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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Tomoki Motegi, Hirotaka Tomiyasu, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Masashi Takahashi, Saaya Hiyoshi-Kanemoto, Yasuhito Fujino, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsuimoto
OBJECTIVE To determine the prognostic value of CD44 variant isoform expression in dogs with multicentric high-grade B-cell lymphoma (BCL). ANIMALS 45 dogs with multicentric BCL and 10 healthy control Beagles. PROCEDURES The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs with BCL that were treated between November 2005 and April 2015. Information regarding overall response to chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) time, and overall survival time was extracted from each record...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Katy L Townsend, Milan Milovancev, Shay Bracha
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for transcutaneous detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and their associated lymphatic vessels in the oral mucosa of healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult purpose-bred research hounds. PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and 1 mL of ICG solution was injected into the gingival mucosa dorsal to the right maxillary canine tooth. Subsequently, NIR fluorescence imaging was used to transcutaneously detect the lymphatic vessels and SLNs...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sakura Arai, Hyunjung Kim, Takayasu Watanabe, Mari Tohya, Eriko Suzuki, Kasumi Ishida-Kuroki, Fumito Maruyama, Kazunori Murase, Ichiro Nakagawa, Tsutomu Sekizaki
OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonization of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus parasuis on pig farms in Japan and to identify sources of infections. SAMPLE Saliva, feces, and vaginal swab samples from 84 healthy pigs of several growth stages on 4 farms and swab samples of feed troughs and water dispensers at those farms. PROCEDURES Samples were collected from August 2015 to June 2016. Two quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays (one for S suis and the other for S parasuis) were designed for use in the study. The novel qPCR assays were used in combination with previously described qPCR assays for S suis serotype 2 or 1/2 and total bacteria...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Bianca Patan-Zugaj, Felicia C Gauff, Monika Egerbacher, Theresia F Licka
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on type VII collagen- cleaving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue of extracorporeally perfused equine limbs. SAMPLE 10 right forelimbs and 3 left forelimbs collected from 10 adult horses after slaughter at a licensed abattoir. PROCEDURES Extracorporeal perfusion of the isolated equine limbs was performed for 10 hours under physiologic conditions (control-perfused limbs; n = 5) and with the addition of 80 ng of LPS/L of perfusate (LPS-perfused limbs; 5)...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Magdy Adam, Marja R Raekallio, Kati M Salla, Juhana M Honkavaara, Sofia Männikkö, Mika Scheinin, Marena Kajula, Sari H Mölsä, Outi M Vainio
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of the peripherally acting α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 on cardiopulmonary function in sheep sedated with medetomidine and ketamine. ANIMALS 9 healthy adult female sheep. PROCEDURES Each animal received an IM injection of a combination of medetomidine (30 μg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg; Med-Ket) alone and Med-Ket and 3 doses of MK-467 (150, 300, and 600 μg/kg) in a randomized blinded 4-way crossover study. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg, IM) was administered 60 minutes later to reverse sedation...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Richard A Trahan, Christopher R Byron, Linda A Dahlgren, R Scott Pleasant, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 equimolar concentrations of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and isoflupredone acetate (IPA) on equine articular tissue cocultures in an inflammatory environment. SAMPLE Synovial and osteochondral explants from the femoropatellar joints of 6 equine cadavers (age, 2 to 11 years) without evidence of musculoskeletal disease. PROCEDURES From each cadaver, synovial and osteochondral explants were harvested from 1 femoropatellar joint to create cocultures...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Daniel M Sakai, Manuel Martin-Flores
