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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394626/decision-making-on-the-labor-and-delivery-unit-an-investigation-of-influencing-factors
#1
Megan E Gregory, Shirley C Sonesh, Jennifer Feitosa, Lauren E Benishek, Ashley M Hughes, Eduardo Salas
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1)...
April 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192675/sentinels-of-breach
#2
Andrew J Hampton, Valerie L Shalin
Objective This paper identifies general properties of language style in social media to help identify areas of need in disasters. Background In the search for metrics of need in social media data, much of the existing literature ignores processes of language usage. Psychological concepts, such as narrative breach, Gricean maxims, and lexical marking in cognition, may assist the recovery of disaster-relevant metrics from altered patterns of word prevalence. Method We analyzed several hundred thousand location-specific microblogs from Twitter for Hurricane Sandy, Oklahoma tornadoes, and the Boston Marathon bombing along with a fantasy football control corpus, examining the relative frequency of words in 36 antonym pairs...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy
#3
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186421/effects-of-cognitive-load-on-driving-performance
#4
Johan Engström, Gustav Markkula, Trent Victor, Natasha Merat
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. BACKGROUND: Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186420/driving-while-interacting-with-google-glass
#5
Kathryn G Tippey, Elayaraj Sivaraj, Thomas K Ferris
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the individual and combined effects of voice (vs. manual) input and head-up (vs. head-down) display in a driving and device interaction task. BACKGROUND: Advances in wearable technology offer new possibilities for in-vehicle interaction but also present new challenges for managing driver attention and regulating device usage in vehicles. This research investigated how driving performance is affected by interface characteristics of devices used for concurrent secondary tasks...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430546/overall-preference-of-running-shoes-can-be-predicted-by-suitable-perception-factors-using-a-multiple-regression-model
#6
Cheryl Sihui Tay, Thorsten Sterzing, Chen Yen Lim, Rui Ding, Pui Wah Kong
OBJECTIVE: This study examined (a) the strength of four individual footwear perception factors to influence the overall preference of running shoes and (b) whether these perception factors satisfied the nonmulticollinear assumption in a regression model. BACKGROUND: Running footwear must fulfill multiple functional criteria to satisfy its potential users. Footwear perception factors, such as fit and cushioning, are commonly used to guide shoe design and development, but it is unclear whether running-footwear users are able to differentiate one factor from another...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430545/effects-of-motivation-rewarding-hackers-for-undetected-attacks-cause-analysts-to-perform-poorly
#7
Zahid Maqbool, Nidhi Makhijani, V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Varun Dutt
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. BACKGROUND: Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430544/trust-and-the-compliance-reliance-paradigm-the-effects-of-risk-error-bias-and-reliability-on-trust-and-dependence
#8
Eric T Chancey, James P Bliss, Yusuke Yamani, Holly A H Handley
OBJECTIVE: This study provides a theoretical link between trust and the compliance-reliance paradigm. We propose that for trust mediation to occur, the operator must be presented with a salient choice, and there must be an element of risk for dependence. BACKGROUND: Research suggests that false alarms and misses affect dependence via two independent processes, hypothesized as trust in signals and trust in nonsignals. These two trust types manifest in categorically different behaviors: compliance and reliance...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005453/can-we-study-autonomous-driving-comfort-in-moving-base-driving-simulators-a-validation-study
#9
Hanna Bellem, Malte Klüver, Michael Schrauf, Hans-Peter Schöner, Heiko Hecht, Josef F Krems
OBJECTIVE: To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. BACKGROUND: With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941163/effects-of-accumulating-work-shifts-on-performance-based-fatigue-using-multiple-strength-measurements-in-day-and-night-shift-nurses-and-aides
#10
Brennan J Thompson, Matt S Stock, Victoria K Banuelas
Objective This study aimed to examine the effects of accumulating nursing work on maximal and rapid strength characteristics in female nurses and compare these effects in day versus night shift workers. Background Nurses exhibit among the highest nonfatal injury rates of all occupations, which may be a consequence of long, cumulative work shift schedules. Fatigue may accumulate across multiple shifts and lead to performance impairments, which in turn may be linked to injury risks. Method Thirty-seven nurses and aides performed isometric strength-based performance testing of three muscle groups, including the knee extensors, knee flexors, and wrist flexors (hand grip), as well as countermovement jumps, at baseline and following exposure to three 12-hour work shifts in a four-day period...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941162/sequential-revision-of-belief-trust-type-and-the-order-effect
