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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741960/ecological-interface-design-for-computer-network-defense
#1
Kevin B Bennett, Adam Bryant, Christen Sushereba
OBJECTIVE: A prototype ecological interface for computer network defense (CND) was developed. BACKGROUND: Concerns about CND run high. Although there is a vast literature on CND, there is some indication that this research is not being translated into operational contexts. Part of the reason may be that CND has historically been treated as a strictly technical problem, rather than as a socio-technical problem. METHODS: The cognitive systems engineering (CSE)/ecological interface design (EID) framework was used in the analysis and design of the prototype interface...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741959/near-misses-in-financial-trading-skills-for-capturing-and-averting-error
#2
Meghan Leaver, Alex Griffiths, Tom Reader
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether near-miss incidents in financial trading contain information on the operator skills and systems that detect and prevent near misses and the patterns and trends revealed by these data and (b) to explore if particular operator skills and systems are found as important for avoiding particular types of error on the trading floor. BACKGROUND: In this study, we examine a cohort of near-miss incidents collected from a financial trading organization using the Financial Incident Analysis System and report on the nontechnical skills and systems that are used to detect and prevent error in this domain...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718722/integrating-visual-mnemonics-and-input-feedback-with-passphrases-to-improve-the-usability-and-security-of-digital-authentication
#3
Kevin Juang, Joel Greenstein
OBJECTIVE: We developed a new authentication system based on passphrases instead of passwords. Our new system incorporates a user-generated mnemonic picture displayed during login, definition tooltips, error correction to reduce typographical errors, a decoy-based input masking technique, and random passphrase generation using either a specialized wordlist or a sentence template. BACKGROUND: Passphrases exhibit a greater level of security than traditional passwords, but their wider adoption has been hindered by human factors issues...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698102/understanding-human-error-in-naval-aviation-mishaps
#4
Andrew T Miranda
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. BACKGROUND: Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664713/modeling-human-steering-behavior-during-path-following-in-teleoperation-of-unmanned-ground-vehicles
#5
Hossein Mirinejad, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Tulga Ersal
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a behavioral model representing the human steering performance in teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). BACKGROUND: Human steering performance in teleoperation is considerably different from the performance in regular onboard driving situations due to significant communication delays in teleoperation systems and limited information human teleoperators receive from the vehicle sensory system. Mathematical models capturing the teleoperation performance are a key to making the development and evaluation of teleoperated UGV technologies fully simulation based and thus more rapid and cost-effective...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664683/examining-cybersecurity-of-cyberphysical-systems-for-critical-infrastructures-through-work-domain-analysis
#6
Hao Wang, Nathan Lau, Ryan M Gerdes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to apply work domain analysis for cybersecurity assessment and design of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. BACKGROUND: Adoption of information and communication technology in cyberphysical systems (CPSs) for critical infrastructures enables automated and distributed control but introduces cybersecurity risk. Many CPSs employ SCADA industrial control systems that have become the target of cyberattacks, which inflict physical damage without use of force...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664680/steering-control-in-a-low-cost-driving-simulator-a-case-for-the-role-of-virtual-vehicle-cab
#7
Sami Mecheri, Régis Lobjois
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate steering control in a low-cost driving simulator with and without a virtual vehicle cab. BACKGROUND: In low-cost simulators, the lack of a vehicle cab denies driver access to vehicle width, which could affect steering control, insofar as locomotor adjustments are known to be based on action-scaled visual judgments of the environment. METHOD: Two experiments were conducted in which steering control with and without a virtual vehicle cab was investigated in a within-subject design, using cornering and straight-lane-keeping tasks...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664679/corrigendum
#8
(no author information available yet)
Caffaro, F., Roccato, M., Micheletti Cremasco, M., & Cavallo, E. (2018). Falls from agricultural machinery: Risk factors related to work experience, worked hours, and operators' behavior. Human Factors, 60(1), 20-30. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0018720817738591).
