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International Review of Neurobiology

Marios Politis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Beatrice Heim, Florian Krismer, Klaus Seppi
Qualitative and quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging offer objective measures of the underlying neurodegeneration in atypical parkinsonism. Regional changes in tissue volume, signal changes and increased deposition of iron as assessed with different structural MRI techniques are surrogate markers of underlying neurodegeneration and may reflect cell loss, microglial proliferation and astroglial activation. Structural MRI has been explored as a tool to enhance diagnostic accuracy in differentiating atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs)...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill
Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disturbance. The effects of the underlying pathology on brain morphology are relatively well understood. Numerous structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated macrostructural change with widespread striatal and cortical atrophy and microstructural white matter loss in premanifest and manifest HD gene carriers. However, disease effects on brain function are less well characterized...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Joachim Brumberg, Ioannis U Isaias
Atypical parkinsonism is the second most common diagnosis for patients with hypokinetic movement disorders. Beside common parkinsonian symptoms (i.e. bradykinesia and muscular rigidity) patients may also present a variety of additional motor and non-motor symptoms, such as oculomotor abnormalities, postural instability, ataxia, limb apraxia, autonomic dysfunctions, etc. Clinical heterogeneity and gradual manifestation during the disease course often hamper the diagnosis and adequate treatment. This chapter provides an overview of the contribution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Heather Wilson, George Dervenoulas, Marios Politis
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by expansion of the CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. HD is characterized clinically by progressive motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. There are currently no disease modifying treatments available for HD, and there is a great need for biomarkers to monitor disease progression and identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Neuroimaging techniques provide a powerful tool for assessing disease pathology and progression in premanifest stages, before the onset of overt motor symptoms...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Zheyu Xu, Javier Arbizu, Nicola Pavese
Multiple System Atrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, and Corticobasal Degeneration are three neurodegenerative disorders characterized by parkinsonism along with involvement of other brain cortical and subcortical regions. The ante mortem diagnosis of these disorders is extremely challenging with up to a quarter of these patients being misdiagnosed, particularly in the early stages of disease. While highly specific and sensitive imaging biomarkers of individual atypical parkinsonisms have not been identified yet, molecular PET and SPECT imaging have improved our knowledge of the physiopathology and neuropathology of these disorders and are often used as supportive criteria for the differential diagnosis of these conditions...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene resulting in the formation of intranuclear inclusions of mutated huntingtin. The accumulation of mutated huntingtin leads to loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs); subsequently resulting in the development of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Premanifest HD gene expansion carriers, provide a unique cohort to examine very early molecular changes, occurring before the development of overt symptoms, to elucidate disease pathophysiology and identify reliable biomarkers of HD progression...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Avner Thaler
Between 10 and 15% of Parkinson disease (PD) cases can be traced to a genetically identified causative mutation which currently number over 40. This enables the study of both "at risk" populations for future development of PD and a unique sub-group of genetically determined patient population. Structural and functional magnetic imaging has the potential of assisting diagnosis, early detection and disease progression as it is relatively cheap and easy to implement. However, the large variety of imaging options and different analytical approaches hamper the pursuit of a unified imaging biomarker...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Andrea Varrone, Maria Teresa Pellecchia
Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a diagnostic tool to study the integrity of the dopaminergic system in patients with parkinsonism and uncertain diagnosis. DAT SPECT enables to detect the presence of nigrostriatal deficit even in the early or pre-symptomatic stages of the disease and to quantify the DAT loss with the progression of nigrostriatal degeneration. For these reasons, DAT SPECT has been also used as a tool to study genetic conditions that are associated with parkinsonism in order to examine the degree and patterns of dopaminergic deficits that are present in at risk subjects and in affected patients carrying the mutations...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Michele Matarazzo, Daryl Wile, Melissa Mackenzie, A Jon Stoessl
Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are idiopathic, but some characteristics, such as early onset or a positive family history, raise suspicions of an inherited form of the disease. In the last decades several genes have been linked to parkinsonism, with different patterns of inheritance and different clinical phenotypes. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has helped to characterize genetic-linked parkinsonism, thanks to the availability of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic tracers. On the other hand, investigation of molecular changes in mutation carriers, even at preclinical stages, has provided a deeper comprehension of the pathogenesis of PD and of the compensatory mechanisms that take place in the very early stages of the disease...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Federica Agosta, Elisabetta Sarasso, Massimo Filippi
