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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783375/errors-using-observational-methods-for-ergonomics-assessment-in-real-practice
#1
Jose-Antonio Diego-Mas, Jorge Alcaide-Marzal, Rocio Poveda-Bautista
OBJECTIVE: The degree in which practitioners use the observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risks assessment correctly was evaluated. BACKGROUND: Ergonomics assessment is a key issue for the prevention and reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in workplaces. Observational assessment methods appear to be better matched to the needs of practitioners than direct measurement methods, and for this reason, they are the most widely used techniques in real work situations...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777917/dealing-with-unexpected-events-on-the-flight-deck-a-conceptual-model-of-startle-and-surprise
#2
Annemarie Landman, Eric L Groen, M M René van Paassen, Adelbert W Bronkhorst, Max Mulder
OBJECTIVE: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. BACKGROUND: Today's debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots' ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771376/slant-perception-under-stereomicroscopy
#3
Samantha Horvath, Kori Macdonald, John Galeotti, Roberta L Klatzky
Objective These studies used threshold and slant-matching tasks to assess and quantitatively measure human perception of 3-D planar images viewed through a stereomicroscope. The results are intended for use in developing augmented-reality surgical aids. Background Substantial research demonstrates that slant perception is performed with high accuracy from monocular and binocular cues, but less research concerns the effects of magnification. Viewing through a microscope affects the utility of monocular and stereo slant cues, but its impact is as yet unknown...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#4
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704067/grip-type-alters-maximal-pinch-forces-in-syringe-use
#5
Victoria MacDonald, Katherine Wilson, Michael W L Sonne, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine maximum forces during syringe use for different grips found in the field. BACKGROUND: Prolonged syringe use in chemotherapy drug delivery is associated with pain and injury in nurses and technicians. METHOD: Twenty healthy female hospital workers generated isometric maximum voluntary force using a 30 cc syringe with four pinch grips (chuck, chuck variation, thenar, two-handed). Both dominant and nondominant hands were used with the syringe plunger fixed in wide (8...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658591/exploring-the-relationship-of-task-performance-and-physical-and-cognitive-fatigue-during-a-daylong-light-precision-task
#6
Marcus Yung, Rahim Manji, Richard P Wells
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the relationship between fatigue and operation system performance during a simulated light precision task over an 8-hr period using a battery of physical (central and peripheral) and cognitive measures. BACKGROUND: Fatigue may play an important role in the relationship between poor ergonomics and deficits in quality and productivity. However, well-controlled laboratory studies in this area have several limitations, including the lack of work relevance of fatigue exposures and lack of both physical and cognitive measures...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636838/searching-for-affective-and-cognitive-restoration-examining-the-restorative-effects-of-casual-video-game-play
#7
Michael A Rupp, Richard Sweetman, Alejandra E Sosa, Janan A Smither, Daniel S McConnell
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. METHOD: Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628750/ergonomic-benefits-from-a-laparoscopic-instrument-with-rotatable-handle-piece-depend-on-the-area-of-the-operating-field-and-working-height
#8
Benjamin Steinhilber, Florian Reiff, Robert Seibt, Monika A Rieger, Peter Martus, Bernhard Kraemer, Ralf Rothmund
Objective To evaluate the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a 360° rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on biomechanical stress and precision in different areas of a simulated operating field at two working heights. Background Surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures are exposed to biomechanical stress and have an increased risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Method Fifty-seven healthy subjects (27 men, median age 26) without experience in laparoscopy performed a precision task in four quadrants (A-D) of the operating field using the rot-HP or a common fixed handle piece (fixed-HP) at an individually adjusted lower or higher working height...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609643/training-techniques-for-visual-search-in-complex-task-environments
#9
Svyatoslav Guznov, Gerald Matthews, Joel S Warm, Marc Pfahler
OBJECTIVE: The goal for this study was to evaluate several visual search training techniques in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) simulated task environment. BACKGROUND: Operators controlling remote unmanned vehicles often must perform complex visual search tasks (e.g., target search). These tasks may pose substantial demands on the operator due to various environmental factors. Visual search training may reduce errors and mitigate stress, but the most effective form of training has not been determined...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605604/upper-extremity-muscle-activity-during-in-phase-and-anti-phase-continuous-pushing-tasks
#10
Kristina M Gruevski, Joanne N Hodder, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of anti-phase, in-phase bimanual and unimanual simulated industrial pushing tasks and frequency on upper extremity muscle activity. BACKGROUND: Research investigating symmetrical (in-phase) and asymmetrical (anti-phase) pushing exertions is limited despite a high prevalence in industry. METHODS: Fifteen female participants completed five pushing tasks using a dual handle apparatus at three frequencies: 15 cycles per minute (cpm), 30 cpm, and self-selected...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574734/the-recognizability-and-localizability-of-auditory-alarms-setting-global-medical-device-standards
