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International Review of Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793229/preface-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-under-the-microscope-where-to-focus
#1
EDITORIAL
G Clarke, J F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793228/microbes-and-oxytocin-benefits-for-host-physiology-and-behavior
#2
S E Erdman, T Poutahidis
It is now understood that gut bacteria exert effects beyond the local boundaries of the gastrointestinal tract to include distant tissues and overall health. Prototype probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been found to upregulate hormone oxytocin and systemic immune responses to achieve a wide array of health benefits involving wound healing, mental health, metabolism, and myoskeletal maintenance. Together these display that the gut microbiome and host animal interact via immune-endocrine-brain signaling networks...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793227/neuropeptides-microbiota-and-behavior
#3
P Holzer
The gut microbiota and the brain interact with each other through multiple bidirectional signaling pathways in which neuropeptides and neuroactive peptide messengers play potentially important mediator roles. Currently, six particular modes of a neuropeptide link are emerging. (i) Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters contribute to the mutual microbiota-host interaction. (ii) The synthesis of neuroactive peptides is influenced by microbial control of the availability of amino acids. (iii) The activity of neuropeptides is tempered by microbiota-dependent autoantibodies...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793226/gut-microbiome-and-behavior-focus-on-neuroimmune-interactions
#4
J A Foster
As neuroscientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists are starting to appreciate the importance of the gut microbiota to mental health, it is critical to determine the mechanisms of microbiota to brain communication and thereby provide a better understanding of the aspects that may be modifiable with proper intervention in individuals with mental illness. Microbiota-brain communication is emerging as an important factor in brain development and function. Further, immune dysfunction is clearly established to play a role in mental illness...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793225/the-importance-of-diet-and-gut-health-to-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-mental-disorders
#5
S L Dawson, S R Dash, F N Jacka
The departure from traditional lifestyles and the rising disease burden of mental disorders are increasing global health concerns. Changes in diet around the world mean that populations are now increasingly reliant on highly processed, poor quality foods, which have been linked to increased risk for mental disorder. Conversely, a nutrient-rich diet is understood to be protective of mental health, and researchers are now aiming to understand the biological underpinnings of this relationship. The gut microbiota has been proposed as a key mediator of this link, given its association with both diet and mental health...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793224/the-microbiome-of-the-built-environment-and-human-behavior-implications-for-emotional-health-and-well-being-in-postmodern-western-societies
#6
C E Stamper, A J Hoisington, O M Gomez, A L Halweg-Edwards, D G Smith, K L Bates, K A Kinney, T T Postolache, L A Brenner, G A W Rook, C A Lowry
It is increasingly evident that inflammation is an important determinant of cognitive function and emotional behaviors that are dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders. Inflammatory responses to physical or psychological stressors are dependent on immunoregulation, which is indicated by a balanced expansion of effector T-cell populations and regulatory T cells. This balance is in part driven by microbial signals. The hygiene or "old friends" hypothesis posits that exposure to immunoregulation-inducing microorganisms is reduced in modern urban societies, leading to an epidemic of inflammatory disease and increased vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793223/gut-to-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-central-role-for-the-microbiome
#7
A D Kraneveld, K Szklany, C G M de Theije, J Garssen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders, which occur in early childhood and persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to interplay in the development of ASD. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis, in prenatal and postnatal phases, is an important example of these environmental factors, and gastrointestinal problems including adverse reactions to foods are often reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings on the role of the intestinal microbiome in ASD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793222/the-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
S M Collins
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic abdominal symptom complex occurring in a bowel devoid of discernible relevant pathology. There is growing interest in the role of the intestinal microbiota as a basis for the intestinal and possibly behavioral manifestations of this condition. Molecular-based microbial profiling has revealed compositional changes in the microbiota of at least a subset of IBS patients but the data are often conflicting and no microbial signature for this condition has yet been defined...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793221/cognitive-function-and-the-microbiome
#9
M G Gareau
