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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Chris G Pirie, Alexander J LoPinto, Wade A Tenney
OBJECTIVE To assess and compare 2 injection techniques for conducting ocular anterior segment indocyanine green angiography (ASICGA) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiography in horses. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult female horses (age range, 19 to 25 years). PROCEDURES Horses were sedated, jugular catheters were placed, and manual restraint was used to ensure proper positioning for the angiography procedure. Two injection techniques (IV and intra-arterial) were performed for each horse 1 week apart. Intravenous injections of 0...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Valentina De Monte, Antonello Bufalari, Salvatore Grasso, Fabienne Ferrulli, Alberto Maria Crovace, Luca Lacitignola, Francesco Staffieri
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of 2 tidal volumes (TV s) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung mechanics, aeration, and gas exchange in healthy anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 40 mixed-breed dogs with healthy lungs. PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) with different ventilatory settings: TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (low TV group), TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (low TV plus PEEP group), TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2 O (high TV group), or TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2 O (high TV plus PEEP group)...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stephan Neudeck, Sabine B R Kästner, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Karl Rohn, Klaus Hopster
OBJECTIVE To determine global and peripheral perfusion and oxygenation during anesthesia with equipotent doses of desflurane and propofol combined with a constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine in horses. ANIMALS 6 warmblood horses. PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (3.5 μg•kg-1 , IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol or ketamine and maintained with desflurane or propofol (complete crossover design) combined with a constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (7 μg•kg-1 •h-1 )...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Beth A Kimmitt, George E Moore, Jean Stiles
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, EDTA, 3 tetracyclines, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for collagenase inhibition in an in vitro corneal degradation model. SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs and horses and fresh serum from healthy dogs and horses. PROCEDURES Serum was pooled by species for in vitro use. For each species, sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated with clostridial collagenase (800 U/mL) in 5 mL of a 5mM calcium chloride-saline (0...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kimberly A Aeschlimann, F A Mann, John R Middleton, Rebecca C Belter
OBJECTIVE To determine whether stored (cooled or frozen-thawed) jejunal segments can be used to obtain dependable leak pressure data after enterotomy closure. SAMPLE 36 jejunal segments from 3 juvenile pigs. PROCEDURES Jejunal segments were harvested from euthanized pigs and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12 segments/group) as follows: fresh (used within 4 hours after collection), cooled (stored overnight at 5°C before use), and frozen-thawed (frozen at -12°C for 8 days and thawed at room temperature [23°C] for 1 hour before use)...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Beth A Lieblick, Philip J Bergman, Nathan W Peterson
OBJECTIVE To validate that dogs become hypocoagulable following rattlesnake envenomation and to determine whether thromboelastographic abnormalities are correlated with envenomation severity for dogs bitten by rattlesnakes native to southern California. ANIMALS 14 dogs with observed or suspected rattlesnake envenomation (envenomated dogs) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES For each dog, a citrate-anticoagulated blood sample underwent kaolin-activated thromboelastography. For each envenomated dog, a snakebite severity score was assigned on the basis of clinical findings, and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count were determined when the attending clinician deemed it necessary and owner finances allowed...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Michael D Kleinhenz, Nicholas K Van Engen, Patrick J Gorden, Joe S Smith, Butch KuKanich, Suzanne M Rajewski, Philip Walsh, Steven Perkins, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves. ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves. PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christopher L Hoffman, Nicola J Volstad, Eric C Hans, Brett W Nemke, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To develop contact time (ConT) and withers height-normalized relative ConT (ConT*) for force platform gait analysis of dogs. ANIMALS 29 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Height at the most dorsal aspect of the shoulders (withers) was measured with a framing square. Dogs were trotted across a force platform at their preferred velocity with controlled acceleration (± 0.5 m/s2 ). Ranges of ConT and ConT* centered on the population mean ConT were created. Variance effects on ground reaction forces (GRFs) for 4 thoracic limb and 4 pelvic limb ConT and associated ConT* ranges were examined...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Aida I Vientós-Plotts, Ellen N Behrend, Elizabeth G Welles, Dennis J Chew, Philippe R Gaillard, Jessica N Busler, Hollie P Lee
