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Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668890/luteinizing-hormone-facilitates-antral-follicular-maturation-and-survival-via-thecal-paracrine-signaling-in-cattle
#1
Katsushige Hattori, Makoto Orisaka, Shin Fukuda, Kimihisa Tajima, Yukiko Yamazaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yoshio Yoshida
The use of LH supplementation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles improves the ongoing pregnancy rate in women with poor ovarian response (POR). However, our knowledge of the precise role of LH during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is incomplete. To explore the role of LH in the maturation of small antral follicles, we used an in vitro two-cell system that involved co-culturing bovine granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC) on a collagen membrane. Treatment of TC with LH stimulated androgen production in TC by inducing the expression of androgenic factors, subsequently increasing estrogen biosynthesis in GC by providing androgen substrates and inducing aromatase expression...
April 13, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668871/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-srebp-1a-in-male-ob-ob-mice-exhibit-lipodystrophy-and-exacerbate-insulin-resistance
#2
Hiroshi Ohno, Takashi Matsuzaka, Nie Tang, Rahul Sharma, Kaori Motomura, Takuya Shimura, Aoi Satoh, Song-Iee Han, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Motohiro Sekiya, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hirohito Sone, Naoya Yahagi, Nobuhiro Yamada, Yoshikazu Higami, Hitoshi Shimano
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a) is a key transcription factor which activates the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Transgenic mice that overexpress the nuclear form of SREBP-1a under the control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter (Tg-1a) were previously shown to display a lipodystrophic phenotype characterized by enlarged and fatty livers, diminished peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT), and insulin resistance...
April 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659786/impact-of-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-long-term-regulation-of-energy-balance-in-female-mice
#3
Sharon Rachel Ladyman, Zin Khant Aung, David Ross Grattan
During pregnancy and lactation, the maternal body undergoes many changes in the regulation of appetite, body weight and glucose homeostasis to deal with the metabolic demands of the growing fetus and subsequent demands of providing milk for offspring. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequences of one reproductive cycle of pregnancy and lactation on the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. After weaning of pups, reproductively experienced (RE) mice maintained a higher body weight compared to age-matched control mice...
April 11, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659785/glucocorticoid-induced-metabolic-disturbances-are-exacerbated-in-obese-male-mice
#4
Innocence Harvey, Erin J Stephenson, JeAnna R Redd, Quynh T Tran, Irit Hochberg, Nathan Qi, Dave Bridges
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glucocorticoid-induced metabolic dysfunction in the presence of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J adult male lean and diet-induced obese mice were given dexamethasone and levels of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and lipolysis were determined. Obese mice given dexamethasone had significant, synergistic effects on fasting glucose, insulin resistance and markers of lipolysis, as well as hepatic steatosis. This was associated with synergistic transactivation of the lipolytic enzyme ATGL...
April 11, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648638/ovulatory-induction-of-scg2-in-human-non-human-primate-and-rodent-granulosa-cells-stimulates-ovarian-angiogenesis
#5
Patrick R Hannon, Diane M Duffy, Katherine L Rosewell, Mats Brännström, James W Akin, Thomas E Curry
The luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is essential for ovulation, but the intrafollicular factors induced by LH that mediate ovulatory processes (e.g. angiogenesis) are poorly understood, especially in women. The role of secretogranin II (SCG2) and its cleaved bioactive peptide, secretoneurin (SN), were investigated as potential novel mediators of ovulation by testing the hypothesis that SCG2/SN is induced in granulosa cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), via a downstream LH receptor signaling mechanism, and stimulates ovarian angiogenesis...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648633/inhibition-of-a-type-k-channels-by-urotensin-ii-induces-sensory-neuronal-hyperexcitability-through-the-pkc%C3%AE-erk-pathway
#6
Yuan Zhang, Hua Wang, Jin Ke, Yuan Wei, Heyi Ji, Zhiyuan Qian, Li Liu, Jin Tao
Previous studies have implicated urotensin-II in the nociception of sensory neurons. However, to date, the relevant mechanisms still remain unknown. In the present study, we determined the role of urotensin-II in the regulation of transient outward A-type potassium currents (IA) as well as neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We found that application of urotensin-II to small-diameter TG neurons decreased IA in a dose-dependent manner, while the delayed-rectifier potassium channel current (IDR) was unaffected...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648626/regulation-of-intracellular-triiodothyronine-is-essential-for-optimal-macrophage-function
#7
Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Kin Ki Jim, Adri van Oudenaren, Matthijs C Brouwer, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Pieter J M Leenen, Diederik van de Beek, Arturo Hernandez, Eric Fliers, Anita Boelen
