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International Journal of Biometeorology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337635/measurement-of-bovine-body-and-scrotal-temperature-using-implanted-temperature-sensitive-radio-transmitters-data-loggers-and-infrared-thermography
#1
A L Wallage, J B Gaughan, A T Lisle, L Beard, C W Collins, S D Johnston
Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326508/exposure-to-high-ambient-temperatures-alters-embryology-in-rabbits
#2
M L García, M J Argente
High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321590/extreme-climatic-conditions-and-health-service-utilisation-across-rural-and-metropolitan-new-south-wales
#3
Edward Jegasothy, Rhydwyn McGuire, John Nairn, Robert Fawcett, Benjamin Scalley
Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314926/american-football-and-fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-a-case-study-of-korey-stringer
#4
Andrew Grundstein, John A Knox, Jennifer Vanos, Earl R Cooper, Douglas J Casa
On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303342/comparison-of-fabric-skins-for-the-simulation-of-sweating-on-thermal-manikins
#5
Barbara Koelblen, Agnes Psikuta, Anna Bogdan, Simon Annaheim, René M Rossi
Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283759/experimental-study-on-water-transport-observations-of-desert-riparian-forests-in-the-lower-reaches-of-the-tarim-river-in-china
#6
Yaning Chen, Weihong Li, Honghua Zhou, Yapeng Chen, XinmingHao, Aihong Fu, Jianxin Ma
Studying the water use processes of desert riparian vegetation in arid regions and analyzing the response and adaptation strategies of plants to drought stress are of great significance for developing ecological restoration measures. Based on field monitoring and test analyses of physiological ecological indicators of dominant species (Populus euphratica and Tamarix chinensis) in the desert riparian forest in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the water relations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis under drought stress are discussed and some water use strategies put forward...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283758/outdoor-thermal-comfort-in-public-space-in-warm-humid-guayaquil-ecuador
#7
Erik Johansson, Moohammed Wasim Yahia, Ivette Arroyo, Christer Bengs
The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280936/thermoregulation-of-the-bovine-scrotum-1-measurements-of-free-range-animals-in-a-paddock-and-pen
#8
Andrea L Wallage, S D Johnston, A T Lisle, L Beard, A M Lees, C W Collins, J B Gaughan
The bull's scrotum and scrotal cord vasculature has traditionally been regarded as a thermoregulatory device for maintaining optimal testicular temperature for normal spermatogenesis. This assumption has mostly been derived from discrete measurements using thermocouples with limited data correlating continuous scrotal temperature (ST) to body temperature (BT). From mid-summer to early autumn, four Wagyu bulls (9-18 months) were surgically implanted with two data loggers (DL) logging at 30 min intervals: one on the right hand side flank and the other was attached to the visceral vaginal tunic of the mid-testis...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265771/expression-dynamics-of-hsp90-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos-isoforms-during-heat-stress-acclimation-in-tharparkar-cattle
#9
Jaya Bharati, S S Dangi, S Bag, V P Maurya, G Singh, P Kumar, M Sarkar
Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15-day acclimation at thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42 °C for 6 h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (days 1, 5, and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1, immediate heat stress acclimation (IHSA); days 2 to 10, short-term heat stress acclimation (STHSA); days 15 to 23, long-term heat stress acclimation (LTHSA); days 7 and 12, recovery period), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258490/relationship-of-spontaneous-pneumothorax-cases-seen-in-eastern-black-sea-region-with-meteorological-changes
#10
Mustafa Esat Yamac, Sami Karapolat, Atila Turkyilmaz, Kubra Nur Seyis, Celal Tekinbas
The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247125/varying-responses-of-vegetation-activity-to-climate-changes-on-the-tibetan-plateau-grassland
#11
Nan Cong, Miaogen Shen, Wei Yang, Zhiyong Yang, Gengxin Zhang, Shilong Piao
Vegetation activity on the Tibetan Plateau grassland has been substantially enhanced as a result of climate change, as revealed by satellite observations of vegetation greenness (i.e., the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI). However, little is known about the temporal variations in the relationships between NDVI and temperature and precipitation, and understanding this is essential for predicting how future climate change would affect vegetation activity. Using NDVI data and meteorological records from 1982 to 2011, we found that the inter-annual partial correlation coefficient between growing season (May-September) NDVI and temperature (RNDVI-T) in a 15-year moving window for alpine meadow showed little change, likely caused by the increasing RNDVI-T in spring (May-June) and autumn (September) and decreasing RNDVI-T in summer (July-August)...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247124/projective-analysis-of-staple-food-crop-productivity-in-adaptation-to-future-climate-change-in-china
#12
Qing Zhang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun, Yongqiang Yu, Guocheng Wang
Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243727/the-occurrence-of-ambrosia-pollen-in-the-atmosphere-of-northwest-turkey-investigation-of-possible-source-regions
#13
Sevcan Celenk, Hulusi Malyer
Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport (LDT) and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between 2010 and 2015 by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243726/short-term-effects-of-air-quality-and-thermal-stress-on-non-accidental-morbidity-a-multivariate-meta-analysis-comparing-indices-to-single-measures
#14
Hanna Leona Lokys, Jürgen Junk, Andreas Krein
Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229222/estimation-of-abnormal-temperature-effects-on-elderly-mortality-in-south-korea-using-the-temperature-deviation-index
#15
Giehae Choi, Hyun-Joo Bae, Youn-Hee Lim
Recent studies have revealed that the effect of temperature on mortality has changed over time. One of the major contributors to the changes is adaptation. We aimed to understand the relationship between elderly mortality and temperature anomaly using the temperature deviation index (TDI), which considers exposure history. Summertime (May to September) mortality data from 1996 to 2014 and meteorological data from 1971 to 2014 were obtained for 16 regions covering South Korea. The TDI was defined as the target day's temperature abnormality compared to previous 25 years' apparent temperature (AT)...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220255/phenological-patterns-of-flowering-across-biogeographical-regions-of-europe
#16
Barbara Templ, Matthias Templ, Peter Filzmoser, Annamária Lehoczky, Eugenija Bakšienè, Stefan Fleck, Hilppa Gregow, Sabina Hodzic, Gunta Kalvane, Eero Kubin, Vello Palm, Danuta Romanovskaja, Višnja Vucˇetic, Ana Žust, Bálint Czúcz
Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210860/a-heat-vulnerability-index-to-improve-urban-public-health-management-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#17
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J McCarthy, Ernesto Rodríguez
Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210859/effectiveness-of-peloid-therapy-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-single-blind-study
#18
Burcu Metin Ökmen, Meliha Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Aygül Güneş, Riza Eröksüz, Lale Altan
Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)(n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)(n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197732/effects-of-street-canyon-design-on-pedestrian-thermal-comfort-in-the-hot-humid-area-of-china
#19
Yufeng Zhang, Xiaohan Du, Yurong Shi
The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190181/effects-of-the-urban-heat-island-on-the-phenology-of-odonata-in-london-uk
#20
Giovanna Villalobos-Jiménez, Christopher Hassall
Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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