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International Review of Neurobiology

Luana Colloca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Jan De Houwer
From a functional-cognitive perspective, conditioning is relevant for placebo research because it (a) highlights stimulus pairings (e.g., taking a pill that contains an active pharmacological substance causing a drop in blood pressure) as a potential environmental cause of creating or boosting placebo effects (e.g., reduction in blood pressure after taking a similar pill that no longer contains the active substance) and (b) orients researchers to potential mental mechanisms that might underlie those effects (e...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Irving Kirsch
In this chapter, I review basic tenets of response expectancy theory (Kirsch, 1985), beginning with the important distinction between response expectancies and stimulus expectancies. Although both can affect experience, the effects of response expectancies are stronger and more resistant to extinction than those of stimulus expectancies. Further, response expectancies are especially important to understanding placebo effects. The response expectancy framework is consistent with and has been amplified by the Bayesian model of predictive coding...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Judith Tekampe, Henriët van Middendorp, Fred C G J Sweep, Sean H P P Roerink, Ad R M M Hermus, Andrea W M Evers
In this chapter, we review recent studies on conditioned pharmacological effects on immune and endocrine responses in humans, and discuss challenges and opportunities for bringing these effects into clinical practice. By altering physiological mechanisms in part independent of pharmacological agents, pharmacological conditioning has high clinical relevance, as illustrated in some patient studies. Methodological challenges for further investigation include broadening the spectrum of opportunities for conditioned pharmacological effects, by investigating conditioning of substances that have not or not often been used before (e...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Martin Hadamitzky, Wiebke Sondermann, Sven Benson, Manfred Schedlowski
Even though knowledge and systematic application of placebo responses in the immune system are sparse, this topic is of particular importance since it may aim at drug-dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy of treatment in clinical settings. Placebo responses in the immune system are inducible by associated learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. One established learning paradigm in both rats and humans is conditioned taste avoidance (CTA), where a novel taste as conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with the administration of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) as unconditioned stimulus...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Elisa Carlino, Lene Vase
Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in negative results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which may be due to an increasing placebo response among other factors. Currently, identification and exclusion of placebo responders from trials are attempted to overcome this problem, but so far the success of these approaches has been limited. At the same time, the placebo-mechanism literature has highlighted how contextual factors, such as patients' expectations, interfere with the effect of drug administration, leading to a certain degree of uncertainty in RCTs...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Veronica F Quinn, Ben Colagiuri
Learning is a key mechanism underpinning the development of the nocebo effect. The learning literature has cataloged and explored numerous ways in which the environment can be manipulated to prevent, reduce, or eradicate learning. Knowledge of these processes could be used to both inhibit the development of nocebo effects and reduce already established nocebo learning. This review describes the available evidence on how such learning strategies have, or could be, applied to reduce the nocebo effect in both healthy participants and patients to date...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Sigrid Elsenbruch, Franziska Labrenz
Despite its clinical relevance and the potential to extend insights into the processing and modulation of pain derived from investigations of placebo phenomena, the nocebo effect has received comparably little attention over the past decades. Research from experimental and clinical studies is only beginning to unravel the behavioral, functional, and psychoneurobiological mechanisms underlying the nocebo effect. Herein, we summarize current evidence regarding nocebo effects in the field of pain, with a particular emphasis on visceral pain...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Julian Kleine-Borgmann, Ulrike Bingel
Psychosocial and contextual factors, such as patient-physician relationship, prior treatment experience, and treatment expectation, can either improve or compromise treatment efficacy. These phenomena are commonly specified as placebo and nocebo effects. As placebo and nocebo effects can influence symptom development, adverse event rate, and treatment efficacy, it is crucial to be aware of these effects and to develop strategies for prevention to optimize treatment outcomes. While experimental studies have made substantial progress in elucidating the psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms underlying placebo effects, the detailed mechanisms of nocebo effects remain largely unexplored...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Bettina K Doering, Julia A Glombiewski, Winfried Rief
Placebo research has shown that patients' expectations are among the strongest predictors of treatment outcome regarding various medical conditions. Therefore, interventions focusing on the change of such expectations might be most effective. This could be of relevance not only for outcome expectations but also for disease-specific, problem-specific, and treatment-specific expectations. A theoretical model is introduced to illustrate the conditions for expectation change and persistence. Strategies for patients regarding how to devalue learning effects in expectation violation situations are exemplified, and ways to optimize expectation-violating effects are highlighted...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Jens Gaab, Cosima Locher, Charlotte Blease
