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International Review of Neurobiology

Khuloud T Al-Jamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
H Kafa, J T-W Wang, K T Al-Jamal
The recent advances in nanotechnology have allowed new fields of research to investigate cutting edge brain-specific therapies and to tackle the complex brain-related disorders. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain resulting in only few drugs reaching the market to tackle brain disorders. Nanoparticles (NPs) provide a flexible platform for conjugating drugs and targeting ligands and have been extensively researched to facilitate BBB crossing and effective delivery to the brain...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
A C Sintov, C Velasco-Aguirre, E Gallardo-Toledo, E Araya, M J Kogan
Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
D Male, R Gromnicova, C McQuaid
Gold nanoparticles with a core size of 2nm covalently coated with glycans to maintain solubility, targeting molecules for brain endothelium, and cargo molecules hold great potential for delivery of therapies into the CNS. They have low toxicity, pass through brain endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and move rapidly through the brain parenchyma. Within minutes of infusion the nanoparticles can be detected in neurons and glia. These nanoparticles are relatively easy to synthesize in association with their surface ligands...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
A Lalatsa, E Barbu
Many brain tumors and neurological diseases can greatly benefit from the use of emerging nanotechnologies based on targeted nanomedicines that are able to noninvasively transport highly potent and specific pharmaceuticals across the blood-brain barrier. Carbohydrates have received considerable interest as materials for drug carriers due to their natural origin and inherent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as due to their hydrophilic character and ease of chemical modification combined with low cost and the possibility for large-scale manufacturing...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
D Carradori, A Gaudin, D Brambilla, K Andrieux
Drug delivery to the brain is a challenge because of the many mechanisms that protect the brain from the entry of foreign substances. Numerous molecules which could be active against brain disorders are not clinically useful due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles can be used to deliver these drugs to the brain. Encapsulation within colloidal systems can allow the passage of nontransportable drugs across this barrier by masking their physicochemical properties. It should be noted that the status of the blood-brain barrier is different depending on the brain disease...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
G Fullstone, S Nyberg, X Tian, G Battaglia
Designing nanoparticles that effectively enter the central nervous system (CNS) rapidly and without alteration is one of the major challenges in the use of nanotechnology for the brain. In this chapter, we explore the process of transcytosis, a receptor-mediated transport pathway that permits endogenous macromolecules to enter the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier. Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier involves a number of distinct stages, including receptor binding, endocytosis into a transport vesicle, trafficking of the vesicle to the opposite side of the cell, and finally exocytosis and release of cargo...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
A M Cardoso, J R Guedes, A L Cardoso, C Morais, P Cunha, A T Viegas, R Costa, A Jurado, M C Pedroso de Lima
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases constitute a set of challenging pathological conditions concerning diagnosis and therapeutics. For most of these disorders, there is a lack of early diagnosis, biomarkers to allow proper follow-up of disease progression and effective therapeutic strategies to allow a persistent cure. The poor prognosis of most CNS diseases is, therefore, a global concern, especially regarding chronic age-related neurodegenerative disorders, which are already considered problems of public health due to the increasing average of life expectancy...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Natalie M Zahr, Eric T Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
L F Tófoli, D B de Araujo
Despite reports of apparent benefits, social and political pressure beginning in the late 1960s effectively banned scientific inquiry into psychedelic substances. Covert examination of psychedelics persisted through the 1990s; the turn of the century and especially the past 10 years, however, has seen a resurgent interest in psychedelic substances (eg, LSD, ayahuasca, psilocybin). This chapter outlines relevant EEG and brain imaging studies evaluating the effects of psychedelics on the brain. This chapter also reviews evidence of the use of psychedelics as adjunct therapy for a number of psychiatric and addictive disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
C A Hanlon, L T Dowdle, J L Jones
Cocaine dependence is one of the most difficult substance use disorders to treat. While the powerful effects of cocaine use on behavior were documented in the 19th century, it was not until the late 20th century that we realized cocaine use was affecting brain tissue and function. Following a brief introduction (Section 1), this chapter will summarize our current knowledge regarding alterations in neural circuit function typically observed in chronic cocaine users (Section 2) and highlight an emerging body of literature which suggests that pretreatment limbic circuit activity may be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes among individuals seeking treatment for cocaine (Section 3)...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
I M Balodis, M N Potenza
Neuroimaging studies examining the neurobiological basis of gambling disorder (GD) have increased over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies during appetitive cue and reward processing tasks demonstrate altered functioning in frontostriatal brain areas, including the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Findings suggest differences in how the anticipation and outcome of rewards are processed in individuals with GD. Future research requires larger sample sizes and should include appropriate clinical reference groups...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
E Kalon, J Y Hong, C Tobin, T Schulte
Food addiction (FA) is loosely defined as hedonic eating behavior involving the consumption of highly palatable foods (ie, foods high in salt, fat, and sugar) in quantities beyond homeostatic energy requirements. FA shares some common symptomology with other pathological eating disorders, such as binge eating. Current theories suggest that FA shares both behavioral similarities and overlapping neural correlates to other substance addictions. Although preliminary, neuroimaging studies in response to food cues and the consumption of highly palatable food in individuals with FA compared to healthy controls have shown differing activation patterns and connectivity in brain reward circuits including regions such as the striatum, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and nucleus accumbens...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
S Kühn, J Gallinat
Until now, hypersexuality has not found entry into the common diagnostic classification systems. However it is a frequently discussed phenomenon consisting of excessive sexual appetite that is maladaptive for the individual. Initial studies investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of hypersexuality, but current literature is still insufficient to draw unequivocal conclusions. In the present review, we summarize and discuss findings from various perspectives: neuroimaging and lesion studies, studies on other neurological disorders that are sometimes accompanied by hypersexuality, neuropharmacological evidence, genetic as well as animal studies...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
T Brumback, N Castro, J Jacobus, S Tapert
Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
M Dupuy, S Chanraud
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major public health issue due to its prevalence and severe health consequences. It may affect several aspects of an individual's life including work and relationships, and it also increases risk for additional problems such as brain injury. The causes and outcomes of AUD are varied; thus, attempting to understand this complex phenomenon requires investigation from multiple perspectives. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful means to investigate brain anatomical and functional alterations related to AUD...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Candice Contet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
G J Kaczorowski, M L Garcia
High conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels (KCa1.1) are important in regulating physiologic responses in many types of tissues and, as such, present opportunities for development of new therapeutic agents. Both channel agonists and inhibitors could have therapeutic utility, depending on medical application under consideration. However, characterization of molecular pharmacology of BK channels is incomplete and has been difficult to accomplish because of paucity of chemical leads that are acceptable templates for Medicinal Chemistry investigation...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
G Krishnamoorthy-Natarajan, M Koide
Autoregulation of blood flow is essential for the preservation of organ function to ensure continuous supply of oxygen and essential nutrients and removal of metabolic waste. This is achieved by controlling the diameter of muscular arteries and arterioles that exhibit a myogenic response to changes in arterial blood pressure, nerve activity and tissue metabolism. Large-conductance voltage and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels), expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vascular wall of healthy arteries, play a critical role in regulating the myogenic response...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
S J Pyott, R K Duncan
The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the sensory hair cells of the inner ear are intrinsically electrically tuned to a narrow band of acoustic frequencies. This electrical tuning relies on the interplay between BK channels and voltage-gated calcium channels...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
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