There is increasing evidence that the composition of the resident bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract can influence the brain and behavior, particularly with respect to cognitive function. Cognitive function encompasses the life-long process of learning, both long- and short-term processes. Cognition was originally thought to be exclusively regulated by the central nervous system, with long-term potentiation and neurogenesis contributing to the creation and storage of memories, but now other systems, including, for example, the immune system and the intestinal microbiome may also be involved...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793220/the-influence-of-prebiotics-on-neurobiology-and-behavior
#10
A C C Kao, S Harty, P W J Burnet
Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793219/sleep-and-microbes
#11
J M Krueger, M R Opp
Sleep is profoundly altered during the course of infectious diseases. The typical response to infection includes an initial increase in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) followed by an inhibition in NREMS. REMS is inhibited during infections. Bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, macrophage digests of these components, such as muramyl peptides, and viral products, such as viral double-stranded RNA, trigger sleep responses. They do so via pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition receptors that, in turn, enhance cytokine production...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793218/circadian-rhythm-and-the-gut-microbiome
#12
R M Voigt, C B Forsyth, S J Green, P A Engen, A Keshavarzian
Circadian rhythms are 24-h patterns regulating behavior, organs, and cells in living organisms. These rhythms align biological functions with regular and predictable environmental patterns to optimize function and health. Disruption of these rhythms can be detrimental resulting in metabolic syndrome, cancer, or cardiovascular disease, just to name a few. It is now becoming clear that the intestinal microbiome is also regulated by circadian rhythms via intrinsic circadian clocks as well as via the host organism...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793217/exercise-and-prebiotics-produce-stress-resistance-converging-impacts-on-stress-protective-and-butyrate-producing-gut-bacteria
#13
A Mika, N Rumian, A B Loughridge, M Fleshner
The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793216/toxoplasma-gondii-a-gastrointestinal-pathogen-associated-with-human-brain-diseases
#14
E G Severance, J Xiao, L Jones-Brando, S Sabunciyan, Y Li, M Pletnikov, E Prandovszky, R Yolken
Serious psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While these are primarily diseases involving altered brain functioning, numerous studies have documented increased rates of gastrointestinal inflammation and dysfunction in many individuals with these disorders. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan intracellular parasite with a widespread distribution in both developed and developing countries. Toxoplasma organisms enter the ecosystem through the shedding of oocysts by Toxoplasma-infected felines...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793215/intestinal-barrier-and-behavior
#15
M Julio-Pieper, J A Bravo
The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793214/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-host-responses-to-stressor-exposure
#16
A R Mackos, V A Varaljay, R Maltz, T L Gur, M T Bailey
Humans have coevolved over time to not only tolerate but also rely on trillions of microbes that aid in the development of our immune system, provide nutrients, break down potentially noxious substances, and act as a barrier against potentially pathogenic organisms. These microbes, collectively known as the microbiota, live in relatively stable communities on mucosal surfaces such as the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Changes to the microbiota are often transient, due to changes in diet, antibiotic exposure, and psychological stressor exposure...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678180/preface
#17
EDITORIAL
Khuloud T Al-Jamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678179/current-perspective-of-carbon-nanotubes-application-in-neurology
#18
H Kafa, J T-W Wang, K T Al-Jamal
The recent advances in nanotechnology have allowed new fields of research to investigate cutting edge brain-specific therapies and to tackle the complex brain-related disorders. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain resulting in only few drugs reaching the market to tackle brain disorders. Nanoparticles (NPs) provide a flexible platform for conjugating drugs and targeting ligands and have been extensively researched to facilitate BBB crossing and effective delivery to the brain...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678178/metal-nanoparticles-as-targeted-carriers-circumventing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#19
A C Sintov, C Velasco-Aguirre, E Gallardo-Toledo, E Araya, M J Kogan
Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678177/gold-nanoparticles-for-imaging-and-drug-transport-to-the-cns
#20
D Male, R Gromnicova, C McQuaid
Gold nanoparticles with a core size of 2nm covalently coated with glycans to maintain solubility, targeting molecules for brain endothelium, and cargo molecules hold great potential for delivery of therapies into the CNS. They have low toxicity, pass through brain endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and move rapidly through the brain parenchyma. Within minutes of infusion the nanoparticles can be detected in neurons and glia. These nanoparticles are relatively easy to synthesize in association with their surface ligands...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
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