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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925730/impact-of-frequent-interruption-on-nurses-patient-controlled-analgesia-programming-performance
#1
Kristi R Campoe, Karen K Giuliano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. BACKGROUND: Data support that the severity of medication administration error increases with the number of interruptions, which is especially critical during the administration of high-risk medications...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925727/the-effect-of-person-order-on-egress-time-a-simulation-model-of-evacuation-from-a-neolithic-visitor-attraction
#2
Arthur Stewart, Eyad Elyan, John Isaacs, Leah McEwen, Lyn Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the egress of visitors from a Neolithic visitor attraction. BACKGROUND: Tourism attracts increasing numbers of elderly and mobility-impaired visitors to our built-environment heritage sites. Some such sites have very limited and awkward access, were not designed for mass visitation, and may not be modifiable to facilitate disabled access. As a result, emergency evacuation planning must take cognizance of robust information, and in this study we aimed to establish the effect of visitor position on egress...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902526/driving-performance-after-self-regulated-control-transitions-in-highly-automated-vehicles
#3
Alexander Eriksson, Neville A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. BACKGROUND: Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892419/the-effect-of-a-backpack-hip-strap-on-energy-expenditure-while-walking
#4
Jamie Pigman, William Sullivan, Steven Leigh, Peter A Hosick
Objective To examine the effect of backpack hip strap use on walking energy expenditure while carrying a loaded backpack. Background Previous studies have demonstrated that energy cost increases as the mass of the load carried increases. However, few investigations have focused on backpack carriage design. Methods Fifteen young, healthy, male subjects walked at a self-selected pace for 10 minutes in two backpack loading conditions: with a hip strap (strapped) and without a hip strap (nonstrapped). Oxygen consumption (VO2), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout each 10-minute trial...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876965/analyzing-decision-logs-to-understand-decision-making-in-serious-crime-investigations
#5
Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
Objective To study decision making by detectives when investigating serious crime through the examination of decision logs to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection. Background Decision logs are used to record and justify decisions made during serious crime investigations. The complexity of investigative decision making is well documented, as are the errors associated with miscarriages of justice and inquests. The use of decision logs has not been the subject of an empirical investigation, yet they offer an important window into the nature of investigative decision making in dynamic, time-critical environments...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783375/errors-using-observational-methods-for-ergonomics-assessment-in-real-practice
#6
Jose-Antonio Diego-Mas, Jorge Alcaide-Marzal, Rocio Poveda-Bautista
OBJECTIVE: The degree in which practitioners use the observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risks assessment correctly was evaluated. BACKGROUND: Ergonomics assessment is a key issue for the prevention and reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in workplaces. Observational assessment methods appear to be better matched to the needs of practitioners than direct measurement methods, and for this reason, they are the most widely used techniques in real work situations...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777917/dealing-with-unexpected-events-on-the-flight-deck-a-conceptual-model-of-startle-and-surprise
#7
Annemarie Landman, Eric L Groen, M M René van Paassen, Adelbert W Bronkhorst, Max Mulder
OBJECTIVE: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. BACKGROUND: Today's debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots' ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771376/slant-perception-under-stereomicroscopy
#8
Samantha Horvath, Kori Macdonald, John Galeotti, Roberta L Klatzky
Objective These studies used threshold and slant-matching tasks to assess and quantitatively measure human perception of 3-D planar images viewed through a stereomicroscope. The results are intended for use in developing augmented-reality surgical aids. Background Substantial research demonstrates that slant perception is performed with high accuracy from monocular and binocular cues, but less research concerns the effects of magnification. Viewing through a microscope affects the utility of monocular and stereo slant cues, but its impact is as yet unknown...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#9
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704067/grip-type-alters-maximal-pinch-forces-in-syringe-use
#10
Victoria MacDonald, Katherine Wilson, Michael W L Sonne, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine maximum forces during syringe use for different grips found in the field. BACKGROUND: Prolonged syringe use in chemotherapy drug delivery is associated with pain and injury in nurses and technicians. METHOD: Twenty healthy female hospital workers generated isometric maximum voluntary force using a 30 cc syringe with four pinch grips (chuck, chuck variation, thenar, two-handed). Both dominant and nondominant hands were used with the syringe plunger fixed in wide (8...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796975/head-rotation-movement-times
#11
