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Indian Journal of Microbiology

Céline Rens, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Françoise Laval, Philippe Lefèvre, Vanessa Mathys, Mamadou Daffé, Véronique Fontaine
Treatment of tuberculosis still represent a major public health issue. The emergence of multi-and extensively-drug resistant (MDR and XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains further pinpoint the urgent need for new anti-tuberculous drugs. We previously showed that vancomycin can target mycobacteria lacking cell wall integrity, especially those lacking related phthiocerol and phthiodolone dimycocerosates, PDIM A and PDIM B, respectively. As aloe emodin was previously hypothesized to be able to target the synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall lipids, we tested its ability to potentiate glycopeptides antimycobacterial activity...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Avinash Kaur, Ritu Das, Mayank Rai Nigam, Ravikrishnan Elangovan, Deepal Pandya, Sandeep Jha, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
A limit of detection of 200 CFU/mL of Salmonella typhi spiked in various sample matrices were achieved in 30 min. The sample matrices were raw/unprocessed milk, commercially available milk, juice from packed bottles, fresh juice from carts, potable water, turbid water and calf serum. The complete protocol comprised of three steps: (a) cell lysis (b) nucleic acid amplification and (c) an in situ optical detection. The cell lysis was carried out using a simple heating based protocol, while the loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA was carried out by an in-house designed and fabricated system...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Trupti Asolkar, Raman Ramesh
Ralstonia solanacearum is an important plant pathogen which infects a large number of agriculturally important crops. The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) plays a major role in its pathogenicity by secreting type III effectors (T3Es) which overthrow the host defence mechanism. The secretion of T3Es is transcriptionally regulated by hrpB and its secretion is dependent on the pili formed by hrcV gene. In this study, two T3SS mutants of R. solanacearum strain Rs-09-161 viz. Rs-HrpB- and Rs-HrcV- were developed through insertional mutagenesis...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Nikita P Lotlikar, Samir R Damare
Abiotic factors can cause substantial limitation of growth of microbes. A combination of salinity stress along with chromium (Cr+6 ), one of the carcinogen, can pose an immediate threat to any living system. To understand how salinity (0, 35 and 100 PSU) and Cr(VI) stress (0, 100 and 500 ppm), affects cells at the molecular level, the cellular response of Purpureocillium lilacinum to the individual as well the combination of both the stresses were studied by peptide mass fingerprinting technique. The study reports 1412 proteins, of which 105 proteins were found to be present across all conditions...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Lina Fu, Hanmei Li, Lanfang Wei, Jun Yang, Qi Liu, Yating Wang, Xing Wang, Guanghai Ji
The effect of crude extract (Ce), seed coating agent (SCA) and whole bacterial broth culture (WBC) of Lysobacter strains was evaluated against the causal agent of clubroot formation in Cruciferous vegetables. The ability of four Lysobacter strains ( L. antibioticus 6-B-1, L. antibioticus 6-T-4, L. antibioticus 13-B-1 and L. capsici ZST1-2) inhibited Plasmodiophora brassicae of resting spores and disease. Application of WBC of four Lysobacter strains inhibited clubroot disease, indicating that the disease suppression was due to antifungal compounds produced by the biocontrol bacterium in the culture...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Yilong Zhu, Shouwen Du, Yang Zhang, Jingwei Liu, Yan Guo, Cunxia Liu, Jieying Bai, Maopeng Wang, Fei Zhao, Tingting Cao, Wang Xu, Bing Bai, Kelong Zhang, Yizhen Ma, Chang Li, Ningyi Jin
Given the failures of past HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials, potential HIV-1 vaccine candidates should be rigorously screened in preclinical models including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) primate models and small animal models. In this study, we tested the immunogenicity of a recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing the SIV gag and SIV envT (rFPVsg-se ) proteins in BALB/c mice, to establish a foundation for further development. rFPVsg-se was constructed through homologous recombination techniques and purified through plaque screening assays using enhanced green fluorescent protein as the reporter gene...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Ruining Wang, Hongfang Ma, Yinfeng Kang, Cunfa Li, Huawei Li, Erqin Zhang, Pengchao Ji, Jian He, Mengmeng Zhao
