journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Endocrinology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925773/post-translational-modifications-of-lipid-activated-nuclear-receptors-focus-on-metabolism
#1
Natalia Becares Salles, Matthew C Gage, Inés Pineda-Torra
Post-translational modifications (PTM) occur to nearly all proteins, are catalysed by specific enzymes and are subjected to tight regulation. They have been shown to be a powerful means by which the function of proteins can be modified resulting in diverse effects. Technological advances such as the increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry-based techniques and availability of mutant animal models have enhanced our understanding of the complexities of their regulation and the effect they have on protein function...
December 7, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911605/gnrh-neuron-activity-and-pituitary-response-in-estradiol-induced-vs-proestrous-luteinizing-hormone-surges-in-female-mice
#2
Marina Silveira, Laura L Burger, R Anthony DeFazio, Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Suzanne M Moenter
During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter GnRH release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon coincident with a daily LH surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#3
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#4
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906555/ligand-biased-regulation-of-ptdins-3-4-5-p3-dependent-signal-transduction-in-gpcr-control-of-pituitary-hormone-release
#5
Joshua G Pemberton, John P Chang
Biased signaling describes the selective activation of signal transduction cascades by structurally-related ligands downstream of shared G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important components of GPCR-controlled transduction networks, little is known regarding the potential for biased regulation of class I PI3K-dependent signaling. The full compliment of class I PI3K catalytic subunits (p110α, p110β, p110δ and p110γ) first appear in bony fishes and, despite being associated with distinct cellular functions, all class I PI3Ks produce the lipid second-messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906551/ald1613-a-novel-long-acting-monoclonal-antibody-to-control-acth-driven-pharmacology
#6
Andrew L Feldhaus, Katie Anderson, Benjamin Dutzar, Ethan Ojala, Patricia Dianne McNeill, Pei Fan, Jenny Mulligan, Sam Marzolf, Charlie Karasek, Michelle Scalley-Kim, Erica Stewart, Jens Billgren, Vanessa Rubin, Kathleen Schneider, David Jurchen, Kathy Snow, Shaun Barnett, Barbara Bengtsson, Brian Baker, John A Latham, Dan Allison, Leon F Garcia-Martinez
ACTH is the primary regulator of adrenal glucocorticoid production. Elevated levels of ACTH play a critical role in disease progression in several indications including congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing's disease. We have generated a specific, high affinity, neutralizing monoclonal antibody (ALD1613) to ACTH. In vitro, ALD1613 neutralizes ACTH-induced signaling via all five melanocortin receptors and inhibited ACTH-induced cAMP accumulation in a mouse adrenal cell line (Y1). ALD1613 administration to wild-type rats significantly reduced plasma corticosterone levels in a dose dependent manner...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901601/activation-of-estrogen-response-element-independent-er%C3%AE-signaling-protects-female-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Ali Yasrebi, Janelle A Rivera, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Troy A Roepke
17β-estradiol (E2) regulates central and peripheral mechanisms that control energy and glucose homeostasis predominantly through estrogen receptor α (ERα) acting via receptor binding to estrogen response elements (ERE). ERα signaling is also involved in mediating the effects of E2 on diet-induced obesity (DIO), although the roles of ERE-dependent and -independent ERα signaling in ameliorating the effects of DIO remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that ERE-dependent ERα signaling is necessary to ameliorate the effects of DIO...
November 30, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901589/the-human-adrenal-gland-proteome-defined-by-transcriptomics-and-antibody-based-profiling
#8
Julia Bergman, Johan Botling, Linn Fagerberg, Björn M Hallström, Dijana Djureinovic, Mathias Uhlén, Fredrik Pontén
The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. To define the molecular landscape that underlies the specific functions of the adrenal gland, we combined a genome-wide transcriptomics approach based on mRNA sequencing of human tissues with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling on tissue microarrays. Approximately two-thirds of all putative protein coding genes were expressed in the adrenal gland and the analysis identified 253 genes with an elevated pattern of expression in the adrenal gland, with only 37 genes showing a markedly higher expression level (>5-fold) in the adrenal gland compared to 31 other normal human tissue types analyzed...