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan, P T Heung
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure head rotation movement times in a Fitts' paradigm and to investigate the transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements as the task index of difficulty (ID) increases. BACKGROUND: For head rotation, there are gaps in the knowledge of the effects of movement amplitude and task difficulty around the critical transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements. METHOD: Under the conditions of 11 ID values (from 1...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796974/benchmarking-aided-decision-making-in-a-signal-detection-task
#12
Megan L Bartlett, Jason S McCarley
OBJECTIVE: A series of experiments examined human operators' strategies for interacting with highly (93%) reliable automated decision aids in a binary signal detection task. BACKGROUND: Operators often interact with automated decision aids in a suboptimal way, achieving performance levels lower than predicted by a statistically ideal model of information integration. To better understand operators' inefficient use of decision aids, we compared participants' automation-aided performance levels with the predictions of seven statistical models of collaborative decision making...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796973/the-role-of-social-cue-utilization-and-closing-the-loop-communication-in-the-performance-of-ad-hoc-dyads
#13
Daniel J Yee, Mark W Wiggins, Ben J Searle
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether social cue utilization impacts the performance of ad hoc dyads through its relationship with closing the loop, a communication process whereby team members respond more frequently to initiating statements made by others. BACKGROUND: There lacks unequivocal experimental evidence for any single cognitive-based process that might predict the performance of ad hoc teams. METHOD: Using a quasi-experimental design, 80 participants were classified into 40 dyads based on their levels of social cue utilization and attempted a team problem-solving task...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796972/shooter-system-performance-variability-as-a-function-of-recoil-dynamics
#14
Frank Morelli, Jennifer M Neugebauer, Courtney A Haynes, Thomas C Fry, Samson V Ortega, Douglas J Struve, Michael E LaFiandra, Gabriella B Larkin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to quantify shooter performance relative to subtle variations in recoil energy. BACKGROUND: Marksmanship performance remains undefined for subtle distinctions in weapon recoil energy across common small-arms platforms. METHOD: Weapons were customized using multiple components and ammunition types. Firing scenarios were designed to examine the effect of recoil energy on shooter timing and accuracy. RESULTS: The results suggest that recoil condition does not affect timing during firing sequences designed to elicit differences in timed-fire performance...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796971/the-intricacies-of-user-adjustments-of-alerting-thresholds
#15
Joachim Meyer, Thomas B Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: We address the question of necessary conditions for users to adjust system settings, such as alarm thresholds, correctly. BACKGROUND: When designing systems, we need to decide which system functions users should control. Giving control to users empowers them, but users must have the relevant information and the ability to adjust settings correctly for their control to be beneficial. METHOD: Using the example of adjusting an alerting threshold, we analyze the conditions for when users can and when they cannot possibly adjust threshold settings adequately...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581353/four-night-shifts-have-a-degree-of-performance-adaptation
#16
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVE: In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. METHOD: The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510495/fatigue-in-younger-and-older-drivers-effectiveness-of-an-alertness-maintaining-task
#17
Woojin Song, Fu L Woon, Alice Doong, Carol Persad, Louis Tijerina, Pooja Pandit, Carol Cline, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. BACKGROUND: Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486092/evaluating-the-ergonomic-benefit-of-a-wrist-brace-on-wrist-posture-muscle-activity-rotational-stiffness-and-peak-shovel-ground-impact-force-during-a-simulated-tree-planting-task
#18
Peter J Sheahan, Joshua G A Cashaback, Steven L Fischer
Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467134/implementing-recommendations-from-web-accessibility-guidelines-a-comparative-study-of-nondisabled-users-and-users-with-visual-impairments
#19
Sven Schmutz, Andreas Sonderegger, Juergen Sauer
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether implementing recommendations of Web accessibility guidelines would have different effects on nondisabled users than on users with visual impairments. BACKGROUND: The predominant approach for making Web sites accessible for users with disabilities is to apply accessibility guidelines. However, it has been hardly examined whether this approach has side effects for nondisabled users. A comparison of the effects on both user groups would contribute to a better understanding of possible advantages and drawbacks of applying accessibility guidelines...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394626/decision-making-on-the-labor-and-delivery-unit-an-investigation-of-influencing-factors
#20
Megan E Gregory, Shirley C Sonesh, Jennifer Feitosa, Lauren E Benishek, Ashley M Hughes, Eduardo Salas
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1)...
September 2017: Human Factors
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