The present chapter reports the current knowledge on the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in patients with atypical parkinsonisms, including Multiple System Atrophy, Corticobasal Syndrome and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy syndrome. Both resting state functional connectivity and task-based brain activity abnormalities are reported in atypical parkinsonisms relative to healthy controls and Parkinson's disease patients. Functional alterations were observed earlier than structural damage and may help to make early diagnosis...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Marios Politis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Rocco Marchitelli, Antonio d'Albore, Enrico De Vita, Marco Salvatore
The hybrid PET/MR scanner represents the first implementation of the effective integration of two modalities allowing truly synchronous/simultaneous acquisition of their imaging signals. This integration, resulting from the innovation and development of specific hardware components has paved the way for new approaches in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. This chapter will describe the hardware development that has led to the availability of different clinical solutions for PET/MR imaging as well as the still-open technological challenges and opportunities related to the processing and exploitation of the simultaneous acquisition in neurological studies...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Alberto Cuocolo, Sabina Pappatà, Emilia Zampella, Roberta Assante
The emerging role of molecular imaging has made possible to evaluate and quantify biochemical changes of molecular targets in specific neurochemical systems involved in movement disorders, providing neurochemical information of clinical changes before the pathological features occurred. In detail, radionuclides imaging techniques are frequently used for the in vivo study of neurotransmitter and receptor function, alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolic activity, abnormal protein deposition, and inflammation, with a central role in molecular imaging for preclinical and clinical studies...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Massimo Filippi, Sarasso Elisabetta, Noemi Piramide, Federica Agosta
Functional MRI (fMRI) has been widely used to study abnormal patterns of brain connectivity at rest and activation during a variety of tasks in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). fMRI studies in PD have led to a better understanding of many aspects of the disease including both motor and non-motor symptoms. Although its translation into clinical practice is still at an early stage, fMRI measures hold promise for multiple clinical applications in PD, including the early detection, predicting future change in clinical status, and as a marker of alterations in brain physiology related to neurotherapeutic agents and neurorehabilitative strategies...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro Tessitore
Among modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the brain morphology and function may be derived from a single scan, by applying different analytic approaches...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the development of behavioral addictions. This chapter will discuss potential risk factors and associations with the development of addictive behavior in PD including the role of dopaminergic medication and genetic predisposition...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Andreas-Antonios Roussakis, Paola Piccini
Neuroinflammation is an important aspect of Parkinson's disease. The study of Parkinson's disease neuroinflammation is quite challenging and is accompanied by controversy. To date, molecular imaging studies have been targeting microglia and more recently astrocytes. In this review article, we discuss the findings from key PET studies with tracers specific for the translocator protein (microglia-specific) and novel evidence from the development of astrocyte-specific PET tracers. We also discuss evidence from pathology studies and in the animal model of Parkinson's disease that form the biological background of current and newer PET neuroinflammation tracers...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Marios Politis
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique which can provide comprehensive, multi-parametric information on brain anatomy, function and metabolism. This chapter will give a brief introduction to the basic principles of MR and cover the evolution of image acquisition. Given the versatility of MR, a vast range of MR applications will be discussed, including structural, diffusion tensor, functional, perfusion and neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, as well as quantitative susceptibility mapping. This chapter will also cover methodological developments in MRI, including image analysis approaches that can be tailored according to experimental design or aims...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Roberto Cilia
The endocannabinoid system is a modulator of neurotransmitter release and is involved in several physiological functions. Hence, it has been increasingly studied as a potential pharmacologic target of Parkinson's disease. Several preclinical and clinical studies evidenced a substantial rearrangement of the endocannabinoid system in the basal ganglia circuit following dopamine depletion. The endocannabinoid system has been additionally implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection through the activation of CB2 receptors, suggesting a potential target for disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
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