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Naoyuki Iwahashi, Midori Ikezaki, Ibu Matsuzaki, Madoka Yamamoto, Saori Toujima, Shin-Ichi Murata, Yoshito Ihara, Kazuhiko Ino
During placental development, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts differentiate and fuse to syncytiotrophoblasts (STB) to form syncytia, which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Decreased maternal perfusion of the placenta, which leads to placental dysfunction, induces changes in trophoblast syncytialization. Our previous study showed that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone found in the endoplasmic reticulum, is expressed in the human placenta and is involved in regulating extravillous trophoblast invasion, although its role in villous trophoblasts remains unclear...
December 14, 2018: Endocrinology
Arisa Sugimoto, Hitomi Tsuchida, Nahoko Ieda, Kana Ikegami, Naoko Inoue, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura
Follicular development and ovulation are profoundly suppressed during lactation in mammals. This suppression is suggested to be mainly due to the suckling-induced inhibition of kisspeptin gene (Kiss1) expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and consequent inhibition of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release. The present study aims to examine whether central somatostatin (SST) signaling mediates the suckling-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. SST has been reported to be expressed in the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus (PIL), where the suckling stimulus is postulated to be relayed to the hypothalamus during lactation...
December 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Mita Varghese, Cameron Griffin, Kaitlin McKernan, Leila Eter, Nicholas Lanzetta, Devyani Agarwal, Simin Abrishami, Kanakadurga Singer
Males are known to have profound adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) accumulation in gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) during obesity, while females are protected from such an inflammatory response even with increased adiposity. The inflammatory tone in males is linked to insulin resistance and might be the underlying cause for sex differences in metabolic disease. Factors regulating the meta-inflammatory response remain unclear but enhanced lipid storage in females may explain the reduced inflammatory response to high fat diets...
December 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Hongjuan Pei, Christa M Patterson, Amy K Sutton, Korri H Burnett, Martin G Myers, David P Olson
The central melanocortin (Mc) system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance. While the decreased energy expenditure and increased adiposity of Mc-3 receptor (Mc3R)-null mice suggest the importance of Mc3R-regulated neurons in energy homeostasis, the roles for specific subsets of Mc3R neurons in energy balance have yet to be determined. Because the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contributes to the control of energy expenditure and feeding, we generated Mc3rcre mice to determine the roles of LHA Mc3R (Mc3RLHA) neurons in energy homeostasis...
December 11, 2018: Endocrinology
Sarah Appel, Jon Grothe, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Maria Wohlfarth, Marion Handwerk, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Alexandra Gellhaus, Jörg Dötsch
Obesity and an unhealthy nutrition are on the rise and affect also women in childbearing age and hence, during pregnancy. Despite normal or even high birth weight the offspring suffers from long term metabolic risks. We hypothesized that fetal growth is disturbed during different intrauterine phases. Underlying molecular events remain elusive. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational time points G15...
December 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Stephanie V Koebele, Justin M Palmer, Bryanna Hadder, Ryan Melikian, Carly Fox, Isabel M Strouse, Dale DeNardo, Christina George, Emily Daunis, Adrianna Nimer, Loretta P Mayer, Cheryl A Dyer, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Approximately one-third of women experience hysterectomy, or the surgical removal of the uterus, by age 60, with most surgeries occurring prior to the onset of natural menopause. The ovaries are retained in about half of these surgeries while, for the other half, hysterectomy occurs concurrently with oophorectomy. The dogma is that the non-pregnant uterus is dormant. There have been no preclinical assessments of surgical variations in menopause including hysterectomy, with and without ovarian conservation, on endocrine and cognitive changes...
December 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Hiraku Kameda, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yukiko Tone, Masahide Tone, Shlomo Melmed
As an acidic cellular microenvironment is engendered by inflammation and may determine cell differentiation, we elucidated the impact of acidic conditions on induction of POMC expression. Here, we demonstrate mechanisms for proton-sensitivity of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) signaling to POMC and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production. Low pH (6.8) resulted in doubling of POMC expression and ACTH production in the pituitary cell line AtT-20 and in primary mouse pituitary cells. Using CRISPR knockout, we show that CRHR1 is required for acid-induced POMC expression, and this induction is mediated by CRHR1 histidine residues and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II in both pituitary corticotroph cells and in non-pituitary cell lines expressing ectopic ACTH...
