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American Journal of Veterinary Research

SeungWoo Jung, Amy Bohan
OBJECTIVE To characterize expression profiles of circulating microRNAs via genome-wide sequencing for dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). ANIMALS 9 healthy client-owned dogs and 8 age-matched client-owned dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected before administering cardiac medications for the management of CHF. Isolated microRNAs from plasma were classified into microRNA libraries and subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for genome-wide sequencing analysis and quantification of circulating microRNAs...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stefanie R Keller, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Norbert Sprenger, Sean C Austin, Brigitta A C Wichert, Annette Liesegang, Christine H Y Oei, Orsolya Balogh, Iris M Reichler
OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of metoclopramide orally administered to healthy bitches on serum prolactin and milk lactose concentrations, gross energy, and dry matter content and on puppy weight gain during early lactation. ANIMALS 20 client-owned bitches and their 121 puppies. PROCEDURES 10 bitches received metoclopramide (0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 6 h for 6 days; treatment group) starting 10 to 24 hours after birth of the last puppy of the litter (day 0), and 10 bitches served as the control group. Blood and milk samples from all bitches were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Antonio M Cruz, Beatriz Vidondo, Alessandra A Ramseyer, Ugo E Maninchedda
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of speed on kinematic variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses performing controlled exercise on a treadmill. ANIMALS 10 nonlame horses. PROCEDURES 6 IMUs were attached at predetermined locations on 10 nonlame Franches Montagnes horses. Data were collected in triplicate during trotting at 3.33 and 3.88 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Thirty-three selected kinematic variables were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of speed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sina C Hofberger, Felicia Gauff, Denise Thaller, Ruth Morgan, John A Keen, Theresia F Licka
OBJECTIVE To identify signs of tissue-specific cortisol activity in samples of suspensory ligament (SL) and neck skin tissue from horses with and without pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). SAMPLE Suspensory ligament and neck skin tissue samples obtained from 26 euthanized horses with and without PPID. PROCEDURES Tissue samples were collected from 12 horses with and 14 horses without PPID (controls). Two control horses had received treatment with dexamethasone; data from those horses were not used in statistical analyses...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Miori Kishimoto, Kazuya Kushida, Kazutaka Yamada
OBJECTIVE To measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) by means of perfusion CT in clinically normal Holstein calves. ANIMALS 9 Holstein calves. PROCEDURES Each of the 9 calves (mean age, 20.2 days) was anesthetized and received an injection of iodinated contrast medium into the right jugular vein at a rate of 4.0 mL/s. Dynamic CT scanning of the head at a level that included the mandibular condyle was initiated at the time of the contrast medium injection and continued for 100 seconds...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Molly Allen, Nicole Nietlisbach, Rebecca A Johnson
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of high-concentration buprenorphine (HCB) on self-injurious behavior, food intake, fecal output, and thermal withdrawal latencies in healthy rats. ANIMALS 8 Sprague-Dawley rats. PROCEDURES Rats received 4 SC treatments (HCB at 0.075, 0.15, or 0.30 mg/kg [HCB0.075, HCB0.15, and HCB0.30, respectively] or 5% dextrose solution [0.20 mL/kg]) in a randomized, crossover-design study. Self-injurious behavior was assessed for 8 hours after injection. Food intake and fecal output were assessed for predetermined periods before and after treatment and separated into 12-hour light and dark periods for further analysis...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David A Barker, Carlos Rubiños, Olivier Taeymans, Jackie L Demetriou
OBJECTIVE To determine from MRI measurements whether soft palate length (SPL) and thickness are correlated in dogs, evaluate the association between the olfactory bulb angle (OBA) and degree of brachycephalia, and determine the correlation between soft palate-epiglottis overlap and OBA in dogs. ANIMALS 50 brachycephalic and 50 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs without abnormalities of the head. PROCEDURES Medical records and archived midsagittal T2-weighted MRI images of brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs' heads were reviewed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marissa R Pallotto, Maria R C de Godoy, Hannah D Holscher, Preston R Buff, Kelly S Swanson
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kim M Newkirk, Gordon Ehrensing, Agricola Odoi, Raymond C Boston, Nicholas Frank
OBJECTIVE To assess insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression within pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance. ANIMALS 10 insulin-resistant horses and 13 insulin-sensitive horses. PROCEDURES For each horse, food was withheld for at least 10 hours before a blood sample was collected for determination of serum insulin concentration. Horses with a serum insulin concentration < 20 μU/mL were assigned to the insulin-sensitive group, whereas horses with a serum insulin concentration > 20 μU/mL underwent a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test to determine sensitivity to insulin by minimal model analysis...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Erica J Secor, Santiago D Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Gavin P Horn
OBJECTIVE To biomechanically compare modified and standard laryngoplasty constructs in monotonic load to failure and cyclic loading. SAMPLES 41 equine cadaveric larynges. PROCEDURES Laryngoplasty constructs were created by use of a standard technique on one side and a modified technique (with a toggle to anchor suture to the arytenoid cartilage) on the other side. For monotonic loading, laryngoplasty constructs were prepared and suture ends attached to a load frame; constructs then were loaded until mechanical failure...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Manuel Martin-Flores, Chia T Tseng, Steven D Robillard, Brittany E Abrams, Luis Campoy, H Jay Harvey, Robin D Gleed
