Marie O'Neill, Michael W Greene
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health concern that can result from diets high in fat and sugar, including sugar sweetened beverages. A proposed treatment for dietary-induced obesity is time-restricted feeding (TRF), which restricts consumption of food to specific times of the 24-h cycle. Although TRF shows great promise to prevent obesity and the development of chronic disease, the effects of TRF to reverse metabolic changes and the development of NAFLD in animal models of a Western diet with sugary water consumption is not known...
December 15, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229227/the-importance-of-the-circadian-system-sleep-for-bone-health
#16
Christine M Swanson, Wendy M Kohrt, Orfeu M Buxton, Carol A Everson, Kenneth P Wright, Eric S Orwoll, Steven A Shea
Adequate sleep timed appropriately during the circadian night is important for numerous biological processes and systems. New evidence suggests that both sleep timing and duration may be important for optimal bone health as well. This review examines the diurnal variation of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and the importance of circadian clock genes in regulating bone mass. In addition, this review explores the evidence for a link between shift work (and its associated disturbances in sleep duration/quality and circadian alignment) and alterations in bone metabolism and bone health...
December 8, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225087/activation-of-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-attenuates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dedifferentiation-in-a-high-fat-diet-mouse-model
#17
Xiuping Xuan, Fei Gao, Xiaoyi Ma, Chenghu Huang, Hongjun Deng, Shiqi Wang, Wencun Li, Li Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified in pancreatic islets and can preserve β cells. In this study, we aimed to examine the possible role of ACE2 and its end product, angiotensin 1-7 (A1-7), in reducing β cell dedifferentiation during metabolic stress. METHODS: First, a lineage-tracing experiment was performed to track β cells in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Second, the ACE2/A1-7 axis was evaluated in the HFD mouse model. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITTs) were conducted...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223678/protein-sparing-therapies-in-acute-illness-and-obesity-a-review-of-george-blackburn-s-contributions-to-nutrition-science
#18
REVIEW
Dylan D Thomas, Nawfal W Istfan, Bruce R Bistrian, Caroline M Apovian
Protein sparing therapies were developed to mitigate the harms associated with protein-calorie malnutrition and nitrogen losses induced by either acute illness or hypocaloric diets in patients with obesity. We review the development of protein sparing therapies in illness and obesity with a focus on the pioneering contributions of George Blackburn, MD, PhD. He recognized that protein-calorie malnutrition is a common and serious clinical condition and developed new approaches to its treatment in hospitalized patients...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223677/the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis-tales-of-mice-and-men
#19
REVIEW
Athina Kaprara, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi
Reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a central role in this axis through production of GnRH, which binds to a membrane receptor on pituitary gonadotrophs and stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Multiple factors affect GnRH neuron migration, GnRH gene expression, GnRH pulse generator, GnRH secretion, GnRH receptor expression, and gonadotropin synthesis and release...
December 6, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221790/fam3-gene-family-a-promising-therapeutical-target-for-nafld-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Zhang Xiaoyan, Weili Yang, Junpei Wang, Yuhong Meng, Youfei Guan, Jichun Yang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are severe public health issues worldwide. The Family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family consists of four members designated as FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D, respectively. Recently, there had been increasing evidence that FAM3A, FAM3B and FAM3C are important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. FAM3A expression is reduced in the livers of diabetic rodents and NAFLD patients. Hepatic FAM3A restoration activates ATP-P2 receptor-Akt and AMPK pathways to attenuate steatosis and hyperglycemia in obese diabetic mice...
December 5, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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