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of 2 levels of partial neuromuscular block on the ventilatory response to a hypercapnic challenge in anesthetized dogs and to evaluate effects of edrophonium for reversing partial neuromuscular block. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized twice with propofol and dexmedetomidine. End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (Petco2 ), tidal volume (Vt), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) were measured during breathing at rest. Maximal Vt and PIF (VtMAX and PIFMAX , respectively) in response to a hypercapnic challenge consisting of 10% CO2 inhaled for 1 minute were measured...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Elizabeth A Maxwell, R Avery Bennett, Mark A Mitchell
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of application of an alcohol-based antiseptic (80% ethyl alcohol) hand rub (ABAHR) with that of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CGS2) for immediate reduction of the bacterial population on the skin of dogs. ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs with no evidence of skin disease. PROCEDURES On each dog, 2 areas of hair on the ventral aspect of the abdomen were clipped with a No. 40 blade and cleared of debris. A direct contact plate holding tryptic soy agar with polysorbate 80 and lecithin was gently pressed (for 2 seconds) on each skin site (preapplication sample)...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jennifer M Gambino, Judy R James, John P Buchweitz, A Jim Cooley, Amanda M Lawrence, Robert W Wills, Alison M Lee
OBJECTIVE To determine brain region affinity for and retention of gadolinium in dogs after administration of gadodiamide and whether formalin fixation affects quantification. ANIMALS 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES 13 dogs received gadodiamide (range, 0.006 to 0.1 mmol/kg, IV); 1 control dog received a placebo. Dogs received gadodiamide 3 to 7 days (n = 8) or 9 hours (5) before euthanasia and sample collection. Brain regions were analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sangwan Park, Seonmi Kang, Jaegook Lim, Eunjin Park, Taekjin Nam, Seowoo Jeong, Kangmoon Seo
OBJECTIVE To compare morphology of the ciliary cleft (CC) region in dogs after topical administration of latanoprost, pilocarpine, or a combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine. ANIMALS 6 Beagles. PROCEDURES A prospective 4-phase crossover study with washout periods was performed. Latanoprost (phase L), pilocarpine (phase P), pilocarpine followed by latanoprost (phase PL), and latanoprost followed by pilocarpine (phase LP) were administered to the right eye. Artificial tears were administered to the left eye (control eye)...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christoph M Sprecher, Stefan Milz, Thomas Suter, John H Keating, Robert J McCarthy, Boyko Gueorguiev, Randy J Boudrieau
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs. SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA)...
September 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Maria C Jugan, Adam J Rudinsky, Alexander Gordon, Denise L Kramer, Joshua B Daniels, Oleg Paliy, Prosper Boyaka, Chen Gilor
OBJECTIVE To measure effects of oral Akkermansia muciniphila administration on systemic markers of gastrointestinal permeability and epithelial damage following antimicrobial administration in dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either A muciniphila (109 cells/kg; n = 4) or vehicle (PBS solution; 4) for 6 days following metronidazole administration (12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 d). After a 20-day washout period, the same dogs received the alternate treatment...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Katie C Kennedy, Steven A Martinez, Stephanie E Martinez, Russell L Tucker, Neal M Davies
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of synovial inflammation and signs of pain, function, bone healing, and osteoarthritis following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with spontaneous cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with unilateral CCLR. PROCEDURES All dogs were instrumented with an accelerometer for 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after TPLO. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive LLLT (radiant exposure, 1.5 to 2.25 J/cm2 ; n = 6) or a control (red light; 6) treatment immediately before and at predetermined times for 8 weeks after TPLO...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Maya L König, Sophie C Lettry, Eliane Marti, Jelena Mirkovitch, Marianne Wyder, Urs Giger, Simone Schuller
OBJECTIVE To assess 2 human ELISA kits for measurement of angiopoietin-1 and -2 concentrations in canine plasma samples, determine whether plasma angiopoeitin-2 concentration differed between septic and healthy dogs, and determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation on angiopoeitin-2 release from primary canine aortic endothelial cells (pCAECs) in vitro. ANIMALS 10 healthy dogs and 10 septic dogs. PROCEDURES Human angiopoietin-1 and -2 ELISAs were used to detect recombinant canine angiopoietins-1 and -2 in canine plasma samples...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah L Pownder, Brian G Caserto, Kei Hayashi, Mary Lou Norman, Hollis G Potter, Matthew F Koff
