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International Journal of Biometeorology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447175/present-and-projected-future-mean-radiant-temperature-for-three-european-cities
#1
Sofia Thorsson, David Rayner, Fredrik Lindberg, Ana Monteiro, Lutz Katzschner, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Sabrina Campe, Antje Katzschner, Janina Konarska, Shiho Onomura, Sara Velho, Björn Holmer
Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444505/occupational-heat-stress-assessment-and-protective-strategies-in-the-context-of-climate-change
#2
Chuansi Gao, Kalev Kuklane, Per-Olof Östergren, Tord Kjellstrom
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429114/physical-and-chemical-characteristics-of-the-longissimus-dorsi-from-swine-reared-in-climate-controlled-and-uncontrolled-environments
#3
Juliana Lolli Malagoli de Mello, Mariana Piatto Berton, Rita de Cassia Dourado, Aline Giampietro-Ganeco, Rodrigo Alves de Souza, Fábio Borba Ferrari, Pedro Alves de Souza, Hirasilva Borba
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle by comparing the quality of meat from pigs reared in a controlled and in an uncontrolled environment, the latter provided with a shallow pool. Twenty castrated male pigs of the Topigs line were randomly allotted to two treatments: a controlled environment, with constant temperature (22 °C) and relative humidity (70%); and an uncontrolled environment in a conventional shed for rearing pigs equipped with a shallow pool, where pigs were subject to climatic variations...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424950/estimated-work-ability-in-warm-outdoor-environments-depends-on-the-chosen-heat-stress-assessment-metric
#4
Peter Bröde, Dusan Fiala, Bruno Lemke, Tord Kjellstrom
With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421270/climate-variability-impacts-on-rainfed-cereal-yields-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#5
Milad Nouri, Mehdi Homaee, Mohammad Bannayan
In order to assess the response of wheat and barley to climate variability, the correlation between variations of yields with local and global climate variables was investigated in west and northwest Iran over 1982-2013. The global climate variables were the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signals. Further, minimum (T min), maximum (T max), and mean (T mean) temperature, diurnal temperature range (DTR), precipitation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was used as local weather factors...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421269/thermal-balance-of-nellore-cattle
#6
Cíntia Carol de Melo Costa, Alex Sandro Campos Maia, Sheila Tavares Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib Nascimento, Marcos Chiquitelli Neto, Vinícius de França Carvalho Fonsêca
This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405770/comparing-mechanistic-and-empirical-approaches-to-modeling-the-thermal-niche-of-almond
#7
Lauren E Parker, John T Abatzoglou
Delineating locations that are thermally viable for cultivating high-value crops can help to guide land use planning, agronomics, and water management. Three modeling approaches were used to identify the potential distribution and key thermal constraints on on almond cultivation across the southwestern United States (US), including two empirical species distribution models (SDMs)-one using commonly used bioclimatic variables (traditional SDM) and the other using more physiologically relevant climate variables (nontraditional SDM)-and a mechanistic model (MM) developed using published thermal limitations from field studies...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393266/postpartum-endocrine-activities-metabolic-attributes-and-milk-yield-are-influenced-by-thermal-stress-in-crossbred-dairy-cows
#8
Ihsanullah, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Syed Muhammad Suhail, Sohail Akhtar, Rifat Ullah Khan
This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) in cows during stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly (P < 0...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391522/development-of-a-method-for-estimating-oesophageal-temperature-by-multi-locational-temperature-measurement-inside-the-external-auditory-canal
#9
Hirofumi Nakada, Seichi Horie, Shoko Kawanami, Jinro Inoue, Yoshinori Iijima, Kiyoharu Sato, Takeshi Abe
We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389880/role-of-climate-in-the-spread-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-among-children
#10
Fiorella Acquaotta, Gianluigi Ardissino, Simona Fratianni, Michela Perrone
Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a rare disease mainly affecting children that develops as a complication of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. It is characterised by acute kidney injury, platelet consumption and mechanical destruction of red blood cells (haemolysis). In order to test the working hypothesis that the spread of the infection is influenced by specific climatic conditions, we analysed all of the identified cases of infection occurring between June 2010 and December 2013 in four provinces of Lombardy, Italy (Milano, Monza Brianza, Varese and Brescia), in which a STEC surveillance system has been developed as part of a preventive programme...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386701/representativeness-of-scholander-chamber-measurements-as-a-function-of-time-after-leaf-removal
