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Human Factors

Emily S Patterson
Objective To integrate and synthesize insights from recent studies of workarounds to the intended use of health information technology (HIT) by health care professionals. Background Systems are safest when the documentation of how work is done in policies and procedures closely matches what people actually do when they are working. Proactively identifying and managing workarounds to the intended use of technology, including deviations from expected workflows, can improve system safety. Method A narrative review of studies of workarounds with HIT was conducted to identify themes in the literature...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Eric T Greenlee, Patricia R DeLucia, David C Newton
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether monitoring the roadway for hazards during automated driving results in a vigilance decrement. BACKGROUND: Although automated vehicles are relatively novel, the nature of human-automation interaction within them has the classic hallmarks of a vigilance task. Drivers must maintain attention for prolonged periods of time to detect and respond to rare and unpredictable events, for example, roadway hazards that automation may be ill equipped to detect...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Justin G Hollands, Phil Terhaar, Nada J Pavlovic
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the joint influence of resolution, target range, and image contrast on the detection and identification of targets in simulated naturalistic scenes. BACKGROUND: Resolution requirements for target acquisition have been developed based on threshold values obtained using imaging systems, when target range was fixed, and image characteristics were determined by the system. Subsequent work has examined the influence of factors like target range and image contrast on target acquisition...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Jordan Navarro, Fran├žois Osiurak, Emanuelle Reynaud
OBJECTIVE: Assess the influence of background music tempo on driving performance. BACKGROUND: Music with a fast tempo is known to increase the level of arousal, whereas the reverse is observed for slow music. The relationship between driving performance and level of arousal was expected to take the form of an inverted U-curve. METHOD: Three experiments were undertaken to manipulate the musical background during driving. In Experiment 1, the driver's preferred music track played at its original and modified (plus or minus 30%) tempo were used together with the simple ticking of a metronome...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Ashley J Pugh, Christopher D Wickens, Nathan Herdener, Benjamin A Clegg, C A P Smith
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the ways in which visualizations influence the prediction of uncertain spatial trajectories (e.g., the unknown path of a downed aircraft or future path of a hurricane) and participant overconfidence in such prediction. BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that spatial predictions of uncertain trajectories are challenging and are often associated with overconfidence. Introducing a visualization aid during training may improve the understanding of uncertainty and reduce overconfidence...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Liberty Hoekstra-Atwood, Birsen Donmez
Objective The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in voluntary and involuntary driver-distraction engagement. Background Distractions may stem from intentional engagement in secondary tasks (voluntary) or failing to suppress non-driving-related stimuli or information (involuntary). A wealth of literature has examined voluntary distraction; involuntary distraction is not particularly well understood. Individual factors, such as age, are known to play a role in how drivers engage in distractions...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan, Judy P C Tai
Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Yusuke Yamani, Jason S McCarley
Objective An experiment used workload capacity analysis to quantify automation usage strategy across different task difficulty and display format types in a speeded task. Background Workload capacity measures the efficiency of concurrent information processing and can serve as a gauge of automation usage strategy in speeded decision tasks. The present study used workload capacity analysis to investigate automation usage strategy while information display format and task difficulty were manipulated. Method Subjects performed a speeded judgment task assisted by an automated aid that issued decision cues at varying onset times...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Brandon J Pitts, Nadine Sarter
Objective This research sought to determine whether people can perceive and process three nonredundant (and unrelated) signals in vision, hearing, and touch at the same time and how aging and concurrent task demands affect this ability. Background Multimodal displays have been shown to improve multitasking and attention management; however, their potential limitations are not well understood. The majority of studies on multimodal information presentation have focused on the processing of only two concurrent and, most often, redundant cues by younger participants...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Brittany N Neilson, Martina I Klein
Objective The aim of this study was to assess performance carryover effects associated with different successive lateral camera rotations in the laparoscopic training environment. Background Laparoscopy requires surgeons to adapt to disruptions of visuomotor mapping. A gradual adaptation process is hypothesized to be effective up to a given rotation threshold; this threshold may have performance implications for successive exposure to different lateral camera rotations. Method Two experiments utilized a laparoscopic training task...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Oren Musicant, Assaf Botzer, Ilan Laufer, Christian Collet
