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American Journal of Veterinary Research

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October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ji-Hey Lim, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ashley N Sharpe, Wen J Seeto, Randolph L Winter, Qiao Zhong, Elizabeth A Lipke, Anne A Wooldridge
OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Maty G P Looijen, Dallas J New, Carrie D Fischer, Rkia Dardari, Karyn M Irwin, Christopher J Berezowski, Stephanie L Bond, Renaud Léguillette
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mRNA expression of T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cell-associated inflammatory mediators in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and to monitor blood oxygen concentration during and following HBO therapy. ANIMALS 8 healthy horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized controlled crossover design study, each horse was exposed (beginning day 1) to 100% oxygen at a maximum of 3 atmospheres absolute (304 kPa) daily for 10 days or ambient air at atmospheric pressure in the HBO chamber for an equivalent amount of time (control)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Chloe B Spertus, Hussni O Mohammed, Eric C Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Annalisa P Liotta, Maud Girod, Dominique Peeters, Charlotte Sandersen, Thierry Couvreur, Géraldine Bolen
OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marco A F Lopes, Antonio C O Dearo, Allen Lee, Shannon K Reed, Joanne Kramer, P Frank Pai, Yoshiharu Yonezawa, Hiromitchi Maki, Terry L Morgan, David A Wilson, Kevin G Keegan
OBJECTIVE To evaluate head, pelvic, and limb movement to detect lameness in galloping horses. ANIMALS 12 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Movement data were collected with inertial sensors mounted on the head, pelvis, and limbs of horses trotting and galloping in a straight line before and after induction of forelimb and hind limb lameness by use of sole pressure. Successful induction of lameness was determined by measurement of asymmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during trotting. Differences in gallop strides before and after induction of lameness were evaluated with paired-sample statistical analysis and neural network training and testing...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David E Holt, Dorothy C Brown, Paula S Henthorn
OBJECTIVE To sequence exons and splice consensus sites of the dynactin subunit 1 (DCTN1) gene in Leonbergers and Labrador Retrievers with clinical laryngeal paralysis. ANIMALS 5 unrelated Leonbergers with laryngeal paralysis, 2 clinically normal Leonbergers, 7 unrelated Labrador Retrievers with laryngeal paralysis, and 2 clinically normal Labrador Retrievers. PROCEDURES Primers were designed for the entire coding regions of the DCTN1 gene, a noncoding exon at the 5´ end of the gene, and a 900-bp single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-rich region located 17 kb upstream of the DCTN1 gene by use of the CanFam3 assembly of the canine genome sequence...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Loni L Schumacher, Jason C Woodworth, Cassandra K Jones, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip C Gauger, Charles R Stark, Rodger G Main, Richard A Hesse, Mike D Tokach, Steve S Dritz
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum infectious dose of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in virus-inoculated feed. ANIMALS 30 crossbred 10-day-old pigs. PROCEDURES Tissue culture PEDV was diluted to form 8 serial 10-fold dilutions. An aliquot of stock virus (5.6 × 10(5) TCID50/mL) and each serial PEDV dilution were mixed into 4.5-kg batches of feed to create 9 PEDV-inoculated feed doses; 1 virus-negative dose of culture medium in feed was also created. Pigs were challenge exposed via oral administration of PEDV-inoculated feed, and fecal swab specimens were collected...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sungjun Noh, Hye-Sun Kim, Jinhwa Chang, Ji-Houn Kang, Dongwoo Chang, Mhan-Pyo Yang
OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jennifer Chau, Alex C Young, Navneet Dhand, Mariano A Makara
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of estimating time to peak enhancement (TPE) of the aorta and liver parenchyma on the basis of contrast medium arrival time in the aorta, injection duration, and injection technique in dogs. ANIMALS 18 dogs of specific body weight categories (≥ 2 dogs/category) with no liver abnormalities detected via CT. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned within weight categories to receive contrast medium IV at a fixed injection rate (5 mL/s) or fixed injection duration (20 seconds)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christelle le Roux, Nicolette Cassel, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Allison L Zwingenberger, Robert M Kirberger
OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Adam H Biedrzycki, Barrie G Grant, Brett Nemke, Samantha L Morello, Mark D Markel
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biomechanical properties of 4 methods for fusion of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints in horses and compare them among each other and with control tarsi. SAMPLE 24 sets of paired tarsi without substantial signs of osteoarthritis harvested from equine cadavers. PROCEDURES Test constructs (n = 6/type) were prepared from 1 tarsus from each pair to represent surgical drilling; 2 medially to laterally placed kerf-cut cylinders (MLKCs); a single large, dorsally applied kerf-cut cylinder (DKC); and a dorsomedially applied locking compression plate (DMLCP)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David D Frisbie, C Wayne McIlwraith, Christopher E Kawcak, Natasha M Werpy
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of a product containing hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses. ANIMALS 32 healthy 2- to 5-year-old horses. PROCEDURES The study involved 2 portions. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy of the test product, horses received 5 mL of the product (n = 8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (8; placebo) IV every fifth day, starting on day 0 (when osteoarthritis was induced in the middle carpal joint of 1 forelimb) and ending on day 70...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Reza Seddighi, Agricola Odoi, Thomas J Doherty
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jennifer K Reagan, Laura E Selmic, Laura D Garrett, Kuldeep Singh
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples. SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2)...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Carley R Corado, Daniel S McKemie, Heather K Knych
OBJECTIVE To characterize polymorphisms of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 (CYP2D50) and the disposition of 2 CYP2D50 probe drugs, dextromethorphan and debrisoquine, in horses. ANIMALS 23 healthy horses (22 Thoroughbreds and 1 Standardbred). PROCEDURES Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2D50 were identified. Disposition of dextromethorphan (2 mg/kg) and debrisoquine (0.2 mg/kg) were determined after oral (dextromethorphan) or nasogastric (debrisoquine) administration to the horses. Metabolic ratios of plasma dextromethorphan and total dextrorphan (dextrorphan plus dextrorphan-O-β-glucuronide) and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine concentrations were calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity for the parent drug divided by that for the corresponding metabolite...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mélanie J Boileau, Rinosh Mani, Melanie A Breshears, Margi Gilmour, Jared D Taylor, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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