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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034447/c282y-h63d-hemochromatosis-mutations-and-microevolution-speculations-concerning-the-basque-population
#1
F Bauduer
The Basques live at the Western extremity of the Pyrenees. According to linguistic and genetic data they could be considered as one of the most ancient European populations. Numerous studies have evidenced particular patterns in the frequency of several genetic polymorphisms in this relatively unmixed human group. We discuss herein the puzzling distribution of the two major hemochromatosis HFE mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis. Thus, one can observe a low frequency of C282Y and, in contrast, one of the highest European frequencies of H63D...
December 19, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043653/fluctuating-asymmetry-in-dental-and-mandibular-nonmetric-traits-as-evidence-for-childcare-sex-bias-in-19th-20th-century-portugal
#2
L M Marado, A M Silva, J D Irish
Fluctuating asymmetry, often considered a measure of developmental instability, was studied in the dental morphological traits of 600 individuals from among the poorest sectors of society in 19th-20th century Portugal. The aims are to identify and interpret any differences between: (1) males and females, and (2) patterns of distribution among teeth with different odontogenic timings, to assess if any sex bias existed in childcare. Dental and mandibular morphological traits were recorded using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System...
December 15, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017294/variation-of-facial-features-among-three-african-populations-body-height-match-analyses
#3
M G Taura, L H Adamu, A Gudaji
Body height is one of the variables that show a correlation with facial craniometry. Here we seek to discriminate the three populations (Nigerians, Ugandans and Kenyans) using facial craniometry based on different categories of body height of adult males. A total of 513 individuals comprising 234 Nigerians, 169 Ugandans and 110 Kenyans with mean age of 25.27, s=5.13 (18-40 years) participated. Paired and unpaired facial features were measured using direct craniometry. Multivariate and stepwise discriminate function analyses were used for differentiation of the three populations...
December 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011080/reaction-time-norms-as-measured-by-ruler-drop-method-in-school-going-south-asian-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
V P Aranha, S Saxena, M Moitra, K Narkeesh, N Arumugam, A J Samuel
This study aimed to estimate normative range for reaction time using ruler drop method for school-going South Asian children between 6 and 12 years of age. A cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the reaction time for 204 children. Normal values for each age group were obtained. The results of multiple linear regressions showed a decrease in the reaction time values with age, and a significant change occurring between six and eight years of age. No difference in reaction time was obtained between boys and girls...
December 9, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024658/the-association-between-socioeconomic-status-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-polish-postmenopausal-women-from-urban-and-rural-communities
#5
M Kaczmarek, J Pacholska-Bogalska, W Kwaśniewski, J Kotarski, B Halerz-Nowakowska, A Goździcka-Józefiak
In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps...
December 1, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940070/on-the-antiquity-of-legg-calv%C3%A3-perthes-disease-skeletal-evidence-in-iron-age-italy
#6
V S Manzon, Z Ferrante, M Giganti, E Gualdi-Russo
Legg-Calvé-Perthes is a very rare disease involving childhood osteochondrosis of the femoral head due to interruption of its blood supply. The etiology is unknown. The signs of the pathology are well described in the literature but few paleopathological cases have been reported, mostly dating from Late Antiquity to Early Middle Ages. Here we report on morphometric and radiological analyses of a skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy, 6th-3rd century BCE), to our knowledge the most ancient case of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease published thus far...
November 28, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038772/dental-wear-quantity-and-direction-in-chalcolithic-and-medieval-populations-from-southwest-france
#7
Anne-Marie Grimoud, Victoria E Gibbon
The aim of this study was to verify if dental wear changed due to the dietary shift between the Chalcolithic and Middle Ages from relatively hard and fibrous foods to soft cooked cereals. This was accomplished by comparing dental wear quantity and direction between people from two archaeological sites, Les Treilles during the Chalcolithic (mixed subsistence farmers) and Marsan from the Middle Ages (agriculturalists) in southwest France. The materials studied include 65 mandibles, 32 from Les Treilles and 33 from Marsan; 549 teeth were studied...
