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International Review of Neurobiology

Seven E Tomek, M Foster Olive
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Seven E Tomek, M Foster Olive
Opiate addiction has reached an epidemic prevalence in recent years, yet social influences on the use and abuse of opiates has been widely understudied. In particular, the neurobiological substrates of opiate addiction and their modulation by social influences are largely unknown, perhaps due to the lack of widespread incorporation of social variables into animal models of opiate addiction. As reviewed here, animal models such as oral and intravenous drug self-administration, conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, and the effects of various stressors, have been useful in identifying some of the neurochemical circuitry that mediate social influences on opiate addiction...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Rosana Camarini, Priscila Marianno, Mariana Rae
Behavioral sensitization is a neuroadaptive process characterized by an increase in a particular behavior after repeated exposure to drugs or other stimuli, such as stress. Sensitization can also be extended to neurochemical and neuroendocrine sensitization. Several factors can influence sensitization to the effects of ethanol. For instance, stress is an important component in addiction that can strengthen ethanol-induced behaviors. In animal models, stressful situations can be induced by alterations in social aspects of the animal's environment, such as maternal separation, social conflicts, and housing conditions...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Andrey E Ryabinin, Andre T Walcott
Pathological and social consequences associated with excessive alcohol consumption and dependence constitute a serious concern for human well-being. The success of preventative and therapeutic strategies for alcohol use disorder depends on the development of appropriate animal models of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in humans typically occurs in social settings. In contrast, the vast majority of animal models investigate alcohol drinking in socially isolated animals. A number of rodent model studies have attempted to assess drinking of individual animals within social setting...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Akiko Shimamoto
Social confrontation is a form of social interaction in animals where two conspecific individuals confront each other in dispute over territory, during the formation of hierarchies, and during breeding seasons. Typically, a social confrontation involves a prevailing individual and a yielding individual. The prevailing individual often exhibits aggressive postures and launches attacks, whereas the yielding individual often adopts postures of defeat. The yielding or defeated animals experience a phenomenon known as social defeat stress, in which they show exaggerated stress as well as autonomic and endocrine responses that cause impairment of both the brain and body...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Lauren N Beloate, Lique M Coolen
Many factors, including social elements, influence drug addiction in humans and can be modeled in laboratory rodents. In general, the presence of social reward is protective against drug abuse and the absence or removal of social reward in both humans and rodents increases vulnerability to drug addiction. The current review chapter is focused on studies from our lab that have examined the effects of sociosexual behavior in male rats on drug-induced behaviors, including changes in both psychostimulant and opiate behavior...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Kah-Chung Leong, Stewart Cox, Courtney King, Howard Becker, Carmela M Reichel
Interest for the use of oxytocin as a treatment for addiction began over 40years ago. Better known for its roles in parturition, lactation and pair bonding, oxytocin also has anxiolytic properties, reduces immune and inflammatory responses, and has a role in learning and memory. In this chapter, oxytocin effects on addiction processes are described by highlighting research findings that have used oxytocin within current preclinical animal models of addiction, relapse, or craving. First, we provide a brief background of the endogenous oxytocin system followed by descriptions of the behavioral models used to study addiction, including models of drug taking and seeking...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Lauren Hood
Cannabis, or the dried leaves, stems, and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in America. Typically smoked, vaporized or ingested orally, cannabis is used primarily for recreational purposes, though a few synthetic cannabinoids have been approved for medicinal treatments. Psychoactive cannabinoids, or the pharmacologically active compounds within cannabis, are responsible for producing the infamous "high" sensation, characterized by feelings of euphoria and relaxation, though can also provoke hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Annika Vannan, Gregory L Powell, Samantha N Scott, Broc A Pagni, Janet L Neisewander
Cocaine use disorders are strongly influenced by the social conditions prior, during, and after exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we discuss how social factors such as early life stress, social rank stress, and environmental stress impact vulnerability and resilience to cocaine. The discussion of each animal model begins with a brief review of examples from the human literature, which provide the psychosocial background these models attempt to capture. We then discuss preclinical findings from use of each model, with emphasis on how social factors influence cocaine-related behaviors and how sex and age influence the behaviors and neurobiology...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Shigeru Watanabe
