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Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Marica T Engström, Xiaowei Sun, Matthew P Suber, Min Li, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Ann E Hagerman
Many food and forage plants contain tannins, high molecular weight polyphenols that characteristically interact strongly with protein, forming complexes that affect taste, nutritional quality and health of the consumer. In the present study, the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA), and each of seven hydrolyzable tannins or epigallocatechin gallate was examined. The objective was to define the effect of tannin oxidation, measured as oxidative activity (browning) or as oxidizability (degradation monitored by HPLC) on the formation on highly stabilized tannin-protein complexes, and to determine how the reaction depended on the pH conditions...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Priyanka R Chaudhary, Haejeen Bang, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
In the current study, phytochemical contents and expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Rio Red grapefruit were studied at different developmental and maturity stages for the first time. Grapefruit were harvested in June, August, November, January, and April and analyzed for the levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, limonoids, flavonoids, and furocoumarins by HPLC. In addition, genes encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 1, 2-rhamnosyltransferase (2RT) were isolated and their expression in grapefruit juice vesicles was studied...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alice Thürer, Michael Granvogl
Deep-frying leads to the generation of various degradation products providing desired properties, like aroma, taste, or color, but some can have adverse effects on human health. The study investigated the influence of frying oils differing in their fatty acid compositions on the generation of desirable and undesirable compounds during deep-frying of potato chips. Selected key odorants and toxicologically relevant compounds (acrolein, acrylamide, furan, and glycidamide) were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jie Yang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Mingming Cao, Changbao Wang, Chong Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu
Fmb60 is a wild-type Bacillus subtilis isolated from compost with significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Two novel PKS clusters were recognized in the genome sequence of fmb60, and then three polyene antibiotics, aurantinins B, C, and D, 1-3, were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation from the fermentation of fmb60. The structures of aurantinins B-D were elucidated by LC-HRMS and NMR data analysis. Aurantinins C and D were identified as new antimicrobial compounds. The three aurantinins showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sporogenes...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kaori Saito, Atsushi Kaiho, Ryo Sakai, Hiroshi Nishimura, Hitomi Okada, Takashi Watanabe
Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterized the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nicole Beitlich, Tilo Lübken, Martin Kaiser, Lilit Ispiryan, Karl Speer
New Zealand manuka honey is well-known for its unique antibacterial activity. Due to its high price and limited availability, this honey is often subject to honey fraud. Two pteridine derivatives, 3,6,7-trimethyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pteridinedione and 6,7-dimethyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pteridinedione, have now been identified in New Zealand manuka honey. Their structures were elucidated by LC-QTOF-HRMS, NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation via semi-preparative HPLC. Their marker potential for authentic manuka honey was proved as both substances were neither detectable in the pollen-identical kanuka honey nor in the nine other kinds of monofloral New Zealand honey analyzed (clover, forest, kamahi, pohutukawa, rata, rewarewa, tawari, thyme, and vipers bugloss)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sanjeev Kumar, Suchandra Chatterjee, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
During in vitro analysis, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves extracts displayed varying antimutagenicity when analyzed in models including human lymphoblast (TK+/-) cell line (thymidine kinase gene mutation assay) and Escherichia coli MG1655 (rifampicin resistance assay) against chemical (ethyl methanesulfonate and 5-azacytidine) induced mutagenicity. Highest antimutagenicity was displayed by the quinone extract. The principle bioactive compound exhibited fluorescence in TLC at 366 nm (termed C4) resolved at Rf:0...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aude Annie Watrelot, Nadia K Byrnes, Hildegarde Heymann, James A Kennedy
One major red wine mouthfeel characteristic, astringency, is derived from grape-extracted tannins and is considered to be a result of interaction with salivary proteins and the oral mucosa. To improve our understanding of the role that the enthalpy of interaction of tannin with a hydrophobic surface (tannin activity) has in astringency perception, a chromatographic method was used to determine the tannin concentration and activity of 34 Cabernet Sauvignon wines, as well as sensory analysis done on 13 of those wines...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yun-Chong Zheng, Hao He, Xing Wei, Sheng Ge, Yan-Hua Lu
The effects of mulberry ingredients including 1-deoxynojrimycin (DNJ), resveratrol (RES), oxyresveratrol (OXY), cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) on insulin secretion under oxidative stress were investigated. The results revealed that they had distinct effects on insulin secretion in H2O2-induced MIN 6 cells, especially DNJ, C3G and C3R, While RES and OXY showed modest effects in low dose (12.5μM). The mechanisms were demonstrated in signal pathway that after treatment with DNJ, C3G and C3R, the expressions of glucokinase (GK) were up-regulated, leading to intracellular ATP accumulation and insulin secretion...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Haiqiu Huang, Hari B Krishnan, Quynhchi Pham, Liangli Lucy Yu, Thomas T Y Wang
Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the U.S. and soy foods are gaining popularity due to its reported health promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health promoting/disease preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Paul Alain Nanssou Kouteu, Bruno Baréa, Nathalie Barouh, Joel Blin, Pierre Villeneuve
The aim of this work was to investigate lipase activities in crude extracts from Adansonia suarezensis, Adansonia grandidieri, Moringa drouhardii, Moringa oleifera, Jatropha mahafalensis and Jatropha curcas seeds in ethanolysis and hydrolysis reactions. All crude extracts from germinated seeds showed both ethanolysis and hydrolysis activities. The influence of germination, of the delipidation procedure and of the triacylglycerol: ethanol molar ratio on their ethanolysis activity was studied. Crude extracts of Jatropha and Adansonia seeds showed optimal activity at pH 8 with an optimum temperature of 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Constanza S Carrera, Philippe Seguin
Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Liang Zhao, Yong Wang, Jia Liu, Kai Wang, Xiaoxuan Guo, Baoping Ji, Wei Wu, Feng Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Honorata Małgorzata Ropiak, Olivier Desrues, Andrew Richard Williams, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of livestock are increasingly developing resistance to synthetic nematocidal drugs. Moreover, the use of nematocides can induce ecotoxicity by affecting free-living nematodes. Condensed tannins (CT) are a structurally diverse group of bioactive plant compounds possessing anthelmintic activity against GIN. We investigated the relationship between the chemical structure of contrasting, purified CT and nematocidal effects using Caenorhabditis elegans. We also explored whether the nematocidal activity of CT could synergize with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Diana Martin, Joaquín Navarro Del Hierro, David Villanueva Bermejo, Ramón Fernández-Ruiz, Tiziana Fornari, Guillermo J Reglero
Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution and antioxidant activity after the in vitro co-digestion of ME with olive oil (OO), were determined. ME produced without co-solvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin and β-amyrin than extracts with co-solvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Seiya Tanaka, Aki Shinoki, Hiroshi Hara
We demonstrated that melibiose, a non-digestible disaccharide composed of galactose and glucose with α-1,6 glycoside linkage, promotes the absorption of water soluble quercetin glycosides in ligated small intestinal loop of anesthetized rats. Water soluble quercetin glycoside, a quercetin-3-Ο-glucoside mixture (Q3GM), includes quercetin-3-Ο-glucoside (Q3G, 31.9%), mono (21.2%) and di (17.1%), glucose adducts with α-1,4 linkages. After instillation of Q3GM into the intestinal loop with or without melibiose, the plasma concentration of quercetin derivatives in the portal blood, was considerably higher in the melibiose group at 60 min...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bo Song, Nathan W Oehrle, Shanshan Liu, Hari B Krishnan
Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean pathogens. In spite of the potential of the perennial Glycine species for soybean improvement, very little is known about their storage proteins and their relationship with cultivated soybean seed proteins. We have examined the seed protein composition of nine perennial Glycine species by 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
María-Ángeles Del-Castillo-Alonso, Antonella Castagna, Kristóf Csepregi, Éva Hideg, Gabor Jakab, Marcel A K Jansen, Tjaša Jug, Laura Llorens, Anikó Mátai, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Laura Monforte, Susanne Neugart, Julie Olejnickova, Annamaria Ranieri, Katharina Schoedll-Hummel, Monika Schreiner, Gonzalo Soriano, Péter Teszlák, Susanne Tittmann, Otmar Urban, Dolors Verdaguer, Gaetano Zipoli, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Encarnacion Núñez-Olivera
Mature berries of Pinot Noir grapevines were sampled across a latitudinal gradient in Europe, from southern Spain to central Germany. Our aim was to study the influence of latitude-dependent environmental factors on the metabolite composition (mainly phenolic compounds) of berry skins. Solar radiation variables were positively correlated with flavonols and flavanonols and, to a lesser extent, with stilbenes and cinnamic acids. The daily means of global and erythematic UV solar radiation over long periods (bud break-veraison, bud break-harvest and veraison-harvest), and the doses and daily means in shorter development periods (5-10 days before veraison and harvest) were the variables best correlated with the phenolic profile...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jinlong Wu, Lin Chen, Dingbo Lin, Zhaocheng Ma, Xiuxin Deng
The effects of tissue type, harvest maturity and genetic factors on the expression of genes that related to citrus fruit allergies remain poorly understood. In the present study, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to monitor the expression of citrus allergen genes individually with the advantages of much fewer sample requirements and simultaneously multiple target genes detection. Gene specific primer pairs and Taqman probes of three citrus allergen genes Cit s 1.01, Cit s 2.01, Cit s 3.01 and the house-keeping gene β-actin were designed based on gene sequence differences...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yuhui Bi, Zhiguo Yu
Botrytis cinerea is a serious phytopathogen affecting a wide range of crops around the world. Many fungicides targeting Botrytis cinerea have failed due to the pathogen's genetic plasticity. In an effort to search for new fungicides from natural products, two new diterpenoids, named chloroxaloterpin A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces sp. SN194 along with four known diterpenoids, viguiepinol, 3, and oxaloterpins C-E, 4-6. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive MS, NMR, and X-ray crystallography analyses...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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