journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Endocrinology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431116/ontogeny-and-thermogenic-role-for-sternal-fat-in-female-sheep
#1
Belinda A Henry, Mark Pope, Mark Birtwistle, Rachael Loughnan, Reham Alagal, John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Viv Perry, Helen Budge, Iain J Clarke, Michael E Symonds
Brown adipose tissue acting through a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) has a critical role in preventing hypothermia in new-born sheep but is then considered to rapidly disappear during postnatal life. The extent to which the anatomical location of fat influences postnatal development and thermogenic function, particularly following feeding, in adulthood, are not known and were both examined in our study. Changes in gene expression of functionally important pathways (i.e. thermogenesis, development, adipogenesis and metabolism) were compared between sternal and retroperitoneal fat depots together with a representative skeletal muscle over the first month of postnatal life, coincident with the loss of brown fat and accumulation of white fat...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431037/gestational-diabetes-alters-functions-in-offspring-s-umbilical-cord-cells-with-implications-for-cardiovascular-health
#2
Ajith Isaac Amrithraj, Anjaneyulu Kodali, Linh Nguyen, Adrian Kee Keong Teo, Cheng Wei Chang, Neerja Karnani, Kai Lyn Ng, Peter D Gluckman, Yap Seng Chong, Walter Stünkel
As non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in prenatal development and conditions such as maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), we aimed to test this hypothesis in primary cells derived from the offspring of GDM mothers compared to control subjects. We have assessed primary umbilical cord derived cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) from both, the offspring of GDM and non-GDM mothers. We have compared the primary isolates in cell based assays measuring proliferation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and the ability to support blood vessel growth...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-oxytocin-neurones-in-the-male-rat
#3
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signalling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurones in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology.Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurones expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anaesthetised rats with SCM...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#4
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#5
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of over-nutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430981/central-nervous-system-glp-1-receptors-regulate-islet-hormone-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#6
Lene Jessen, Eric P Smith, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, David D'Alessio
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system plays an important role in blood glucose regulation, in great part through coordinate control of insulin and glucagon secretion. These effects are generally attributed to GLP-1 produced in peripheral sites, principally the intestine. GLP-1 is also produced in hindbrain neurons that signal through GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) expressed in brain regions involved in metabolic regulation. GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) induces satiety, visceral illness, and stress responses...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430903/co-storage-of-enteroendocrine-hormones-evaluated-at-the-cell-and-subcellular-levels-in-male-mice
#7
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone co-expression within enteroendocrine cells (EEC), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EEC. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine, 5-HT, or the neuroendocrine protein, chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, co-expression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semi-automated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419211/the-inhibitory-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-g%C3%AE-z-promotes-type-1-diabetes-like-pathophysiology-in-nod-mice
#8
Rachel J Fenske, Mark T Cadena, Quincy E Harenda, Haley N Wienkes, Kathryn Carbajal, Michael D Schaid, Erin Laundre, Allison L Brill, Nathan A Truchan, Harpreet Brar, Jaclyn Wisinski, Jinjin Cai, Timothy E Graham, Feyza Engin, Michelle E Kimple
The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, promotes beta-cell death and inhibits beta-cell replication when pancreatic islets are challenged by stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that loss of Gαz protein would preserve functional beta-cell mass in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model, protecting from overt diabetes. We saw that protection from diabetes was robust and durable up to 35 weeks of age in Gαz knockout mice. By 17 weeks of age, Gαz-null NOD mice had significantly higher diabetes-free survival than wild-type littermates...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419209/estrogen-deficiency-exacerbates-type-1-diabetes-induced-bone-tnf%C3%AE-expression-and-osteoporosis-in-female-mice
#9
Sandi Raehtz, Hayley Bierhalter, Daniel Schoenherr, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Estrogen deficiency following menopause is associated with rapid bone loss, osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), characterized by hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, is also associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. With better treatment options, T1D patients are living longer and therefore the number of patients having both T1D and estrogen deficiency is increasing. Little is known about the mechanistic impact of T1D in conjunction with estrogen deficiency on bone physiology and density...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419227/neural-programmatic-role-of-leptin-tnf%C3%AE-melanocortin-and-glutamate-in-blood-pressure-regulation-versus-obesity-related-hypertension-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Bin Yu, Dongsheng Cai
Continuous nutritional surplus sets the stage for hypertension development. While moderate dietary obesity in mice is normotensive, the homeostatic balance is disrupted concurrent with an increased risk of hypertension, but it remains unclear how the obesity-associated pre-hypertensive state is converted into overt hypertension. Here, using mice with high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding-induced moderate obesity vs. control-diet (CD) feeding lean mice, we comparatively studied the effects of central leptin and TNFα as well as the involvement of the neuropeptide melanocortin pathway versus the neurotransmitter glutamate pathway...