November 30, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886516/inflammatory-stimuli-increase-progesterone-receptor-a-stability-and-transrepressive-activity-in-myometrial-cells
#9
Gregory A Peters, Lijuan Yi, Yelenna Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Bansari Patel, Peyvand Amini, Huiqing Tan, Sam Mesiano
The steroid hormone progesterone acting via the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, is essential for the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. Inhibition of PR signaling augments uterine contractility and induces labor. Human parturition is thought to be triggered by modulation of PR signaling in myometrial cells to induce a functional progesterone withdrawal. One mechanism for functional progesterone withdrawal is by increased abundance of PR-A, which decreases progesterone responsiveness by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of PR-B...
November 25, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886513/a-potential-role-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-progesterone-deficiency-in-obese-women
#10
Nozomi Takahashi, Miyuki Harada, Yasushi Hirota, Lin Zhao, Jerilee Mk Azhary, Osamu Yoshino, Gentaro Izumi, Tetsuya Hirata, Kaori Koga, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs...
November 25, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870582/markers-of-islet-endothelial-dysfunction-occur-in-male-db-db-mice-and-may-contribute-to-reduced-insulin-release
#11
Meghan F Hogan, Amy W Liu, Michael J Peters, Joshua R Willard, Zaheen Rabbani, Erik C Bartholomew, Adam Ottley, Rebecca L Hull
Islet endothelial cells produce paracrine factors that support β-cell function and growth. Endothelial dysfunction underlies diabetic microvascular complications; thus we hypothesized that in diabetes, islet endothelial cells become dysfunctional and this may contribute to β-cell secretory dysfunction. Islets/islet endothelial cells were isolated from diabetic db/db mice, treated with or without the glucose-lowering agent phlorizin, or C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet for 18 weeks (and appropriate controls)...
November 21, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849367/fetal-exposure-to-low-levels-of-the-plasticizer-dehp-predisposes-the-adult-male-adrenal-gland-for-endocrine-disruption
#12
S Lee, D B Martinez-Arguelles, E Campioli, V Papadopoulos
In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect adult health. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an EDC widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride products and an ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Previously, we used a rat model system to show that fetal exposure to DEHP decreased levels of major steroid hormones in adulthood and that environmentally-relevant levels of DEHP affected both gene expression and epigenomic loci that were affected by exposure to high levels. In the adrenal gland, we reported that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways were sensitive targets of DEHP...
November 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849360/robust-reductions-of-excess-weight-and-hyperphagia-by-beloranib-in-rat-models-of-genetic-and-hypothalamic-obesity
#13
Clinton T Elfers, Christian L Roth
Hypothalamic lesions or deficient melanocortin (MC) signaling via MC4 receptor (MC4r) mutations often lead to hyperphagia and severe treatment resistant obesity. We tested the methionine amino peptidase 2-inhibitor beloranib (ZGN-440) in two male rat models of obesity, one modeling hypothalamic obesity (HO) with combined medial hypothalamic lesions (CMHL), and the other modeling a monogenic form of obesity with MC4r mutations (MC4rKO). In CMHL rats (age 3 months), post-surgery excess weight gain was significantly inhibited (ZGN-440 0...
November 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841950/multi-and-transgenerational-consequences-of-bisphenol-a-on-sexually-dimorphic-cell-populations-in-mouse-brain
#14
Jessica A Goldsby, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Emilie F Rissman
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting compound used to manufacture plastics; it is present in linings of food cans, bottles, thermal receipts and many other everyday items, and is detectable in human urine and blood. Exposure to BPA during development can disrupt sexual differentiation of some brain regions. Moreover BPA can have transgenerational effects on gene expression and behaviors. Here, we used a diet and breeding regime that produces transgenerational effects on behaviors. C57BL/6J mice consumed control or BPA-containing diets during pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841948/obese-neuronal-ppar%C3%AE-knock-out-mice-are-leptin-sensitive-but-show-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-fertility
#15
Marina O Fernandez, Shweta Sharma, Sun Kim, Emily Rickert, Katherine Hsueh, Vicky Hwang, Jerrold M Olefsky, Nicholas J G Webster
PPARγ is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus...