An interferon-mediated antiviral protein, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 2, plays an important role in the antiviral response of interferons. In this study, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 2 genes were cloned from Chinese domestic pigs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 2024-bp long open reading fame encodes 707 amino acids. There are two conserved regions in this protein: the nucleotidyltransferase domain, and the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase domain (OAS). Genetic evolution analysis showed that the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 2 gene in domestic pigs is closely related to that of cattle...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Vafa Mayahi, Majid Esmaelizad, Naser Harzandi
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein besides its mediation in viral pathogenesis, is composed of various antigenic sites which stimulate production of host's antibodies. Thus, application of this protein in serological tests and vaccination plays a major role in biosecurity and control programs. In the present study, we designed a recombinant HN protein containing different neutralizing antigenic sites with velogenic patterns, and sub-cloned it into pET-43.1a+ expression vector. The expression of NusA-HN recombinant protein was induced...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Dongmei Wang, Huan Wang, Jing Li, Wei Zhang, Yingni Pan, Xiaoqiu Liu
Gentiana scabra Bge. (gentian) is a Chinese medicinal plant. Endophytic fungi from the roots of gentian were isolated and cross-growth period inoculation was performed to study the roles of three Trichoderma spp. strains (F1, F2, and F9) in their original host plant. In treatments inoculated with F1, F2, and F9, gentiopicroside content increased 33.6, 23.7 and 13% than that in the control. Strains F1, F2, and F9 could also improve polysaccharide content by more than 6.6, 18.7 and 30% compared to the control...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Jingjing Rong, Shuzhan Liu, Chao Hu, Feng Jin, Li Wang
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease and is driven by strong type 2 immune responses. Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 (NS8), a probiotic strain isolated from Mongolian koumiss, has anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of NS8 on AD-like skin lesions by using SKH-1 hairless mice that underwent three cycles of epicutaneous sensitization (EC) with ovalbumin (OVA). NS8 (5 × 108 CFU/day) was orally administered to mice from 2 weeks before the first sensitization until the end of the study...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
M M K Peiris, S S N Fernando, P M Jayaweera, N D H Arachchi, T D C P Guansekara
Green silver nanoparticle (AgNP) biosynthesis is facilitated by the enzyme mediated reduction of Ag ions by plants, fungi and bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of green AgNPs is useful to overcome the challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial properties of biosynthesized AgNPs depend on multiple factors including culture conditions and the microbial source. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs biosynthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Acinetobacter baumannii (confirmed clinical isolate) were investigated in this study...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar Verma, Tarun Kumar, Shashank Gupta, Rajesh Pandey, Monika Yadav, Nar Singh Chauhan
The human gut microbiome has a significant role in host physiology; however its role in gluten catabolism is debatable. Present study explores the role of human gut microbes in gluten catabolism and a native human gut microbe Cellulomonas sp. HM71 was identified. SSU rDNA analysis has described human gut microbiome structure and also confirmed the permanent residentship of Cellulomonas sp. HM71. Catabolic potential of Cellulomonas sp. HM71 to cleave antigenic gluten peptides indicates presence of candidate gene encoding biocatalytic machinery...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Richa Virmani, Yasha Hasija, Yogendra Singh
Mycobacteria show peculiar aggregated outgrowth like biofilm on the surface of solid or liquid media. Biofilms harbor antibiotic resistant bacteria in a self-produced extracellular matrix that signifies the bacterial fate to sedentary existence. Despite years of research, very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to biofilm formation. LuxS has been previously known to play a role in biofilm formation in Autoinducer-2 dependent manner. We here show the effect of LuxS product-homocysteine, on the biofilm forming ability of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG showing AI-2 independent phenotypic effect of LuxS...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Reshma Talkal, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant Purohit