Innate immune cells, including macrophages, have recently been identified as novel target cells for thyroid hormone. We hypothesized that optimal intracellular concentrations of the active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) are essential for pro-inflammatory macrophage function. T3 is generated intracellularly by type 2 deiodinase (D2) and acts via the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In zebrafish embryos, D2 knockdown increased mortality during pneumococcal meningitis. Primary murine D2KO macrophages exhibited impaired phagocytosis and partially reduced cytokine response to stimulation with bacterial endotoxin...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648595/progesterone-as-a-postnatal-prophylactic-agent-for-encephalopathy-caused-by-prenatal-hypoxic-ischemic-insult
#8
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Makio Shozu
Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but since the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659791/human-placental-growth-hormone-variant-in-pathological-pregnancies
#9
Shutan Liao, Mark H Vickers, Joanna L Stanley, Philip N Baker, Jo K Perry
Growth hormone (GH), an endocrine hormone primarily secreted from the anterior pituitary, stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration and is a major regulator of postnatal growth. Humans have two GH genes which encode two versions of GH proteins: a pituitary version (GH-N/GH1), and a placental GH variant (GH-V/GH2) which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells of the placenta. During pregnancy, placental GH replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation at mid-late gestation as the major circulating form of GH...
April 6, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635386/amniotic-fluid-exosome-proteomic-profile-exhibits-unique-pathways-of-term-and-preterm-labor
#10
C Luke Dixon, Samantha Sheller-Miller, George R Saade, Stephen J Fortunato, Andrew Lai, Carlos Palma, Dominic Guazon, Carlos Salomon, Ramkumar Menon
Our objective was to determine the amniotic fluid-derived exosomal proteomic profile in patients who had spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM), compared to those who delivered at term. A cross-sectional study of a retrospective cohort was used to quantify and determine the protein content of exosomes present in amniotic fluid, in PTB or pPROM, and normal term labor (TL) or term not in labor (TNIL) pregnancies. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation and quantified using nanocrystals (Qdot®) coupled to CD63 and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) by fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis...
April 4, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635291/increased-circulating-fgf23-does-not-lead-to-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-male-hyp-mouse-model-of-xlh
#11
Eva S Liu, Robrecht Thoonen, Elizabeth Petit, Binglan Yu, Emmanuel S Buys, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, Marie B Demay
Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) markedly increase with renal impairment, with FGF23 levels correlating with the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). FGF23 activates calcineurin/NFAT signaling and induces hypertrophy in murine cardiomyocytes. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by high circulating levels of FGF23, but in contrast to CKD, is associated with hypophosphatemia. The cardiac effects of high circulating FGF23 in XLH are not well defined...
April 4, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635284/divergent-role-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-in-lipid-and-fasting-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#12
Wafa B'chir, Catherine R Dufour, Carlo Ouellet, Ming Yan, Ingrid S Tam, Sylvia Andrzejewski, Hui Xia, Kylie Nabata, Julie St-Pierre, Vincent Giguère
Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in our society, identification of intrinsic molecular programs responsible for ensuring fuel homeostasis and preventing metabolic disease are needed. In this study, we investigated whether the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), a major regulator of energy metabolism, plays a role in lipid homeostasis and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to both chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and long-term fasting...
April 4, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617813/corrigendum-for-juvenile-specific-burst-firing-of-terminal-nerve-gnrh3-neurons-suggests-novel-functions-in-addition-to-neuromodulation
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617759/regulation-of-gene-expression-by-thyroid-hormone-in-primary-astrocytes-factors-influencing-the-genomic-response
#14
Beatriz Morte, Pilar Gil-Ibáñez, Juan Bernal
Astrocytes mediate the action of thyroid hormone in the brain on other neural cells through the production of the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3) from its precursor thyroxine (T4). T3 has also many effects on the astrocytes in vivo and in culture, but whether these actions are directly mediated by transcriptional regulation is not clear. In this work we have analyzed the genomic response to T3 of cultured astrocytes isolated from the postnatal mouse cerebral cortex, using RNA sequencing. Cultured astrocytes express relevant genes of thyroid hormone metabolism and action encoding type 2 deiodinase (Dio2), Mct8 transporter (Slc16a2), T3 receptors (Thra1 and Thrb), and nuclear corepressor (Ncor1) and coactivator (Ncoa1)...
