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Human Factors

Simon S W Li, Otto H T Chan, T Y Ng, L H Kam, C Y Ng, W C Chung, Daniel H K Chow
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in energy expenditure during walking with backpack and double-pack loads. BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that energy expenditure during walking with double-pack loads is lower compared with backpack carriage. However, the effect of gender on energy expenditure while walking with these two load distribution systems has not been investigated. METHOD: Thirty healthy young adults (15 female and 15 male participants) walked on a treadmill with backpack and double-pack loads weighing 30% of their body weight at a speed of 0...
September 14, 2018: Human Factors
Michael B Dillard, Joel S Warm, Gregory J Funke, W Todd Nelson, Victor S Finomore, Christopher K McClernon, F Thomas Eggemeier, Lloyd D Tripp, Matthew E Funke
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived time progression (PTP) moderates participants' negative reactions to vigilance tasks. BACKGROUND: Vigilance tasks are rated by participants to be unenjoyable and as having high levels of workload and stress. Based on the adage, "You are having fun when time flies," we tested the possibility that accelerating PTP might reduce these negative experiences. METHOD: Two studies were performed, involving a long 30-min and a short 12-min vigil...
September 14, 2018: Human Factors
Patrick P Weis, Eva Wiese
OBJECTIVE: A distributed cognitive system is a system in which cognitive processes are distributed between brain-based internal and environment-based external resources. In the current experiment, we examined the influence of metacognitive processes on external resource use (i.e., cognitive offloading) in such systems. BACKGROUND: High-tech working environments oftentimes represent distributed cognitive systems. Because cognitive offloading can both support and harm performance, depending on the specific circumstances, it is essential to understand when and why people offload their cognition...
August 31, 2018: Human Factors
Natalie R Lodinger, Patricia R DeLucia
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether top-view and side-view camera angles, which putatively impose different cognitive demands, differentially affect the resumption lag in a visual-motor task relevant to laparoscopic surgery. BACKGROUND: Prior research showed that the time to resume a primary task after performing an interrupting task (resumption lag) increases with increases in the subjective workload of the primary task. Camera views used in laparoscopic surgery provide different views of the anatomy and have different cognitive costs and associated levels of workload...
August 27, 2018: Human Factors
Alison C McDonald, Daanish M Mulla, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: The authors developed a function to quantify fatigue in multiple shoulder muscles by generating a single score using relative changes in EMG amplitude and frequency over time. BACKGROUND: Evaluating both frequency and amplitude components of the electromyographic signal provides a more complete evaluation of muscle fatigue than either variable alone; however, little effort has been made to combine time and frequency domains for the evaluation of myoelectric fatigue...
August 24, 2018: Human Factors
S Camille Peres, William D Johnson, Sarah E Thomas, Paul Ritchey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of native language-native (L1) versus nonnative (L2)-on procedure performance. BACKGROUND: Written procedures are used by global industries to facilitate accurate and safe performance of hazardous tasks. Often companies require that all employees be sufficiently literate in English and to use only English versions. METHOD: Industrial tasks were tested using a virtual reality industrial environment (Second Life® ) to explore effects on procedural performance and safety statement adherence...
August 24, 2018: Human Factors
Xingyu Chen, Xingda Qu
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we aimed to investigate the relationships between lower-limb joint proprioception and postural balance. Age-related differences in such relationships were also identified. BACKGROUND: Impaired postural balance is reportedly one of the most common risk factors for fall accidents. Interventions have been proposed to improve postural balance by enhancing proprioceptive feedback. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal design for these interventions; therefore, there is a need to better reveal the contributions of lower-limb joint proprioception to postural balance...
August 21, 2018: Human Factors
Daniel N Cassenti, Heather Roy, Sue E Kase
OBJECTIVE: Intelligence analysis is a necessary operation for organizations engaged in adversarial decision making in military, criminal justice, and civil spheres. In particular, we focus on studying the sentiment of actors in a military-relevant decision-making task and how information pertaining to these actors is presented. BACKGROUND: Two intelligence analysis systems were created to represent sentiment data. METHOD: These systems and another with the raw information (i...
August 21, 2018: Human Factors
Erik G Prytz, Caroline Norén, Carl-Oscar Jonson
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether expert-novice differences in visual search behavior found in other domains also apply to accident scenes and the emergency response domain. BACKGROUND: Emergency service professionals typically arrive at accidents only after being dispatched when a civilian witness has called an emergency dispatch number. Differences in visual search behavior between the civilian witness (usually a novice in terms of emergency response) and the professional first responders (experts at emergency response) could thus result in the experts being given insufficient or erroneous information, which would lead them to arrive unprepared for the actual situation...
August 13, 2018: Human Factors
Trent W Victor, Emma Tivesten, Pär Gustavsson, Joel Johansson, Fredrik Sangberg, Mikael Ljung Aust
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand how to secure driver supervision engagement and conflict intervention performance while using highly reliable (but not perfect) automation. BACKGROUND: Securing driver engagement-by mitigating irony of automation (i.e., the better the automation, the less attention drivers will pay to traffic and the system, and the less capable they will be to resume control) and by communicating system limitations to avoid mental model misconceptions-is a major challenge in the human factors literature...