November 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841943/malat1-in-human-adipose-stem-cells-modulates-survival-and-alternative-splicing-of-pkc%C3%AE-ii-in-ht22-cells
#16
Ghattas El Bassit, Rekha S Patel, Gay Carter, Vyshakh Shibu, Achintya Patel, Shijie Song, Michel Murr, Denise R Cooper, Paula C Bickford, Niketa A Patel
Brain injury may be caused by trauma or may occur in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Since the central nervous system is unable to regenerate efficiently, there is utmost interest in the use of stem cells to promote neuronal survival. Of interest here are human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) which secrete factors that enhance regeneration and survival of neurons in sites of injury. We evaluated the effect of hASC secretome on HT22 neuronal cells post injury. Protein Kinase C delta (PKCδ)(1) activates survival and proliferation in neurons and is implicated in memory (1-3)...
November 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841936/androgen-receptor-in-the-ovary-theca-cells-plays-a-critical-role-in-androgen-induced-reproductive-dysfunction
#17
Yaping Ma, Stanley Andrisse, Yi Chen, Shameka Childress, Ping Xue, Zhiqiang Wang, Dustin Jones, CheMyong Ko, Sara Divall, Sheng Wu
Androgen and its receptor (AR) plays a critical role in reproductive function, under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Female AR global knockout mice are sub-fertile due to both neuroendocrine and ovarian defects. Female offspring from prenatally androgenized heterozygous AR pregnant mice showed rescued estrous cyclicity and fertility. Ar is expressed in granulosa cells, theca interstitial cells, and oocytes in the ovary. We created mice with theca-specific deletion of Ar (ThARKO) by crossing Cyp17-iCre mice that express Cre recombinase under Cyp17 promoter with Ar(fl/fl) mice...
November 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841935/a-thalamo-hypothalamic-pathway-that-activates-oxytocin-neurons-in-social-contexts-in-female-rats
#18
Melinda Cservenák, Dávid Keller, Viktor Kis, Emese A Fazekas, Hanna Öllös, András Lékó, Éva R Szabó, Éva Renner, Ted B Usdin, Miklós Palkovits, Árpád Dobolyi
Oxytocin is released from neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) in mothers upon suckling and during adult social interactions. However, neuronal pathways that activate oxytocin neurons in social contexts are not established yet. Neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), which contain tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39) and are activated by pup exposure in lactating mothers provide a candidate projection. Innervation of oxytocin neurons by TIP39 neurons was examined by double labeling in combination with electron microscopy and retrograde tract-tracing...
November 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824503/nestorone%C3%A2-nes-a-novel-progestin-for-non-oral-contraception-structure-activity-relationships-and-brain-metabolism-studies
#19
Narender Kumar, Jerôme Fagart, Philippe Liere, Scott J Mitchell, Alanah R Knibb, Isabelle Petit-Topin, Marion Rame, Martine El-Etr, Michael Schumacher, Jeremy J Lambert, Marie-Edith Rafestin-Oblin, Regine Sitruk-Ware
Nestorone® (NES) is a highly potent non-androgenic progestin being developed for contraception. NES is a synthetic progestin that may possess neuroprotective and myelin regenerative potential as an added health benefits. In receptor transactivation experiments, NES displayed greater potency than progesterone to transactivate the human progesterone receptor (hPR). This was confirmed by docking experiments which revealed that NES adopts the same docking position within the PR ligand-binding domain (LBD) as progesterone and forms additional stabilizing contacts between 17α-acetoxy and 16-methylene groups and PR LBD supporting its higher potency than progesterone...
November 8, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824486/novel-epigenetic-biomarkers-mediating-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-female-mice
#20
Olivia S Anderson, Jung H Kim, Karen E Peterson, Brisa N Sanchez, Karilyn E Sant, Maureen A Sartor, Caren Weinhouse, Dana C Dolinoy
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic modifications link developmental environmental insults to adult disease susceptibility. Animal studies have associated perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to altered DNA methylation, but these studies are often limited to candidate gene and global non-loci specific approaches. Utilizing an epigenome-wide discovery platform, we elucidate epigenetic alterations in liver tissue from adult offspring (10 months) following perinatal BPA exposure at human physiologically relevant doses (50 ng, 50 μg, and 50 mg BPA/kg diet)...
November 8, 2016: Endocrinology
journal
journal
23776
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"