#11
Judy Edworthy, Scott Reid, Siné McDougall, Jonathan Edworthy, Stephanie Hall, Danielle Bennett, James Khan, Ellen Pye
Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more recognizable and localizable than those currently specified in the standard. Background The audible alarms associated with IEC 60601-1-8, a global medical device standard, are known to be difficult to learn and retain, and there have been many calls to update them. There are known principles of design and cognition that might form the basis of more readily recognizable alarms...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796975/head-rotation-movement-times
#12
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan, P T Heung
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure head rotation movement times in a Fitts' paradigm and to investigate the transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements as the task index of difficulty (ID) increases. BACKGROUND: For head rotation, there are gaps in the knowledge of the effects of movement amplitude and task difficulty around the critical transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements. METHOD: Under the conditions of 11 ID values (from 1...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796974/benchmarking-aided-decision-making-in-a-signal-detection-task
#13
Megan L Bartlett, Jason S McCarley
OBJECTIVE: A series of experiments examined human operators' strategies for interacting with highly (93%) reliable automated decision aids in a binary signal detection task. BACKGROUND: Operators often interact with automated decision aids in a suboptimal way, achieving performance levels lower than predicted by a statistically ideal model of information integration. To better understand operators' inefficient use of decision aids, we compared participants' automation-aided performance levels with the predictions of seven statistical models of collaborative decision making...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796973/the-role-of-social-cue-utilization-and-closing-the-loop-communication-in-the-performance-of-ad-hoc-dyads
#14
Daniel J Yee, Mark W Wiggins, Ben J Searle
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether social cue utilization impacts the performance of ad hoc dyads through its relationship with closing the loop, a communication process whereby team members respond more frequently to initiating statements made by others. BACKGROUND: There lacks unequivocal experimental evidence for any single cognitive-based process that might predict the performance of ad hoc teams. METHOD: Using a quasi-experimental design, 80 participants were classified into 40 dyads based on their levels of social cue utilization and attempted a team problem-solving task...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796972/shooter-system-performance-variability-as-a-function-of-recoil-dynamics
#15
Frank Morelli, Jennifer M Neugebauer, Courtney A Haynes, Thomas C Fry, Samson V Ortega, Douglas J Struve, Michael E LaFiandra, Gabriella B Larkin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to quantify shooter performance relative to subtle variations in recoil energy. BACKGROUND: Marksmanship performance remains undefined for subtle distinctions in weapon recoil energy across common small-arms platforms. METHOD: Weapons were customized using multiple components and ammunition types. Firing scenarios were designed to examine the effect of recoil energy on shooter timing and accuracy. RESULTS: The results suggest that recoil condition does not affect timing during firing sequences designed to elicit differences in timed-fire performance...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796971/the-intricacies-of-user-adjustments-of-alerting-thresholds
#16
Joachim Meyer, Thomas B Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: We address the question of necessary conditions for users to adjust system settings, such as alarm thresholds, correctly. BACKGROUND: When designing systems, we need to decide which system functions users should control. Giving control to users empowers them, but users must have the relevant information and the ability to adjust settings correctly for their control to be beneficial. METHOD: Using the example of adjusting an alerting threshold, we analyze the conditions for when users can and when they cannot possibly adjust threshold settings adequately...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581353/four-night-shifts-have-a-degree-of-performance-adaptation
#17
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVE: In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. METHOD: The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510495/fatigue-in-younger-and-older-drivers-effectiveness-of-an-alertness-maintaining-task
#18
Woojin Song, Fu L Woon, Alice Doong, Carol Persad, Louis Tijerina, Pooja Pandit, Carol Cline, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. BACKGROUND: Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486092/evaluating-the-ergonomic-benefit-of-a-wrist-brace-on-wrist-posture-muscle-activity-rotational-stiffness-and-peak-shovel-ground-impact-force-during-a-simulated-tree-planting-task
#19
Peter J Sheahan, Joshua G A Cashaback, Steven L Fischer
Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467134/implementing-recommendations-from-web-accessibility-guidelines-a-comparative-study-of-nondisabled-users-and-users-with-visual-impairments
#20
Sven Schmutz, Andreas Sonderegger, Juergen Sauer
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether implementing recommendations of Web accessibility guidelines would have different effects on nondisabled users than on users with visual impairments. BACKGROUND: The predominant approach for making Web sites accessible for users with disabilities is to apply accessibility guidelines. However, it has been hardly examined whether this approach has side effects for nondisabled users. A comparison of the effects on both user groups would contribute to a better understanding of possible advantages and drawbacks of applying accessibility guidelines...
September 2017: Human Factors
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