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Indian Journal of Microbiology

Ramesh Kumar Saini, Young-Soo Keum
Carotenoids are versatile isoprenoids pigments, play a vital role in the cellular system, starting from antioxidant to gene regulation. Carotenoids are widely used in food, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics owing to their vitamin A, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The demand of carotenoids in various sectors has triggered the research to explore a commercially viable and environmentally friendly production. This article presents a short review of progress in carotenoids production from microbial platforms...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Jyoti Kushwah, Puneet Kumar, Veena Garg, Vishal Singh Somvanshi
Photorhabdus is an insect-pathogenic Gram negative enterobacterium found in the gut of Heterorhabditis nematodes. Photorhabdus is highly virulent to insects, and can kill insects rapidly upon injection at very low concentrations of one to few cells. We characterized the virulence of Photorhabdus symbionts isolated from the Heterorhabditis nematodes collected from various parts of India by injecting different concentrations of bacterial cells into fourth instar larval stage of insect Galleria mellonella. Photorhabdus luminescens ssp...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Ankur Kaushal, Swati Singh, Ashok Kumar, Dinesh Kumar
A specific 5' NH2 labeled DNA probe of speB gene was immobilized onto the gold nanoparticles/carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (Nano-Au/cMWCNT) screen printed electrode using EDC/NHS cross linking chemistry. This was followed by hybridization with 0.5-50 ng/6 µl of single stranded genomic DNA Streptococcus pyogenes infected patient throat swab samples. Electrochemical amperometric assay was deciphered by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) with methylene blue a redox indicator. The sensor had a sensitivity of 104...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Rupesh Kumar Sinha, K P Krishnan, Savita Kerkar, T Divya David
Kongsfjorden is a glacial fjord in the Arctic that is influenced by both Atlantic and Arctic water masses. In the present report retrievable heterotrophic bacteria isolated from two distinct zones (outer and inner fjord) of Kongsfjorden was studied during summer to fall of 2012. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the retrievable heterotrophic bacteria corresponded to γ-proteobacteria (13 phylotypes), α-proteobacteria (3 phylotypes), Bacteroidetes (4 phylotypes) and Actinobacteria (2 phylotypes). The heterotrophic bacterial community structure was fundamentally different in different months which could be linked to changes in the water masses and/or phytoplankton bloom dynamics...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Swati Singh, Ankur Kaushal, Sunil Gupta, Ashok Kumar
An impedimetric mga gene specific DNA sensor was developed by immobilization of single stranded DNA probe onto the screen printed modified gold-dendrimer nanohybrid composite electrode for early and rapid detection of S. pyogenes in human throat swab samples causing rheumatic heart disease. Electrochemical impedance response was measured after hybridization with bacterial single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) with probe. The sensor was found highly specific to S. pyogenes and can detect as low as 0.01 ng ssDNA in 6 µL sample only in 30 min...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Vipin Chandra Kalia, Jyotsana Prakash, Shikha Koul, Subhasree Ray
Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Shikha Koul, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Bacteria express certain of their characteristics especially, pathogenicity factors at high cell densities. The process is termed as quorum sensing (QS). QS operates via signal molecules such as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Other bacteria inhibit QS through the inactivation of AHL signals by producing enzymes like AHL-lactonases and -acylases. Comparative genomic analysis has revealed the multiplicity of genes for AHL lactonases (up to 12 copies per genome) among Bacillus spp. and that of AHL-acylases (up to 5 copies per genome) among Pseudomonas spp...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Sushma Sharma, Dileep K Singh
Biological nitrogen fixation is one of the most important nutrient processes in the ecosystem. Many studies have estimated the variations in soil diazotrophic communities across the globe. To understand the dynamics of nitrogen fixing bacterial communities and their response to the environmental changes, it is important to study the temporal variability of these communities. Using DNA fingerprinting method, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real time polymerase chain reaction of the nifH gene, we have found that the agricultural land harbored unique nitrogen fixing communities that revealed different temporal patterns and abundance...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Changqing Zhao, Qinhuan Yang, Hao Zhang
This study aimed to improve microbial flocculant production by optimizing the components of a Bacillus subtilis CZ1003 culture medium. Using the flocculation rate as the dependent variable, single-factor experiments were performed and beef extract at a concentration of 9 g/L was found to be the optimal nitrogen source, while glucose at a concentration of 20 g/L was the optimal carbon source. KCl, MgCl2, NaCl, and CaCl2 at concentrations of 0.75, 2.5, 0.5, and 5.0 g/L, respectively, were the optimum inorganic salts, in order of flocculant production activity...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Vijaya Gupta, Neena Capalash, Naveen Gupta, Prince Sharma
Activated sludge is an artificial ecosystem known to harbor complex microbial communities. Bacterial diversity in activated sludge from pulp and paper industry was studied to bioprospect for laccase, the multicopper oxidase applicable in a large number of industries due to its ability to utilize a wide range of substrates. Bacterial diversity using 454 pyrosequencing and laccase diversity using degenerate primers specific to conserved copper binding domain of laccase like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes were investigated...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Zhihong Chen, Qingqing Luo, Mingzi Wang, Bilian Chen
A rapid, sensitive and validated method for the determination of fusaric acid (FA) in several Fusarium strains and different commercial food and feed products is reported based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography. This method requires only crude sample by a simple extraction with methanol, and requires a very short time of 8 min for completion. Separation of FA was performed at injection volume of 1 μl with a 20:80 (v/v) water/acetonitrile mobile phase containing 0.1 % formic acid at a flow rate of 0...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Smita Kumari, Raj Kumar Regar, Abhay Bajaj, Ratnasekhar Ch, Gubbala Naga Venkata Satyanarayana, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Natesan Manickam
