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Bruna P P Nascimento, Barbara M L C Bocco, Gustavo W Fernandes, Tatiana L Fonseca, Elizabeth A McAninch, Carolina V Cardoso, Eduardo F Bondan, Renata J Nassif, Roberta M Cysneiros, Antonio C Bianco, Miriam O Ribeiro
Status Epilepticus (SE) is an abnormally prolonged seizure that results from either a failure of mechanisms that terminate seizures or from initiating mechanisms that inherently lead to prolonged seizures. Here we report that mice experiencing a 3 h SE caused by pilocarpine exhibit a rapid increase in expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase gene (Dio2) and a decrease in the expression of type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase gene (Dio3) in hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) in hippocampal sections was seen concentrated in the neuronal nuclei, typical of ischemic injury of the brain...
June 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Erin S Coyne, Nathalie Bedard, Linda Wykes, Cynthia Stretch, Samer Jammoul, Sihan Li, Kezhuo Zhang, Robert S Sladek, Oliver F Bathe, Robert Thomas Jagoe, Barry I Posner, Simon S Wing
Muscle atrophy arises as a consequence of many chronic illnesses, as well as from prolonged glucocorticoid treatment and nutrient deprivation. We previously demonstrated that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme plays an important role in chronic glucocorticoid and denervation induced muscle wasting. However, the mechanisms by which USP19 exerts its effects remain unknown. To explore this further, we fasted mice for 48 hours to try to identify early differences in the response of WT and USP19 KO mice that could yield insights into the mechanisms of USP19 action...
June 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Samantha R Weaver, Hannah P Fricke, Cynthia Xie, Robert J Lipinski, Chad M Vezina, Julia F Charles, Laura L Hernandez
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been linked to osteopenia and fracture risk but their long-term impact on bone health is not well understood. SSRIs are widely prescribed to pregnant and breastfeeding women who may be at particular risk for bone pathology because lactation is associated with considerable maternal bone loss. We used microCT and molecular approaches to test whether the SSRI fluoxetine, administered to C57BL/6 mice from conception through the end of lactation, causes persistent maternal bone loss...
June 8, 2018: Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Ashley L Gehrand, Brian Hoeynck, Mack Jablonski, Cole Leonovicz, William E Cullinan, Hershel Raff
Maternal separation, hypoxia, and hypothermia are common stressors in the premature neonate. Using our rat model of human prematurity, we evaluated sexual dimorphisms in the long term effects of these neonatal stressors on behavior of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult rats. Neonatal rats were exposed daily on postnatal days 2-6 to maternal separation with normoxia, with hypoxia allowing spontaneous hypothermia, with hypothermia per se, and with hypoxia while maintaining isothermia with external heat...
June 5, 2018: Endocrinology
Ichiro Kaneko, Hiroko Segawa, Kayo Ikuta, Ai Hanasaki, Toru Fujii, Sawako Tatsumi, Shinsuke Kido, Tomoka Hasegawa, Norio Amizuka, Hitoshi Saito, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of inheritable rickets, is caused by inactivation of PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome), and leads to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-dependent renal phosphate (Pi) wasting. In the present study, we investigated whether maintaining Pi homeostasis with a novel potent vitamin D3 analog, eldecalcitol (1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)vitamin D3; ED71), could improve hypophosphatemic rickets in a murine model of XLH, the Hyp mouse...
June 5, 2018: Endocrinology
Jia Nie, Chao Sun, Zhijie Chang, Nicolas Musi, Yuguang Shi
Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDIα) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part by locking Rho GTPases in an inactive GDP-bound form. The onset of GSIS causes phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174, a critical inhibitory site for GDIα, leading to the release of Rho GTPases and their subsequent activation. However, the kinase regulator(s) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of GDIα in islet β-cells remains elusive. We propose that SAD-A, a member of AMPK-related kinases that promotes GSIS as an effector kinase for incretin signaling, interact with and inhibit GDIα through phosphorylation of Ser174 during the onset GSIS from islet β-cells...
June 4, 2018: Endocrinology
Bassem M Shoucri, Victor T Hung, Raquel Chamorro-García, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the EDC tributyltin (TBT) results in increased adiposity in the offspring. These effects linger into adulthood and are propagated through successive generations. TBT activates two nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its heterodimeric partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), that promote adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro...
May 31, 2018: Endocrinology
Xiao Lin, Xu Feng, Rong-Rong Cui, Dan Xiong, Jia-Yu Zhong, Ting Zhu, Fuxingzi Li, Feng Wu, Xu-Biao Xie, Min-Zhi Mao, Xiao-Bo Liao, Ling-Qing Yuan
Arterial calcification is a common cardiovascular disease, which initiates from a process of osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs play an important role in regulating arterial calcification. Our results showed that miR-204 was significantly down-regulated in calcified human renal arteries from uraemia patients, mice calcified arteries due to 5/6 nephrectomy with a high phosphate diet (5/6 NTP) and VSMCs induced by high phosphate. The overexpression of miR-204 alleviated the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs...
