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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Penny J Regier, Timothy C McCarthy, Eric Monnet
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of bilateral ventriculocordectomy via ventral laryngotomy on laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) in canine cadaver larynges. SAMPLE 6 clinically normal canine cadaver larynges. PROCEDURES LAR was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after bilateral ventriculocordectomy with the epiglottis open and closed. After ventral laryngotomy was performed, the vocal cords were sharply excised, and the incised mucosal edges were apposed with 4-0 glycomer 631 suture in a simple continuous pattern...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Fumitaka Takahashi, Takaharu Hakozaki, Nobuo Kanno, Yasuji Harada, Shinya Yamaguchi, Yasushi Hara
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare morphological characteristics of the dens in atlantoaxial instability (AAI)-predisposed toy-breed dogs (TBDs) with and without AAI and non-AAI-predisposed healthy Beagles. ANIMALS 80 AAI-affected and 40 nonaffected TBDs and 40 Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog underwent CT examination of the cervical vertebral column. On median 3-D multiplanar reconstruction images, the dens angle (DA) was measured as were the lengths of the dens and the body of the axis; the dens-to-axis length ratio (ratio of the dens length to the axis body length [DALR]) was calculated...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Rodney W Schnellbacher, Stephen J Divers, Jessica R Comolli, Hugues Beaufrère, Christina H Maglaras, Natalia Andrade, Laura A Barbur, Desiree D Rosselli, Marko Stejskal, Michele Barletta, Jörg Mayer, Paula Rodriguez, Jane E Quandt
OBJECTIVE To compare analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of lidocaine and buprenorphine administered to rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS Fourteen 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Rabbits were assigned to 2 treatment groups (7 rabbits/group). One group received buprenorphine (0.06 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h for 2 days), and the other received lidocaine (continuous rate infusion [CRI] at 100 μg/kg/min for 2 days). Variables, including food and water consumption, fecal output, glucose and cortisol concentrations, and behaviors while in exercise pens, were recorded...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marcela Suárez-Esquivel, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Elías Barquero-Calvo
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the correlation between the density of native gastric Helicobacter spp and the presence of gastric lesions in dogs. ANIMALS 80 dogs of various breeds, sexes, and ages. PROCEDURES Gastroscopic and histologic examinations were performed for all dogs. Helicobacter spp were detected by combining evaluation of urease activity and results of bacteriologic culture, microscopic observation, and a 16S rRNA PCR assay. The density of Helicobacter-like organisms was evaluated with light microscopy by use of Warthin-Starry modified stain...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah F Capik, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, Nicholas Van Engen, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Terry J Engelken, Jeffrey Lakritz, Michael A Ballou, Lindsey E Hulbert, Rhonda C Vann, Jeff L Caswell, Gabriella Jacob, Jeffery A Carroll, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival. ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers. PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day -1...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah F Capik, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, Nicholas Van Engen, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of meloxicam on movement, feeding, and drinking behaviors of transported and nontransported cattle. ANIMALS 100 crossbred beef steers. PROCEDURES During experiment 1 of a 2-experiment study, calves from a livestock auction received meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO; n = 50) or a lactose placebo (1 capsule/calf; 50; control), then calves were transported approximately 1,000 km overnight to a feedlot, where they were instrumented with a real-time location-monitoring ear tag, placed in randomly assigned pens (n = 5 pens/treatment), and monitored for 21 days...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Katherine J Nash, Lenore M Bacek, Pete W Christopherson, Elizabeth A Spangler
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of decreased platelet and WBC counts on platelet aggregation as measured by a multiple-electrode impedance aggregometer in dogs. ANIMALS 24 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES From each dog, 9 mL of blood was collected into a 10-mL syringe that contained 1 mL of 4% sodium citrate solution to yield a 10-mL sample with a 1:9 citrate-to-blood ratio. Each sample was then divided into unmanipulated and manipulated aliquots with progressively depleted buffy-coat fractions such that 2 to 3 blood samples were evaluated per dog...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Toshiaki Kakimoto, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Kenjiro Fukushima, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto
OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah M Depenbrock, Katharine M Simpson, Andrew J Niehaus, Jeffrey Lakritz, Mark G Papich
OBJECTIVE To describe concentration-over-time data for ampicillin and sulbactam in the digital and systemic circulations and synovial fluid (SYN) of cattle following a single injection of ampicillin-sulbactam as a regional IV perfusion (RIVP). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows. PROCEDURES The right hind limb of each cow was aseptically prepared. A tourniquet was applied around the midmetatarsal region, and 1.0 g of ampicillin with 0.5 g of sulbactam in a combined formulation was administered as an RIVP into the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV)...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Diego De Gasperi, Samantha L Dzierzak, Peter Muir, Ray Vanderby, Sabrina H Brounts
