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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141158/the-combined-effect-of-cold-and-moisture-on-manual-performance
#1
Matthew Ray, Elizabeth Sanli, Robert Brown, Kerri Ann Ennis, Heather Carnahan
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cold and moisture on manual performance and tactile sensitivity. Background People working in the ocean environment often perform manual work in cold and wet conditions. Although the independent effects of cold and moisture on hand function are known, their combined effect has not been investigated. Method Participants completed sensory (Touch-Test, two-point discrimination) and motor (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) tests in the following conditions: dry hand, wet hand, cold hand, and cold and wet hand...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131661/validation-of-essential-acoustic-parameters-for-highly-urgent-in-vehicle-collision-warnings
#2
Bridget A Lewis, Jesse L Eisert, Carryl L Baldwin
Objective The aim of this study was to validate the importance of key acoustic criteria for use as in-vehicle forward collision warning (FCW) systems. Background Despite recent advances in vehicle safety, automobile crashes remain one of the leading causes of death. As automation allows for more control of noncritical functions by the vehicle, the potential for disengagement and distraction from the driving task also increases. It is, therefore, as important as ever that in-vehicle safety-critical interfaces are intuitive and unambiguous, promoting effective collision avoidance responses upon first exposure even under divided-attention conditions...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131659/stress-outcomes-of-four-types-of-perceived-interruptions
#3
Keaton A Fletcher, Sean M Potter, Britany N Telford
Objective We sought to define and measure four types of perceived interruptions and to examine their relationships with stress outcomes. Background Interruptions have been defined and measured in a variety of inconsistent ways. No study has simultaneously examined the subjective experience of all types of interruptions. Method First, we provide a synthesized definition and model of interruptions that aligns interruptions along two qualities: origin and degree of multitasking. Second, we create and validate a self-report measure of these four types of perceived interruptions within two samples (working undergraduate students and working engineers)...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091473/an-exploratory-electromyography-based-coactivation-index-for-the-cervical-spine
#4
Peter Le, Alexander Aurand, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
Objective Develop a coactivation index for the neck and test its effectiveness with complex dynamic head motions. Background Studies describing coactivation for the cervical spine are sparse in the literature. Of those in existence, they were either limited to a priori definitions of agonist/antagonist activity that limited the testing to sagittal and lateral planes or consisted of isometric exertions. Multiplanar movements would allow for a more realistic understanding of naturalistic movements in the cervical spine and propensity for neck pain...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091463/falls-from-agricultural-machinery-risk-factors-related-to-work-experience-worked-hours-and-operators-behavior
#5
Federica Caffaro, Michele Roccato, Margherita Micheletti Cremasco, Eugenio Cavallo
Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982011/allocating-attention-to-detect-motorcycles-the-role-of-inattentional-blindness
#6
Kristen Pammer, Stephanie Sabadas, Stephanie Lentern
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inattentional blindness (IB) can be used to understand the psychological mechanisms around looked-but-failed-to-see (LBFTS) crashes involving motorcycles Background: IB occurs when an observer looks directly at an object yet fails to see it, thus LBFTS crashes may be a real-world example of IB. The study tests a perceptual cycle model in which motorcycles are detected less frequently because they fall lower on the attentional hierarchy for driving. METHOD: A driving-related IB task with photographs of driving situations investigated whether an additional stimulus, a taxi or motorcycle, would be more likely to be missed by participants...
