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Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423181/mesenteric-lymph-node-cd11b-cd103-pd-l1-high-dendritic-cells-highly-induce-regulatory-t-cells
#1
Aya Shiokawa, Ryutaro Kotaki, Tomohiro Takano, Haruyo Nakajima-Adachi, Satoshi Hachimura
Dendritic cells (DCs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to regulate immune responses to beneficial or non-harmful agents in the intestine, such as commensal bacteria and foods. Several studies in MLN DCs have revealed that CD103(+) DC subset highly induces regulatory T cells, and another study has reported that MLN DCs from PD-L1-deficient mice could not induce regulatory T cells. Thus, the present study investigated expression of these molecules on MLN CD11c(+) cells. Four distinct subsets expressing CD103 and/or PD-L1 were identified, namely CD11b(+) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(Low) , and CD11b(+) CD103(-) PD-L1(Int...
April 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419443/loss-of-natural-killer-t-nkt-cells-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-in-lsl-kras-g12d-mice
#2
Naveena B Janakiram, Altaf Mohammed, Taylor Bryant, Rebekah Ritchie, Nicole Stratton, Lydgia Jackson, Stan Lightfoot, Doris M Benbrook, Adam Asch, Mark L Lang, Chinthalapally V Rao
Role of unique T cell population, Natural Killer T (NKT) cells which have similar functions like NK cells in PC is not yet evaluated. In order to address the regulatory roles of NKT cells on tumor progression through tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and their production of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in (Kras)-driven pancreatic tumor (KPT) progression, we crossed CD1d(-/-) mice deficient in both iNKT and vNKT cells with the Kras(G12D) mice. Loss of NKT cells significantly increased pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions [PanINs] and also increased 5-LOX and mPGES-1 expressions in M2 type macrophages and cancer stem like cells in pancreatic tumors...
April 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419492/expression-and-trafficking-of-mhc-related-protein-1-mr1
#3
REVIEW
R Lamichhane, J E Ussher
MHC related protein 1 (MR1) is a non-polymorphic MHC class IB antigen presenting molecule that is the restricting molecule for mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a prominent population of innate-like antibacterial T cells. The MAIT cell-MR1 axis represents a new paradigm in antigen presentation, with the MR1 ligand derived from vitamin B compounds or their metabolic precursors. Many bacteria and some fungi produce the activating ligand for MR1. In evolution, MR1 is highly conserved in most, but not all, mammals...
April 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419468/activation-of-the-akt-creb-signaling-axis-by-a-proline-rich-heptapeptide-confers-resistance-to-stress-induced-cell-death-and-inflammation
#4
Johannes Herkel, Jörg Schrader, Neta Erez, Ansgar W Lohse, Irun R Cohen
Cell stress of various kinds can lead to the induction of cell death and a damaging inflammatory response. Hence, a goal of therapeutic cell-stress management is to develop agents that might effectively regulate undesirable cell death and inflammation. To that end, we developed a synthetic peptide of 7 amino acids based on structural mimicry to a functional domain of p53, a key factor in the responses of cells to stressful stimuli. This heptapeptide, which we term Stressin-1, was found to inhibit both cell death and the secretion of inflammatory mediators by various cell types in response to different stressful agents in vitro...
April 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398593/ccr5-expression-haplotype-and-immune-activation-in-protection-from-infection-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-individuals-in-hiv-serodiscordant-relationships
#5
Shameem Z Jaumdally, Anabela Picton, Caroline T Tiemessen, Maria Paximadis, Heather B Jaspan, Hoyam Gamieldien, Lindi Masson, David Coetzee, Anna-Lise Williamson, Francesca Little, Pamela P Gumbi, Jo-Ann S Passmore
BACKGROUND: Several host factors have been implicated in resistance to HIV infection in individuals who remain HIV-seronegative despite exposure. In a cohort of HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, we investigated interactions between systemic inflammation and T-cell activation in resistance to HIV infection. METHODS: Males and females in stable long-term relationships with either HIV-infected or uninfected partners were recruited, blood T-cell activation (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5 and Ki67) and plasma cytokine concentrations were evaluated...
April 11, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380665/fcn-a-2-acting-as-a-new-regulator-of-macrophage-polarization-mediates-the-inflammatory-response-in-experimental-mouse-colitis
#6
Yi-Fei Yang, Yi-Dan Zhou, Jia-Chen Hu, Feng-Ling Luo, Yan Xie, Yan-Ying Shen, Wen-Xiu Bian, Zhi-Nan Yin, Hong-Liang Li, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Human ficolin-2 (FCN-2) and mouse ficolin-A (FCN-A, a ficolin-2-like molecule in mouse) are activators of the lectin complement pathway, present in normal plasma and usually associated with infectious diseases, but little is known about the role of FCN-A/2 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In our present study, we found that IBD patients exhibited much higher serum FCN-2 levels than healthy controls. In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model, FCN-A knockout mice showed much milder disease symptoms with less histological damage, lower expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), chemokines (CXCL1/2/10 and CCL4) and higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 compared to WT mice...
