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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923887/reflective-tape-applied-to-bicycle-frame-and-conspicuity-enhancement-at-night
#1
Marco Costa, Leonardo Bonetti, Manuela Bellelli, Claudio Lantieri, Valeria Vignali, Andrea Simone
OBJECTIVE: Four studies were conducted to assess bicyclist conspicuity enhancement at night by the application of reflective tape (ECE/ONU 104) to the bicycle rear frame and to pedal cranks. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have tested the benefits of reflective markings applied to bicyclist clothing. Reflective jackets however need to be available and worn while reflective markings enhance conspicuity without any active behavior by the bicyclist. METHOD: In the first study, reflective tape was applied to the rear frame...
December 6, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923886/prior-familiarization-with-takeover-requests-affects-drivers-takeover-performance-and-automation-trust
#2
Sebastian Hergeth, Lutz Lorenz, Josef F Krems
OBJECTIVE: The objective for this study was to investigate the effects of prior familiarization with takeover requests (TORs) during conditional automated driving on drivers' initial takeover performance and automation trust. BACKGROUND: System-initiated TORs are one of the biggest concerns for conditional automated driving and have been studied extensively in the past. Most, but not all, of these studies have included training sessions to familiarize participants with TORs...
December 6, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821582/using-a-sequence-of-earcons-to-monitor-multiple-simulated-patients
#3
Anna Hickling, Birgit Brecknell, Robert G Loeb, Penelope Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a sequence of earcons can effectively convey the status of multiple processes, such as the status of multiple patients in a clinical setting. BACKGROUND: Clinicians often monitor multiple patients. An auditory display that intermittently conveys the status of multiple patients may help. METHOD: Nonclinician participants listened to sequences of 500-ms earcons that each represented the heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels of a different simulated patient...
November 7, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793979/running-memory-for-clinical-handoffs-a-look-at-active-and-passive-processing
#4
Brittany L Anderson-Montoya, Mark W Scerbo, Dana E Ramirez, Thomas W Hubbard
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of domain-relevant expertise on running memory and the ability to process handoffs of information. In addition, the role of active or passive processing was examined. BACKGROUND: Currently, there is little research that addresses how individuals with different levels of expertise process information in running memory when the information is needed to perform a real-world task. METHOD: Three groups of participants differing in their level of clinical expertise (novice, intermediate, and expert) performed an abstract running memory span task and two tasks resembling real-world activities, a clinical handoff task and an air traffic control (ATC) handoff task...
October 28, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777275/human-error-as-an-emergent-property-of-action-selection-and-task-place-holding
#5
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 24, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760865/effects-of-rest-break-intention-on-rest-break-frequency-and-work-related-fatigue
#6
Gerhard Blasche, Sanja Pasalic, Verena-Maria Bauböck, Daniela Haluza, Rudolf Schoberberger
OBJECTIVES: The present paper presents findings from two studies addressing the effects of the employee's intention to have rest breaks on rest-break frequency and the change of well-being during a workday. BACKGROUND: Rest breaks are effective in avoiding an accumulation of fatigue during work. However, little is known about individual differences in rest-break behavior. METHOD: In Study 1, the association between rest-break intention and the daily number of rest breaks recorded over 4 consecutive workdays was determined by generalized linear model in a sample of employees (n = 111, 59% females)...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760864/assessing-mental-models-of-emergencies-through-two-knowledge-elicitation-tasks
#7
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738280/target-detection-and-identification-performance-using-an-automatic-target-detection-system
#8
Adam J Reiner, Justin G Hollands, Greg A Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of automatic target detection (ATD) on the detection and identification performance of soldiers. BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that highlighting targets can aid their detection. We provided soldiers with ATD that was more likely to detect one target identity than another, potentially acting as an implicit identification aid. METHOD: Twenty-eight soldiers detected and identified simulated human targets in an immersive virtual environment with and without ATD...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738279/minimum-required-attention-a-human-centered-approach-to-driver-inattention
#9
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
OBJECTIVE: To propose a driver attention theory based on the notion of driving as a satisficing and partially self-paced task and, within this framework, present a definition for driver inattention. BACKGROUND: Many definitions of driver inattention and distraction have been proposed, but they are difficult to operationalize, and they are either unreasonably strict and inflexible or suffer from hindsight bias. METHOD: Existing definitions of driver distraction are reviewed and their shortcomings identified...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738278/determination-of-the-proper-rest-time-for-a-cyclic-mental-task-using-act-r-architecture
#10
Nooshin Atashfeshan, Hamideh Razavi
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the effect of mental fatigue on a cognitive task and determination of the right start time for rest breaks in work environments. BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing individual performance. Subjective and physiological measures are popular methods for analyzing fatigue, but they are restricted to physical experiments. Computational cognitive models are useful for predicting operator performance and can be used for analyzing fatigue in the design phase, particularly in industrial operations and inspections where cognitive tasks are frequent and the effects of mental fatigue are crucial...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729572/the-effect-of-soldier-marching-rucksack-load-and-heart-rate-on-marksmanship
#11
Matthew S Tenan, Michael E LaFiandra, Samson V Ortega
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to determine if Soldier rucksack load, marching distance, and average heart rate (HR) during shooting affect the probability of hitting the target. BACKGROUND: Infantry Soldiers routinely carry heavy rucksack loads and are expected to engage enemy targets should a threat arise. METHOD: Twelve male Soldiers performed two 11.8 km marches in forested terrain at 4.3 km/hour on separate days (randomized, counterbalanced design)...
