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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Kimberly S Hooi, Alice M Defarges, Andrea L Sanchez, Stephanie G Nykamp, J Scott Weese, Anthony C G Abrams-Ogg, Dorothee Bienzle
OBJECTIVE To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) accomplished by use of a bronchoscopic (B-BAL) and a nonbronchoscopic (NB-BAL) technique in healthy cats. ANIMALS 12 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Two BALs were performed in a randomized order 2 weeks apart in each cat. Cats were anesthetized, and a 2.9-mm fiberoptic bronchoscope (B-BAL) or 8F red rubber catheter (NB-BAL) was wedged in a bronchus. Two 5-mL aliquots of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused into the left and right caudal lung fields and aspirated manually with a 20-mL syringe...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Cynthia A Lucidi, John A Gerlach, Susan Forney, L Ari Jutkowitz, Michael A Scott
OBJECTIVE To develop and characterize flow cytometric assays for detecting IgG bound to canine erythrocytes and bone marrow erythroid precursors. SAMPLE Blood samples from 20 healthy and 61 sick dogs with (n = 33) or without (28) immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and bone marrow samples from 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES A flow cytometric assay for measurement of IgG on RBCs was developed, and appropriate positive control cells were generated. Analytic and diagnostic performance were characterized. The RBC IgG assay was then combined with density-gradient fractionation of aspirated bone marrow cells and a 2-color process to yield an assay for detecting IgG on nucleated RBCs (nRBCs)...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Karla I Moreno-Torres, Devinn M Sinnott, Barbara A Wolfe, Antoinette E Marsh, William J A Saville, Mark Moritz, Rebecca B Garabed
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of environmental exposure to heteroxenous coccidia from wild canid feces in southeastern Ohio. SAMPLE 285 presumed wild canid fecal samples collected across an ecological system in southeastern Ohio. PROCEDURES Morphological classification and molecular analysis were used to determine the canid genus for collected fecal samples. Microscopic and molecular analysis were used to detect coccidian oocysts and DNA. Several variables were analyzed for associations with coccidian DNA detection or prevalence...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Anna E Dunlap, Kyle G Mathews, Bethany L Walters, Kent A Bruner, Hongyu Ru, Denis J Marcellin-Little
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the 3-D geometry of canine pelves and to characterize the long-term effects of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) on pelvic geometry by comparing the pelvic configuration between littermates that did and did not undergo the procedure. ANIMALS 24 Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, or Labrador Retriever-Golden Retriever crossbred service dogs from 13 litters. PROCEDURES At 16 weeks old, puppies with a hip joint distraction index ≥ 0.5 were randomly assigned to undergo thermal JPS (n = 9), mechanical JPS (7), or a sham (control) surgical procedure (8)...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Lily A Parkinson, Christoph Mans
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diuretic effects and associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values following SC furosemide administration to water-deprived inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). ANIMALS 9 bearded dragons. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, furosemide (5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered SC every 12 hours for 4 doses or no treatment (control treatment) was provided for the same period. Food and water were withheld. Body weight was recorded before (baseline) and 12 hours after treatment sessions ended and then after 5 minutes of soaking in a water bath...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Brian M Zanghi, Emma Wils-Plotz, Staci DeGeer, Cari L Gardner