April 5, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375554/inflammatory-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-at-the-extremes-of-age
#7
Jacqueline U McDonald, Ziyun Zhong, Helen T Groves, John S Tregoning
Age affects the immune response to vaccination, with individuals at the extremes of age responding poorly. The initial inflammatory response to antigenic materials shapes the subsequent adaptive response and so understanding is required about the effect of age on the profile of acute inflammatory mediators. In this study we measured the local and systemic inflammatory response after influenza vaccination or infection in neonatal, young adult and aged mice. Mice were immunised intramuscularly with inactivated influenza vaccine with and without the adjuvant MF59 and then challenged with H1N1 influenza...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375551/phenotypic-characterization-of-regulatory-t-cells-from-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-infected-people
#8
Georgia N Ambada, Claudine E Ntsama, Nadesh N Nji, Loveline N Ngu, Sake N Carole, Abel Lissom, Flaurent T Tchouangeu, Jules Tchadji, Martin Sosso, François-Xavier Etoa, Godwin W Nchinda
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in dampening excessive immune activation. However antiretroviral (ARV) naive HIV-1 infection maintains the immune system in a sustained state of activation that could alter both Tregs surface markers and functions. Since Tregs surface markers are directly linked to their functions the overall objective of this study was to determine how ARV naïve HIV infection affects the phenotypic properties of Tregs. Our data showed that in ARV naive HIV-1 infection, Tregs are dominated by effector (CD45RA(+) CD27(-) CCR7(-) CD62L(-) ) and effector memory (CD45RA(-) CD27(-) CCR7(-) CD62L(-) ) cells...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375544/aging-related-atg5-defect-impairs-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-formation
#9
Fengying Xu, Chengmi Zhang, Zui Zou, Erica Ky Fan, Linsong Chen, Yuehua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Xueyin Shi, Jie Fan
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation is an important function of the innate immune system against infections. It has been proven that aging dysregulates immunity and impairs neutrophil function. However, the influence of aging on the ability to produce NETs has yet to be fully addressed. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a lower level of autophagy in neutrophils from aged mice was responsible for the decrease in NETs formation. We demonstrated that a broad range of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands could efficiently induce a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent NETs release in young mice, but not in aged ones...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375543/cd8-t-cell-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-and-the-pd-1-pathway
#10
REVIEW
Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster
The primary function of the immune system is to protect the host from infectious microorganisms and cancers. However, a major component of the immune response involves the direct elimination of cells in the body and the induction of systemic inflammation, which may result in life-threatening immunopathology. Therefore, the immune system has developed complex mechanisms to regulate itself with a specialized subset of CD4 T lymphocytes (referred to as Tregs) and immune checkpoint pathways, such as the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369800/ageing-adversely-affects-the-migration-and-function-of-marginal-zone-b-cells
#11
Vivian M Turner, Neil A Mabbott
Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are positioned within the spleen to capture blood-borne Ag and immune complexes and deliver them to follicular dendritic cells in the B cell follicles. We show that within the spleens of aged mice antigen (Ag) capture by MZ B cells, and their ability to shuttle between the follicle and MZ were impaired. The ability of aged MZ B cells to migrate towards the MZ chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate was increased, suggesting that aged MZ B cells had a greater propensity to be retained within the MZ...
April 2, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342268/the-susceptible-hla-class-ii-alleles-and-their-presenting-epitope-s-in-goodpasture-s-disease
#12
Li-Jun Xie, Zhao Cui, Fang-Jin Chen, Zhi-Yong Pei, Shui-Yi Hu, Qiu-Hua Gu, Xiao-Yu Jia, Li Zhu, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang, Yun-Hua Liao, Lu-Hua Lai, Billy G Hudson, Ming-Hui Zhao
Goodpasture's disease is closely associated with HLA, particularly DRB1*1501. Other susceptible or protective HLA alleles are not clearly elucidated. The presentation models of epitopes by susceptible HLA alleles are also unclear. We genotyped 140 Chinese patients and 599 controls for 4 digits HLA II genes, and extracted the encoding sequences from IMGT/HLA database. T cell epitopes of α3(IV)NC1 were predicted and the structures of DR molecule-peptide-TCR were constructed. We confirmed DRB1*1501 (OR=4.6, P=5...
March 25, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342224/interleukin-18-activates-vg9vd2-t-cells-from-hiv-individuals-recovering-the-response-to-phosphoantigen
#13
Alanna S Murday, Suchita Chaudhry, C David Pauza
OBJECTIVE: Identify an immunoregulatory factor that restores the phosphoantigen response of Vg9Vd2+ T cells from HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Characterize the effects of IL-18 on proliferation and effector function in Vg9Vd2 T cells from HIV-negative individuals. Test whether exogenous IL-18 reconstitutes the Vg9Vd2 T cell response to phosphoantigen from HIV-positive donors. METHODS: The Vg9Vd2 T cells from HIV-negative individuals respond strongly to phosphoantigen or aminobisphosphonate stimulation of PBMC, while cells with similar T cell receptor profiles from HIV+ individuals only respond to aminobisphosphonate...