May 29, 2018: Endocrinology
Daniel Hettel, Ao Zhang, Mohammad Alyamani, Michael Berk, Nima Sharifi
3βHSD1 enzymatic activity is essential for synthesis of potent androgens from adrenal precursor steroids in prostate cancer. A germline variant in HSD3B1, the gene that encodes 3βHSD1, encodes for a stable enzyme, regulates adrenal androgen dependence, and is a predictive biomarker of poor clinical outcomes after gonadal testosterone deprivation therapy. However, little is known about HSD3B1 transcriptional regulation. Generally, it is thought that intratumoral androgen synthesis is up-regulated after gonadal testosterone deprivation, enabling development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
May 29, 2018: Endocrinology
Yusaku Mori, Hideki Kushima, Masakazu Koshibu, Tomomi Saito, Munenori Hiromura, Kyoko Kohashi, Michishige Terasaki, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada, Tsutomu Hirano
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) exhibits direct cardiovascular actions in addition to its well-known insulinotropic effect. However, the role of GIP in peripheral artery disease remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of GIP against peripheral arterial remodeling in mouse models. The genetic deletion of GIPR led to exaggerated neointimal hyperplasia after transluminal femoral artery wire injury. Conversely, chronic GIP infusion suppressed neointimal hyperplasia and facilitated endothelial regeneration...
May 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Ryan G Walker, Thomas B Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Skylar J Ferrara, Dennis Bourdette, Thomas S Scanlan
Thyromimetics represent a class of experimental drugs that can stimulate tissue-selective thyroid hormone action. As such, thyromimetics should have effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and details of this action and the subsequent effects on systemic thyroid hormone levels have not been reported to date. Here, we compare the HPT-axis effects of sobetirome, a well-studied thyromimetic, with Sob-AM2, a newly developed prodrug of sobetirome that targets sobetirome distribution to the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Hong-Jin Zhao, Hsun-Ming Chang, Hua Zhu, Christian Klausen, Yan Li, Peter C K Leung
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and activin A belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and are highly expressed in human endometrium and placenta. Studies have demonstrated that activin A and BMP2 play essential roles in the process of early embryo implantation by promoting human trophoblast cell invasion. However, whether activin A production can be regulated by BMP2 in human trophoblast cells remains unknown. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of BMP2 on activin A production and its role in human trophoblast invasion...
May 25, 2018: Endocrinology
Candace M Reno, Justin Bayles, Allie Skinner, Simon J Fisher
Sulfonylureas increase the incidence of severe hypoglycemia in people with Type 2 diabetes and may increase the risk for sudden cardiac death. Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by closing pancreatic ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. In order to investigate the role of KATP channel modulators on cardiac arrhythmias and mortality in the setting of severe hypoglycemia, adult Sprague Dawley rats underwent hyperinsulinemic (0.2 U·kg-1·min-1) severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dl) clamps with continuous electrocardiogram recording...
May 24, 2018: Endocrinology
Selvaraj Nataraja, Venkataraman Sriraman, Stephen Palmer
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSHR) belongs to the leucine rich repeat family of GPCR (LGR) which includes the glycoprotein hormone receptors, LHR, TSHR and other LGRs 4-7. FSH is the key regulator of folliculogenesis in female and spermatogenesis in male. FSH elicits its physiological response through its cognate receptor on the cell surface. Binding of the hormone, FSH to its receptor, FSHR brings about conformational changes in the receptor which are transduced through the transmembrane domain to the intracellular region where the downstream effector interaction takes place leading to activation of the downstream signaling cascade...
May 23, 2018: Endocrinology
Claes Ohlsson, Daniel A Hägg, Fredrik Hammarhjelm, Adrià Dalmau Gasull, Jakob Bellman, Sara H Windahl, Vilborg Palsdottir, John-Olov Jansson
Leptin has been the only known homeostatic regulator of fat mass, but we recently found evidence for a second one, named the gravitostat. In the present study we compared the effects of leptin and increased loading (gravitostat stimulation) on fat mass in mice with different levels of body weight (lean, overweight and obese). Leptin infusion suppressed body weight and fat mass in lean mice given normal chow, but not in overweight or obese mice given high fat diet for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The maximum effect of leptin on body weight and fat mass was obtained already at less than 44 ng/mL of serum leptin...
May 23, 2018: Endocrinology
Yining Li, Gauthier Schang, Ying Wang, Xiang Zhou, Adrien Levasseur, Alexandre Boyer, Chu-Xia Deng, Mathias Treier, Ulrich Boehm, Derek Boerboom, Daniel J Bernard
The glycoprotein follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a product of pituitary gonadotrope cells, regulates ovarian follicle development in females and spermatogenesis in males. FSH is a heterodimer of the common α gonadotropin subunit and the hormone-specific FSHβ subunit (a product of the Fshb gene). Using a conditional knockout approach (Cre-lox), we previously demonstrated that Fshb expression in mice depends on the transcription factors FOXL2 and SMAD4. Deletion of Foxl2 or Smad4 alone led to FSH deficiency, female subfertility, and oligozoospermia in males...
May 23, 2018: Endocrinology
Jing Li, Jun Song, Xian Li, Stephanie B Rock, Heather F Sinner, Heidi L Weiss, Todd Weiss, Courtney M Townsend, Tianyan Gao, B Mark Evers
NT, a 13-amino acid peptide, is predominantly released from enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel in response to fat ingestion. Free fatty acid receptors, FFAR1 and FFAR4, regulate secretion of gut hormones and insulin. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, has the most dramatic effect on NT release. FFAR1 agonists slightly whereas FFAR4 agonists dramaticly stimulate and amplify NT secretion. Double knockdown of FFAR1 and FFAR4 decreases, but overexpression of FFAR4 but not FFAR1 increases, NT release...
May 22, 2018: Endocrinology
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