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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636838/searching-for-affective-and-cognitive-restoration-examining-the-restorative-effects-of-casual-video-game-play
#1
Michael A Rupp, Richard Sweetman, Alejandra E Sosa, Janan A Smither, Daniel S McConnell
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. METHOD: Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628750/ergonomic-benefits-from-a-laparoscopic-instrument-with-rotatable-handle-piece-depend-on-the-area-of-the-operating-field-and-working-height
#2
Benjamin Steinhilber, Florian Reiff, Robert Seibt, Monika A Rieger, Peter Martus, Bernhard Kraemer, Ralf Rothmund
Objective To evaluate the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a 360° rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on biomechanical stress and precision in different areas of a simulated operating field at two working heights. Background Surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures are exposed to biomechanical stress and have an increased risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Method Fifty-seven healthy subjects (27 men, median age 26) without experience in laparoscopy performed a precision task in four quadrants (A-D) of the operating field using the rot-HP or a common fixed handle piece (fixed-HP) at an individually adjusted lower or higher working height...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609643/training-techniques-for-visual-search-in-complex-task-environments
#3
Svyatoslav Guznov, Gerald Matthews, Joel S Warm, Marc Pfahler
OBJECTIVE: The goal for this study was to evaluate several visual search training techniques in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) simulated task environment. BACKGROUND: Operators controlling remote unmanned vehicles often must perform complex visual search tasks (e.g., target search). These tasks may pose substantial demands on the operator due to various environmental factors. Visual search training may reduce errors and mitigate stress, but the most effective form of training has not been determined...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605604/upper-extremity-muscle-activity-during-in-phase-and-anti-phase-continuous-pushing-tasks
#4
Kristina M Gruevski, Joanne N Hodder, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of anti-phase, in-phase bimanual and unimanual simulated industrial pushing tasks and frequency on upper extremity muscle activity. BACKGROUND: Research investigating symmetrical (in-phase) and asymmetrical (anti-phase) pushing exertions is limited despite a high prevalence in industry. METHODS: Fifteen female participants completed five pushing tasks using a dual handle apparatus at three frequencies: 15 cycles per minute (cpm), 30 cpm, and self-selected...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581353/four-night-shifts-have-a-degree-of-performance-adaptation
#5
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVE: In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. METHOD: The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574734/the-recognizability-and-localizability-of-auditory-alarms-setting-global-medical-device-standards
#6
Judy Edworthy, Scott Reid, Siné McDougall, Jonathan Edworthy, Stephanie Hall, Danielle Bennett, James Khan, Ellen Pye
Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more recognizable and localizable than those currently specified in the standard. Background The audible alarms associated with IEC 60601-1-8, a global medical device standard, are known to be difficult to learn and retain, and there have been many calls to update them. There are known principles of design and cognition that might form the basis of more readily recognizable alarms...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570832/spearcons-for-patient-monitoring-laboratory-investigation-comparing-earcons-and-spearcons
#7
Simon Y W Li, Tsz-Lok Tang, Anna Hickling, Szeyuen Yau, Birgit Brecknell, Penelope M Sanderson
Objective We compared the effectiveness of single-tone earcons versus spearcons in conveying information about two commonly monitored vital signs: oxygen saturation and heart rate. Background The uninformative nature of many medical alarms-and clinicians' lack of response to alarms-is a widespread problem that can compromise patient safety. Auditory displays, such as earcons and spearcons (speech-based earcons), may help clinicians maintain awareness of patients' well-being and reduce their reliance on alarms...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#8
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510495/fatigue-in-younger-and-older-drivers-effectiveness-of-an-alertness-maintaining-task
#9
Woojin Song, Fu L Woon, Alice Doong, Carol Persad, Louis Tijerina, Pooja Pandit, Carol Cline, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. BACKGROUND: Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486092/evaluating-the-ergonomic-benefit-of-a-wrist-brace-on-wrist-posture-muscle-activity-rotational-stiffness-and-peak-shovel-ground-impact-force-during-a-simulated-tree-planting-task
#10
Peter J Sheahan, Joshua G A Cashaback, Steven L Fischer
Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467134/implementing-recommendations-from-web-accessibility-guidelines-a-comparative-study-of-nondisabled-users-and-users-with-visual-impairments
#11
Sven Schmutz, Andreas Sonderegger, Juergen Sauer
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether implementing recommendations of Web accessibility guidelines would have different effects on nondisabled users than on users with visual impairments. BACKGROUND: The predominant approach for making Web sites accessible for users with disabilities is to apply accessibility guidelines. However, it has been hardly examined whether this approach has side effects for nondisabled users. A comparison of the effects on both user groups would contribute to a better understanding of possible advantages and drawbacks of applying accessibility guidelines...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394626/decision-making-on-the-labor-and-delivery-unit-an-investigation-of-influencing-factors
#12
Megan E Gregory, Shirley C Sonesh, Jennifer Feitosa, Lauren E Benishek, Ashley M Hughes, Eduardo Salas
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1)...