October 11, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702984/the-role-of-interaction-patterns-with-hybrid-electric-vehicle-eco-features-for-drivers-eco-driving-performance
#12
Matthias G Arend, Thomas Franke
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). BACKGROUND: Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles...
October 4, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821676/meta-analyses-of-the-effects-of-standardized-handoff-protocols-on-patient-provider-and-organizational-outcomes
#13
Joseph R Keebler, Elizabeth H Lazzara, Brady S Patzer, Evan M Palmer, John P Plummer, Dustin C Smith, Victoria Lew, Sarah Fouquet, Y Raymond Chan, Robert Riss
OBJECTIVE: The overall purpose was to understand the effects of handoff protocols using meta-analytic approaches. BACKGROUND: Standardized protocols have been required by the Joint Commission, but meta-analytic integration of handoff protocol research has not been conducted. METHOD: The primary outcomes investigated were handoff information passed during transitions of care, patient outcomes, provider outcomes, and organizational outcomes...
December 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647156/the-development-and-validation-of-the-game-user-experience-satisfaction-scale-guess
#14
Mikki H Phan, Joseph R Keebler, Barbara S Chaparro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. BACKGROUND: Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool...
December 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576466/do-learned-alarm-sounds-interfere-with-working-memory
#15
Philippe Lacherez, Liam Donaldson, Jennifer S Burt
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether identifying (or ignoring) learned alarm sounds interferes with performance on a task involving working memory. BACKGROUND: A number of researchers have suggested that auditory alarms could interfere with working memory in complex task environments, and this could serve as a caution against their use. Changing auditory information has been shown to interfere with serial recall, even when the auditory information is to be ignored. However, previous researchers have not examined well-learned patterns, such as familiar alarms...
November 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411354/the-development-and-deployment-of-a-maintenance-operations-safety-survey
#16
Marie Langer, Graham R Braithwaite
OBJECTIVE: Based on the line operations safety audit (LOSA), two studies were conducted to develop and deploy an equivalent tool for aircraft maintenance: the maintenance operations safety survey (MOSS). BACKGROUND: Safety in aircraft maintenance is currently measured reactively, based on the number of audit findings, reportable events, incidents, or accidents. Proactive safety tools designed for monitoring routine operations, such as flight data monitoring and LOSA, have been developed predominantly for flight operations...
November 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613827/hysteresis-in-mental-workload-and-task-performance-the-influence-of-demand-transitions-and-task-prioritization
#17
Reinier J Jansen, Ben D Sawyer, René van Egmond, Huib de Ridder, Peter A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. BACKGROUND: Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. METHOD: A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613826/long-lasting-changes-in-muscle-twitch-force-during-simulated-work-while-standing-or-walking
#18
Maria-Gabriela Garcia, Rudolf Wall, Benjamin Steinhilber, Thomas Läubli, Bernard J Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of prolonged standing work on a hard floor or floor mat and slow-pace walking on muscle twitch force (MTF) elicited by electrical stimulation. BACKGROUND: Prolonged standing work may alter lower-leg muscle function, which can be quantified by changes in the MTF amplitude and duration related to muscle fatigue. Ergonomic interventions have been proposed to mitigate fatigue and discomfort; however, their influences remain controversial...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591210/implementing-lumberjacks-and-black-swans-into-model-based-tools-to-support-human-automation-interaction
#19
Angelia Sebok, Christopher D Wickens
OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. BACKGROUND: Two key concepts in HAI, the lumberjack analogy and black swan events, have been studied extensively. The lumberjack analogy describes the effects of imperfect automation on operator performance...
September 2, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591209/package-design-affects-accuracy-recognition-for-medications
#20
Tor Endestad, Laura A Wortinger, Steinar Madsen, Sigurd Hortemo
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test if highlighting and placement of substance name on medication package have the potential to reduce patient errors. BACKGROUND: An unintentional overdose of medication is a large health issue that might be linked to medication package design. In two experiments, placement, background color, and the active ingredient of generic medication packages were manipulated according to best human factors guidelines to reduce causes of labeling-related patient errors...
September 1, 2016: Human Factors
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