OBJECTIVE To investigate water intake and urine measures in healthy cats provided free-choice access to a nutrient-enriched water with (NWP) or without (NW) added poultry flavoring offered at 3 different volumes in addition to tap water (TW). ANIMALS 36 domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Control group cats (n = 4) received dry food with TW ad libitum throughout the study. Cats of the NW and NWP groups (n = 16/group) received the same food with TW only (period 1; 7 days) followed by TW and the assigned treatment ad libitum at 1X, 1...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Dahae Lee, Seungjo Park, Mary Jasmin C Ang, Jun-Gyu Park, Sooa Yoon, Cheolhyun Kim, Sang-Kwon Lee, Kyoung-Oh Cho, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE To evaluate acute changes of the liver by use of shear wave elastography (SWE) and CT perfusion after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES RFA was performed on the liver (day 0). Stiffness of the ablation lesion, transitional zone, and normal parenchyma were evaluated by use of SWE, and blood flow, blood volume, and arterial liver perfusion of those regions were evaluated by use of CT perfusion on days 0 and 4. All RFA lesions were histologically examined on day 4. RESULTS Examination of the SWE color-coded map distinctly revealed stiffness of the liver tissue, which increased from the normal parenchyma to the transitional zone and then to the ablation zone...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Carmen B Arsuaga-Zorrilla, Amy M Grooters, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of an immunotherapeutic product on concentrations of anti-Pythium insidiosum antibodies in dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy hound-crossbreds. PROCEDURES Antibody concentrations were evaluated before (day 0) and after administration of the immunotherapeutic product. The immunotherapeutic product was administered on days 0, 7, and 21. Serum was obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56. Anti-P insidiosum antibody concentrations were measured and reported as the percentage positivity relative to results for a strongly positive control serum...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Danielle A Mzyk, Claire M Bublitz, Ginger D Hobgood, Marilyn N Martinez, Geof W Smith, Ronald E Baynes
OBJECTIVE To compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin between 3-week-old (preweaned) and 6-month-old (weaned) calves and to characterize the distribution of tulathromcyin into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) of preweaned and weaned calves following SC administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg). ANIMALS 8 healthy 3-week-old and 8 healthy 6-month-old Holstein steers. PROCEDURES A jugular catheter and SC ultrafiltration probe were aseptically placed in the neck of each calf before tulathromycin administration...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Travis R Van Anne, Carol L Rinehart, Robin E Buterbaugh, Matt J Bauer, Alan J Young, Michelle L Blaha, Angela L Klein, Christopher C L Chase
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of calves receiving 2 doses of a dual-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2) before and after exposure to BHV1. ANIMALS 24 Holstein steers negative for anti-BHV1 antibodies and proliferative cell-mediated immune responses against BHV1 and BVDV. PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The vaccinated group (n = 10) received 2 doses of vaccine on days 0 and 21...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Lisa M Freeman, James Sutherland-Smith, Charles Cummings, John E Rush
OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of an ultrasonographically and radiographically determined value, the vertebral epaxial muscle score (VEMS), for assessing muscle mass in cats. ANIMALS 30 healthy neutered cats of various body weights and between 1 and 6 years of age. PROCEDURES Mean epaxial muscle height was calculated from 3 transverse ultrasonographic images obtained at the level of T13. Length of T4 was measured on thoracic radiographs, and the VEMS (ratio of epaxial muscle height to T4 length) was calculated and compared with body weight...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ahyoung Cha, Seungjo Park, Choelhyun Kim, Sooa Yoon, Dahae Lee, Dongeun Kim, Dong Woo Chang, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of respiratory phase, body position, beam center location, and gastric distention on radiographic assessment of liver size in dogs. ANIMALS 12 Beagles. PROCEDURES Liver length and the ratio of liver length to T11 length were determined on lateral radiographic views obtained with various techniques. Images were acquired at maximal expiration or maximal inspiration, with dogs in right or left recumbency, with the beam centered on the caudal border of the scapula or the 13th rib, and after food was withheld or with gastric distention...