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacterium was isolated from a petroleum contaminated site and designated as Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87. It was found to utilize pyrene, phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene as sole carbon source, but not anthracene, chrysene and fluoranthene. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis resulted in identification of pyrene metabolites namely monohydroxypyrene, 4-oxa-pyrene-5-one, dimethoxypyrene and monohydroxyphenanthrene. Southern hybridization using naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nidA) as probe against the DNA of strain IITR87 revealed the presence of nidA gene...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Krishnashis Das, Mahendra Vikram Singh Rajawat, Anil Kumar Saxena, Radha Prasanna
Biofilmed biofertilizers have emerged as a new improved inoculant technology to provide efficient nutrient and pest management and sustain soil fertility. In this investigation, development of a Trichoderma viride-Mesorhizobium ciceri biofilmed inoculant was undertaken, which we hypothesized, would possess more effective biological nitrogen fixing ability and plant growth promoting properties. As a novel attempt, we selected Mesorhizobium ciceri spp. with good antifungal attributes with the assumption that such inoculants could also serve as biocontrol agents...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable biopolymers, which can be produced from renewable materials. PHAs have potential to replace petroleum derived plastics. Quite a few bacteria can produce PHA under nutritional stress. They generally produce homopolymers of butyrate i.e., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), as a storage material. The biochemical characteristics of PHB such as brittleness, low strength, low elasticity, etc. make these unsuitable for commercial applications. Co-polymers of PHA, have high commercial value as they overcome the limitations of PHBs...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Anukriti Sharma, Rup Lal
Advancement in the next generation sequencing technologies has led to evolution of the field of genomics and metagenomics in a slim duration with nominal cost at precipitous higher rate. While metagenomics and genomics can be separately used to reveal the culture-independent and culture-based microbial evolution, respectively, (meta)genomics together can be used to demonstrate results at population level revealing in-depth complex community interactions for specific ecotypes. The field of metagenomics which started with answering "who is out there?" based on 16S rRNA gene has evolved immensely with the precise organismal reconstruction at species/strain level from the deeply covered metagenome data outweighing the need to isolate bacteria of which 99% are de facto non-cultivable...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Puneet Kohli, Hans H Richnow, Rup Lal
Assessment of biotic and abiotic degradation reactions by studying the variation in stable isotopic compositions of organic contaminants in contaminated soil and aquifers is being increasingly considered during the last two decades with development of Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) technique. CSIA has been recognized as a potential tool for evaluating both qualitative and quantitative degradation with measurement of shifts in isotope ratios of contaminants and their degradation products as its basis...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Aditya Kumar Sharma, Neha Dhasmana, Neha Dubey, Nishant Kumar, Aakriti Gangwal, Meetu Gupta, Yogendra Singh
Virulence is described as an ability of an organism to infect the host and cause a disease. Virulence factors are the molecules that assist the bacterium colonize the host at the cellular level. These factors are either secretory, membrane associated or cytosolic in nature. The cytosolic factors facilitate the bacterium to undergo quick adaptive-metabolic, physiological and morphological shifts. The membrane associated virulence factors aid the bacterium in adhesion and evasion of the host cell. The secretory factors are important components of bacterial armoury which help the bacterium wade through the innate and adaptive immune response mounted within the host...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Sheng-Rong Liu, Wei-Rui Zhang, Ai-Ping Chen, Yun-Bo Kuang
Tissue isolation from mushrooms is frequently practiced by both researchers and growers to isolate new and improved strains. In the present study, we designed a simple and convenient device for precise tissue isolation and therefore investigated the effect of tissue size on mycelial growth of seven mushroom species. The developed device consists of a cutting needle and a transfer needle. The cutting needle was used to obtain circular tissue plugs having a height up to 3 mm and variable diameters (2-5 mm) from mushroom fruit bodies...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Sara Fernández, Javier Galapero, Luis Gómez, Carlos J Pérez, Dolores Cid, M Carmen Martín, Juan Manuel Alonso, Joaquín Rey
Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease in ruminants. Because of its economic significance, several methods have been developed to study the pathogenicity and epidemiology of M. haemolytica. In this study, bacterial isolates of M. haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi identified from the lungs of sheep were serotyped by means of indirect haemagglutination. Of the 598 lungs studied, 34 isolates were identified and serotyped. In decreasing order, M. haemolytica serotypes were: not typable (50 %), A1 (17...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Subramanya Rao, Olivia W Chan, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler, Stephen B Pointing
This study reports the identification of ionising radiation tolerant bacteria from a high elevation arid region of central Tibet. Nineteen isolates were isolated from soil exposed to ionising radiation at doses from 0 to 15 kGy. Isolates were phylogenetically characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Most isolates comprised taxa from the Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes and proteobacteria and these survived doses up to 5 kGy. The Firmicutes and Deinococci also survived doses up to 10 kGy, and the highest dose of 15 kGy was survived only by the Deinococci...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
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