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Human Factors

Nicholas Hertz, Eva Wiese
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate whether nonhuman agents, such as computers or robots, produce a social conformity effect in human operators and examine to what extent potential conformist behavior varies as a function of the human-likeness of the group members and the type of task that has to be performed. BACKGROUND: People conform due to normative and/or informational motivations in human-human interactions, and conformist behavior is modulated by factors related to the individual as well as factors associated with the group, context, and culture...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
Richelle Baker, Pieter Coenen, Erin Howie, Jeremy Lee, Ann Williamson, Leon Straker
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether use of a movement intervention when undertaking prolonged standing affected discomfort and cognitive function. BACKGROUND: Alternate work positions to break up prolonged sitting for office workers are being trialed, such as standing. Prolonged standing has potential negative health implications, including low back and lower limb discomfort, and may influence cognitive function. Introducing movement during standing may provide a healthy and productive alternative work posture...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
Noam Ben-Asher, Joachim Meyer
OBJECTIVE: We identify three risk-related behaviors in coping with cyber threats-the exposure to risk a person chooses, use of security features, and responses to security indications. The combinations of behaviors that users choose determine how well they cope with threats and the severity of adverse events they experience. BACKGROUND: End users' coping with risks is a major factor in cybersecurity. This behavior results from a combination of risk-related behaviors rather than from a single risk-taking tendency...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
Shayne Loft, Lisa Jooste, Yanqi Ryan Li, Timothy Ballard, Samuel Huf, Ottmar V Lipp, Troy A W Visser
OBJECTIVE: Examine the extent to which subjective workload and situation awareness (SA) can predict variance in performance at the between- and within-person levels of analysis in a simulated submarine track management task. BACKGROUND: SA and workload are crucial constructs in human factors that are conceptualized as states that change within individuals over time. Thus, a change in an individual's subjective workload or SA over the course of performing a task should be predictive of their subsequent performance (within-person effects)...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
Hongwei Hsiao, Joonho Chang, Peter Simeonov
OBJECTIVE: This study reports current status of knowledge and challenges associated with the emergency vehicle (police car, fire truck, and ambulance) crashes, with respect to the major contributing risk factors. BACKGROUND: Emergency vehicle crashes are a serious nationwide problem, causing injury and death to emergency responders and citizens. Understanding the underlying causes of these crashes is critical for establishing effective strategies for reducing the occurrence of similar incidents...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
Sean W Kortschot, Dusan Sovilj, Greg A Jamieson, Scott Sanner, Chelsea Carrasco, Harold Soh
OBJECTIVE: The authors seek to characterize the behavioral costs of attentional switches between points in a network map and assess the efficacy of interventions intended to reduce those costs. BACKGROUND: Cybersecurity network operators are tasked with determining an appropriate attentional allocation scheme given the state of the network, which requires repeated attentional switches. These attentional switches may result in temporal performance decrements, during which operators disengage from one attentional fixation point and engage with another...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Dietlind Helene Cymek
BACKGROUND: In safety-critical and highly automated environments, more than one person typically monitors the system in order to increase reliability. OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether the anticipated advantage of redundant automation monitoring is lost due to social loafing and whether individual performance feedback can mitigate this effect. METHOD: In two experiments, participants worked on a multitasking paradigm in which one task was the monitoring and cross-checking of an automation...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
David Lyell, Farah Magrabi, Enrico Coiera
OBJECTIVE: Determine the relationship between cognitive load (CL) and automation bias (AB). BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support (CDS) for electronic prescribing can improve safety but introduces the risk of AB, where reliance on CDS replaces vigilance in information seeking and processing. We hypothesized high CL generated by high task complexity would increase AB errors. METHOD: One hundred twenty medical students prescribed medicines for clinical scenarios using a simulated e-prescribing system in a randomized controlled experiment...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Fouaz S Ayachi, Jean-Marc Drouet, Yvan Champoux, Catherine Guastavino
OBJECTIVES: In this article, we seek to determine how sensitive road cyclists are to vertical vibration transmitted while riding a road bicycle and to propose metrics for the evaluation of dynamic comfort. BACKGROUND: Road cyclists are exposed to random-type excitation due to road roughness. Vibration transmitted affects dynamic comfort. But how sensitive are cyclists to vibration level? What are the best metrics to measure the amount of vibration transmitted to cyclists? Previous studies used sinusoidal excitation with participants on rigid seats and measured acceleration...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Pooya Rahimian, Elizabeth E O'Neal, Shiwen Zhou, Jodie M Plumert, Joseph K Kearney
OBJECTIVE: We examined how sending mobile-device warnings to texting pedestrians when they initiate an unsafe road crossing influences their decisions and actions. BACKGROUND: Pedestrian texting has been identified as a key risk factor in pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Advances in sensing and communications technology offer the possibility of providing pedestrians with information about traffic conditions to assist them in safely crossing traffic-filled roadways...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Annemarie Landman, Peter van Oorschot, M M René van Paassen, Eric L Groen, Adelbert W Bronkhorst, Max Mulder
OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether simulator-based training of pilot responses to unexpected or novel events can be improved by including unpredictability and variability in training scenarios. BACKGROUND: Current regulations allow for highly predictable and invariable training, which may not be sufficient to prepare pilots for unexpected or novel situations in-flight. Training for surprise will become mandatory in the near future. METHOD: Using an aircraft model largely unfamiliar to the participants, one group of 10 pilots (the unpredictable and variable [U/V] group) practiced responses to controllability issues in a relatively U/V manner...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Katherina A Jurewicz, David M Neyens, Ken Catchpole, Scott T Reeves
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to compare gesture-function mappings for experts and novices using a 3D, vision-based, gestural input system when exposed to the same context of anesthesia tasks in the operating room (OR). BACKGROUND: 3D, vision-based, gestural input systems can serve as a natural way to interact with computers and are potentially useful in sterile environments (e.g., ORs) to limit the spread of bacteria. Anesthesia providers' hands have been linked to bacterial transfer in the OR, but a gestural input system for anesthetic tasks has not been investigated...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Chloe Jade Robbins, Peter Chapman
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the behavior and visual attention of two groups of drivers with differing pedal cycling experience (pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists) towards vulnerable road users at junctions in a driving simulator. BACKGROUND: Pedal cyclists and motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Many studies have found that car drivers who also hold a motorcycle license have increased awareness towards motorcycles...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Jeffrey B Bolkhovsky, Michael Qin, Ki H Chon
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine if indices of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), derived from the electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrocardiogram (ECG), could be used to detect deterioration in human cognitive performance on healthy participants during 24-hour sleep deprivation. BACKGROUND: The ANS is highly sensitive to sleep deprivation. METHODS: Twenty-five participants performed a desktop-computer-based version of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) every 2 hours...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Ronald H Stevens, Trysha L Galloway, Ann Willemsen-Dunlap
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use the same quantitative measure and scale to directly compare the neurodynamic information/organizations of individual team members with those of the team. BACKGROUND: Team processes are difficult to separate from those of individual team members due to the lack of quantitative measures that can be applied to both process sets. METHOD: Second-by-second symbolic representations were created of each team member's electroencephalographic power, and quantitative estimates of their neurodynamic organizations were calculated from the Shannon entropy of the symbolic data streams...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Ignacio Solís-Marcos, Christer Ahlström, Katja Kircher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of prior experience with Level 2 automation on additional task performance during manual and Level 2 partially automated driving. BACKGROUND: Level 2 automation is now on the market, but its effects on driver behavior remain unclear. Based on previous studies, we could expect an increase in drivers' engagement in secondary tasks during Level 2 automated driving, but it is yet unknown how drivers will integrate all the ongoing demands in such situations...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
Wim van Winsum
OBJECTIVE: The independent effects of cognitive and visual load on visual Detection Response Task (vDRT) reaction times were studied in a driving simulator by performing a backwards counting task and a simple driving task that required continuous focused visual attention to the forward view of the road. The study aimed to unravel the attentional processes underlying the Detection Response Task effects. BACKGROUND: The claim of previous studies that performance degradation on the vDRT is due to a general interference instead of visual tunneling was challenged in this experiment...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
Kevin B Bennett, Adam Bryant, Christen Sushereba
OBJECTIVE: A prototype ecological interface for computer network defense (CND) was developed. BACKGROUND: Concerns about CND run high. Although there is a vast literature on CND, there is some indication that this research is not being translated into operational contexts. Part of the reason may be that CND has historically been treated as a strictly technical problem, rather than as a socio-technical problem. METHODS: The cognitive systems engineering (CSE)/ecological interface design (EID) framework was used in the analysis and design of the prototype interface...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
Meghan Leaver, Alex Griffiths, Tom Reader
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether near-miss incidents in financial trading contain information on the operator skills and systems that detect and prevent near misses and the patterns and trends revealed by these data and (b) to explore if particular operator skills and systems are found as important for avoiding particular types of error on the trading floor. BACKGROUND: In this study, we examine a cohort of near-miss incidents collected from a financial trading organization using the Financial Incident Analysis System and report on the nontechnical skills and systems that are used to detect and prevent error in this domain...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
Ben D Sawyer, Peter A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: This work assesses the efficacy of the "prevalence effect" as a form of cyberattack in human-automation teaming, using an email task. BACKGROUND: Under the prevalence effect, rare signals are more difficult to detect, even when taking into account their proportionally low occurrence. This decline represents diminished human capability to both detect and respond. As signal probability (SP) approaches zero, accuracy exhibits logarithmic decay...
August 2018: Human Factors
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