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Indian Journal of Microbiology

Sanjay K S Patel, Jung-Kul Lee, Vipin C Kalia
Theoretical hydrogen (H2 ) yield by dark fermentative route is 12 mol/mol of glucose. Biological H2 production yields of 3.8 mol/mol of glucose by microbes have been reported. Transient gene inactivation in combination with adaptive laboratory evolution strategy has enabled the H2 yield to exceed the stoichiometric production values.
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Yosainix C Gaerste-Díaz, Patricia Lozano-Zarain, Carmen Torres, Numa P Castro González, Rosa Del C Rocha-Gracia
Ninety-six methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 11 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were recovered from food of animal origin. Multi-drug resistance was detected in 34.1% of isolates. Tetracycline-resistant staphylococci harbored tetK gene (68.8%). Erythromycin/clindamycin-resistant staphylococci carried lnu A /lnu B genes frequently alone or combined with msr A gene. The sec gene was detected in 15.6% of MSSA and two isolates harbored the immune evasion cluster...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Richa Virmani, Yogendra Singh, Yasha Hasija
Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax in human and animals. Both, signaling system such as two component system and endogenous chaperone system such as GroEL-GroES help bacteria to cope with the environmental challenges. Such molecular chaperones are the stress induced proteins that help bacteria to override unfavorable conditions by their moonlighting functions. Previous reports showed that PrkC and PrpC, the Ser/Thr kinase-phosphatase pair in B. anthracis , control phosphorylation of GroEL and regulate biofilm formation...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Vishal Kumar, Puneet Kumar Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
The three dimensional structure (3D structure) of GH-11 xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was obtained through homology modeling. To study the enzyme interaction with an end product of enzyme catalysis, the xylanase two sugar molecules xylose and xylobiose has been docked into the active site of GH-11 xylanase through molecular docking. Based on the free binding energy and Inhibition constant, concluded xylose makes more stable complex than xylobiose. Further, the molecular dynamic simulation studies were carried out at different temperature, i...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Kyung Dong Lee, Palaniselvam Kuppusamy, Da Hye Kim, Natanamurugaraj Govindan, Gaanty Pragas Maniam, Ki Choon Choi
Italian ryegrass is one of main feed for livestock animals/birds. It has potential antioxidant metabolites that can improve their health and protect them against various infectious diseases. In this work, we studied synthesis of silver nanoparticles assisted by forage crop Lolium multiflorum as a green synthesis way. Potential antibacterial efficacy of these synthesized nanosized silver nanoparticles against poultry pathogenic bacteria was then studied. Aqueous extract of IRG was used as reducing agent for bio-reduction of silver salt to convert Ag+ to Ag0 metallic nano-silver...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Aaron Mandeville, Ian Edwin Cock
Terminalia chebula Retz. is a northern Indian plant species known for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. T. chebula fruit powder was extracted with solvents of varying polarity and screened for bacterial growth inhibition by disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was quantified by both liquid dilution and disc diffusion techniques. To screen for combinatorial effects, the T. chebula fruit extracts were combined with a range of conventional antibiotics and tested against each bacteria using a liquid dilution assay...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Piramanagayam Prema Sundara Valli, Thangavelu Muthukumar
The ascomycetous dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi characterized by their melanized hyphae can confer abiotic stress tolerance in their associated plants in addition to improving plant growth and health. In this study inoculation of the DSE fungus Nectria haematococca Berk. & Broome significantly improved all the plant growth parameters like the plant height, stem girth, leaf characteristics and plant biomass of drought-stressed tomato. Root characters like the total root length, primary root diameter, 2nd order root number and diameter, root hair number and length were also significantly influenced by the fungal inoculation...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
A C Atanda, R A Adeleke, P J Jooste, E Madoroba
Feedstock used in the production of vermicompost (VC) and vermicompost tea (VCT) may harbour various pathogenic bacteria responsible for a number of animal and human diseases worldwide. The identification and characterisation of such pathogenic organisms is necessary for assessing the safety of these products. In the present study, our goal was to determine the presence of possible pathogens in VC and VCT and, if present, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the organisms. VC and VCT samples were collected from five different farms in the Winterveldt, South Africa...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Mingma Thundu Sherpa, Ishfaq Nabi Najar, Sayak Das, Nagendra Thakur
The Himalayas are water tower for billions of people; however in recent years due to climate change several glaciers of Himalaya are receding or getting extinct which can lead to water scarcity and political tensions. Thus, it requires immediate attention and necessary evaluation of all the environmental parameters which can lead to conservation of Himalayan glaciers. This study is the first attempt to investigate the bacterial diversity from debris-free Changme Khang (CKG) and debris-cover Changme Khangpu (CK) glacier, North Sikkim, India...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Sama Kalyana Chakravarthy, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Gumpili Sai Prashanthi, Mohammed Hasnat Ali, Savitri Sharma, Mudit Tyagi, Sisinthy Shivaji
Uveitis (UVT), an inflammatory disease of the eye significantly contributes to vision impairment and blindness. Uveitis is associated with systemic infectious and autoimmune diseases, but in most cases, the aetiology remains unidentified. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome has been implicated in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancers and mental disorders. In a mice model of autoimmune UVT, it was observed that manipulating the gut microbiome reduces the inflammation and disease severity. Further, alterations in the bacterial gut microbiome and their metabolites were reported in UVT patients from a Chinese cohort...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Jingjing Liu, Wenwen Chang, Lei Pan, Xiaoyun Liu, Lufang Su, Weiying Zhang, Qin Li, Yu Zheng
