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International Review of Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132546/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Hari S Sharma, Aruna Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132545/nanoformulation-a-useful-therapeutic-strategy-for-improving-neuroprotection-and-the-neurorestorative-potential-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Jose V Lafuente, Catalina Requejo, Alejandro Carrasco, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder, but current therapies are only symptomatic. Experimental models are necessary to go deeper in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanism and to assess new therapeutic strategies. The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion either in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or into the striatum in rats affords to study various stages of PD depending on the evolution time lapsed. A promising alternative to address the neurodegenerative process is the use of neurotrophic factors; but its clinical use has been limited due to its short half-life and rapid degradation after in vivo administration, along with difficulties for crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132544/histaminergic-receptors-modulate-spinal-cord-injury-induced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-upregulation-and-cord-pathology-new-roles-of-nanowired-drug-delivery-for-neuroprotection
#3
Hari S Sharma, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, Ala Nozari, Aruna Sharma
The possibility that histamine influences the spinal cord pathophysiology following trauma through specific receptor-mediated upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was examined in a rat model. A focal spinal cord injury (SCI) was inflicted by a longitudinal incision into the right dorsal horn of the T10-11 segments. The animals were allowed to survive 5h. The SCI significantly induced breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier to protein tracers, reduced the spinal cord blood flow at 5h, and increased the edema formation and massive upregulation of nNOS expression...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132543/intravenous-administration-of-functionalized-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-does-not-induce-cns-injury-in-the-rat-influence-of-spinal-cord-trauma-and-cerebrolysin-treatment
#4
Preeti K Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V Lafuente, Dafin F Muresanu, Zoraida P Aguilar, Y Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
Influence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50mg/mL in 100μL, i.v.) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4-24h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors, and active peptide fragments was also evaluated on IOMNP-induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132542/impact-of-inflammation-on-the-blood-neural-barrier-and-blood-nerve-interface-from-review-to-therapeutic-preview
#5
Stephen D Skaper
A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia-acting as single entities and in unison-produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood-nerve and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, are positioned to influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132541/novel-treatment-strategies-using-tio2-nanowired-delivery-of-histaminergic-drugs-and-antibodies-to-tau-with-cerebrolysin-for-superior-neuroprotection-in-the-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Aruna Sharma, Preeti K Menon, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Z Ryan Tian, Asya Ozkizilcik, Rudy J Castellani, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
More than 5.5 million Americans of all ages are suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) till today for which no suitable therapy has been developed so far. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic measures to contain brain pathology in AD. The hallmark of AD includes amyloid-beta peptide (AβP) deposition and phosphorylation of tau in AD brain. Recent evidences also suggest a marked decrease in neurotrophic factors in AD. Thus, exogenous supplement of neurotrophic factors could be one of the possible ways for AD therapy...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132540/current-strategies-for-the-delivery-of-therapeutic-proteins-and-enzymes-to-treat-brain-disorders
#7
Jason T Duskey, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi
Brain diseases and injuries are growing to be one of the most deadly and costly medical conditions in the world. Unfortunately, current treatments are incapable of ameliorating the symptoms let alone curing the diseases. Many brain diseases have been linked to a loss of function in a protein or enzyme, increasing research for improving their delivery. This is no easy task due to the delicate nature of proteins and enzymes in biological conditions, as well as the many barriers that exist in the body ranging from those in circulation to the more specific barriers to enter the brain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056158/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Todd E Thiele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056157/the-role-of-the-ghrelin-system-in-drug-addiction
#9
Lia J Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J Tunstall, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio
In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while the research on opioids and cannabis is scarce. In general, upregulation of the ghrelin system seems to enhance craving for drugs as well as substances use...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056156/dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-preclinical-models-of-alcohol-drug-and-food-addiction
#10
Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, Sara R Jones
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056155/corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-and-addictive-behaviors
#11
Marisa Roberto, Samantha R Spierling, Dean Kirson, Eric P Zorrilla
Drug addiction is a complex disorder that is characterized by compulsivity to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake of the drug, and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome in the absence of the drug. The transition from casual drug use to dependence is mediated by changes in reward and brain stress functions and has been linked to a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement. The recruitment of brain stress systems mediates the negative emotional state produced by dependence that drives drug seeking through negative reinforcement mechanisms, defined as the "dark side" of addiction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056154/contribution-of-urocortin-to-the-development-of-excessive-drinking
#12
Andrey E Ryabinin, William J Giardino
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a role in alcohol consumption, and its dysregulation can contribute to alcohol use disorder. This system includes four peptide ligands: CRF, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2, and Ucn3. Historically, attention focused on CRF, however, Ucn1 also plays a critical role in excessive alcohol use. This review covers evidence for this contribution and contrasts the role of Ucn1 with CRF. While CRF can promote binge consumption, this regulation occurs through generalized mechanisms that are not specific for alcohol...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056153/oxytocin-tolerance-and-the-dark-side-of-addiction
#13
Cort A Pedersen
Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route, which produces some neuropeptide penetration into the CNS, potently blocked withdrawal and reduced alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056152/orexin-hypocretin-system-role-in-food-and-drug-overconsumption
#14
Jessica R Barson, Sarah F Leibowitz
The neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin (OX), while largely transcribed within the hypothalamus, is released throughout the brain to affect complex behaviors. Primarily through the hypothalamus itself, OX homeostatically regulates adaptive behaviors needed for survival, including food intake, sleep-wake regulation, mating, and maternal behavior. However, through extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, OX promotes seeking and intake of rewarding substances of abuse, like palatable food, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#15
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056150/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-the-new-crf
#16
Jesse R Schank, Markus Heilig
Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R influences the activity of the brain stem emesis centers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056149/the-role-of-the-melanocortin-system-in-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#17
Montserrat Navarro
The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of different peptides centrally produced by proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (N.Arc) and the medulla. These peptides act through five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) that belong to the family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors that are coupled through Gαs signaling pathways. MC3R and MC4R are the predominant MCR subtypes in the brain, and they are widely expressed in brain regions thought to modulate drug self-administration, including the nucleus accumbens, the hypothalamus, and the ventral tegmental area...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056148/neuropeptides-and-addiction-an-introduction
#18
Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptides are short sequences of amino acids that are coexpressed with neurotransmitters and which are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. There is a large database of data pointing to critical roles for neuropeptides in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol and drugs of abuse. Continued alcohol and drug use promote allostatic alterations in neuropeptide systems, and these changes contribute to excessive and uncontrolled intake that emerges with dependence. The neuropeptides that are reviewed in this chapter represent some of the most well-studied targets in the current drug and alcohol abuse literature...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807168/preface
#19
EDITORIAL
Bai-Yun Zeng, Kaicun Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807167/treatment-of-insomnia-with-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#20
Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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