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Endeavour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580798/the-south-asian-origins-of-the-global-network-to-eradicate-blindness-who-ngos-and-decentralization
#1
Logan D A Williams
The global network to eradicate blindness emerged out of the work of Western and South Asian professionals to eradicate smallpox which was endemic in South Asia. The history of the emergence of the global network to eradicate blindness demonstrates a shift from vertical command and control public health programs directed by the WHO, to the decentralized public health services originating in non-profit, non-governmental organizations and coordinated by the WHO. The WHO constitution started with a federal regionalist structure that encouraged collaboration and coordination with NGOs...
March 2018: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548563/soviet-scientists-in-chinese-institutes-a-historical-study-of-cooperation-between-the-two-academies-of-sciences-in-1950s
#2
Jiuchen Zhang, Feklova T Yu
In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role...
March 2018: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503030/crozier-s-penguin-an-object-history-of-maritime-and-museum-science
#3
Diarmid A Finnegan
In November 1843 John Cassidy, curator in the Belfast Museum received, perhaps rather dolefully, a collection of bird skins. The Museum was barely managing to cope with the constant flow of donations from the 'four quarters of the globe'. But the gift of bird skins could not be ignored. Sent by Captain Francis Crozier, recently returned from the British Antarctic Expedition, the bequest contained 150 species of Southern Ocean birds, including the remains of two immature 'great penguins'. Taking the one surviving specimen as a focal point, this paper compares and contrasts the ways in which Aptenodytes forsteri, or the emperor penguin, was differently scripted on board ship and in the museum...
March 2018: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433759/why-the-history-of-public-consultation-matters-for-contemporary-health-policy
#4
Jennifer Crane
Contemporary policy debates construct public involvement in England's National Health Service as "new," or as a practice dating back only as far as the 1990s. This article argues that the longer historical contexts of such consultative practice matter, and it explores various and shifting manifestations of "consultation" in the NHS from the foundation of the Service in 1948. In doing so, it first demonstrates that consultation has always been a part of the theory and practice of postwar health policy...
March 2018: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100611/saving-the-birds-oliver-l-austin-s-collaboration-with-japanese-scientists-in-revising-wildlife-policies-in-us-occupied-japan-1946-1950
#5
Annika A Culver
In postwar Tokyo, ornithologist Oliver L. Austin's leadership of the Wildlife Branch of the Natural Resources Section (NRS) for the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) serves as an intriguing lens into the reconstruction of Japanese conservation activities. His experiences as a scientist working on wildlife policies in US-occupied Korea (1945-1946) and Japan (1946-1949) illuminate the war's impact on individuals and their environment. Austin collaborated closely with elite Japanese colleagues, despite their ruined laboratories, burnt collections, inadequate shelter, and despair...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055651/miracle-near-34th-street-wartime-penicillin-research-at-st-john-s-university-ny
#6
Gilbert Shama
In the spring of 1944 Sister Marie Immaculate was awarded a Master of Science degree for research on penicillin which she had conducted at St John's University in Brooklyn, New York. She gave her motivation for undertaking research in this topic as wishing to fulfil her patriotic duty by participating in the quest towards making penicillin more readily available to all who needed it. It is possible that contemporary media reports suggesting that the power of penicillin was comparable to a miracle cure contributed to her interest in the subject at the time...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859838/far-from-the-lonely-crowd-the-trenchant-techno-cynicism-of-mr-robot
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Volmar
Mr. Robot is a television drama with an unusually techno-cynical premise, tying cybersecurity to the contemporary malaise of social alienation and political disengagement. Weary of consumer capitalism, the show's youthful protagonists seek a more authentic sense of belonging by exploiting the vulnerability of a global economic system that depends critically on creaking technological infrastructures. A remarkable display of iconoclasm for commercial entertainment, Mr. Robot suggests rising discontentment with the commodification of friendship through consumer electronics, but it may also offer media enterprises a model for how to profit from that discontentment in the future...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729128/rosettes-engrailed-edges-and-star-shaped-patterns-between-rediscovery-and-forgetfulness-in-the-early-accounts-of-vibrating-liquid-drops-floating-over-hot-surfaces
#8
Seán M Stewart
Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669417/st-george-mivart-as-popularizer-of-zoology-in-britain-and-america-1869-1881
#9
Emma E Swain
Recent scholarly attentions have shifted from key actors within the scientific elite and religious authorities to scientific practitioners and popularizers who used science to pursue a wide variety of cultural purposes. The Roman Catholic zoologist St. George Mivart (1827-1900) has typically been cast as a staunch anti-Darwinian ostracized by Darwin's inner circle of scientific naturalists. Understood as a popularizer of science, his position can be re-thought. Mivart did not operate on the periphery of Victorian science...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647311/a-collection-of-brain-sections-of-euthanasia-victims-the-series-h-of-julius-hallervorden
#10
Heinz Wässle
Julius Hallervorden, a distinguished German neuropathologist, admitted on several occasions that he had received some five hundred brains of "euthanasia" victims from the Nazi killing centres for the insane. He investigated the brains in the summer of 1942; however, their traces were subsequently lost. The present study shows, that the Series H, which was part of the Hallervorden collection of brain sections in the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, comprises the brain sections of the above mentioned five hundred euthanasia victims...