April 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541739/visualization-of-large-scale-narrative-data-describing-human-error
#13
William J Irwin, Saul D Robinson, Stephen M Belt
Objective Introduced is a visual data exploration technique for compiling, reducing, organizing, visually rendering, and filtering text-based narratives for detailed analysis. Background The analysis of data sets provides an increasingly difficult problem. The method of visual representation is considered an effective tool in many applications. The focus of this study was to determine if a latent semantic analysis-based projection of narrative data into a geographic information systems software program provided a useful tool for reducing and organizing large sums of narrative data for analysis...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192675/sentinels-of-breach-lexical-choice-as-a-measure-of-urgency-in-social-media
#14
Andrew J Hampton, Valerie L Shalin
Objective This paper identifies general properties of language style in social media to help identify areas of need in disasters. Background In the search for metrics of need in social media data, much of the existing literature ignores processes of language usage. Psychological concepts, such as narrative breach, Gricean maxims, and lexical marking in cognition, may assist the recovery of disaster-relevant metrics from altered patterns of word prevalence. Method We analyzed several hundred thousand location-specific microblogs from Twitter for Hurricane Sandy, Oklahoma tornadoes, and the Boston Marathon bombing along with a fantasy football control corpus, examining the relative frequency of words in 36 antonym pairs...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy-a-systematic-review-of-health-research-and-evidence-based-design-heuristics
#15
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186420/driving-while-interacting-with-google-glass-investigating-the-combined-effect-of-head-up-display-and-hands-free-input-on-driving-safety-and-multitask-performance
#16
Kathryn G Tippey, Elayaraj Sivaraj, Thomas K Ferris
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the individual and combined effects of voice (vs. manual) input and head-up (vs. head-down) display in a driving and device interaction task. BACKGROUND: Advances in wearable technology offer new possibilities for in-vehicle interaction but also present new challenges for managing driver attention and regulating device usage in vehicles. This research investigated how driving performance is affected by interface characteristics of devices used for concurrent secondary tasks...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134573/measuring-resilience
#17
Robert R Hoffman, P A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: As human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) moves to embrace a greater systems perspective concerning human-machine technologies, new and emergent properties, such as resilience, have arisen. Our objective here is to promote discussion as to how to measure this latter, complex phenomenon. BACKGROUND: Resilience is now a much-referenced goal for technology and work system design. It subsumes the new movement of resilience engineering. As part of a broader systems approach to HF/E, this concept requires both a definitive specification and an associated measurement methodology...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128985/effects-of-nested-interruptions-on-task-resumption-a-laboratory-study-with-intensive-care-nurses
#18
Farzan Sasangohar, Birsen Donmez, Anthony C Easty, Patricia L Trbovich
OBJECTIVE: Interruptions to secondary tasks resulting in multiple tasks to resume may tax working memory. The objective of this research is to study such interruptions experienced by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. BACKGROUND: ICU nurses are frequently interrupted, resulting in a switch from primary to secondary tasks. In two recent studies, we observed that some of these secondary tasks also get interrupted, resulting in multiple tasks that have to be resumed, a phenomenon we refer to as nested interruptions...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124573/takeover-time-in-highly-automated-vehicles-noncritical-transitions-to-and-from-manual-control
#19
Alexander Eriksson, Neville A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review existing research into driver control transitions and to determine the time it takes drivers to resume control from a highly automated vehicle in noncritical scenarios. BACKGROUND: Contemporary research has moved from an inclusive design approach to adhering only to mean/median values when designing control transitions in automated driving. Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control...
June 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112562/determination-of-orientation-and-practice-requirements-when-using-an-obstacle-course-for-mobility-performance-assessment
#20
Thomas Karakolis, Brittany A Sinclair, Alison Kelly, Phil Terhaar, Linda L M Bossi
OBJECTIVE: Determine effect of orientation (introduction and familiarization) and practice (repeated performance) on human performance under various load conditions as assessed by an obstacle course. BACKGROUND: Obstacle courses are commonly used as screening tools by military, police, and firefighters or to assess human capabilities and the effect of wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and other occupationally necessary equipment on mobility task performance...
June 2017: Human Factors
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