All the genetic potential and the intelligence a bacteria can showcase in a given environment are embedded in its genome. In this study, we have presented systematic guidelines to understand a bacterial genome with the relevant set of in silico tools using a novel bacteria as an example. This study presents a multi-dimensional approach from genome annotation to tracing genes and their network of metabolism operating in an organism. It also shows how the sequence can be used to mine the enzymes and construction of its 3-dimensional structure so that its functional behavior can be predicted and compared...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Amreesh Parvez, Samir Giri, Renu Bisht, Priti Saxena
Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize varied classes of metabolites with diverse bio-functionalities. Inherent promiscuous substrate specificity, multiple elongations of reaction intermediates and several modes of ring-closure, confer the proteins with the ability to generate unique scaffolds from limited substrate pools. Structural studies have identified crucial amino acid residues that dictate type III PKS functioning, though cyclization specific residues need further investigation. PKSIII Nc , a functionally and structurally characterized type III PKS from the fungus, Neurospora crassa, is known to biosynthesize alkyl-resorcinol, alkyl-triketide- and alkyl-tetraketide-α-pyrone products...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
V Kalidasan, Narcisse Joseph, Suresh Kumar, Rukman Awang Hamat, Vasantha Kumari Neela
Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms with critical roles in many biological processes. The mammalian host maintains the iron requirements by dietary intake, while the invading pathogenic bacteria compete with the host to obtain those absorbed irons. In order to limit the iron uptake by the bacteria, the human host employs numerous iron binding proteins and withholding defense mechanisms that capture iron from the microbial invaders. To counteract, the bacteria cope with the iron limitation imposed by the host by expressing various iron acquisition systems, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Rajat Vashistha, Deepak Chhabra, Pratyoosh Shukla
Mechanocomputational techniques in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the interpretations of the crucial information from the medical data and converting it into optimized and organized information for diagnostics. It is possible due to valuable perfection in artificial intelligence, computer aided diagnostics, virtual assistant, robotic surgery, augmented reality and genome editing (based on AI) technologies. Such techniques are serving as the products for diagnosing emerging microbial or non microbial diseases...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Ankita Kataria, Sajan C Achi, Prakash M Halami
The health beneficial attributes of bifidobacteria and its safe association with the host gut has increased its significance as a probiotic. However delivering probiotic bifidobacteria with Minimum Biological Value (MBV) through product has always been a challenge. In the present study, an attempt was made to maintain the viability of native isolate of Bifidobacterium longum CFR 815j and deliver through ice-cream. B. longum CFR815j was microencapsulated in alginate starch capsules by emulsification followed by evaluation of bead stability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Nurul Iman Mohamad, Azian Harun, Habsah Hasan, Zakuan Zainy Deris
Although doxycycline is active against Burkholderia pseudomallei and has been used in the eradication stage of melioidosis therapy, it is not regularly used during the initial intensive phase. In order to assess its potential use in intensive phase therapy, we investigated in vitro pharmacodynamic activity of doxycycline and β-lactams alone and in combination against four Malaysian strains of B. pseudomallei. Using a checkerboard assay, the combinations of doxycycline and imipenem, doxycycline and ceftazidime, and doxycycline and amoxicillin-clavulanate tested against four strains showed indifferent effects with summation fractional inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Praveen Rishi, Neha Rani Bhagat, Reena Thakur, Preeti Pathania
Bacterial persisters (defined as dormant, non-dividing cells with globally reduced metabolism) are the major cause of recurrent infections. As they neither grow nor die in presence of antibiotics, it is difficult to eradicate these cells using antibiotics, even at higher concentrations. Reports of metabolites (which help in waking up of these inactive cells) enabled eradication of bacterial persistence by aminoglycosides, suggest the new potential strategy to improve antibiotic therapy. Here we propose, mannitol enabled elimination of Salmonella persister cells by the nisin-antibiotic combination...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
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