The high-throughput, cost-efficient transformation systems determine the success of gene cloning and functional analysis. Among various factors that affect this transformation systems, the competence ability of target cells is one of the most important factors. We found antimicrobial peptides LFcin-B can increase the permeability of the cell membrane, and their lethal antibacterial properties can be inhibited by moderately high concentrations of Ca2+ and Mn2+ . In this study, we established a convenient and rapid method (CRM) by adding small concentrations of (0...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Shi Yi, Xiao Zhang, Han-Xin Li, Xiao-Xia Du, Shao-Wei Liang, Xi-Hua Zhao
A wild-type strain was isolated from slightly rotted pears after three rounds of enrichment culture, identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3308, and evaluated for its fermentation capability of second generation bioethanol and tolerance of temperature, glucose and ethanol. S. cerevisiae 3308 was mutated by using the physical and chemical mutagenesis methods, ultraviolet (UV) and diethyl sulfate (DES), respectively. Positive mutated strains were mainly generated by the treatment of UV, but numerous negative mutations emerged under the treatment of DES...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Karam Chand, Sanchay K Biswas, Bimalendu Mondal
An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) method was optimized for the selective capture of bluetongue virus (BTV) from blood samples and isolation of the virus in cell culture. The antibody against BTV core particles (lacking the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5) was used for the optimization of IAC technique. The antibody against BTV core particle was conjugated with Protein A-virus complex and the complex was dissociated using elution buffer (4 M MgCl2 with 75 mM HEPES, pH 6.5). The optimized IAC method specifically purified the BTV without capturing other commonly infecting small ruminant's viruses like gaotpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV), Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Honglei Shi, Xiaochang C Wang, Qian Li, Shanqing Jiang
The effects of antibiotics on aerobic composting are investigated by dosing of tetracycline (TC) in fresh human feces with sawdust as biomass carrier. Variability in process parameters such as temperature, pH, water-soluble carbon, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) are evaluated at TC dosages of 0, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg in a 21-day composting. Moreover, microbial community succession is examined by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Findings indicate significant impacts to the process parameters with the increase of TC concentration such as inhibition of temperature increases during aerobic composting, lowering of pH, increasing of water-soluble carbon residue, a decrease of GI, and hindering of DHA...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Maria V Orlova, Sergey V Tarlachkov, Eugenia I Kulinchenko, Galina A Dubinina, Maria N Tutukina, Margarita Y Grabovich
The metabolic pathways of one-carbon compounds utilized by colorless sulfur bacterium Beggiatoa leptomitoformis D-402 were revealed based on comprehensive analysis of its genomic organization, together with physiological, biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Strain D-402 was capable of aerobic methylotrophic growth with methanol as a sole source of carbon and energy and was not capable of methanotrophic growth because of the absence of genes of methane monooxygenases. It was established that methanol can be oxidized to CO2 in three consecutive stages...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Chandni Talwar, Shekhar Nagar, Rup Lal, Ram Krishan Negi
In recent years, investigations of microbial flora associated with fish gut have deepened our knowledge of the complex interactions occurring between microbes and host fish. The gut microbiome not only reinforces the digestive and immune systems in fish but is itself shaped by several host-associated factors. Unfortunately, in the past, majority of studies have focused upon the structure of fish gut microbiome providing little knowledge of effects of these factors distinctively and the immense functional potential of the gut microbiome...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Céline Rens, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Françoise Laval, Philippe Lefèvre, Vanessa Mathys, Mamadou Daffé, Véronique Fontaine
Treatment of tuberculosis still represent a major public health issue. The emergence of multi-and extensively-drug resistant (MDR and XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains further pinpoint the urgent need for new anti-tuberculous drugs. We previously showed that vancomycin can target mycobacteria lacking cell wall integrity, especially those lacking related phthiocerol and phthiodolone dimycocerosates, PDIM A and PDIM B, respectively. As aloe emodin was previously hypothesized to be able to target the synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall lipids, we tested its ability to potentiate glycopeptides antimycobacterial activity...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Avinash Kaur, Ritu Das, Mayank Rai Nigam, Ravikrishnan Elangovan, Deepal Pandya, Sandeep Jha, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
A limit of detection of 200 CFU/mL of Salmonella typhi spiked in various sample matrices were achieved in 30 min. The sample matrices were raw/unprocessed milk, commercially available milk, juice from packed bottles, fresh juice from carts, potable water, turbid water and calf serum. The complete protocol comprised of three steps: (a) cell lysis (b) nucleic acid amplification and (c) an in situ optical detection. The cell lysis was carried out using a simple heating based protocol, while the loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA was carried out by an in-house designed and fabricated system...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Trupti Asolkar, Raman Ramesh
Ralstonia solanacearum is an important plant pathogen which infects a large number of agriculturally important crops. The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) plays a major role in its pathogenicity by secreting type III effectors (T3Es) which overthrow the host defence mechanism. The secretion of T3Es is transcriptionally regulated by hrpB and its secretion is dependent on the pili formed by hrcV gene. In this study, two T3SS mutants of R. solanacearum strain Rs-09-161 viz. Rs-HrpB- and Rs-HrcV- were developed through insertional mutagenesis...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Nikita P Lotlikar, Samir R Damare
Abiotic factors can cause substantial limitation of growth of microbes. A combination of salinity stress along with chromium (Cr+6 ), one of the carcinogen, can pose an immediate threat to any living system. To understand how salinity (0, 35 and 100 PSU) and Cr(VI) stress (0, 100 and 500 ppm), affects cells at the molecular level, the cellular response of Purpureocillium lilacinum to the individual as well the combination of both the stresses were studied by peptide mass fingerprinting technique. The study reports 1412 proteins, of which 105 proteins were found to be present across all conditions...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
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