April 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617763/%C3%AE-cell-autophagy-in-diabetes-pathogenesis
#15
Michelle R Marasco, Amelia K Linnemann
Nearly 100 years have passed since Frederick Banting and Charles Best first discovered and purified insulin. Their discovery and subsequent improvements revolutionized the treatment of diabetes, and the field continues to move at an ever-faster pace with respect to novel treatments for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Despite these advances, we still do not fully understand how apoptosis of the insulin producing β-cells is triggered, presenting a challenge in the development of preventative measures. In recent years, the process of autophagy has generated significant interest in this realm due to discoveries highlighting its clear role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis...
March 30, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617748/corrigendum-for-sex-and-age-specific-impact-of-erk-loss-within-the-pituitary-gonadotrope-in-mice
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608743/multiple-camp-phosphodiesterases-act-together-to-prevent-premature-oocyte-meiosis-and-ovulation
#17
Giulia Vigone, Leia C Shuhaibar, Jeremy R Egbert, Tracy F Uliasz, Matthew A Movsesian, Laurinda A Jaffe
Luteinizing hormone (LH) acts on the granulosa cells that surround the oocyte in mammalian preovulatory follicles to cause meiotic resumption and ovulation. Both of these responses are mediated primarily by an increase in cAMP in the granulosa cells, and activity of the cAMP phosphodiesterase PDE4 contributes to preventing premature responses. However, 2 other cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases, PDE7 and PDE8, are also expressed at high levels in the granulosa cells, raising the question of whether these phosphodiesterases also contribute to preventing uncontrolled activation of meiotic resumption and ovulation...
March 28, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608670/parsing-the-potential-neuroendocrine-actions-of-fgf21-in-primates
#18
Matthew P Gillum
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a unique, largely liver-derived, endocrine member of the FGF-superfamily, is often thought of as a fasting factor owing to its induction in rodents during starvation. However, FGF21 is not increased by fasting for periods of <7 days in humans, but instead rises sharply after acute alcohol and sugar intake, and also after several days overfeeding, suggesting another role in states of positive energy balance. In the postingestive state, recent studies suggest that FGF21 may regulate energy intake and discourage consumption of alcohol and sugars, likely through effector circuits in the central nervous system...
March 28, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596627/a-putative-insulin-like-androgenic-gland-hormone-receptor-gene-specifically-expressed-in-male-chinese-shrimp
#19
Qing Guo, Shihao Li, Xinjia Lv, Jianhai Xiang, Amir Sagi, Rivka Manor, Fuhua Li
The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is the key regulator in crustacean male sexual differentiation. As a secreted peptide hormone, IAG might perform its biological function through interacting with the membrane receptor. However, the receptor of IAG remains unclear. In the present study, a putative IAG receptor gene (FcIAGR) was identified in Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcIAGR contained several conserved domains of insulin-like receptor proteins, including two L (L1 and L2) domains, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, three fibronectin III (FN-III) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain...
March 27, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596616/vegf-and-vegfb-play-balancing-roles-in-adipose-differentiation-gene-expression-and-function
#20
Honghong Jin, Dan Li, Xutong Wang, Jia Jia, Yang Chen, Yapeng Yao, Chunlan Zhao, Xiaodan Lu, Shujie Zhang, Jacques Togo, Yan Ji, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng, Yaowu Zheng
Obesity is the results of abnormal adipose development and energy metabolism. Using VEGFB knockout and inducible VEGF down regulation mouse models, we have shown that VEGFB inactivation caused expansion of white adipose, whitening of brown adipose, increase of fat accumulation and reduction of energy consumption. At the same time, expression of the white adipose-associated genes was increased and brown adipose-associated genes decreased. VEGF repression, in contrary, induced brown adipose expansion and brown adipocytes development in white adipose, increased energy expenditure, up regulated brown adipose-associated genes and down regulated white adipose-associated genes...
March 27, 2018: Endocrinology
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