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Human Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#1
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704067/grip-type-alters-maximal-pinch-forces-in-syringe-use
#2
Victoria MacDonald, Katherine Wilson, Michael W L Sonne, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine maximum forces during syringe use for different grips found in the field. BACKGROUND: Prolonged syringe use in chemotherapy drug delivery is associated with pain and injury in nurses and technicians. METHOD: Twenty healthy female hospital workers generated isometric maximum voluntary force using a 30 cc syringe with four pinch grips (chuck, chuck variation, thenar, two-handed). Both dominant and nondominant hands were used with the syringe plunger fixed in wide (8...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658591/exploring-the-relationship-of-task-performance-and-physical-and-cognitive-fatigue-during-a-daylong-light-precision-task
#3
Marcus Yung, Rahim Manji, Richard P Wells
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the relationship between fatigue and operation system performance during a simulated light precision task over an 8-hr period using a battery of physical (central and peripheral) and cognitive measures. BACKGROUND: Fatigue may play an important role in the relationship between poor ergonomics and deficits in quality and productivity. However, well-controlled laboratory studies in this area have several limitations, including the lack of work relevance of fatigue exposures and lack of both physical and cognitive measures...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636838/searching-for-affective-and-cognitive-restoration-examining-the-restorative-effects-of-casual-video-game-play
#4
Michael A Rupp, Richard Sweetman, Alejandra E Sosa, Janan A Smither, Daniel S McConnell
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. METHOD: Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628750/ergonomic-benefits-from-a-laparoscopic-instrument-with-rotatable-handle-piece-depend-on-the-area-of-the-operating-field-and-working-height
#5
Benjamin Steinhilber, Florian Reiff, Robert Seibt, Monika A Rieger, Peter Martus, Bernhard Kraemer, Ralf Rothmund
Objective To evaluate the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a 360° rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on biomechanical stress and precision in different areas of a simulated operating field at two working heights. Background Surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures are exposed to biomechanical stress and have an increased risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Method Fifty-seven healthy subjects (27 men, median age 26) without experience in laparoscopy performed a precision task in four quadrants (A-D) of the operating field using the rot-HP or a common fixed handle piece (fixed-HP) at an individually adjusted lower or higher working height...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609643/training-techniques-for-visual-search-in-complex-task-environments
#6
Svyatoslav Guznov, Gerald Matthews, Joel S Warm, Marc Pfahler
OBJECTIVE: The goal for this study was to evaluate several visual search training techniques in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) simulated task environment. BACKGROUND: Operators controlling remote unmanned vehicles often must perform complex visual search tasks (e.g., target search). These tasks may pose substantial demands on the operator due to various environmental factors. Visual search training may reduce errors and mitigate stress, but the most effective form of training has not been determined...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605604/upper-extremity-muscle-activity-during-in-phase-and-anti-phase-continuous-pushing-tasks
#7
Kristina M Gruevski, Joanne N Hodder, Peter J Keir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of anti-phase, in-phase bimanual and unimanual simulated industrial pushing tasks and frequency on upper extremity muscle activity. BACKGROUND: Research investigating symmetrical (in-phase) and asymmetrical (anti-phase) pushing exertions is limited despite a high prevalence in industry. METHODS: Fifteen female participants completed five pushing tasks using a dual handle apparatus at three frequencies: 15 cycles per minute (cpm), 30 cpm, and self-selected...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581353/four-night-shifts-have-a-degree-of-performance-adaptation
#8
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVE: In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. METHOD: The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574734/the-recognizability-and-localizability-of-auditory-alarms-setting-global-medical-device-standards
#9
Judy Edworthy, Scott Reid, Siné McDougall, Jonathan Edworthy, Stephanie Hall, Danielle Bennett, James Khan, Ellen Pye
Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more recognizable and localizable than those currently specified in the standard. Background The audible alarms associated with IEC 60601-1-8, a global medical device standard, are known to be difficult to learn and retain, and there have been many calls to update them. There are known principles of design and cognition that might form the basis of more readily recognizable alarms...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510495/fatigue-in-younger-and-older-drivers-effectiveness-of-an-alertness-maintaining-task
#10
Woojin Song, Fu L Woon, Alice Doong, Carol Persad, Louis Tijerina, Pooja Pandit, Carol Cline, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. BACKGROUND: Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486092/evaluating-the-ergonomic-benefit-of-a-wrist-brace-on-wrist-posture-muscle-activity-rotational-stiffness-and-peak-shovel-ground-impact-force-during-a-simulated-tree-planting-task
#11
Peter J Sheahan, Joshua G A Cashaback, Steven L Fischer
Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467134/implementing-recommendations-from-web-accessibility-guidelines-a-comparative-study-of-nondisabled-users-and-users-with-visual-impairments
#12
Sven Schmutz, Andreas Sonderegger, Juergen Sauer
