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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Alyssa M Chandler, Sharon A Center, John F Randolph, Danielle L Davignon, Sean P McDonough, Karen L Warner
OBJECTIVE To establish reference limits for hepatic bile duct-to-arteriole ratio (BD:A) and bile duct-to-portal tract ratio (BD:PT) in healthy cats and assess whether these parameters could be used to support a diagnosis of biliary ductopenia in cats. SAMPLE Hepatic biopsy samples from healthy cats (n = 20) and cats with ductopenia (2). PROCEDURES Hepatic biopsy samples from healthy cats were used to count the number of bile ducts and hepatic arterioles in 20 portal tracts for each cat. Mean BD:A and mean BD:PT for each cat were calculated, and these values were used to determine reference limits for mean BD:A and mean BD:PT...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Vaidehi V Paranjape, Andre C Shih, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a modified passive leg-raising maneuver (PLRM) to predict fluid responsiveness during experimental induction and correction of hypovolemia in isoflurane-anesthetized pigs. ANIMALS 6 healthy male Landrace pigs. PROCEDURES Pigs were anesthetized with isoflurane, positioned in dorsal recumbency, and instrumented. Following induction of a neuromuscular blockade, pigs were mechanically ventilated throughout 5 sequential experimental stages during which the blood volume was manipulated so that subjects transitioned from normovolemia (baseline) to hypovolemia (blood volume depletion, 20% and 40%), back to normovolemia, and then to hypervolemia...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jesse F Tyma, Kira L Epstein, Canaan M Whitfield-Cargile, Noah D Cohen, Steeve Giguère
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral omeprazole administration on the fecal and gastric microbiota of healthy adult horses. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research horses. PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive omeprazole paste (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a sham (control) treatment (tap water [20 mL, PO, q 24 h]) for 28 days. Fecal and gastric fluid samples were collected prior to the first treatment (day 0), and on days 7, 28, 35, and 56. Sample DNA was extracted, and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced to characterize α and β diversity and differential expression of the fecal and gastric microbiota...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Matteo Rossanese, Amy Ferreira, Thomas W Maddox
OBJECTIVE To determine the mean diameter of the main portal vein (PV) in healthy dogs by use of CT angiography, identify any associations between PV diameter and certain dog characteristics, and validate a clinically valuable ratio for quantifying the size of the PV. ANIMALS 100 dogs with no hepatic, cardiac, or vascular anomalies that underwent abdominal CT angiography. PROCEDURES Diameters of the main PV, abdominal aorta (Ao), and caudal vena cava (CVC) were measured by 2 observers at a defined location on postcontrast CT angiographic images in axial, sagittal, and transverse planes...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marion R Desmarchelier, Francis Beaudry, Shannon T Ferrell, Diane Frank
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult male domestic pigeons. PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 experiments, birds received orally administered trazodone at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg to determine the dose for subsequent experiments. During the second experiment, each bird received 1 dose of trazodone (30 mg/kg, PO)...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Tomoya Morita, Kensuke Nakamura, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Nozomu Yokoyama, Keitaro Morishita, Noboru Sasaki, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between acute volume overload and echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) function and dyssynchrony in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Right heart catheterization and echocardiography were performed in 7 healthy anesthetized Beagles at baseline and after induction of volume overload. Volume overload was induced by IV infusion of lactated Ringer solution (150 mL/kg/h for 90 minutes). Echocardiographic indices of RV function, including peak velocity of systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, fractional area change, RV Tei index, RV longitudinal strain (RVLS), and systolic RV longitudinal strain rate (RVLSR), were obtained by use of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE)...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sophie Jugant, Aure-Eline Grillot, Faouzi Lyarzhri, Alain Régnier, Jean-Yves Douet
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure (IOP) following topical application of a 0.5% tropicamide solution in the eyes of healthy butorphanol-sedated dogs. ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 treatment periods with a 1-week washout between periods, dogs received an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Tomas Boullhesen-Williams, Katy L Townsend, Milan Milovancev, Nicole C White, Conor G Harris, Prajwal Adiga
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro effect of 20% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the viscosity of normal canine bile. ANIMALS Bile samples obtained from 10 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to biliary disease. PROCEDURES Each sample was centrifuged to remove particulates, then divided into 3 aliquots. One aliquot remained untreated (control). Each of the other aliquots was diluted 1:4 with 20% NAC or sterile water. The viscosity of all samples was measured with a rotational viscometer at 25°C. Viscosity of control samples was measured immediately after centrifugation and at 1 and 24 hours after treatment application to the diluted samples...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sungkyun Hong, Siheon Lee, Sangkyung Choen, Jaewoo Hwang, Moonjung Jang, Junghee Yoon, Mincheol Choi
OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of esophageal insufflation CT (EICT) for evaluation of the esophagus in dogs. ANIMALS 7 clinically normal adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized twice with 1 week between anesthesia sessions. Dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency during all CT scans. During the first anesthesia session, a CT scan was performed before the esophagus was insufflated (insufflation pressure, 0 mm Hg) and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced EICT scans were performed after CO2 was insufflated into the esophageal lumen to achieve a pressure of 5 mm Hg...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Chiara E Hampton, Thomas W Riebold, Nicole L LeBlanc, Katherine F Scollan, Ronald E Mandsager, David D Sisson
OBJECTIVE To compare effects of tiletamine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, and propofol for anesthetic induction on cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables before and during isoflurane-maintained anesthesia in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and instrumented. After dogs recovered from anesthesia, baseline values for cardiorespiratory variables and cardiac output were determined, and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were obtained. Tiletamine-zolazepam (5 mg/kg), alfaxalone (4 mg/kg), propofol (6 mg/kg), or ketamine-diazepam (7 and 0...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Myra E Durham, Johanna R Elfenbein
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization on the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate (M-PMMA) beads. SAMPLE 6-mm-diameter polymethyl methacrylate beads that were or were not impregnated with meropenem. PROCEDURES Meropenem-free polymethyl methacrylate and M-PMMA beads were sterilized by use of an autoclave or VHP or remained unsterilized. To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of each bead-sterilization combination (treatment), Mueller-Hinton agar plates were inoculated with 1 of 6 common equine pathogens, and 1 bead from each treatment was applied to a sixth of each plate...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Daniel L Grooms, Steven R Bolin, Jessica L Plastow, Ailam Lim, Joseph Hattey, Phillip T Durst, Steven R Rust, Michael S Allen, Daniel D Buskirk, Richard W Smith
OBJECTIVE To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis remains viable in ensiled forages. SAMPLE Alfalfa, mixed mostly grass, and corn silages. PROCEDURES For each of 10 sampling days, six 250-g replicate samples of each feedstuff were created and placed in a film pouch that could be vacuum sealed to simulate the ensiling process. Within each set of replicate samples, 4 were inoculated with 10 mL of mycobacterial liquid culture medium containing viable M bovis and 2 were inoculated with 10 mL of sterile mycobacterial liquid culture medium (controls) on day 0...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jennifer I Kasten, Kristen M Messenger, Nigel B Campbell
OBJECTIVE To evaluate hemodynamic, respiratory, and sedative effects of buccally administered detomidine gel and reversal with atipamezole in dogs. ANIMALS 8 adult purpose-bred dogs. PROCEDURES Arterial and venous catheters were placed. Baseline heart rate, respiratory rate, cardiac output (determined via lithium dilution with pulse contour analysis), oxygen delivery, systemic vascular resistance, arterial blood gas values, and sedation score were obtained. Detomidine gel (2.0 mg/m2 ) was administered on the buccal mucosa...
December 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jacqueline E Scott, Ameet Singh, Alexander Valverde, Shauna L Blois, Robert A Foster, Jessica J Kilkenny, Alex Zur Linden
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2 ) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs. ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs. PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2 ; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity)...
December 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Douglas D Shane, Jiena G McLellan, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, David E Amrine, Michael W Sanderson, Michael D Apley
OBJECTIVE To determine whether animal-to-animal and community contact patterns were correlated with and predictive for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef steers during the first 28 days after feedlot entry. ANIMALS 70 weaned beef steers (mean weight, 248.9 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were instrumented with a real-time location system transmitter tag and commingled in a single pen. The location of each calf was continuously monitored. Contact between calves was defined as ≤ 0.5 m between pen coordinates, and the duration that 2 calves were within 0...
December 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Keri L Thomas, James L Carmalt, Wadena D Burnett, Hanieh Arjmand, James D Johnston
OBJECTIVE To compare strain at the bone-pin and cast-pin interfaces among 3 transfixation pin-cast constructs applied to equine forelimbs. ANIMALS 15 forelimbs from 15 adult horses. PROCEDURES Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 constructs. Centrally threaded positive-profile pins were used for all constructs, and the most distal pin was placed just proximal to the epicondyles of the third metacarpal bone. Construct 1 consisted of two 6.3-mm-diameter pins spaced 4 cm apart at 30° to each other. Construct 2 was the same as construct 1 except the pins were placed 5 cm apart...
December 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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