The placebo and psychotherapy are both effective psychological interventions. Next to being characterized by their own and specific controversies and debates, there is a persistent-and least for psychotherapy-looming notion that these two interventions share more than just the first letter. Based on Grünbaum's influential conceptualization of placebo, this chapter critically reviews both the time-honored claim that psychotherapy is a placebo as well as the argument that the placebo concept does not translate to psychotherapy...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Luana Colloca, Jeremy Howick
Scientific research indicates that open-label and dose-extending placebos (that patients know are placebos) can elicit behavioral, biological, and clinical outcome changes. In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art evidence and ethical considerations about open-label and dose-extending placebos, discussing the perspective of giving placebos with a rational, as dose extension of active drugs, or expectancy boosters. Previous comprehensive reviews of placebo use have considered how to harness placebo effects in medicine and the need to focus on elements of the clinical encounter as well as patient-clinician relations...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Fabrizio Benedetti, Diletta Barbiani, Eleonora Camerone
A crucial question in placebo research is related to which conditions and physiological functions are affected by placebos. Here we present evidence that critical life functions, like ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, and perfusion, can be sensitive to placebo treatments in some circumstances. Indeed, we have investigated the role of placebo effects at an altitude of 3500m, where oxygen pressure is 64% compared to the sea level. In these extreme conditions, hypoxia triggers several compensatory responses, such as hyperventilation, increased cardiac output, and increased brain perfusion...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Karin B Jensen
Placebo effects have often been attributed to cognitive processes described as "learning" and/or "expectancy," yet the role of conscious awareness is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the placebo effects in patients with limited cognitive abilities, such as intellectual disability. Here, recent data on placebo mechanisms in patients with impaired cognitive function will be discussed, as well as experimental studies investigating how implicit cognitive processes may shape placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Marta Pecina, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Expectancies are powerful modulators of cognitive and emotional experiences, as well as the neurobiological responses linked to these processes. In medicine, placebo effects are a clear example of how expectancies activate opioid neurotransmission in a treatment context, leading to the experience of analgesia and the improvement of emotional states, among other symptoms. Molecular neuroimaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective μ-opioid receptor tracer [11 C]carfentanil have significantly contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological systems involved in the formation of placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Elizabeth A Necka, Lauren Y Atlas
Placebo effects are beneficial clinical outcomes that emerge as a result of nonspecific contextual factors, transmitted primarily by the treating physician and the social, physical, and behavioral cues he or she displays. The patient-provider therapeutic alliance is critical for determining placebo effects and health outcomes. In this chapter, we review the recent literature, suggesting that provider social characteristics modulate placebo and clinical outcomes. We highlight the importance of studying not only the provider but also the patient's perception of the provider, which is subject to the influence of the patient's psychosocial orientation, such as their psychosocial motivations and perceptions of their interpersonal relationships broadly...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Sean R Zion, Alia J Crum
The clinical utility of the placebo effect has long hinged on physicians deceptively administering an objective placebo treatment to their patients. However, the power of the placebo does not reside in the sham treatment itself; rather, it comes from the psychosocial forces that surround the patient and the treatment. To this end, we propose a new framework for understanding and leveraging the placebo effect in clinical care. In outlining this framework, we first present the placebo effect as a neurobiological effect that is evoked by psychological processes...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Andrew L Geers, Pablo Briñol, Erin A Vogel, Olivia Aspiras, Fawn C Caplandies, Richard E Petty
Placebo effects, or positive outcomes resulting from expectations about a treatment, are powerful components of modern medical care. In this chapter, we suggest that our understanding of placebo effects may benefit from more explicitly connecting this phenomenon to the existing empirical psychological literature on persuasion. Persuasion typically involves an attempt to bring about a change in beliefs or attitudes as a result of providing information on a topic. We begin by providing a brief overview of the psychological literature on placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Asaf Keller, Titilola Akintola, Luana Colloca
The investigation of placebo effects in animal pain models has received less attention than human research. This may be related to a number of difficulties, including the fact that animals lack the ability to use language and establish expectancies verbally, that animals cannot report and rate the extent to which they experience pain, and the inadequacy of current models of pain. Here, we describe the relatively small number of studies that have been published, communicating the opportunities and excitement of this research...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Hari S Sharma, Aruna Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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