December 6, 2018: Endocrinology
George A Stamatiades, Rona S Carroll, Ursula B Kaiser
The hypothalamic decapeptide, GnRH, is the gatekeeper of mammalian reproductive development and function. Activation of specific, high affinity cell surface receptors (GnRHR) on gonadotropes by GnRH triggers signal transduction cascades to stimulate the coordinated synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH. These hormones direct gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, making their tightly regulated production and secretion essential for normal sexual maturation and reproductive health...
December 4, 2018: Endocrinology
Carolina M Pusec, Adam De Jesus, Md Wasim Khan, Alexander R Terry, Anton E Ludvik, Kai Xu, Nicholas Giancola, Haaris Pervaiz, Emily Daviau Smith, Xianzhong Ding, Stephen Harrison, Navdeep S Chandel, Thomas C Becker, Nissim Hay, Hossein Ardehali, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Brian T Layden
Glucokinase (GCK) is the principal hexokinase (HK) in the liver, operating as a glucose sensor to regulate glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis. Recently, we proposed Hexokinase Domain Containing-1 (HKDC1) to be a novel 5th HK with expression in the liver. Here, we reveal HKDC1 to have low glucose-phosphorylating ability and demonstrate its association with the mitochondria in hepatocytes. As we have shown previously that genetic deletion of HKDC1 leads to altered hepatic triglyceride levels, we also explored the influence of overexpression of HKDC1 in hepatocytes on cellular metabolism observing reduced glycolytic capacity and maximal mitochondrial respiration with concurrent reductions in glucose oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 3, 2018: Endocrinology
Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi
Obesity and abdominal obesity have been closely related to cardiovascular outcomes, and recent evidence has indicated that environmental and genetic factors act in concert in determining the risks of these conditions. Improving adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and healthy dietary patterns can at least partly counteract genetic variations related risks of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other factors, such as epigenetic alterations, may also modulate a relationship between genetic susceptibility and these disorders...
December 3, 2018: Endocrinology
Neruja Loganathan, Ashkan Salehi, Jennifer A Chalmers, Denise D Belsham
Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous, environmental endocrine disruptor, is considered an obesogen. Its role in the hypothalamic control of energy balance, however, remains largely unexplored. As disruption of the circadian clock is tightly associated with metabolic consequences, we explored how BPA affects the components of the molecular circadian clock in the feeding-related neurons of the hypothalamus. In immortalized POMC and NPY/AgRP-expressing hypothalamic cell lines and primary culture, we describe that BPA significantly alters mRNA expression of circadian clock genes Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-Erbα...
November 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Nanette Santoro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Sharvari S Deshpande, Harishankar Nemani, Pothani Suresh, Kushaan Khambata, Anita Kumar, Prathap Reddy Kallamadi, Nafisa H Balasinor
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with predominantly genetic and/or environmental causes. Thus, our aim was to delineate effects of genetically inherited and high fat diet induced obesity on fertility and spermatogenesis using two Wistar rat models: genetically inherited obese (GIO): WNIN/Ob and diet induced obese (DIO): High fat diet. The terminal body weights were similar in both GIO and DIO groups, but, there was a significant difference in metabolic and hormone profile between the two groups. Fertility assessment revealed significant decrease in the litter size due to increased pre- and post-implantation loss in DIO group, while GIO group were infertile due to lack of libido...
November 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Mariano Martín, Carlos Pablo Modenutti, Victoria Peyret, Romina Celeste Geysels, Elisabeth Darrouzet, Thierry Pourcher, Ana María Masini-Repiso, Marcelo Adrián Martí, Nancy Carrasco, Juan Pablo Nicola
The Na+/I- symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein expressed at the basolateral plasma membrane of thyroid follicular cells, mediates I- accumulation for thyroid hormonogenesis, and radioiodide therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, differentiated thyroid tumors often exhibit lower I- transport than normal thyroid tissue (or even undetectable I- transport). Paradoxically, the majority of differentiated thyroid cancers show intracellular NIS expression, suggesting abnormal targeting to the plasma membrane...
