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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Laura G Bunke, Kurt K Sladky, Stephen M Johnson
OBJECTIVE To determine antinociceptive efficacy, behavioral patterns, and respiratory effects associated with dexmedetomidine administration in ball pythons (Python regius). ANIMALS 12 ball pythons. PROCEDURES Antinociception was assessed by applying an infrared heat stimulus to the cranioventral surface of snakes during 2 experiments. Thermal withdrawal latency was measured at 0, 2, and 24 hours after SC injections of dexmedetomidine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and at 0 to 60 minutes after injection of dexmedetomidine (0...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Eric C Ledbetter, Amanda M Nicklin, Chloe B Spertus, Matthew R Pennington, Gerlinde R Van de Walle, Hussni O Mohammed
OBJECTIVE To determine the in vitro half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) of ganciclovir for canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) and to evaluate the efficacy of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Cytotoxicity and EC50 of ganciclovir for CHV-1 were determined during in vitro experiments. During an in vivo experiment, dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infections received 1 drop of 0.15% ganciclovir (ganciclovir group; n = 5) or artificial tear (control group; 5) ophthalmic gel in both eyes 5 times daily for 7 days, then 3 times daily for 7 days...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Molly Allen, Rebecca A Johnson
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of buprenorphine hydrochloride (BH), sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB), and high-concentration buprenorphine (HCB) formulations in healthy rats. ANIMALS 8 Sprague-Dawley rats. PROCEDURES In a crossover-design study, rats received BH (0.05 mg/kg), SRB (1.2 mg/kg), HCB (0.30 mg/kg), or 5% dextrose solution (0.2 mL/kg), SC, once. Self-injurious behavior and thermal sensitivity (hind limb withdrawal latencies) were assessed prior to injection (time 0) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after injection...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Eric J Miller, Anne J Gemensky-Metzler, David A Wilkie, Rachel M Wynne, Elizabeth M Curto, Heather L Chandler
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of grape seed extract (GSE), lutein, and fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress, migration, proliferation, and viability of lens epithelial cells (LECs). SAMPLE Lens capsules or cultured LECs obtained from canine cadavers. PROCEDURES An antioxidant reductive capacity assay was used to determine reducing capability of each substance. The LECs were cultured and incubated with various substances, including N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), when appropriate, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as positive and vehicle control substances, respectively...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Michelle C Whitehead, Chelsey L Vanetten, Megan E Jacob, Tara M Harrison
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microbial integrity of preservative-free cyclodextrin-based alfaxalone in a multiple-use system. SAMPLE 22 vials of preservative-free alfaxalone. PROCEDURES 2 storage conditions (room temperature, 22°C; refrigerated temperature, 4°C) and 3 handling techniques (closed system transfer device, nonclosed dispensing pin, and manufacturer-supplied vial stopper) comprised 6 treatment groups (3 replicates/group). An aliquot (0.5 mL) was withdrawn from each vial daily for 14 days. Samples were immediately inoculated into tryptic soy broth and incubated at 36°C for 24 hours; samples were subcultured onto 5% Columbia sheep blood agar and incubated for 48 hours...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nicolò Columbano, Lauren R Duffee, Valentino Melosu, Antonio Scanu, Simone Dore, Giovanni Sotgiu, Bernd Driessen, Giovanni M Careddu
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane (MACDES ) and effects on cardiovascular variables in positive-pressure ventilated sheep. ANIMALS 13 adult female sheep. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with desflurane. After a 30-minute equilibration at an end-tidal concentration of desflurane (etDES ) of 10.5%, an electrical stimulus (5 Hz/ms and 50 mA) was applied for 1 minute or until gross purposeful movement occurred. The etDES was then changed by 0.5% (modified up-down method), depending on whether a positive motor response had been elicited, and stimulation was repeated...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Brian M Zanghi, Lynn Gerheart, Cari L Gardner
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of drinking nutrient-enriched water (NW) on water intake and indices of hydration in healthy domestic cats fed a dry kibble diet ad libitum. ANIMALS 18 domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Group-housed cats were assigned to tap water (TW; n = 9) or NW (9) groups. All cats received TW at baseline (days -7 to -1). No changes were made to the food-water regimen for the TW group. The NW group received NW instead of TW from days 0 through 10, then received TW and NW in separate bowls (days 11 through 56)...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Megan G Behringer, Dawn M Boothe, Kamoltip Thungrat
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a fluorescence resonance energy transfer quantitative PCR (FRET-qPCR) assay for detection of gyrA mutations conferring fluoroquinolone resistance in canine urinary Escherichia coli isolates and canine urine specimens. SAMPLE 264 canine urinary E coli isolates and 283 clinical canine urine specimens. PROCEDURES The E coli isolates were used to validate the FRET-qPCR assay. Urine specimens were evaluated by bacterial culture and identification, isolate enrofloxacin susceptibility testing, and FRET-qPCR assay...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Manuel Martin-Flores, Daniel M Sakai, Juhana Honkavaara, Luis Campoy, Diego A Portela, Robin D Gleed
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of each of 3 incremental doses of MK-467 for alleviation of dexmedetomidine-induced hemodynamic depression in isoflurane-anesthetized cats. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized with isoflurane and received a target-controlled infusion of dexmedetomidine estimated to maintain the plasma dexmedetomidine concentration at 10 ng/mL throughout the experiment. Heart rate (HR) and direct arterial pressures were measured at baseline (isoflurane administration only), during dexmedetomidine infusion, and before and after IV administration of each of 3 serially increasing doses (15, 30, and 60 μg/kg) of MK-467...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Alex P Schenk, F A Mann, John R Middleton, Kim A Aeschlimann