October 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967807/cumulative-mass-and-niosh-variable-lifting-index-method-for-risk-assessment-possible-relations
#7
Giulia Stucchi, Natale Battevi, Monica Pandolfi, Luca Galinotti, Simona Iodice, Chiara Favero
Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967794/using-temporal-sensitivity-to-predict-performance-under-latency-in-teleoperation
#8
Federico Scholcover, Douglas J Gillan
Objective This article establishes a relationship between temporal sensitivity and task performance under one-way latency between input and response. Background As the latency between human input and telerobot response increases, performance (e.g., speed to complete task and accuracy) declines. Tools, such as predictive displays, have been developed to ameliorate performance costs. However, more work is needed to understand the relationship between individual differences and task performance. Temporal sensitivity in particular was the focus of this research...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965433/physiological-parameter-response-to-variation-of-mental-workload
#9
Adrian Cornelius Marinescu, Sarah Sharples, Alastair Campbell Ritchie, Tomas Sánchez López, Michael McDowell, Hervé P Morvan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between experienced mental workload and physiological response by noninvasive monitoring of physiological parameters. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined how individual physiological measures respond to changes in mental demand and subjective reports of workload. This study explores the response of multiple physiological parameters and quantifies their added value when estimating the level of demand. METHOD: The study presented was conducted in laboratory conditions and required participants to perform a visual-motor task that imposed varying levels of demand...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058950/development-of-a-seating-comfort-questionnaire-for-motorcycles
#10
Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Gaur Gopal Ray
Objective The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and valid Motorcycle Seating Comfort Questionnaire (MSCQ). Background Motorcycle seat development is an iterative process based on subjective evaluations; however, there are no established subjective tools for evaluation of seating comfort. Research also suggests that seating comfort in motorcycles is poor and needs improvement. The development of a MSCQ therefore is an important step that can enable further research and aid in improving the design of motorcycle seats...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982016/land-ahoy-understanding-submarine-command-and-control-during-the-completion-of-inshore-operations
#11
Aaron P J Roberts, Neville A Stanton, Daniel Fay
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use multiple command teams to provide empirical evidence for understanding communication flow, information pertinence, and tasks undertaken in a submarine control room when completing higher- and lower-demand inshore operation (INSO) scenarios. BACKGROUND: The focus of submarine operations has changed, and submarines are increasingly required to operate in costal littoral zones. However, submarine command team performance during INSO is not well understood, particularly from a sociotechnical systems perspective...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925730/impact-of-frequent-interruption-on-nurses-patient-controlled-analgesia-programming-performance
#12
Kristi R Campoe, Karen K Giuliano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. BACKGROUND: Data support that the severity of medication administration error increases with the number of interruptions, which is especially critical during the administration of high-risk medications...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925727/the-effect-of-person-order-on-egress-time-a-simulation-model-of-evacuation-from-a-neolithic-visitor-attraction
#13
Arthur Stewart, Eyad Elyan, John Isaacs, Leah McEwen, Lyn Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the egress of visitors from a Neolithic visitor attraction. BACKGROUND: Tourism attracts increasing numbers of elderly and mobility-impaired visitors to our built-environment heritage sites. Some such sites have very limited and awkward access, were not designed for mass visitation, and may not be modifiable to facilitate disabled access. As a result, emergency evacuation planning must take cognizance of robust information, and in this study we aimed to establish the effect of visitor position on egress...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902526/driving-performance-after-self-regulated-control-transitions-in-highly-automated-vehicles
#14
Alexander Eriksson, Neville A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. BACKGROUND: Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892419/the-effect-of-a-backpack-hip-strap-on-energy-expenditure-while-walking
#15
Jamie Pigman, William Sullivan, Steven Leigh, Peter A Hosick
Objective To examine the effect of backpack hip strap use on walking energy expenditure while carrying a loaded backpack. Background Previous studies have demonstrated that energy cost increases as the mass of the load carried increases. However, few investigations have focused on backpack carriage design. Methods Fifteen young, healthy, male subjects walked at a self-selected pace for 10 minutes in two backpack loading conditions: with a hip strap (strapped) and without a hip strap (nonstrapped). Oxygen consumption (VO2), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout each 10-minute trial...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876965/analyzing-decision-logs-to-understand-decision-making-in-serious-crime-investigations
#16
Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
Objective To study decision making by detectives when investigating serious crime through the examination of decision logs to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection. Background Decision logs are used to record and justify decisions made during serious crime investigations. The complexity of investigative decision making is well documented, as are the errors associated with miscarriages of justice and inquests. The use of decision logs has not been the subject of an empirical investigation, yet they offer an important window into the nature of investigative decision making in dynamic, time-critical environments...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783375/errors-using-observational-methods-for-ergonomics-assessment-in-real-practice
#17
Jose-Antonio Diego-Mas, Jorge Alcaide-Marzal, Rocio Poveda-Bautista
OBJECTIVE: The degree in which practitioners use the observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risks assessment correctly was evaluated. BACKGROUND: Ergonomics assessment is a key issue for the prevention and reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in workplaces. Observational assessment methods appear to be better matched to the needs of practitioners than direct measurement methods, and for this reason, they are the most widely used techniques in real work situations...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777917/dealing-with-unexpected-events-on-the-flight-deck-a-conceptual-model-of-startle-and-surprise
#18
Annemarie Landman, Eric L Groen, M M René van Paassen, Adelbert W Bronkhorst, Max Mulder
OBJECTIVE: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. BACKGROUND: Today's debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots' ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771376/slant-perception-under-stereomicroscopy
#19
Samantha Horvath, Kori Macdonald, John Galeotti, Roberta L Klatzky
Objective These studies used threshold and slant-matching tasks to assess and quantitatively measure human perception of 3-D planar images viewed through a stereomicroscope. The results are intended for use in developing augmented-reality surgical aids. Background Substantial research demonstrates that slant perception is performed with high accuracy from monocular and binocular cues, but less research concerns the effects of magnification. Viewing through a microscope affects the utility of monocular and stereo slant cues, but its impact is as yet unknown...
November 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#20
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
November 2017: Human Factors
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