November 27, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986276/assessment-of-the-variability-in-the-dimensions-of-the-intact-pelvic-canal-in-south-africans-a-pilot-study
#8
S Jagesur, A Wiid, S Pretorius, M C Bosman, A C Oettlé
Cephalopelvic disproportion is common among Africans and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. As the dimensions of the pelvis may vary between populations and according to stature and age, they need to be considered during childbirth and also in the planning and performance of pelvic and perineal procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the possible variations in the dimensions of the intact pelvic canal in South Africans and their implications. Eighty intact cadaver pelves, belonging to 40 white South Africans (20 males and 20 females) and 40 black South Africans (20 males and 20 females) were used for both metric and geometric morphometric analyses...
November 27, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027793/growth-of-the-maxillary-sinus-in-children-and-adolescents-a-longitudinal-study
#9
S L Smith, P H Buschang, P C Dechow
Maxillary sinus volumetric and surface area data and growth models from longitudinal samples of children and adolescents are presented. Cone-beam radiographic CT scans from two small retrospective longitudinal samples, one from the Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX (N=17, 12 females, 5 males, 10.9-17.4 years) and one from a group private orthodontic practice in Nevada (N=15, 9 females, 6 males, 6.4-13.4 years) were used to collect maxillary sinus volumes and surface areas from each individual imaged at two times separated by variable intervals...
November 4, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908490/y-chromosomal-haplogroup-distribution-in-the-tuzla-canton-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina-a-concordance-study-using-four-different-in-silico-assignment-algorithms-based-on-y-str-data
#10
S Dogan, N Babic, C Gurkan, A Goksu, D Marjanovic, V Hadziavdic
Y-chromosomal haplogroups are sets of ancestrally related paternal lineages, traditionally assigned by the use of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) markers. An increasingly popular and a less labor-intensive alternative approach has been Y-chromosomal haplogroup assignment based on already available Y-STR data using a variety of different algorithms. In the present study, such in silico haplogroup assignments were made based on 23-loci Y-STR data for 100 unrelated male individuals from the Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) using the following four different algorithms: Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor, Jim Cullen's World Haplogroup & Haplogroup-I Subclade Predictor, Vadim Urasin's YPredictor and the NevGen Y-DNA Haplogroup Predictor...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908489/parental-smoking-during-pregnancy-shortens-offspring-s-legs
#11
E Żądzińska, S Kozieł, B Borowska-Strugińska, I Rosset, A Sitek, W Lorkiewicz
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890321/computerized-and-fingertip-measures-of-reaction-time-compared-in-individuals
#12
B Gutnik, V Lyakh, D Gierczuk, D Nash
The main purpose of our study was to discover the correlation between the field fingertip and computerized methods of measuring reaction time selectively of the dominant and non-dominant hands for individual, non-trained, healthy young people of senior school age. Forty one, 17 year old, strongly right handed scholars, 21 boys and 20 girls with body mass indices between 18.5 and 25.0, participated in the experiment. The field fingertip method employed a metal metric ruler and the computerized method used the Vienna Test System...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890320/trepanation-in-the-late-bronze-age-and-early-iron-age-in-armenia
#13
A Yu Khudaverdyan
In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890319/diachronic-changes-in-size-and-shape-of-human-proximal-tibia-in-central-europe-during-the-latest-1200-years
#14
H Brzobohatá, V Krajíček, Z Horák, P Sedlak, J Velemínská
During the past twelve centuries, the stature of Central European inhabitants has increased significantly with corresponding changes in the size of lower limb bones. The aim of our study was to determine whether these changes have occurred strictly in relation to size or if the shape of skeletal structures has been altered simultaneously. Diachronic size and shape changes in the proximal part of tibia in a Central European population (Czech Republic) were studied using geometric morphometrics (principal components analysis, Hotelling's test, linear discriminant analysis)...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890318/the-mandibular-molar-pit-tubercle-mmpt-dental-nonmetric-trait-comprehensive-analysis-of-a-large-sample
