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Endeavour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916270/knowing-by-number-learning-math-for-thinking-well
#1
Christopher J Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884402/process-and-impact-of-niels-bohr-s-visit-to-japan-and-china-in-1937-a-comparative-perspective
#2
Lei Wang, Jian Yang
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Japan and China, each for its own reasons, invited the famous physicist Niels Bohr to visit and give lectures. Bohr accepted their invitations and made the trip in 1937; however, the topics of his lectures in the two countries differed. In Japan, he mainly discussed quantum mechanics and philosophy, whereas in China, he focused more on atomic physics. This paper begins with a detailed review of Bohr's trip to Japan and China in 1937, followed by a discussion of the impact of each trip from the perspective of the social context...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884401/the-make-love-not-war-ape-bonobos-and-late-twentieth-century-explanations-for-war-and-peace
#3
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884400/stephen-jay-gould-and-the-value-neutrality-of-science-during-the-late-cold-war
#4
Myrna Sheldon
Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876277/the-ascent-of-man-and-the-politics-of-humanity-s-evolutionary-future
#5
Erika Lorraine Milam
Throughout the twentieth century, contemporary understandings of evolutionary theory were tightly linked to visions of the future freighted with moral consequence. This essay traces the origins and legacy of this scientific commitment to a universal family of man in postwar evolutionary theory, and elaborates how evolutionary scientists sought to reframe the politics of human evolution by claiming that the principles governing the physical past of humanity differed fundamentally from those that would matter in the coming decades, centuries, or even millennia...
November 19, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866685/garrett-hardin-s-tragic-sense-of-life
#6
Jason Oakes
I discuss biologist Garrett Hardin's view of human nature, with examples from the background to his seminal 1968 essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" and his testimony before the US House of Representatives in the 1970s. Hardin saw the human species as being governed by deterministic laws of the same kind that controlled all other forms of life. Humans, as much as cattle and microbes, were in inevitable competition for space and resources. Equal parts Malthusian political economy and Cold War systems science, his view was the survival of the human race depended on obeying these iron laws...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866684/was-queen-jane-seymour-1509-1537-delivered-by-a-cesarean-section
#7
Samuel Lurie
No direct evidence documents exactly how Jane Seymour gave birth on October 12, 1537. Several later commentators have raised cesarean birth as an option. This paper tries to establish the probable cause of Jane Seymour's death in accordance with present-day knowledge of obstetrics and whether or not a cesarean section could have been actually performed in sixteenth-century England. It appears almost certainly that there were no obstetrical indications that would have led the Queen's physicians to operate on her, a surgeon was not present at her delivery, cesarean section on a living woman was not regularly performed in England in 1537, puerperium events do not support surgery, and the existing pro-cesarean confirmation was politically motivated...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780590/special-issue-introduction-science-in-the-public-eye
#8
EDITORIAL
Erika Lorraine Milam, Deborah Weinstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756493/a-forgotten-fossil-the-wild-homo-calpicus-of-gibraltar
#9
Paige Madison
Fossils are crucial pieces of evidence that illuminate the past. In the case of paleoanthropology, the discipline that studies human evolution, fossils are tangible objects that shape the ways we understand ourselves and our history. But how, exactly, do fossils find their way into these narratives, and into scientific journals and museums? How do they become pieces of evidence? The Forbes skull reveals a fossil that struggled to become a noteworthy piece of evidence. It was twice lost, first in a library cabinet on the Rock of Gibraltar, and later, in a London museum storeroom...
October 15, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720215/from-precaution-to-peril-public-relations-across-forty-years-of-genetic-engineering
#10
Andrew J Hogan
The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement...
October 5, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692088/introducing-in-vivo
#11
Richard Bellon, Joseph D Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578416/clinical-dimensions-of-a-biological-concept-transsexualism-and-the-interplay-between-etiological-theory-and-clinical-therapy
#12
Andrew S Lea
In 1966, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine became the first American medical institution to perform sex reassignment surgeries. This article interrogates the relationship between the emergence of this clinical therapy in the United States and the changing medical understandings of the contemporaneous condition it was intended to address - 'transsexualism.' I argue that, during the mid-to-late twentieth century, therapeutic practices and theories about the etiology of transsexualism were mutually constitutive...
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499462/prisoners-of-solitude-bringing-history-to-bear-on-prison-health-policy
#13
Margaret Charleroy, Hilary Marland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496372/la-moisissure-et-la-bact%C3%A3-rie-deconstructing-the-fable-of-the-discovery-of-penicillin-by-ernest-duchesne
#14
Gilbert Shama
Ernest Duchesne (1874-1912) completed his thesis on microbial antagonism in 1897 in Lyon. His work lay unknown for fifty years, but on being brought to light led to his being credited with having discovered penicillin prior to Alexander Fleming. The claims surrounding Duchesne are examined here both from the strictly microbiological perspective, and also for what they reveal about how the process of discovery is frequently misconstrued. The combined weight of evidence presented here militates strongly against the possibility that the species of Penicillium that Duchesne worked with produced penicillin...
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496371/gender-identity-and-the-politics-of-etiology
#15
Andrew Lea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480602/the-lost-worlds-of-messmore-damon-science-spectacle-prehistoric-monsters-in-early-twentieth-century-america
#16
Chris Manias
In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology...
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469427/co2-the-greenhouse-effect-and-global-warming-from-the-pioneering-work-of-arrhenius-and-callendar-to-today-s-earth-system-models
#17
Thomas R Anderson, Ed Hawkins, Philip D Jones
Climate warming during the course of the twenty-first century is projected to be between 1.0 and 3.7°C depending on future greenhouse gas emissions, based on the ensemble-mean results of state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs). Just how reliable are these projections, given the complexity of the climate system? The early history of climate research provides insight into the understanding and science needed to answer this question. We examine the mathematical quantifications of planetary energy budget developed by Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) and Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964) and construct an empirical approximation of the latter, which we show to be successful at retrospectively predicting global warming over the course of the twentieth century...
September 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316854/the-hidden-microworld-of-j-t-quekett
#18
Emmy Bocaege
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317383/the-turn-toward-toxins-an-essay-review
#19
Rachel Emma Rothschild
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180606/the-waste-crisis-in-campania-south-italy-a-historical-perspective-on-an-epidemiological-controversy
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Cantoni
Between 2001 and 2009, the area of Naples, South Italy, repeatedly hit the headlines of national and international media due to the waste management crisis that on many occasions filled up the streets of the region with huge piles of waste. What soon emerged as the main bone of contention concerned the connections between the population's health and the presence of dumps on the territory. What the risks for health actually were, who was entitled to assess them, and whether pollution from proximity to dumps caused health problems were all topics that came to the fore during a debate that took place within the Italian epidemiological community, alongside the political and governance crisis...
June 2016: Endeavour
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