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sirkka Kyostio-Moore, Patricia Berthelette, Cathleen Sookdeo Cornell, Bindu Nambiar, Monica Dias Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE To evaluate gene transfer of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors with AAV2 or AAV5 capsid and encoding hyaluronic acid (HA) synthase-2 (HAS2) into joints of healthy dogs. ANIMALS 22 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURES Plasmid expression cassettes encoding canine HAS2 (cHAS2) were assessed in vitro for concentration and molecular size of secreted HA. Thereafter, rAAV2-cHAS2 vectors at 3 concentrations and rAAV5-cHAS2 vectors at 1 concentration were each administered intra-articularly into the left stifle joint of 5 dogs; 2 dogs received PBS solution instead...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christian J Posbergh, Sara E Kalla, Nathan B Sutter, Bud C Tennant, Heather J Huson
OBJECTIVE To identify the genetic cause for congenital photosensitivity and hyperbilirubinemia (CPH) in Southdown sheep. ANIMALS 73 Southdown sheep from a CPH research flock and 48 sheep of various breeds from commercial flocks without CPH. PROCEDURES Whole-genome sequencing was performed for a phenotypically normal Southdown sheep heterozygous for CPH. Heterozygous variants within Slco1b3 coding exons were identified, and exons that contained candidate mutations were amplified by PCR assay methods for Sanger sequencing...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Rachel Policelli Smith, Amy M Koenigshof, Daniel J Smith, Phillip R Strom, Nathan C Nelson
OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jonathan D Foster, Kenneth J Drobatz, Larry D Cowgill
OBJECTIVE To compare dialysate sodium concentration and patient plasma sodium concentration of dogs during intermittent hemodialysis treatments. SAMPLE 211 intermittent hemodialysis treatments performed on 40 client-owned dogs for the management of dialysis-dependent uremia. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine the plasma sodium concentration of each dog before and after routine hemodialysis treatments. Associations between detected changes in plasma sodium concentration and dialysate sodium concentration were evaluated by use of Spearman rank correlations and linear regression analysis...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nicole L LeBlanc, Katherine F Scollan
OBJECTIVE To evaluate accuracy of quantification of right ventricle volume (RVV) by use of 3-D echocardiography (3DE) and ECG-gated multidetector CT (MDCT). ANIMALS 6 healthy hound-cross dogs. PROCEDURES ECG-gated MDCT and complete 3DE examinations were performed on each dog. Right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (EDVs), end-systolic volumes (ESVs), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were measured for 3DE and MDCT data sets by use of software specific for RVV quantification. Correlation and level of agreement between methods were determined...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stacy L Anderson, Hugh G G Townsend, Baljit Singh
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on apoptosis of equine neutrophils in vitro. SAMPLE Venous blood samples from 40 adult horses. PROCEDURES Neutrophils were isolated from blood samples and cultured with or without LPS from Escherichia coli O55:B5 for 12 or 24 hours. Neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by use of cytologic examination, annexin V and propidium iodide staining quantified with flow cytometry, coincubation with inducers of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis or a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibitor, and measurement of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
James Howard, Turi K Aarnes, Jonathan Dyce, Phillip Lerche, Larry W Wulf, Johann F Coetzee, Jeffrey Lakritz
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of 3 doses of tapentadol hydrochloride orally administered in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES In a prospective, randomized crossover study, dogs were assigned to receive each of 3 doses of tapentadol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, PO); there was a 1-week washout period between subsequent administrations. Plasma concentrations and physiologic variables were measured for 24 hours. Samples were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Johanne M Vanderstock, Marie-Pier Lecours, Annouck Lavoie-Lamoureux, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, Daniel Jean
OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Antje Hartmann, Clea von Klopmann, Ines E Lautenschläger, Volkher B Scholz, Martin J Schmidt
OBJECTIVE To quantitatively analyze brain perfusion parameters in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) by use of MRI and to compare those findings with brain perfusion parameters for healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with IE. PROCEDURES For each dog, standard MRI and perfusion-weighted imaging (before and after injection of gadoteric acid contrast medium) sequences of the brain were obtained during the interictal period by means of the same protocol used in a comparable study of healthy dogs. Time of contrast medium arrival, time to peak contrast enhancement, mean contrast transit time, and cerebral blood flow were calculated for the caudate nucleus, thalamus, piriform lobe, hippocampus, semioval center, and temporal cerebral cortex...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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