#11
Genei Antonio Dalmago, Gilberto Rocca da Cunha, Anderson Santi, Elizandro Fochesatto, Samuel Kovaleski
The objectives of the study were to determine the maximum tolerable period between leaf removal from a plant and the determination of leaf water potential (Ψ l ), and to evaluate different ways of packing leaves after their removal from a plant (LR). Two experiments (Exp) were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replicates, using bean, maize, and soybean crops. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ PD ) (Exp1) and the minimum leaf water potential (Ψ min ) (Exp1 and Exp2) were determined...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382377/health-benefits-of-pm10-reduction-in-iran
#12
Mohammad Bagherian Marzouni, Mahsa Moradi, Alireza Zarasvandi, Shayan Akbaripoor, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Abdolkazem Neisi, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Reza Sheikhi, Majid Kermani, Mohammad Shirmardi, Abolfazl Naimabadi, Moeen Gholami, Saeed Pourkarim Mozhdehi, Mehdi Esmaeili, Kian Barari
Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382376/climate-effects-on-late-season-flight-times-of-massachusetts-butterflies
#13
L Zipf, E H Williams, R B Primack, S Stichter
Although the responses of living organisms to climate change are being widely investigated, little attention has been given to such effects late in the growing season. We studied the late-season flight times of 20 species of butterflies in a geographically limited region, the state of Massachusetts in the USA, by examining change in dates of flight over a 22-year period and in response to average monthly temperature and precipitation. By analyzing the last 10% of each year's observations reported by observers of the Massachusetts Butterfly Club, we found that seven species remain in flight significantly later into the fall than they did two decades earlier, while two species show reduced late-season flight...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374106/the-potential-benefits-of-location-specific-biometeorological-indexes
#14
Ho Ting Wong, Jinfeng Wang, Qian Yin, Si Chen, Poh Chin Lai
It is becoming popular to use biometeorological indexes to study the effects of weather on human health. Most of the biometeorological indexes were developed decades ago and only applicable to certain locations because of different climate types. Merely using standard biometeorological indexes to replace typical weather factors in biometeorological studies of different locations may not be an ideal research direction. This research is aimed at assessing the difference of statistical power between using standard biometeorological indexes and typical weather factors on describing the effects of extreme weather conditions on daily ambulance demands in Hong Kong...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361227/light-use-efficiency-of-a-warm-temperate-mixed-plantation-in-north-china
#15
Xiaojuan Tong, Jinsong Zhang, Ping Meng, Jun Li, Ning Zheng
Light use efficiency (LUE) is one of the important parameters on calculating terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP). Based on 5-year (2006-2010) carbon flux and climatic variable data of a mixed plantation in north China, the seasonal and interannual variation of LUE was investigated and the biophysical controls were examined. Our results show that LUE had a distinct seasonal course, and peaked in the vigorous growing season with a value of 0.92-1.27 g C MJ(-1). During the period of 2006-2010, annual mean LUE ranged between 0...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357508/influence-of-geomagnetic-activity-and-atmospheric-pressure-in-hypertensive-adults
#16
T Azcárate, B Mendoza
We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357507/examination-of-climatological-wind-patterns-and-simulated-pollen-dispersion-in-a-complex-island-environment
#17
Brian J Viner, Raymond W Arritt, Mark E Westgate
Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352954/dietary-enzymatically-treated-artemisia-annua-l-supplementation-alleviates-liver-oxidative-injury-of-broilers-reared-under-high-ambient-temperature
#18
Xiaoli Wan, Jingfei Zhang, Jintian He, Kaiwen Bai, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337635/measurement-of-bovine-body-and-scrotal-temperature-using-implanted-temperature-sensitive-radio-transmitters-data-loggers-and-infrared-thermography
#19
A L Wallage, J B Gaughan, A T Lisle, L Beard, C W Collins, S D Johnston
Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326508/exposure-to-high-ambient-temperatures-alters-embryology-in-rabbits
#20
M L García, M J Argente
High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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