#15
Luís Miguel Marado, Ana Maria Silva
Dental nonmetric traits are quasicontinous variables, mostly of genetic origin. Thus, sets of such traits allow biological distance estimation between samples. Mandibular molar pit-tubercle (MMPT) is a buccal trait defined by Weets (2009) in Irish samples. This study aims to analyze (a) trait frequencies, (b) grade definitions, (c) intraobserver error, (d) sexual dimorphism, (e) asymmetry, and (f) trait associations for MMPT in a Portuguese sample. The first (LM1), second (LM2) and third (LM3) lower molars of 600 identified individuals from the Coimbra collections were scored for MMPT in three scoring sessions...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890317/supernumerary-heads-to-biceps-brachii-muscle-and-asian-population-history
#16
N Techataweewan, Y Toomsan, C Maneenin, N Tungsrithong, N Tayles
Supernumerary heads of biceps brachii are one of the most common anatomic variants in the muscular system and appear to develop under genetic control and vary in prevalence among populations. Variation in prevalence and morphology therefore has the potential to contribute to understanding of human population history. Until now, there has been no publication of the prevalence of the variant in Southeast Asian populations. The aim of this research is to document the prevalence and morphology of the variant in a sample of Thai cadavers and to consider the significance of the findings...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890316/is-there-a-dependence-between-children-s-body-weight-and-the-concentration-of-metals-in-deciduous-teeth
#17
Agnieszka Fischer, Danuta Wiechuła
Malnutrition, manifested by both overweight and underweight, can lead to serious health consequences. The subject of the study was to determine the concentration of elements such as chromium (Cr), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in children's deciduous teeth in relation to their body weight. The calculated body mass index (BMI) values and an application of the growth chart showed that 59% of children among the studied sample had normal weight. In 41% of children, weight disorders were observed including underweight - 28% and overweight - 12%...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659542/assessing-size-and-strength-of-the-clavicle-for-its-usefulness-for-sex-estimation-in-a-british-medieval-sample
#18
Thomas Atterton, Isabelle De Groote, Constantine Eliopoulos
The construction of the biological profile from human skeletal remains is the foundation of anthropological examination. However, remains may be fragmentary and the elements usually employed, such as the pelvis and skull, are not available. The clavicle has been successfully used for sex estimation in samples from Iran and Greece. In the present study, the aim was to test the suitability of the measurements used in those previous studies on a British Medieval population. In addition, the project tested whether discrimination between sexes was due to size or clavicular strength...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659541/sexual-dimorphism-in-two-mediaeval-muslim-populations-from-spain
#19
D Charisi, Z Laffranchi, S A Jiménez-Brobeil
Sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly observed as a difference in the anatomy of genitals and breasts. There are also some differences in the stature and metric or morphological traits of the skeleton. Degree of sexual dimorphism varies among populations and depends on their genetic composition and various cultural and environmental factors. In this study, two Mediaeval Muslim populations from Granada, Spain, were compared, testing whether differences in living environment (urban vs. rural) would result in distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism of long bones...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659540/craniometric-examination-of-longxian-and-qi-li-cun-archaeological-sites-to-assess-population-continuity-in-ancient-northern-china
#20
Victoria E Gibbon, Tarun A Porter, Xiujie Wu, Wu Liu
In this paper, population continuity and discontinuity in northern China are explored using craniometric analyses from two archaeological sites, Longxian (Warring States) and Qi Li Cun (Han Dynasty). Neither population has been previously studied. Artefactual evidence shows the individuals from Qi Li Cun were Xianbei, descendants from Mongolia. Longxian is from further south in the central plains at an earlier time, thus, we expect to observe variability between these groups. In total, 24 cranial measurements were obtained on 66 crania from these sites...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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