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether implementing recommendations of Web accessibility guidelines would have different effects on nondisabled users than on users with visual impairments. BACKGROUND: The predominant approach for making Web sites accessible for users with disabilities is to apply accessibility guidelines. However, it has been hardly examined whether this approach has side effects for nondisabled users. A comparison of the effects on both user groups would contribute to a better understanding of possible advantages and drawbacks of applying accessibility guidelines...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704634/comparison-of-sedentary-behaviors-in-office-workers-using-sit-stand-tables-with-and-without-semiautomated-position-changes
#13
Dechristian França Barbieri, Divya Srinivasan, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ana Beatriz Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: We compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers. BACKGROUND: Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables and whether patterns are influenced by table configuration...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704633/the-influence-of-hand-immersion-duration-on-manual-performance
#14
Matthew Ray, Elizabeth Sanli, Robert Brown, Kerri Ann Ennis, Heather Carnahan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hand immersion duration on manipulative ability and tactile sensitivity. BACKGROUND: Individuals in maritime settings often work with hands that have been immersed in water. Although research has shown that hand immersion duration differentially impacts skin adhesion and tactile sensitivity, the effect of hand immersion on manipulative ability has not been directly tested. Given how critical manipulative ability is for the safety and performance of those working at sea, the effect of hand immersion duration on manual performance was investigated...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704632/measuring-memory-and-attention-to-preview-in-motion
#15
Richard J Jagacinski, Gordon M Hammond, Emanuele Rizzi
Objective Use perceptual-motor responses to perturbations to reveal the spatio-temporal detail of memory for the recent past and attention to preview when participants track a winding roadway. Background Memory of the recently passed roadway can be inferred from feedback control models of the participants' manual movement patterns. Similarly, attention to preview of the upcoming roadway can be inferred from feedforward control models of manual movement patterns. Method Perturbation techniques were used to measure these memory and attention functions...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704631/driver-movement-patterns-indicate-distraction-and-engagement
#16
Robert G Radwin, John D Lee, Oguz Akkas
Objective This research considers how driver movements in video clips of naturalistic driving are related to observer subjective ratings of distraction and engagement behaviors. Background Naturalistic driving video provides a unique window into driver behavior unmatched by crash data, roadside observations, or driving simulator experiments. However, manually coding many thousands of hours of video is impractical. An objective method is needed to identify driver behaviors suggestive of distracted or disengaged driving for automated computer vision analysis to access this rich source of data...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704630/relationship-between-bmi-and-fatigability-is-task-dependent
#17
Ranjana K Mehta, Lora Anne Cavuoto
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on fatigability of three different muscle groups at four different work intensities. METHODS: Forty-nine normal-weight, 50 overweight, and 43 obese adults (32.1 ± 9.2 years; 50% males) performed fatiguing handgrip, shoulder flexion, and trunk extension exertions at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the associated maximum voluntary contractions. RESULTS: Obese adults demonstrated 22% to 30% shorter endurance times than normal-weight adults, but this was only observed at lower intensities and with larger and more postural muscles of the shoulder and low back...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704629/enhanced-hazard-analysis-and-risk-assessment-for-human-in-the-loop-systems
#18
David Kaber, Maryam Zahabi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to enhance the existing system hazard analysis (SHA) technique by introducing the concepts of human and automation reliability quantification as well as fuzzy classification of system risks. These enhancements led to formulation of a new overall system risk-reliability score. BACKGROUND: Many system safety analysis methods focus on individual physical component failure. Some human reliability analyses (HRA) consider human-automation interaction in determining system failure rates...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704628/positive-affect-is-associated-with-reduced-fixation-in-a-realistic-medical-simulation
#19
Monique F Crane, Sue Brouwers, Kirsty Forrest, Suyin Tan, Thomas Loveday, Mark W Wiggins, Chris Munday, Leila David
OBJECTIVE: This study extends previous research by exploring the association between mood states (i.e., positive and negative affect) and fixation in practicing anesthetists using a realistic medical simulation. BACKGROUND: The impact of practitioner emotional states on fixation is a neglected area of research. Emerging evidence is demonstrating the role of positive affect in facilitating problem solving and innovation, with demonstrated implications for practitioner fixation...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570832/spearcons-for-patient-monitoring-laboratory-investigation-comparing-earcons-and-spearcons
#20
Simon Y W Li, Tsz-Lok Tang, Anna Hickling, Szeyuen Yau, Birgit Brecknell, Penelope M Sanderson
Objective We compared the effectiveness of single-tone earcons versus spearcons in conveying information about two commonly monitored vital signs: oxygen saturation and heart rate. Background The uninformative nature of many medical alarms-and clinicians' lack of response to alarms-is a widespread problem that can compromise patient safety. Auditory displays, such as earcons and spearcons (speech-based earcons), may help clinicians maintain awareness of patients' well-being and reduce their reliance on alarms...
August 2017: Human Factors
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