November 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Md Azadul Kabir Sarker, Sho Aki, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Kouji Kuno, Yasuo Okamoto, Kazuhiro Ishimaru, Noriko Takuwa, Yoh Takuwa
Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2β, are highly homologous and distinct from class I and III PI3K in the catalytic products and domain structures. In contrast to class I and class III PI3Ks, physiological roles of PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2β are not fully understood. Because we previously demonstrated that PI3K-C2α is involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction, we studied the phenotypes of smooth muscle-specific knockout (KO) mice of PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2β. The pup numbers born from single PI3K-C2α-KO and single PI3K-C2β-KO mothers were similar to those of control mothers, but that from double KO (DKO) mother was smaller compared with control mice...
November 21, 2018: Endocrinology
Bo Liu, Amanda J Page, George Hatzinikolas, Miaoxin Chen, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
Obesity is associated with increased macrophage and extracellular matrix accumulation in adipose tissue, which can be partially reversed following weight loss by daily caloric restriction. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of intermittent fasting (IF, 24-hours fast on 3 non-consecutive days per week) in mice fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD, 43% fat), on markers of adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis. We found that IF decreased energy intake, body weight and fat cell size in HFD fed mice, and decreased fat mass and improved glucose tolerance in chow and HFD fed mice...
November 21, 2018: Endocrinology
Isadora C Furigo, Miriam F Suzuki, João E Oliveira, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, João A Pedroso, Amanda de Alencar, Thais T Zampieri, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Paula G F Quaresma, Patricia O Prada, Paolo Bartolini, Carlos R J Soares, Jose Donato
Previous studies have shown that bromocriptine mesylate (Bromo) lowers blood glucose levels in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of action of the anti-diabetic effects of Bromo is unclear. As a dopamine receptor agonist, Bromo can alter brain dopamine activity affecting glucose control. However, Bromo also suppresses prolactin (Prl) secretion, and Prl levels modulate glucose homeostasis. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bromo improves insulin sensitivity via inhibition of Prl secretion...
November 20, 2018: Endocrinology
Edward O List, Darlene E Berryman, Mathew Buchman, Caitlin Parker, Kevin Funk, Stephen Bell, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Yanrong Qian, Jonathan A Young, Cody Wilson, Julie Slyby, Savannah McKenna, Elizabeth A Jensen, John J Kopchick
Global GH receptor null or "knockout" (GHRKO) mice have been extensively studied due to their unique phenotype (dwarf and obese but remarkably insulin sensitive and long-lived). To better understand the influence of adipose tissue (AT) on the GHRKO phenotype, we previously generated Fat-specific GHRKO (FaGHRKO) mice using the aP2 promoter driving Cre expression. Unlike global GHRKO mice, FaGHRKO mice are larger than control mice and have an increase in white AT (WAT) mass and adipocyte size as well as an increase in brown AT (BAT) mass...
November 19, 2018: Endocrinology
Sara A Beddow, Arijeet K Gattu, Daniel F Vatner, Lauren Paolella, Abdulelah Alqarzaee, Nedda Tashkandi, Violeta Popov, Christopher Church, Matthew Rodeheffer, Gary Cline, John Geisler, Sanjay Bhanot, Varman T Samuel
The increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often ascribed to increased transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (cytosolic form, PEPCK1) though increasing evidence questions this attribution. To assess the metabolic role of PEPCK1, we treated regular chow (RC) fed and high-fat fed (HFF) male Sprague-Dawley rats with a 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against PEPCK1 and compared them to control ASO treated rats. PEPCK1 ASO effectively decreased PEPCK1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 15, 2018: Endocrinology
Jerilee M K Azhary, Miyuki Harada, Nozomi Takahashi, Emi Nose, Chisato Kunitomi, Hiroshi Koike, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasushi Hirota, Kaori Koga, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and growth arrest of antral follicles. Previously, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated in granulosa cells of antral follicles in PCOS, evidenced by activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that ER stress is activated by androgens in granulosa cells of antral follicles, and that activated ER stress promotes apoptosis via induction of the UPR transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and subsequent activation of death receptor (DR) 5...
November 12, 2018: Endocrinology
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