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Human Factors

Kelly Satterfield, Amanda E Harwood, William S Helton, Tyler H Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depleting self-control prior to vigilance results in a steeper vigilance decrement. BACKGROUND: The resource-control theory of vigilance asserts that an inherent bias toward self-generated mind-wandering draws attentional resources away from the primary task. This study seeks to test whether depleting self-control, the potential mechanism of self-generated mind-wandering, results in poorer vigilance performance. METHOD: This study featured a between-subjects design where participants either completed a typing task that depleted self-control resources or a standard typing task that did not require self-control before performing a vigilance task...
October 29, 2018: Human Factors
Megan L Bartlett, Jason S McCarley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether manipulating the format of an automated decision aid's cues can improve participants' information integration strategies in a signal detection task. BACKGROUND: Automation-aided decision making is often suboptimal, falling well short of statistically ideal levels. The choice of format in which the cues from the aid are displayed may help users to better understand and integrate the aid's judgments with their own. METHOD: Participants performed a signal detection task that asked them to classify random dot images as either blue or orange dominant...
October 18, 2018: Human Factors
Samantha L Epling, Graham K Edgar, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
OBJECTIVE: Two verbal tasks were utilized in a dual-task paradigm to explore performance theories and prior dual-tasking results. BACKGROUND: Both the decline in vigilance performance over time, or vigilance decrement, and limited dual-tasking ability may be explained by limited mental resources. Resource theorists would recommend removing task demands to avoid cognitive overload, while mindlessness theorists may recommend adding engaging task demands to prevent boredom...
October 16, 2018: Human Factors
Justin Maximilian Mittelstaedt, Jan Wacker, Dirk Stelling
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the influence of the tendency to catastrophize somatic symptoms and body awareness on motion-related sickness. BACKGROUND: Influences of emotional and cognitive-evaluative processes on the genesis of motion sickness or cybersickness have rarely been investigated. Brain imaging studies showed activation during cybersickness, resembling the pattern found for pain processing. Two aspects often investigated in this context are pain catastrophizing and body awareness...
October 15, 2018: Human Factors
Kristen L Macuga
OBJECTIVE: The effects of inertial (vestibular and somatosensory) information on driver steering during curve navigation were investigated, using an electric four-wheel mobility vehicle outfitted with a steering wheel and a portable virtual reality system. BACKGROUND: When driving, multiple sources of perceptual information are available. Researchers have focused on visual information, which plays a critical role in steering control. However, it is not yet well established how inertial information might contribute...
October 15, 2018: Human Factors
Eric T Greenlee, Patricia R DeLucia, David C Newton
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated driver vigilance in partially automated vehicles to determine whether increased task demands reduce a driver's ability to monitor for automation failures and whether the vigilance decrement associated with hazard detections is due to driver overload. BACKGROUND: Drivers of partially automated vehicles are expected to monitor for signs of automation failure. Previous research has shown that a driver's ability to perform this duty declines over time...
October 11, 2018: Human Factors
Pankaj Parag Sharma, Ranjana K Mehta, Adam Pickens, Gang Han, Mark Benden
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a computer-based intervention designed to increase sit-stand desk usage and help reverse workplace physical inactivity. BACKGROUND: Sit-stand desks have been successful in reducing workplace sedentary behavior, but the challenge remains for an effective method to increase the usage in order to experience the health and productivity benefits. METHOD: Data collection (1-year field study with 194 workers) used a novel method of computer software that continuously recorded objective electric sit-stand desk usage, while taking into account the time a worker spends away from their desk (breaks, meetings)...
October 8, 2018: Human Factors
Donghee Choi, Gyouhyung Kyung, Kyunghyun Nam, Sungryul Park
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of display curvature, presbyopia, and task duration on visual fatigue, task performance, and user satisfaction. BACKGROUND: Although curved displays have been applied to diverse display products, and some studies reported their benefits, it is still unknown whether the effects of display curvature are presbyopia-specific. METHOD: Each of 64 individuals (eight nonpresbyopes and eight presbyopes per display curvature) performed four 15-min proofreading tasks at one display curvature radius setting (600R, 1140R, 4000R, and flat; mm)...
October 3, 2018: Human Factors
Frédéric Noé, Xavier García-Massó, Damien Ledez, Thierry Paillard
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken in order to provide new insight into sensorimotor control of posture when wearing high-shaft (HS) boots as ski boots. BACKGROUND: Previous studies into the effects of HS boots on postural control have produced controversial results. Some studies reported postural control impairments with ski boots in bipedal postural tasks due to ankle movement restrictions without quantifying the actual restrictive effect of these boots and specifying the adaptations of the postural control system...
October 3, 2018: Human Factors
Eric T Greenlee, Gregory J Funke, Lindsay Rice
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the team workload questionnaire (TWLQ) in a task that was distinct from the task used to create it. BACKGROUND: The TWLQ was created from workload ratings generated by members of athletic sports teams. Given that such teams represent only a portion of the diversity of operational teams, we aimed to assess the generalizability of the TWLQ. METHOD: The present study applied the TWLQ in a collaborative choice task (hiring decision) to determine whether the factor structure reported in the initial publication of the scale would generalize from the execution tasks it was developed from to a disparate team task focused on consensus building...