OBJECTIVE To characterize the MRI and histologic features of the supraspinatus tendon in nonlame dogs. ANIMALS 7 cadavers (14 shoulder joints) of nonlame 2-year-old sexually intact male Beagles. PROCEDURES Multiple MRI fluid-sensitive pulse sequences were obtained for both shoulder joints of each cadaver, and the thickness, volume, and signal intensity of each supraspinatus tendon were assessed. After MRI scanning was complete, the shoulder joints were processed for histologic examination. Tissue specimens were stained with various stains to determine tendon morphology and composition...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Paisley Canning, Austin Viall, Katie O'Brien, Darin Madson, Kristin Skoland, Adam Krull, Daniel Linhares, Phillip Gauger, Alejandro Ramirez, Locke Karriker
OBJECTIVE To determine reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein concentration, pH, RBC count, and percentages of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear cells in synovial fluid samples (SFSs) obtained from the carpal and tarsal joints of healthy swine. ANIMALS 54 healthy commercial finisher pigs that had no evidence of lameness or gross joint swelling. PROCEDURES Each pig was anesthetized, and SFSs were collected from 1 carpal and 1 tarsal joint for fluid analysis, cytologic evaluation, bacterial culture, and PCR analyses for common swine joint pathogens...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
James L Carmalt, Kirsten V Henderson, Jennifer E Rawlinson, Cheryl L Waldner
OBJECTIVE To identify whether age, sex, or breed is associated with crown height of the left and right maxillary first molar tooth (M1) measured on CT images, to develop a mathematical model to determine age of horses by use of M1 crown height, and to determine the correlation between M1 crown height measured on radiographic and CT images. SAMPLE CT (n = 735) and radiographic images (35) of the heads of horses. PROCEDURES Crown height of left and right M1 was digitally measured on axial CT views. Height was measured on a lateral radiographic image when available...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christopher K Smith, Reza Seddighi, Xiaojuan Zhu, Andrew J Tepe, Edward C Ramsay, Andrew C Cushing
OBJECTIVE To investigate use of the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) and perfusion index (PI) for evaluating changes in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized tigers (Panthera tigris). ANIMALS 8 adult tigers. PROCEDURES Each tiger was anesthetized once with a combination of ketamine, midazolam, medetomidine, and isoflurane. Anesthetic monitoring included assessment of PI, PVI, direct blood pressure measurements, anesthetic gas concentrations, esophageal temperature, and results of capnography and ECG...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Holly L Stewart, Dipti Pitta, Nagaraju Indugu, Bonnie Vecchiarelli, Julie B Engiles, Louise L Southwood
OBJECTIVE To characterize the fecal microbiota of horses and to investigate alterations in that microbiota on the basis of sample collection site (rectum vs stall floor), sample location within the fecal ball (center vs surface), and duration of environmental exposure (collection time). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed mares. PROCEDURES From each horse, feces were collected from the rectum and placed on a straw-bedded stall floor. A fecal ball was selected for analysis immediately after removal from the rectum and at 0 (immediately), 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after placement on the stall floor...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Timothy S Foo, Joanna L Pilton, Evelyn J Hall, Fernando Martinez-Taboada, Mariano Makara
OBJECTIVE To quantify the effect of time and recumbency on CT measurements of lung volume and attenuation in healthy cats under general anesthesia. ANIMALS 8 healthy research cats. PROCEDURES Anesthetized cats were positioned in sternal recumbency for 20 minutes and then in left, right, and left lateral recumbency (40 minutes/position). Expiratory helical CT scan of the thorax was performed at 0 and 20 minutes in sternal recumbency and at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes in each lateral recumbent position. For each lung, CT measurements of lung volume and attenuation and the extent of lung areas that were hyperaerated (-1,000 to -901 Hounsfield units [HU]), normoaerated (-900 to -501 HU), poorly aerated (-500 to -101 HU), or nonaerated (-100 to +100 HU [indicative of atelectasis]) were determined with a semiautomatic threshold-based technique...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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