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392016/on-the-importance-of-the-imaginative-forward-glance
#11
REVIEW
Doug Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818330/manufacturing-in-the-eye-of-the-storm-shen-hong-and-the-nine-great-installations-project-during-china-s-cultural-revolution
#12
Lie Sun, Danian Hu
The construction of nine high-end technical installations (hereafter Project NGI, for Nine Great Installations or ) in the 1960s and 1970s was an indispensable part of the development of China's defense and heavy industries. The project put more than 1400 machines into operation or trial operation during the Culture Revolution (1966-1976), and they served essential technical functions in sectors such as aviation, aerospace, machinery, metallurgy, and electronics, and directly advancing the development of these fields...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807554/grassroots-technological-resistance-the-people-s-power-project-and-the-impossible-dream-of-wireless-transmission-of-energy
#13
Pete Schmidt
In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789866/hua-loo-keng-s-popularization-of-mathematics-and-the-cultural-revolution
#14
Jiří Hudeček
Before 1966, Chinese mathematician Hua Loo-Keng had singled out "Two Methods" as a way to truly applied and useful mathematics. The Overall Planning Method, based on the Critical Path Method widely used in USA, mostly appealed to middle and upper management. This limited its spread during the Cultural Revolution. The Optimum Selection Method, also of US origin, was more mass-oriented and ready for popularization. Nevertheless, Hua met resistance from leftist radicals, whose ideological objections sprang from an underlying power struggle...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780221/making-breakthroughs-in-the-turbulent-decade-china-s-space-technology-during-the-cultural-revolution
#15
Chengzhi Li, Dehui Zhang, Danian Hu
This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764857/despite-or-due-to-the-cultural-revolution-the-development-of-chinese-science-technology-and-medicine-in-the-1960s-and-1970s
#16
Danian Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693890/artemisinin-and-chinese-medicine-as-tu-science
#17
Jia-Chen Fu
The story of discovery of artemisinin highlights the diversity of scientific values across time and space. Resituating artemisinin research within a broader temporal framework allows us to understand how Chinese drugs like qinghao came to articulate a space for scientific experimentation and innovation through its embodiment of alternating clusters of meanings associated with tu and yang within scientific discourse. Tu science, which was associated with terms like native, Chinese, local, rustic, mass, and crude, articulated a radical vision of science in the service of socialist revolutionary ideals...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693889/barefoot-doctors-and-the-health-care-revolution-in-rural-china-a-study-centered-on-shandong-province
#18
Sanchun Xu, Danian Hu
Barefoot doctors were rural medical personnel trained en masse, whose emergence and development had a particular political, economic, social, and cultural background. Like the rural cooperative medical care system, the barefoot doctor was a well-known phenomenon in the Cultural Revolution. Complicated regional differences and a lack of reliable sources create much difficulty for the study of barefoot doctors and result in differing opinions of their status and importance. Some scholars greatly admire barefoot doctors, whereas others harshly criticize them...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655403/yuan-longping-hybrid-rice-and-the-meaning-of-science-in-the-cultural-revolution-and-beyond
#19
Sigrid Schmalzer
This paper uses the case of hybrid rice to chart changes in the meanings science has carried in China from the Mao era to today. It begins by using Chinese journal articles to reconstruct the 1970s development of hybrid rice technology by a network of diverse historical actors. It then documents the emergence during the Hua Guofeng era (1976-1978) of a historical narrative of hybrid rice centered on the figures of Yuan Longping and Hua Guofeng. Finally, it surveys post-1978 biographies of Yuan Longping to identify changes and continuities in scientific values...
September 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606720/the-magical-revolution
#20
REVIEW
Molly S Laas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Endeavour
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