October 2, 2018: Human Factors
Ryan W Wohleber, Gerald Matthews, Jinchao Lin, James L Szalma, Gloria L Calhoun, Gregory J Funke, C-Y Peter Chiu, Heath A Ruff
OBJECTIVE: This simulation study investigated factors influencing sustained performance and fatigue during operation of multiple Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The study tested effects of time-on-task and automation reliability on accuracy in surveillance tasks and dependence on automation. It also investigated the role of trait and state individual difference factors. BACKGROUND: Warm's resource model of vigilance has been highly influential in human factors, but further tests of its applicability to complex, real-world tasks requiring sustained attention are necessary...
September 28, 2018: Human Factors
Jelena Zestic, Birgit Brecknell, Helen Liley, Penelope Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether enhanced sonifications would improve participants' ability to judge the oxygen saturation levels (SpO2 ) of simulated neonates in the first 10 min after birth. BACKGROUND: During the resuscitation of a newborn infant, clinicians must keep the neonate's SpO2 levels within the target range, however the boundaries for the target range change each minute during the first 10 min after birth. Resuscitation places significant demand on the clinician's visual attention, and the pulse oximeter's sonification could provide eyes-free monitoring...
September 27, 2018: Human Factors
Simon Y W Li, Man-Kei Tse, Birgit Brecknell, Penelope M Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the effectiveness of two auditory displays, implemented with spearcons (time-compressed speech), for monitoring multiple patients. BACKGROUND: Sequences of sounds can convey information about patients' vital signs, such as oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and heart rate (HR). We tested whether participants could monitor five patients using spearcon-based sound sequences. METHOD: A 2 × 3 within-subjects design was used...
September 27, 2018: Human Factors
Nicole Hättenschwiler, Marcia Mendes, Adrian Schwaninger
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the visual inspection performance of airport security officers (screeners) when screening hold baggage with state-of-the-art 3D versus older 2D imaging. BACKGROUND: 3D imaging based on computer tomography features better automated detection of explosives and higher baggage throughput than older 2D X-ray imaging technology. Nonetheless, some countries and airports hesitate to implement 3D systems due to their lower image quality and the concern that screeners will need extensive and specific training before they can be allowed to work with 3D imaging...
September 24, 2018: Human Factors
Erika E Miller, Linda Ng Boyle
OBJECTIVE: A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the longitudinal effects of an intervention and withdrawal of a lane keeping system on driving performance and cognitive workload. BACKGROUND: Autonomous vehicle systems are being implemented into the vehicle fleet. However, limited research exists in understanding the carryover effects of long-term exposure. METHODS: Forty-eight participants (30 treatment, 18 control) completed eight drives across three separate days in a driving simulator...
September 20, 2018: Human Factors
Nathan Herdener, Benjamin A Clegg, Christopher D Wickens, C A P Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of prior information on spatial prediction and understanding of variability. BACKGROUND: In uncertain spatial prediction tasks, such as hurricane forecasting or planning search-and-rescue operations, decision makers must consider the most likely case and the distribution of possible outcomes. Base performance on these tasks is varied (and in the case of understanding the distribution, often poor). Humans must update mental models and predictions with new information, sometimes under cognitive workload...
September 20, 2018: Human Factors
Mohamad Behjati, Navid Arjmand
OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation (NLE) in controlling lumbar spine loads below their recommended action limits during asymmetric load-handling activities using a detailed musculoskeletal model, that is, the AnyBody Modeling System. BACKGROUND: The NIOSH committee employed simplistic biomechanical models for the calculation of the spine compressive loads with no estimates of the shear loads...
September 17, 2018: Human Factors
Simon S W Li, Otto H T Chan, T Y Ng, L H Kam, C Y Ng, W C Chung, Daniel H K Chow
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in energy expenditure during walking with backpack and double-pack loads. BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that energy expenditure during walking with double-pack loads is lower compared with backpack carriage. However, the effect of gender on energy expenditure while walking with these two load distribution systems has not been investigated. METHOD: Thirty healthy young adults (15 female and 15 male participants) walked on a treadmill with backpack and double-pack loads weighing 30% of their body weight at a speed of 0...
September 14, 2018: Human Factors
Michael B Dillard, Joel S Warm, Gregory J Funke, W Todd Nelson, Victor S Finomore, Christopher K McClernon, F Thomas Eggemeier, Lloyd D Tripp, Matthew E Funke
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived time progression (PTP) moderates participants' negative reactions to vigilance tasks. BACKGROUND: Vigilance tasks are rated by participants to be unenjoyable and as having high levels of workload and stress. Based on the adage, "You are having fun when time flies," we tested the possibility that accelerating PTP might reduce these negative experiences. METHOD: Two studies were performed, involving a long 30-min and a short 12-min vigil...
September 14, 2018: Human Factors
Patrick P Weis, Eva Wiese
OBJECTIVE: A distributed cognitive system is a system in which cognitive processes are distributed between brain-based internal and environment-based external resources. In the current experiment, we examined the influence of metacognitive processes on external resource use (i.e., cognitive offloading) in such systems. BACKGROUND: High-tech working environments oftentimes represent distributed cognitive systems. Because cognitive offloading can both support and harm performance, depending on the specific circumstances, it is essential to understand when and why people offload their cognition...
August 31, 2018: Human Factors
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