April 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407060/role-of-osteoblast-gi-signaling-in-age-related-bone-loss-in-female-mice
#11
Susan M Millard, Liping Wang, Lalita Wattanachanya, Dylan O'Carroll, Aaron J Fields, Joyce Pang, Galateia Kazakia, Jeffrey C Lotz, Robert A Nissenson
Age-related bone loss is an important risk factor for fractures in the elderly, resulting from an imbalance in bone remodeling mainly due to decreased bone formation. We have previously demonstrated that endogenous G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven Gi signaling in osteoblasts (Obs) restrains bone formation in mice during growth. Here, we launched a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that Gi signaling in Obs restrains bone formation in aging mice, thereby promoting bone loss. Our approach was to block Gi signaling in maturing Obs by the induced expression of the catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin (PTX) after the achievement of peak bone mass...
April 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407051/igf1r-expression-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells-is-essential-for-steroidogenesis-follicle-survival-and-fertility-in-female-mice
#12
Sarah C Baumgarten, Marah Armouti, CheMyong Ko, Carlos Stocco
Folliculogenesis is a lengthy process that requires the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs) for preovulatory follicle formation. The most crucial endocrine factor involved in this process is follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Interestingly, previous in vitro studies indicated that FSH fails to stimulate GC proliferation in the absence of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). To determine the role of the IGF1R in vivo, female mice with a conditional knockdown of the IGF1R in the GCs were produced and had undetectable levels of IGF1R mRNA and protein in the GCs...
April 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402446/adiponectin-and-its-receptors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-potential
#13
Dongqing Zha, Xiaoyan Wu, Ping Gao
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major complication for diabetic patients. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizer and anti-inflammatory adipokine and is mainly secreted by adipocytes. Two types of adiponectin receptors have been identified, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with DKD elevated adiponectin serum levels have been observed and adiponectin serum level is a prognostic factor of end stage renal disease. Renal insufficiency and tubular injury possibly play a contributory role in increases in serum and urinary adiponectin levels in diabetic nephropathy by either increasing biodegradation or elimination of adiponectin in the kidneys, or enhancing production of adiponectin in adipose tissue...
April 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398573/skeletal-muscle-pgc1%C3%AE-1-nucleosome-position-and-260nt-dna-methylation-determine-exercise-response-and-prevent-ectopic-lipid-accumulation-in-men
#14
Sudip Bajpeyi, Jeffrey D Covington, Erin M Taylor, Laura K Stewart, Jose E Galgani, Tara M Henagan
Endurance exercise has been shown to improve lipid oxidation and increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle: two features that have shown dependence on increased expression of the PPAR gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α). It is also hypothesized that exercise related alterations in PGC1α expression occur through epigenetic regulation of nucleosome positioning in association with differential DNA methylation status within the PCG1α promoter. Here we show that when primary human myotubes from obese, type 2 diabetics are exposed to lipolytic stimulus (PFI) in vitro, nucleosome occupancy surrounding the -260 nucleotide (nt) region, a known regulatory DNA methylation site, is reduced...