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of sedation on results of acoustoelastography of the superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) in clinically normal horses. ANIMALS 27 clinically normal horses. PROCEDURES For each horse, the pathology index (PI) for the SDFT of each thoracic limb was determined by use of acoustoelastography at 4 locations (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone). Horses were evaluated before and after they were sedated with a combination of detomidine hydrochloride (0.01 mg/kg, IV) and butorphanol tartrate (0...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Karina A Mathes, Marcus Schnack, Karl Rohn, Michael Fehr
OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica])...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kate O Echeverria, Kara M Lascola, Steeve Giguère, Jonathan H Foreman, Scott A Austin
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and pulmonary disposition of minocycline in horses after IV and intragastric administration. ANIMALS 7 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES For experiment 1 of the study, minocycline was administered IV (2.2 mg/kg) or intragastrically (4 mg/kg) to 6 horses by use of a randomized crossover design. Plasma samples were obtained before and 16 times within 36 hours after minocycline administration. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 4 times within 24 hours after minocycline administration for collection of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and BAL cells...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Heini S Rossi, Ninna M Koho, Mika Ilves, Minna M Rajamäki, Anna K Mykkänen
OBJECTIVE To examine whether expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) can be detected in equine lungs and whether it correlates with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with chronic inflammation of the lungs (ie, lower airway inflammation [LAI]). ANIMALS 29 horses with signs of chronic respiratory tract disease, which were classified as the LAI (n = 17) and LAI with respiratory distress (RDLAI [12]) groups, and 15 control horses...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Susannah S Lewis, Anne M Nicholson, Zoë J Williams, Stephanie J Valberg
OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings for polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in warmblood horses with type 1 PSSM (PSSM1; caused by mutation of the glycogen synthase 1 gene) and type 2 PSSM (PSSM2; unknown etiology). SAMPLE Database with 3,615 clinical muscle biopsy submissions. PROCEDURES Reported clinical signs and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were retrospectively analyzed for horses with PSSM1 (16 warmblood and 430 nonwarmblood), horses with PSSM2 (188 warmblood and 646 nonwarmblood), and warmblood horses without PSSM (278)...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sara L Losinski, Katy L Townsend, Jamie J Kruzic, Bria Love Robertson, Joanna M Murdoch Sandwisch, Milan Milovancev, Sarah Nemanic
OBJECTIVE To determine whether cellophane banding secured with locking polymer clips on cadaveric splenic veins would cause less CT imaging artifact and achieve equivalent mechanical strength, compared with cellophane banding secured with metal vascular clips. ANIMALS 10 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Clips of each material were applied to each cadaver in a crossover design study. Triple-layer cellophane bands secured with 4 medium-large or large polymer or metal clips were placed on cadaveric splenic veins and evaluated by use of CT...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Adesola Odunayo, Karen M Tobias, Chika C Okafor, Bente Flatland
OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Matan Or, Nausikaa Devriendt, Adriaan M Kitshoff, Kathelijne Peremans, Eva Vandermeulen, Dominique Paepe, Ingeborgh Polis, Valentine Martlé, Hilde de Rooster
OBJECTIVE To compare ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and CSF samples of dogs with and without extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS). ANIMALS 19 dogs with congenital EHPSS and 6 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs underwent a physical examination and then were anesthetized for transsplenic portal scintigraphy to confirm the presence or absence of EHPSS. While dogs were anesthetized, arterial and venous blood samples and a CSF sample were simultaneously collected for determination of ammonia concentration, which was measured by use of a portable blood ammonia analyzer (device A) and a nonportable biochemical analyzer (device B)...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kati M Salla, Cosmin I Tuns, Rachel C Bennett, Marja R Raekallio, Mika Scheinin, Erja Kuusela, Outi M Vainio
OBJECTIVE To compare cardiovascular effects of premedication with medetomidine alone and with each of 3 doses of MK-467 or after glycopyrrolate in dogs subsequently anesthetized with isoflurane. ANIMALS 8 healthy purpose-bred 5-year-old Beagles. PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog received 5 premedication protocols (medetomidine [10 μg/kg, IV] alone [MED] and in combination with MK-467 at doses of 50 [MMK50], 100 [MMK100], and 150 [MMK150] μg/kg and 15 minutes after glycopyrrolate [10 μg/kg, SC; MGP]), with at least 14 days between treatments...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mauricio Loría Lépiz, Rebecca Sayre, Onkar Sawant, James Barr, Medora Pashmakova, Kevin Washburn, Shannon Washburn
OBJECTIVE To characterize the maternal and fetal cardiopulmonary effects of a low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine without a loading dose in pregnant ewes anesthetized with sevoflurane. ANIMALS 11 pregnant ewes. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane. Ewes and fetuses were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and thermodilution-pulmonary arterial catheters were placed in the ewes. Baseline measurements were obtained at an end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 3...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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