November 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ana Velloso Alvarez, John Schumacher, Fred J DeGraves
OBJECTIVE To determine whether addition of epinephrine to a lidocaine solution would prolong and potentiate the efficacy of a palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) in horses. ANIMALS 6 adult horses with naturally occurring forefoot lameness. PROCEDURES Initially, a PDNB with a 2% lidocaine solution was performed on the affected foot of each horse. Three days later, the PDNB was repeated with a 1% lidocaine solution or a 1% lidocaine solution containing epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000). After another 3-day washout period, the PDNB was repeated with the treatment opposite that administered for the second PDNB...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Fumitaka Takahashi, Takaharu Hakozaki, Shigenori Kouno, Shuji Suzuki, Asaka Sato, Nobuo Kanno, Yasuji Harada, Shinya Yamaguchi, Yasushi Hara
OBJECTIVE To retrospectively evaluate the epidemiological and morphological features and outcome of surgical treatment of incomplete ossification of the dorsal neural arch of the atlas (IODA) in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI). ANIMALS 106 AAI-affected dogs that underwent ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. PROCEDURES Medical records and CT images for each dog were reviewed. Dogs were allocated to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of IODA or of dens abnormalities (DAs) in CT images...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Yun-Hye Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Chul Park
OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiac structural and functional changes by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging in dogs with spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus. ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs, of which 10 had normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus and 20 were healthy. PROCEDURES All dogs underwent physical examination, laboratory analyses, standard echocardiography, and TDI. RESULTS On TDI and strain imaging, transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E)-to-tissue Doppler-derived peak early diastolic velocity at basal segment (E') of septum ratio, E:lateral E' ratio, and septal tissue Doppler-derived peak late diastolic velocity at basal segment (A') were significantly higher and the septal E':A' ratio and lateral longitudinal strain were significantly lower for diabetic dogs than for control dogs...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Katie E Osekavage, Benjamin M Brainard, Selena L Lane, Mohammed Almoslem, Robert D Arnold, Amie Koenig
OBJECTIVE To assess pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid (TXA) in dogs and assess antifibrinolytic properties of TXA in canine blood by use of a thromboelastography-based in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs received each of 4 TXA treatments (10 mg/kg, IV; 20 mg/kg, IV; approx 15 mg/kg, PO; and approx 20 mg/kg, PO) in a randomized crossover-design study. Blood samples were collected at baseline (time 0; immediately prior to drug administration) and predetermined time points afterward for pharmacokinetic analysis and pharmacodynamic (thromboelastography) analysis by use of an in vitro hyperfibrinolysis model...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Wei Duan, Mandi J Lopez
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of various concentrations of collagenase and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on yield of equine adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) before and after cryopreservation. SAMPLE Supragluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 7 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Tissues were incubated with digests containing 0.1%, 0.05%, or 0.025% type I collagenase. Part of each resulting stromal vascular fraction was cryopreserved in 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% DMSO, and 10% Dulbecco modified Eagle medium F-12 and in 95% FBS and 5% DMSO...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Francesca Beccati, Isabella Santinelli, Sara Nannarone, Marco Pepe
OBJECTIVE To determine the influence of various neck positions on cervical vertebral radiographic measurements in horses. ANIMALS 18 client-owned horses examined for lameness but free of cervical disease. PROCEDURES Laterolateral radiographs of the cervical vertebrae from C1 through T1 were acquired for each horse in 3 neck positions (low, neutral, and high). Minimum sagittal diameter, intravertebral sagittal diameter (intra-VSD) ratio, inter-VSD ratio, length of the articular processes joint ratio, vertebral alignment angle, and vertebral fossa angle were measured at each segment in each neck position...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Natalia Coyo, Marta Leiva, Daniel Costa, José Rios, Teresa Peña
OBJECTIVE To determine corneal thickness (CT), endothelial cell density (ECD), and morphological and morphometric features of caprine eyes and to assess effects of aging on these variables. SAMPLE 27 healthy eyes of 19 Murciano-Granadina goats. PROCEDURES Goats were classified into 2 age groups (kids, 14 months old [14 eyes]; and adults, 7 to 10 years old [13 eyes]). The ECD and CT were calculated in the central cornea and 4 peripheral quadrants. Mean cell area (MCA), pleomorphism (percentage of hexagonal cells), and polymegathism were evaluated in the central cornea...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Klaus Hopster, Lauren R Duffee, Charlotte C S Hopster-Iversen, Bernd Driessen
OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) with positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEPs) in anesthetized horses ventilated with oxygen or heliox (70% helium and 30% oxygen). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Volume-controlled ventilation was performed with heliox or oxygen (fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2 ] > 90%). Sixty minutes after mechanical ventilation commenced, an ARM with PEEP (0 to 30 cm H2 O in steps of 5 cm H2 O every 5 minutes, followed by incremental steps back to 0 cm H2 O) was performed...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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