OBJECTIVE To compare the leak pressure and amount of time required to perform closure for 2 double-layer esophagotomy closure techniques. SAMPLE 28 intrathoracic esophageal segments harvested from 38 porcine cadavers. PROCEDURES Longitudinal 3-cm esophagotomy incisions made in porcine cadaveric esophagi were closed with 2 double-layer closure techniques. Fifteen incisions were closed with a simple interrupted pattern, and 13 incisions were closed with a simple continuous pattern. Leak pressure, bursting wall tension, and closure time were compared between suture patterns by use of a t test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David A Upchurch, Emily E Klocke, Jamie N Henningson
OBJECTIVE To assess differences in skin shrinkage between grossly visible tumor and grossly normal marginal skin of dogs for cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with curative intent and to determine an equation to estimate postexcisional gross tumor margins from preexcisional measurements and vice versa. SAMPLE 19 cytologically confirmed and surgically excised cutaneous MCTs obtained from dogs. PROCEDURES Tumors were measured in craniocaudal and dorsoventral directions before excision, immediately after excision, and after fixation in formalin...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Emily C Vincent, Andrew J Yoak, Jeanette O'Quin, Rebecca B Garabed
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 methods of surveying free-roaming cats (Felis catus) and identify factors potentially associated with the presence of such cats in a mixed-urban environment. ANIMALS Free-roaming cats on and near The Ohio State University campus. PROCEDURES The university campus and surrounding areas were divided into zones classified by land-use category; 100 zones were selected for surveillance of free-roaming cats by the line-transect method (with visual observation). Twenty-three of the 100 zones were selected for surveillance by the trail-camera method (motion-triggered still photography)...
July 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Chris G Pirie, Alexander J LoPinto, Wade A Tenney
OBJECTIVE To assess and compare 2 injection techniques for conducting ocular anterior segment indocyanine green angiography (ASICGA) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiography in horses. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult female horses (age range, 19 to 25 years). PROCEDURES Horses were sedated, jugular catheters were placed, and manual restraint was used to ensure proper positioning for the angiography procedure. Two injection techniques (IV and intra-arterial) were performed for each horse 1 week apart. Intravenous injections of 0...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Valentina De Monte, Antonello Bufalari, Salvatore Grasso, Fabienne Ferrulli, Alberto Maria Crovace, Luca Lacitignola, Francesco Staffieri
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of 2 tidal volumes (TV s) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung mechanics, aeration, and gas exchange in healthy anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 40 mixed-breed dogs with healthy lungs. PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) with different ventilatory settings: TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (low TV group), TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (low TV plus PEEP group), TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (high TV group), or TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (high TV plus PEEP group)...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stephan Neudeck, Sabine B R Kästner, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Karl Rohn, Klaus Hopster
OBJECTIVE To determine global and peripheral perfusion and oxygenation during anesthesia with equipotent doses of desflurane and propofol combined with a constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine in horses. ANIMALS 6 warmblood horses. PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (3.5 μg•kg-1 , IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol or ketamine and maintained with desflurane or propofol (complete crossover design) combined with a constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (7 μg•kg-1 •h-1 )...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Beth A Kimmitt, George E Moore, Jean Stiles
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, EDTA, 3 tetracyclines, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for collagenase inhibition in an in vitro corneal degradation model. SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs and horses and fresh serum from healthy dogs and horses. PROCEDURES Serum was pooled by species for in vitro use. For each species, sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated with clostridial collagenase (800 U/mL) in 5 mL of a 5mM calcium chloride-saline (0...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kimberly A Aeschlimann, F A Mann, John R Middleton, Rebecca C Belter
OBJECTIVE To determine whether stored (cooled or frozen-thawed) jejunal segments can be used to obtain dependable leak pressure data after enterotomy closure. SAMPLE 36 jejunal segments from 3 juvenile pigs. PROCEDURES Jejunal segments were harvested from euthanized pigs and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12 segments/group) as follows: fresh (used within 4 hours after collection), cooled (stored overnight at 5°C before use), and frozen-thawed (frozen at -12°C for 8 days and thawed at room temperature [23°C] for 1 hour before use)...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Beth A Lieblick, Philip J Bergman, Nathan W Peterson
OBJECTIVE To validate that dogs become hypocoagulable following rattlesnake envenomation and to determine whether thromboelastographic abnormalities are correlated with envenomation severity for dogs bitten by rattlesnakes native to southern California. ANIMALS 14 dogs with observed or suspected rattlesnake envenomation (envenomated dogs) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES For each dog, a citrate-anticoagulated blood sample underwent kaolin-activated thromboelastography. For each envenomated dog, a snakebite severity score was assigned on the basis of clinical findings, and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count were determined when the attending clinician deemed it necessary and owner finances allowed...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Michael D Kleinhenz, Nicholas K Van Engen, Patrick J Gorden, Joe S Smith, Butch KuKanich, Suzanne M Rajewski, Philip Walsh, Steven Perkins, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves. ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves. PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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