Objective To study the relationship between physiological indices and kinematic indices during braking events of different intensities. Background Based on mental workload theory, driving and other task demands may generate changes in physiological indices, such as the driver's heart rate and skin conductance. However, no attempts were made to associate changes in physiological indices with changes in vehicle kinematics that result from the driver attempts to meet task demands. Method Twenty-five drivers participated in a field experiment...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Karl E Bridges, Paul M Corballis, Erik Hollnagel
Objective The objective was to develop an understanding, using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), of the factors that could cause a deer hunter to misidentify their intended target. Background Hunting is a popular activity in many communities. However, hunters vary considerably based on training, experience, and expertise. Surprisingly, safety in hunting has not received much attention, especially failure-to-identify hunting incidents. These are incidents in which the hunter, after spotting and targeting their quarry, discharge their firearm only to discover they have been spotting and targeting another human, an inanimate object, or flora by mistake...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Jordan Lock, Chris Bearman
Objective The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: loss of credibility, loss of confidence in the journal, and a flawed basis for academic debate and scientific progress. Quotation error has been observed in a number of domains, including marine biology and medicine, but there has been little or no previous study of this form of error in human factors, a domain that specializes in the causes and management of error...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Mark C Schall, Richard F Sesek, Lora A Cavuoto
OBJECTIVE: To gather information on the (a) types of wearable sensors, particularly personal activity monitors, currently used by occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals; (b) potential benefits of using such technologies in the workplace; and (c) perceived barriers preventing the widespread adoption of wearable sensors in industry. BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors are increasingly being promoted as a means to improve employee health and well-being, and there is mounting evidence supporting their use as exposure assessment and personal health tools...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Javier Roca, Beatriz Insa, Pilar Tejero
OBJECTIVE: The current research shows the advantage of single-word messages in the particular case of variable message signs (VMSs) with a high aspect ratio. BACKGROUND: Early studies on traffic sign design proposed that pictorial information would advantage equivalent text messages in static signs. METHOD: We used a driving simulator to present individually 36 VMSs, showing six words (e.g., "congestion") and six danger signs (e.g., congestion traffic sign)...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Michelle Dyes, Rogelio Dela Cruz, Valerie P Fox, Mary Hoey
Objective This study used a high-fidelity infant mannequin to examine the relationship between the quality of bag valve mask ventilation (BVMV) and how providers of varying levels of experience use visual feedback (e.g., electronic vital signs) to guide their performance. Background BVMV is a common and critical procedure for managing pediatric respiratory emergencies. However, providers do not consistently deliver effective BVMV. Efforts to improve BVMV have ignored the question of how providers effectively use feedback often available during BVMV...
March 2018: Human Factors
Stephen R Mitroff, Justin M Ericson, Benjamin Sharpe
Objective The study's objective was to assess a new personnel selection and assessment tool for aviation security screeners. A mobile app was modified to create a tool, and the question was whether it could predict professional screeners' on-job performance. Background A variety of professions (airport security, radiology, the military, etc.) rely on visual search performance-being able to detect targets. Given the importance of such professions, it is necessary to maximize performance, and one means to do so is to select individuals who excel at visual search...
March 2018: Human Factors
Junfeng Peng, Xuguang Wang, Lisa Denninger
Objective The effects of seat height and anthropometric dimensions on drivers' preferred postures were investigated using a multiadjustable vehicle mock-up with a large number of adjustments and extended ranges. Background Many studies have been conducted on preferred driving posture under different test conditions showing mixed and even contradictory findings. No studies thus far have considered the clutch and compared Chinese and European drivers. Method Four seat height conditions were tested: free and three imposed heights (250, 300, and 350 mm)...
March 2018: Human Factors
Nathan J McNeese, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J Cooke, Christopher Myers
Objective Three different team configurations are compared with the goal of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT). Background Although an extensive literature on human-automation interaction exists, much less is known about HAT in which humans and autonomous agents interact as coordinated units. Further research must be conducted to better understand how all-human teams compare to HAT. Methods In an unmanned aerial system (UAS) context, a comparison was made among three types of three-member teams: (1) synthetic teams in which the pilot role is assigned to a synthetic teammate, (2) control teams in which the pilot was an inexperienced human, and (3) experimenter teams in which an experimenter served as an experienced pilot...
March 2018: Human Factors
Jeff K Caird, Sarah M Simmons, Katelyn Wiley, Kate A Johnston, William J Horrey
Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria...
February 2018: Human Factors
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