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648891/muscular-and-vascular-issues-induced-by-prolonged-standing-with-different-work-rest-cycles-with-active-or-passive-breaks
#9
Maria-Gabriela Garcia, Thomas Läubli, Bernard J Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-lasting motor, behavioral, physiological, and perceptual effects of prolonged standing work in three work-rest cycle conditions including passive or active rest breaks. BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue has been evidenced after prolonged standing work through physiological and neuromotor measures. It has been postulated that muscle fatigue induced by prolonged work could be attenuated by appropriate scheduling of work and rest periods...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641259/independent-coactors-may-improve-performance-and-lower-workload-viewing-vigilance-under-social-facilitation
#10
Victoria L Claypoole, James L Szalma
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an independent coactor on vigilance task performance. It was hypothesized that the presence of an independent coactor would improve performance in terms of the proportion of false alarms while also increasing perceived workload and stress. BACKGROUND: Vigilance, or the ability to maintain attention for extended periods, is of great interest to human factors psychologists. Substantial work has focused on improving vigilance task performance, typically through motivational interventions...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617161/effects-of-non-driving-related-task-modalities-on-takeover-performance-in-highly-automated-driving
#11
Bernhard Wandtner, Nadja Schömig, Gerald Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different non-driving related tasks (NDR tasks) on takeover performance in highly automated driving. BACKGROUND: During highly automated driving, it is allowed to engage in NDR tasks temporarily. However, drivers must be able to take over control when reaching a system limit. There is evidence that the type of NDR task has an impact on takeover performance, but little is known about the specific task characteristics that account for performance decrements...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617150/-experience-isn-t-everything-how-emotion-affects-the-relationship-between-experience-and-cue-utilization
#12
Monique Frances Crane, Sue Brouwers, Mark William Wiggins, Thomas Loveday, Kirsty Forrest, Suyin Giselle Marianne Tan, Allan Michael Cyna
OBJECTIVE: This research examined whether negative and positive arousal emotions modify the relationship between experience level and cue utilization among anesthetists. BACKGROUND: The capacity of a practitioner to form precise associations between clusters of features (e.g., symptoms) and events (e.g., diagnosis) and then act on them is known as cue utilization. A common assumption is that practice experience allows opportunities for cue acquisition and cue utilization...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613819/information-pooling-bias-in-collaborative-security-incident-correlation-analysis
#13
Prashanth Rajivan, Nancy J Cooke
OBJECTIVE: Incident correlation is a vital step in the cybersecurity threat detection process. This article presents research on the effect of group-level information-pooling bias on collaborative incident correlation analysis in a synthetic task environment. BACKGROUND: Past research has shown that uneven information distribution biases people to share information that is known to most team members and prevents them from sharing any unique information available with them...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613815/understanding-is-key-an-analysis-of-factors-pertaining-to-trust-in-a-real-world-automation-system
#14
Nora Balfe, Sarah Sharples, John R Wilson
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to explore the role of factors pertaining to trust in real-world automation systems through the application of observational methods in a case study from the railway sector. BACKGROUND: Trust in automation is widely acknowledged as an important mediator of automation use, but the majority of the research on automation trust is based on laboratory work. In contrast, this work explored trust in a real-world setting. METHOD: Experienced rail operators in four signaling centers were observed for 90 min, and their activities were coded into five mutually exclusive categories...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589967/affect-aware-adaptive-tutoring-based-on-human-automation-etiquette-strategies
#15
Euijung Yang, Michael C Dorneich
OBJECTIVE: We investigated adapting the interaction style of intelligent tutoring system (ITS) feedback based on human-automation etiquette strategies. BACKGROUND: Most ITSs adapt the content difficulty level, adapt the feedback timing, or provide extra content when they detect cognitive or affective decrements. Our previous work demonstrated that changing the interaction style via different feedback etiquette strategies has differential effects on students' motivation, confidence, satisfaction, and performance...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578754/auditory-task-irrelevance-a-basis-for-inattentional-deafness
#16
Menja Scheer, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Lewis L Chuang
Objective This study investigates the neural basis of inattentional deafness, which could result from task irrelevance in the auditory modality. Background Humans can fail to respond to auditory alarms under high workload situations. This failure, termed inattentional deafness, is often attributed to high workload in the visual modality, which reduces one's capacity for information processing. Besides this, our capacity for processing auditory information could also be selectively diminished if there is no obvious task relevance in the auditory channel...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768043/haptic-foot-pedal-influence-of-shoe-type-age-and-gender-on-subjective-pulse-perception
#17
Claudia Geitner, Stewart Birrell, Claudia Krehl, Paul Jennings
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the influence of shoe type (sneakers and safety boots), age, and gender on the perception of haptic pulse feedback provided by a prototype accelerator pedal in a running stationary vehicle. BACKGROUND: Haptic feedback can be a less distracting alternative to traditionally visual and auditory in-vehicle feedback. However, to be effective, the device delivering the haptic feedback needs to be in contact with the person. Factors such as shoe type vary naturally over the season and could render feedback that is perceived well in one situation, unnoticeable in another...
June 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513611/driver-vigilance-in-automated-vehicles-hazard-detection-failures-are-a-matter-of-time
#18
Eric T Greenlee, Patricia R DeLucia, David C Newton
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether monitoring the roadway for hazards during automated driving results in a vigilance decrement. BACKGROUND: Although automated vehicles are relatively novel, the nature of human-automation interaction within them has the classic hallmarks of a vigilance task. Drivers must maintain attention for prolonged periods of time to detect and respond to rare and unpredictable events, for example, roadway hazards that automation may be ill equipped to detect...
June 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505272/does-the-tempo-of-music-impact-human-behavior-behind-the-wheel
#19
Jordan Navarro, François Osiurak, Emanuelle Reynaud
OBJECTIVE: Assess the influence of background music tempo on driving performance. BACKGROUND: Music with a fast tempo is known to increase the level of arousal, whereas the reverse is observed for slow music. The relationship between driving performance and level of arousal was expected to take the form of an inverted U-curve. METHOD: Three experiments were undertaken to manipulate the musical background during driving. In Experiment 1, the driver's preferred music track played at its original and modified (plus or minus 30%) tempo were used together with the simple ticking of a metronome...
June 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533682/workarounds-to-intended-use-of-health-information-technology-a-narrative-review-of-the-human-factors-engineering-literature
#20
Emily S Patterson
Objective To integrate and synthesize insights from recent studies of workarounds to the intended use of health information technology (HIT) by health care professionals. Background Systems are safest when the documentation of how work is done in policies and procedures closely matches what people actually do when they are working. Proactively identifying and managing workarounds to the intended use of technology, including deviations from expected workflows, can improve system safety. Method A narrative review of studies of workarounds with HIT was conducted to identify themes in the literature...
May 2018: Human Factors
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