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Human Factors

Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 24, 2016: Human Factors
Gerhard Blasche, Sanja Pasalic, Verena-Maria Bauböck, Daniela Haluza, Rudolf Schoberberger
OBJECTIVES: The present paper presents findings from two studies addressing the effects of the employee's intention to have rest breaks on rest-break frequency and the change of well-being during a workday. BACKGROUND: Rest breaks are effective in avoiding an accumulation of fatigue during work. However, little is known about individual differences in rest-break behavior. METHOD: In Study 1, the association between rest-break intention and the daily number of rest breaks recorded over 4 consecutive workdays was determined by generalized linear model in a sample of employees (n = 111, 59% females)...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Adam J Reiner, Justin G Hollands, Greg A Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of automatic target detection (ATD) on the detection and identification performance of soldiers. BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that highlighting targets can aid their detection. We provided soldiers with ATD that was more likely to detect one target identity than another, potentially acting as an implicit identification aid. METHOD: Twenty-eight soldiers detected and identified simulated human targets in an immersive virtual environment with and without ATD...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
OBJECTIVE: To propose a driver attention theory based on the notion of driving as a satisficing and partially self-paced task and, within this framework, present a definition for driver inattention. BACKGROUND: Many definitions of driver inattention and distraction have been proposed, but they are difficult to operationalize, and they are either unreasonably strict and inflexible or suffer from hindsight bias. METHOD: Existing definitions of driver distraction are reviewed and their shortcomings identified...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
Nooshin Atashfeshan, Hamideh Razavi
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the effect of mental fatigue on a cognitive task and determination of the right start time for rest breaks in work environments. BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing individual performance. Subjective and physiological measures are popular methods for analyzing fatigue, but they are restricted to physical experiments. Computational cognitive models are useful for predicting operator performance and can be used for analyzing fatigue in the design phase, particularly in industrial operations and inspections where cognitive tasks are frequent and the effects of mental fatigue are crucial...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
Matthew S Tenan, Michael E LaFiandra, Samson V Ortega
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to determine if Soldier rucksack load, marching distance, and average heart rate (HR) during shooting affect the probability of hitting the target. BACKGROUND: Infantry Soldiers routinely carry heavy rucksack loads and are expected to engage enemy targets should a threat arise. METHOD: Twelve male Soldiers performed two 11.8 km marches in forested terrain at 4.3 km/hour on separate days (randomized, counterbalanced design)...
October 11, 2016: Human Factors
Matthias G Arend, Thomas Franke
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). BACKGROUND: Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles...
October 4, 2016: Human Factors
Mikki H Phan, Joseph R Keebler, Barbara S Chaparro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. BACKGROUND: Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool...
September 19, 2016: Human Factors
Reinier J Jansen, Ben D Sawyer, René van Egmond, Huib de Ridder, Peter A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. BACKGROUND: Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. METHOD: A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
Maria-Gabriela Garcia, Rudolf Wall, Benjamin Steinhilber, Thomas Läubli, Bernard J Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of prolonged standing work on a hard floor or floor mat and slow-pace walking on muscle twitch force (MTF) elicited by electrical stimulation. BACKGROUND: Prolonged standing work may alter lower-leg muscle function, which can be quantified by changes in the MTF amplitude and duration related to muscle fatigue. Ergonomic interventions have been proposed to mitigate fatigue and discomfort; however, their influences remain controversial...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
Angelia Sebok, Christopher D Wickens
OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. BACKGROUND: Two key concepts in HAI, the lumberjack analogy and black swan events, have been studied extensively. The lumberjack analogy describes the effects of imperfect automation on operator performance...
September 2, 2016: Human Factors
Tor Endestad, Laura A Wortinger, Steinar Madsen, Sigurd Hortemo
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test if highlighting and placement of substance name on medication package have the potential to reduce patient errors. BACKGROUND: An unintentional overdose of medication is a large health issue that might be linked to medication package design. In two experiments, placement, background color, and the active ingredient of generic medication packages were manipulated according to best human factors guidelines to reduce causes of labeling-related patient errors...
September 1, 2016: Human Factors
Barry Strauch
OBJECTIVE: I introduce the automation-by-expertise-by-training interaction in automated systems and discuss its influence on operator performance. BACKGROUND: Transportation accidents that, across a 30-year interval demonstrated identical automation-related operator errors, suggest a need to reexamine traditional views of automation. METHOD: I review accident investigation reports, regulator studies, and literature on human computer interaction, expertise, and training and discuss how failing to attend to the interaction of automation, expertise level, and training has enabled operators to commit identical automation-related errors...
September 1, 2016: Human Factors
Aaron W Johnson, Kevin R Duda, Thomas B Sheridan, Charles M Oman
OBJECTIVE: This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. BACKGROUND: Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states...
September 1, 2016: Human Factors
Casey Inez Canfield, Baruch Fischhoff, Alex Davis
OBJECTIVE: We use signal detection theory to measure vulnerability to phishing attacks, including variation in performance across task conditions. BACKGROUND: Phishing attacks are difficult to prevent with technology alone, as long as technology is operated by people. Those responsible for managing security risks must understand user decision making in order to create and evaluate potential solutions. METHOD: Using a scenario-based online task, we performed two experiments comparing performance on two tasks: detection, deciding whether an e-mail is phishing, and behavior, deciding what to do with an e-mail...
August 25, 2016: Human Factors
Glenn E Littlepage, Michael B Hein, Richard G Moffett, Paul A Craig, Andrea M Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. BACKGROUND: Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations...
August 22, 2016: Human Factors
Nadine Matton, Pierre Paubel, Julien Cegarra, Eric Raufaste
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize multitask resource reallocation strategies when managing subtasks with various assigned values. BACKGROUND: When solving a resource conflict in multitasking, Salvucci and Taatgen predict a globally rational strategy will be followed that favors the most urgent subtask and optimizes global performance. However, Katidioti and Taatgen identified a locally rational strategy that optimizes only a subcomponent of the whole task, leading to detrimental consequences on global performance...
August 22, 2016: Human Factors
Meike Jipp
OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether working memory and sustained attention influence cognitive lock-up, which is a delay in the response to consecutive automation failures. BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that the information that automation provides about failures and the time pressure that is associated with a task influence cognitive lock-up. Previous research has also demonstrated considerable variability in cognitive lock-up between participants...
August 9, 2016: Human Factors
Philippe Lacherez, Liam Donaldson, Jennifer S Burt
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether identifying (or ignoring) learned alarm sounds interferes with performance on a task involving working memory. BACKGROUND: A number of researchers have suggested that auditory alarms could interfere with working memory in complex task environments, and this could serve as a caution against their use. Changing auditory information has been shown to interfere with serial recall, even when the auditory information is to be ignored. However, previous researchers have not examined well-learned patterns, such as familiar alarms...
November 2016: Human Factors
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