August 10, 2018: Human Factors
Runyu L Greene, Yu Hen Hu, Nicholas Difranco, Xuan Wang, Ming-Lun Lu, Stephen Bao, Jia-Hua Lin, Robert G Radwin
OBJECTIVE: A method for automatically classifying lifting postures from simple features in video recordings was developed and tested. We explored if an "elastic" rectangular bounding box, drawn tightly around the subject, can be used for classifying standing, stooping, and squatting at the lift origin and destination. BACKGROUND: Current marker-less video tracking methods depend on a priori skeletal human models, which are prone to error from poor illumination, obstructions, and difficulty placing cameras in the field...
August 9, 2018: Human Factors
Songil Lee, Gyouhyung Kyung, Jihhyeon Yi, Donghee Choi, Sungryul Park, Byeonghwa Choi, Seungbae Lee
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to identify ergonomic smartphone forms by investigating the effects of hand length, four major smartphone dimensions (height, width, thickness, and edge roundness), and smartphone mass on grip comfort and design attractiveness. BACKGROUND: Despite their potential effect on grip comfort and design attractiveness, the dimensions specified above have never been simultaneously considered in a study investigating smartphone gripping. METHOD: Seventy-two young individuals participated in a three-stage study...
August 7, 2018: Human Factors
Zhenlong Li, Xuewei Li, Xiaohua Zhao, Qingzhou Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to explore the detailed characteristics of steering behavior in curve driving at different alcohol dosages. BACKGROUND: Improper operation of the steering wheel is a contributing factor to increased crash risks on curves. METHOD: The experiments were conducted using a driving simulator. Twenty-five licensed drivers were recruited to perform the experiments at the four different breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels...
August 7, 2018: Human Factors
Suman K Chowdhury, Ryan M Byrne, Yu Zhou, Xudong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the lumbar facet joint kinematics in vivo during dynamic lifting and the effects of the load lifted. BACKGROUND: Although extensive efforts have been dedicated to investigating the risk factors of low back pain (LBP) associated with load handling in the workplace, the biomechanics of lumbar facet joints during such activities is not well understood. METHOD: Fourteen healthy participants performed a load-lifting task while a dynamic stereo-radiography system captured their lumbar motion continuously...
August 3, 2018: Human Factors
Victoria L Claypoole, Daryn A Dever, Kody L Denues, James L Szlama
OBJECTIVE: The present experiment sought to examine the effects of event rate on a cognitive vigilance task. BACKGROUND: Vigilance, or the ability to sustain attention, is an integral component of human factors research. Vigilance task difficulty has previously been manipulated through increasing event rate. However, most research in this paradigm has utilized a sensory-based task, whereas little work has focused on these effects in relation to a cognitive-based task...
August 2, 2018: Human Factors
Christoph von Castell, Heiko Hecht, Daniel Oberfeld
OBJECTIVE: We investigate effects of the hue, saturation, and luminance of ceiling color on the perceived height of interior spaces. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that the perceived height of an interior space is influenced by the luminance of the ceiling, but not by the luminance contrast between ceiling and walls: brighter ceilings appeared higher than darker ceilings, irrespective of wall and floor luminance. However, these studies used solely achromatic colors...
August 1, 2018: Human Factors
Samuel J Levulis, Patricia R DeLucia, So Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three interface input methods for a simulated manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T) supervisory control system designed for Air Mission Commanders (AMCs) in Black Hawk helicopters. BACKGROUND: A key component of the U.S. Army's vision for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is to integrate UAVs into manned missions, called MUM-T (Department of Defense, 2010). One application of MUM-T is to provide the AMC of a team of Black Hawk helicopters control of multiple UAVs, offering advanced reconnaissance and real-time intelligence of flight routes and landing zones...
July 31, 2018: Human Factors
Jaclyn Martin, Chad Dubé, Michael D Coovert
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of equal-variance signal detection theory (EVSDT) for evaluating and understanding human detection of phishing and spear-phishing e-mail scams. BACKGROUND: Although the majority of cybersecurity breaches are due to erroneous responses to deceptive phishing e-mails, it is unclear how best to quantify performance in this context. In particular, it is unclear whether equal variances can safely be assumed in the SDT model, or, relatedly, whether degree of targeting, or threat level, primarily affects mean separation or evidence variability...
July 31, 2018: Human Factors
Sean Gallagher, Mark C Schall, Richard F Sesek, Rong Huangfu
OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal tissues repeatedly loaded in vitro fail in accordance with material fatigue failure theory, and there is evidence to suggest that the same process occurs in vivo. The current paper presents a new upper extremity risk assessment tool, the Distal Upper Extremity Tool (DUET), predicated on material fatigue failure theory. METHODS: DUET requires an estimate of force exertion level and the number of repetitions performed to derive estimates of damage and probabilities of experiencing a distal upper extremity outcome...
July 31, 2018: Human Factors
Youngbo Suh, Thomas K Ferris
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of in-vehicle interface characteristics on drivers' multitasking performance measures relating to visual attention management, concerning the distraction potential of in-vehicle touchscreens. BACKGROUND: Compared with physical controls providing drivers with naturalistic nonvisual cues, in-vehicle touchscreen interaction relies on vision to a greater extent, leading to more time with eyes off the road and concerns for safety...
July 30, 2018: Human Factors
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