March 25, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295248/t-regulatory-cells-are-critical-for-the-maintenance-anamnestic-expansion-and-protection-elicited-by-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cells
#14
Mitra Bhattacharyya, Pablo Penaloza MacMaster
T regulatory cells (Tregs) are critical for preventing autoimmunity and suppressing immune responses during cancer and chronic infection. However, the role of Tregs in the generation of vaccine-induced immune memory remains ill-defined. Using the mouse model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, we demonstrate that transient absence of Tregs during effector to memory CD8 T cell transition results in a permanent impairment in the maintenance, function, and recall capacity of CD8 T cells. Memory CD8 T cells in mice that were transiently depleted of Tregs exhibited defective upregulation of memory markers with a significant decrease in polyfunctionality...
March 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295241/indirect-effects-of-immunological-tolerance-to-a-regular-dietary-protein-reduce-cutaneous-scar-formation
#15
Thiago Anselmo Cantaruti, Raquel Alves Costa, Kênia Soares de Souza, Nelson Monteiro Vaz, Cláudia Rocha Carvalho
Oral tolerance refers to the specific inhibition of immune responsiveness to T-cell dependent antigens contacted by the oral route before parenteral immunization. Oral tolerance to one protein does not inhibit immune responses to other unrelated proteins, but parenteral injection of tolerated antigens plus adjuvant into tolerant, but not normal mice inhibits immune responses to antigens injected concomitantly or soon thereafter. The inhibitory effect triggered by parenteral injection of tolerated proteins is known as bystander suppression or indirect effects of oral tolerance...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294313/suppression-of-murine-tumour-growth-through-cd8-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-via-activated-dec-205-dendritic-cells-by-sequential-administration-of-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-in-vivo
#16
Hideki Kogo, Masumi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Negishi, Eiji Uchida, Hidemi Takahashi
Cancer immunity is mediated through the effective priming and activation of tumour-specific class I MHC molecule-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). DEC-205(+) dendritic cells (DCs) can cross-present the epitope(s) of captured tumour antigens associated with class I MHC molecules alongside co-stimulatory molecules to prime and activate tumour-specific CD8(+) CTLs. Immunosuppressive tolerogenic DCs with reduced co-stimulatory molecules may be a cause of impaired CTL induction. Hepa1-6-1 cells were established from the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1-6; these cells grow continuously after subcutaneous implantation into syngeneic C57BL/6 (B6) mice and do not prime CD8(+) CTLs...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267881/distinctive-role-of-efferocytosis-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-migration-in-sterile-or-infectious-conditions
#17
Letícia de Aquino Penteado, Naiara Naiana Dejani, Felipe Fortino Verdan, Allan Botinhon Orlando, Victoria Ninõ, Fernanda De Nuzzi Dias, Ana Carolina Guerta Salina, Alexandra Ivo Medeiros
Efferocytosis, or clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), by dendritic cells (DCs) leads to immune response suppression and tolerance to self-antigens. However, efferocytosis of infected cells (IACs) leads to the production of a mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. We examined the DC phenotype and ability to migrate after phagocytosis of ACs or IACs and observed higher levels of CD86 and CCR7 expression in DCs, as well as enhanced migration capacity following efferocytosis of infected cells. Interestingly, higher levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and PGE2 were also produced in this context...
March 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#18
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211040/anti-cd3-treatment-up-regulates-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-expression-on-activated-effector-t-cells-and-severely-impairs-their-inflammatory-capacity
#19
Maja Wallberg, Asha Recino, Jenny Phillips, Duncan Howie, Margaux Vienne, Christopher Paluch, Miyuki Azuma, F Susan Wong, Herman Waldmann, Anne Cooke
T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, and targeting the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor complex provides one therapeutic approach. Anti-CD3 treatment can reverse overt disease in spontaneously diabetic non-obese diabetic mice, an effect proposed to, at least in part, be caused by a selective depletion of pathogenic cells. We have used a transfer model to further investigate the effects of anti-CD3 treatment on green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) islet-specific effector T cells in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207945/cd4-%C3%A2-cd25-%C3%A2-garp-regulatory-t-cells-display-a-compromised-suppressive-function-in-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#20
Yuzhen Wei, Kunwu Yu, Hui Wei, Xin Su, Ruirui Zhu, Huairui Shi, Haitao Sun, Quan Luo, Wenbin Xu, Junhui Xiao, Yucheng Zhong, Qiutang Zeng
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a lethal inflammatory heart disease and closely connected with dysfunction of the immune system. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells with suppressive activity has been established. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and function of circulating CD4(+)  CD25(+)  GARP(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in DCM. Forty-five DCM patients and 46 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in peripheral T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 number and their related cytokines [interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL-17)], and an obvious decrease in Treg number, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) levels and the expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and GARP in patients with DCM compared with controls...
February 16, 2017: Immunology
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