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of 2 fractions of inspired oxygen (Fio 2 s) during anesthesia on postanesthesia Pao 2 and other measures of oxygen exchange. ANIMALS 22 healthy adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy by ventral midline celiotomy. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either oxygen (Fio 2 > 0.9 [100% oxygen]; n = 11; control group) or a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (Fio 2 = 0.4; 11; 40% oxygen group) as the carrier gas for isoflurane while anesthetized...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Caroline Q Sloan, Carlos O Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE To assess the in vitro effects of doxorubicin and tetrathiomolybdate (TM) on cells from a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line. SAMPLE Cultured cells from the canine hemangiosarcoma-derived cell line DEN-HSA. PROCEDURES Cells were treated with TM (0 to 1.5μM), doxorubicin (0 to 5μM), or both with or without 24 hours of pretreatment with ascorbic acid (750μM). Degree of cellular cytotoxicity was measured with a colorimetric assay. Long-term growth inhibition was assessed with a 10-day colony-formation assay...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marília de A Bonelli, Ronaldo C da Costa
OBJECTIVE To compare the percentage of the C3-C7 vertebral canal occupied by the spinal cord in small-breed dogs with that in Doberman Pinschers and Great Danes with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). ANIMALS 30 small-breed dogs (body weight, < 15 kg), 15 clinically normal Doberman Pinschers, 15 Doberman Pinschers with CSM, 15 clinically normal Great Danes, and 15 Great Danes with CSM. PROCEDURES In a retrospective study, sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MRI images of the cervical (C3 to C7) vertebral column obtained from dogs that met study criteria and were free of extensive abnormalities that could affect the spinal cord diameter between January 2005 and February 2015 were reviewed...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Zhi Hui Sim, Chantale L Pinard, Brandon L Plattner, Dorothee Bienzle
OBJECTIVE To characterize the distribution and intensity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the eyes of cats with and without uveitis and to determine whether COX-2 expression is correlated with severity of inflammation. SAMPLES Archived ocular tissue specimens from 51 cats with and 10 cats without ocular disease. PROCEDURES Specimens from only 1 eye were evaluated for each cat. Specimens were stained with H&E stain or immunohistochemical stain for detection of COX-2 and reviewed. For each eye, the type, severity, and distribution of inflammation and the distribution and intensity of COX-2 expression were determined for the uvea and other ocular tissues...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Edyta Bula, David A Upchurch, Yuheng Wang, Sheng Chen, Sara Roccabianca
OBJECTIVE To compare tensile strength and time to completion of body wall closure among 3 suture patterns. SAMPLE Eighteen 5 × 5-cm leather specimens and sixty-eight 5 × 5-cm full-thickness tissue specimens from the ventral portion of the abdominal body wall of 17 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES During experiment 1 of a 2-experiment study, each leather specimen was cut in half and sutured with a simple interrupted or simple continuous pattern or continuous pattern with intermittent Aberdeen knots (intermittent Aberdeen pattern)...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Christie C Balcomb, John A Angelos, Munashe Chigerwe, Barbara A Byrne, V Michael Lane, Scott E Wetzlich, Orhan Sahin, Larry Holler, Shuping Zhang, Lisa A Tell
OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 commercial florfenicol formulations following IM and SC administration to sheep. ANIMALS 16 healthy adult mixed-breed sheep. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, sheep were randomly assigned to receive florfenicol formulation A or B at a single dose of 20 mg/kg, IM, or 40 mg/kg, SC. After a 2-week washout period, each sheep was administered the opposite formulation at the same dose and administration route as the initial formulation. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after each florfenicol administration...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nathalie A Reisbig, Hayam A Hussein, Erin Pinnell, Alicia L Bertone
OBJECTIVE To create a bioactive synovium scaffold by infusing decellularized synovial-derived extracellular matrix (synECM) with synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (synMSCs). SAMPLE Synovium from the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial joints of equine cadavers. PROCEDURES The synMSCs were cultured in monolayer and not treated or cotransduced to enhance expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. The synECM was decellularized with 0.1% peracetic acid and then seeded with synMSCs (0...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nadia L Kopec, Jane M Williams, Gillian F Tabor
OBJECTIVE To compare the kinematics of the thoracic limb of healthy dogs during descent of stairs and a ramp with those during a trot across a flat surface (control). ANIMALS 8 privately owned dogs. PROCEDURES For each dog, the left thoracic limb was instrumented with 5 anatomic markers to facilitate collection of 2-D kinematic data during each of 3 exercises (descending stairs, descending a ramp, and trotting over a flat surface). The stair exercise consisted of 4 steps with a 35° slope. For the ramp exercise, a solid plank was placed over the steps to create a ramp with a 35° slope...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Molly D Gleeson, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Heather K Knych, Philip H Kass, Tracy L Drazenovich, Michelle G Hawkins
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of 2 doses of a concentrated buprenorphine formulation after SC administration to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Concentrated buprenorphine (0.3 mg/kg, SC) was administered to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points over 24 hours after drug administration to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. After a 4-week washout period, the same birds received the same formulation at a higher dose (1...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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