Social modification of drug reward in general and amphetamine reward in particular is reviewed here. The simplest explanation for the social facilitation of drug reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm is the summation of drug and social reinforcing effects. However, experimental reports have shown that sharing a common pharmacological experience, simultaneously or successively, plays a crucial role in the social facilitation of methamphetamine reward. Therefore, social facilitation cannot be the simple summation of drug and social reinforcing effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Jose A PiƱa, Mark D Namba, Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Gabriella Cabrera-Brown, Cassandra D Gipson
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. The number of new smokers, specifically among adolescents, has risen rapidly in recent years. Thus, understanding the role of social influences on patterns of nicotine and tobacco use is important. Clinical studies have addressed the impact social relationships such as family members and peers have on smoking acquisition and susceptibility. As well, preclinical animal models have examined the impact of social factors on drug intake, acquisition, maintenance, and relapse...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Luana Colloca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Paul Enck, Bjoern Horing, Ellen Broelz, Katja Weimer
This article addresses different ways to identify knowledge gaps in placebo research. Following a short description of the history of placebo research and our contributions, we describe the creation of the Journal of Interdisciplinary Placebo Studies (JIPS) literature database and compare its content (on a meta-level) with two other approaches to survey the current state of the art of placebo research: a bibliometric analysis of a (limited) selection of placebo papers, and the analysis of the content of all abstracts submitted to a 2017 placebo conference...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Roland Sussex
The present paper reviews how language and communication are used to describe placebo phenomena in medicine, with particular reference at key points to the question of pain. Selected aspects of placebo language are submitted to lexical, grammatical and semantic analysis. We distinguish three uses of placebo, with three semantic components: "pleasing," inert medication or procedure, and what is often called "deception." The three uses of placebo are: Placebo-treatment, which combines all three semantic components: "pleasing" patients with inert treatments, and possibly with "deception...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Marco Annoni
This chapter provides a synthetic overview of the contemporary debate over the ethics of placebos and placebo effects in both clinical and research contexts. Section 1 briefly reconstructs how ethical attitudes toward the use of placebos have changed during the last century following the emergence of autonomy in medical ethics. Next, Sections 2-4 chart the main ethical issues concerning the use of placebos in clinical settings, examining: the ethics of deceptive placebos; the ethics of placebos without deception; and the ethics of modulating placebo and nocebo effects without placebos...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios Mitsikostas
Placebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors (placebo responses). However, adverse events (AEs) may occur when using a placebo intervention, a phenomenon that is called nocebo...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Matthew J Coleshill, Louise Sharpe, Luana Colloca, Robert Zachariae, Ben Colagiuri
Placebo analgesia is a robust experimental and clinical phenomenon. While our understanding of the mechanisms of placebo analgesia has developed rapidly, some central questions remain unanswered. Among the important questions is how placebo analgesia interacts with active analgesic effects. It is an assumption underlying double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) that the true effect of a treatment can be determined by examining the effect of the active treatment arm and subtracting the response in the placebo group ("the assumption of additivity")...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Kate Faasse, Leslie R Martin
Nocebo effects comprise two broad types: primary nocebo effects, in which overall treatment efficacy is reduced; and nocebo side effects, which result in the increased experience of unpleasant secondary side effects. An important factor in generating nocebo effects of both types is the patient's expectations of how well a treatment will work, and how likely it is to cause side effects. One source of negative expectations is the presence of generic-as opposed to brand name-labeling. A medicine's labeling is likely to be one of the first aspects of a treatment that is encountered by a patient, and perhaps the most common labeling information on pharmaceuticals is the labeling that identifies the drug as being made by the originator brand manufacturer, or as a generic copy...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Karin Meissner, Klaus Linde
Treatment-related expectations are important predictors for placebo effects in various medical conditions. They are formed by verbal and nonverbal cues during the administration of treatments, such as verbal suggestions, conscious and unconscious associations with previous treatments, characteristics of patients and health-care providers as well as perceptual characteristics of the treatment. This review provides an overview of studies that aimed to elucidate the impact of treatment characteristics on expectations and placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Florian Chouchou, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Pierre Rainville, Gilles Lavigne
The placebo effect is a psychobiological phenomenon producing clinical benefits attributed to a wide range of neurobiological mechanisms. Independently from placebo effects, these mechanisms may also be under the influence of processes that can take place during sleep. The relationship between sleep and placebo effects has received very little attention. Three experimental studies, conducted on healthy subjects, have examined sleep changes following placebo conditioning associated with analgesic suggestions and the effects of sleep deprivation on placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
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