#11
Elliot E Entin, Daniel Serfaty
Objective To investigate how people's sequential adjustments to their position are impacted by the source of the information. Background There is an extensive body of research on how the order in which new information is received affects people's final views and decisions as well as research on how they adjust their views in light of new information. Method Seventy college-aged students, 60% of whom were women, completed one of eight different randomly distributed booklets prepared to create the eight different between-subjects treatment conditions created by crossing the two levels of information source with the four level of order conditions...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923887/reflective-tape-applied-to-bicycle-frame-and-conspicuity-enhancement-at-night
#12
Marco Costa, Leonardo Bonetti, Manuela Bellelli, Claudio Lantieri, Valeria Vignali, Andrea Simone
OBJECTIVE: Four studies were conducted to assess bicyclist conspicuity enhancement at night by the application of reflective tape (ECE/ONU 104) to the bicycle rear frame and to pedal cranks. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have tested the benefits of reflective markings applied to bicyclist clothing. Reflective jackets however need to be available and worn while reflective markings enhance conspicuity without any active behavior by the bicyclist. METHOD: In the first study, reflective tape was applied to the rear frame...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923886/prior-familiarization-with-takeover-requests-affects-drivers-takeover-performance-and-automation-trust
#13
Sebastian Hergeth, Lutz Lorenz, Josef F Krems
OBJECTIVE: The objective for this study was to investigate the effects of prior familiarization with takeover requests (TORs) during conditional automated driving on drivers' initial takeover performance and automation trust. BACKGROUND: System-initiated TORs are one of the biggest concerns for conditional automated driving and have been studied extensively in the past. Most, but not all, of these studies have included training sessions to familiarize participants with TORs...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793979/running-memory-for-clinical-handoffs-a-look-at-active-and-passive-processing
#14
Brittany L Anderson-Montoya, Mark W Scerbo, Dana E Ramirez, Thomas W Hubbard
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of domain-relevant expertise on running memory and the ability to process handoffs of information. In addition, the role of active or passive processing was examined. BACKGROUND: Currently, there is little research that addresses how individuals with different levels of expertise process information in running memory when the information is needed to perform a real-world task. METHOD: Three groups of participants differing in their level of clinical expertise (novice, intermediate, and expert) performed an abstract running memory span task and two tasks resembling real-world activities, a clinical handoff task and an air traffic control (ATC) handoff task...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777275/human-error-as-an-emergent-property-of-action-selection-and-task-place-holding
#15
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760864/assessing-mental-models-of-emergencies-through-two-knowledge-elicitation-tasks
#16
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738279/minimum-required-attention-a-human-centered-approach-to-driver-inattention
#17
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
OBJECTIVE: To propose a driver attention theory based on the notion of driving as a satisficing and partially self-paced task and, within this framework, present a definition for driver inattention. BACKGROUND: Many definitions of driver inattention and distraction have been proposed, but they are difficult to operationalize, and they are either unreasonably strict and inflexible or suffer from hindsight bias. METHOD: Existing definitions of driver distraction are reviewed and their shortcomings identified...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#18
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324672/measuring-safety-and-performance-in-human-automation-systems
#19
Jessica J Marquez, Brian F Gore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821582/using-a-sequence-of-earcons-to-monitor-multiple-simulated-patients
#20
Anna Hickling, Birgit Brecknell, Robert G Loeb, Penelope Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a sequence of earcons can effectively convey the status of multiple processes, such as the status of multiple patients in a clinical setting. BACKGROUND: Clinicians often monitor multiple patients. An auditory display that intermittently conveys the status of multiple patients may help. METHOD: Nonclinician participants listened to sequences of 500-ms earcons that each represented the heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels of a different simulated patient...
March 2017: Human Factors
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