April 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398516/functional-analysis-of-nuclear-estrogen-receptors-ners-in-zebrafish-reproduction-by-genome-editing-approach
#15
Huijie Lu, Yong Cui, Liwen Jiang, Wei Ge
Estrogens signal through both nuclear and membrane receptors with most reported effects being mediated via the nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs). Although much work has been reported on nERs in the zebrafish, there is a lack of direct genetic evidence for their functional roles and importance in reproduction. To address this issue, we undertook this study to disrupt all three nERs in the zebrafish, namely esr1 (ERα), esr2a (ERβII) and esr2b (ERβI), by genome-editing technology CRISPR/Cas9. Using this loss-of-function genetic approach, we successfully created three mutant zebrafish lines with each nER knocked out...
April 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398586/neonatal-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-alters-cell-phenotype-in-sexually-dimorphic-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#16
M Mosley, J Weathington, L R Cortes, E Bruggeman, A Castillo-Ruiz, B Xue, N G Forger
Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning...
April 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387853/cxcl8-antagonist-improves-diabetic-nephropathy-in-male-mice-of-diabetes-and-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-mesangial-injury
#17
Siyuan Cui, Yujie Zhu, Jianling Du, Muhammad Noman Khan, Bing Wang, Jing Wei, Jya-Wei Cheng, John R Gordon, Yutian Mu, Fang Li
Inflammation is recognized as a crucial contribution to diabetic nephropathy (DN). CXCL8 binds to its CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) for recruiting neutrophils infiltration and initiates tissue inflammation. Therefore, we explored the effect of CXCR1 and CXCR2 inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. This was achieved by CXCL8 (3-72) K11R/G31P (G31P), an antagonist of CXCL8, which has exhibited therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory diseases and malignancies. In this study, we found renal leukocytes accumulation and rapid increases of CXCL8 occurred in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice...
April 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387824/alpha-estrogen-and-progesterone-receptors-modulate-kisspeptin-effects-on-prolactin-role-in-estradiol-induced-prolactin-surge-in-female-rats
#18
Nayara S S Aquino, Roberta Araujo-Lopes, Patricia C Henriques, Felipe E F Lopes, Daniela O Gusmao, Candido C Coimbra, Celso R Franci, Adelina M Reis, Raphael E Szawka
Kisspeptin regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian-steroid receptors and kisspeptin in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) or kisspeptin-234 (Kp-234) were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacet acid (DOPAC) levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen...
April 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379539/foxa3-is-expressed-in-multiple-cell-lineages-in-the-mouse-testis-and-regulates-pdgfra-expression-in-leydig-cells
#19
Gabriel Garon, Francis Bergeron, Catherine Brousseau, Nicholas M Robert, Jacques J Tremblay
The three FOXA transcription factors are mainly known for their roles in the liver. However, Foxa3-deficient mice become progressively sub/infertile due to germ cell. Since no data was available regarding the localization of the FOXA3 protein in the testis, immunohistochemistry was performed on mouse testis sections. In the fetal testis, a weak but consistent staining for FOXA3 is detected in the nucleus of Sertoli cells. In prepubertal and adult life, FOXA3 remains present in Sertoli cells of some but not all seminiferous tubules...
April 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379395/role-of-growth-hormone-in-breast-cancer
#20
Ramadevi Subramani, Sushmita Nandy, Diego A Pedroza, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women. Approximately, over two thirds of all breast cancers diagnosed are classified as hormone dependent which indicates that hormones are the key factors that drive the growth of these breast cancers. Ovarian and pituitary hormones play a major role in the growth and development of normal breast and breast cancer. In particular, effect of the ovarian hormone estrogen has received much attention with regards to breast cancer. Pituitary hormones prolactin and growth hormone have also been associated with breast cancer...
April 3, 2017: Endocrinology
journal
journal
23776
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"