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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175059/relationship-between-temperament-and-fatness-in-11-year-old-children-and-17-year-old-adolescents-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#1
S Kozieł, R Chakraborty, K Bose
Childhood obesity is increasing globally, and Poland is no exception. Studies indicate that relationship between obesity and psychological well-being is a complex issue and this needs further research. The objective of the present cross sectional study was to analyze the relationship between some temperament components and fatness among children in two developmental periods, approximately before and after adolescence. Participants included 122 children aged 11 years (57 boys and 65 girls), and 153 adolescents aged 17 years (64 boys and 89 girls) from 6 primary and 4 secondary schools in Wrocław, Poland...
November 23, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191383/growth-and-development-in-school-age-children-from-rostov-region-russia-comparison-between-urban-and-rural-settings
#2
V B Voynov, S N Kulba, Yu Yu Arapova
The purposes of the current study were: (1) to describe growth and physical development and establish norms for schoolchildren from Rostov region in Russia; (2) to compare major characteristics of development between urban and rural children by sex and age. Nearly 200,000 children (198,712) aged between 7 and 17 years from 232 urban and rural schools of Rostov region (Southern Federal District of Russia) participated in the study. School age is a period of intensive growth and physiological and psychological development...
November 11, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174055/regression-equations-for-the-estimation-of-stature-and-body-mass-using-a-greek-documented-skeletal-collection
#3
E Nikita, M-E Chovalopoulou
Body size is an important variable in bioarchaeological and forensic studies, making the accurate calculation of stature and body mass imperative. Given that anatomical and morphometric approaches offer accurate results but require a particularly good preservation of the skeletal material, whereas mathematical and mechanical methods are more easily applicable but they are largely population-specific, the present paper uses a 'hybrid' approach in order to generate regression equations for the prediction of stature and body mass in a modern Greek sample...
November 8, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180138/estimation-of-sex-in-a-contemporary-saudi-population-based-on-sternal-measurements-using-multidetector-computed-tomography
#4
A A Ahmed, F O Alshammari, A S Alrafiaah, A A Almohaisani, O A Al-Mohrej, F O Alkubaidan
Sex estimation is an essential step for identifying unknown individuals and usually depends on the presence of highly dimorphic bones, such as the pelvis and skull. Nevertheless, the body integrity can be compromised in certain circumstances, and these bones might be absent; therefore, the ability to use other bones for sex estimation is crucial. The aims of this study were to collect baseline data for sternal dimensions in Saudi adults, assess the existence of sexual dimorphism in the sternum, and generate population-specific equations to estimate sex using sternal dimensions...
November 7, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175061/sex-specific-reliability-and-multidimensional-stability-of-responses-to-tests-assessing-neuromuscular-function
#5
V Bernecke, K Pukenas, L Daniuseviciute, N Baranauskiene, H Paulauskas, N Eimantas, M Brazaitis
The objective of this study was to estimate sex-specific effects in the test-retest cross-reliability of peripheral and central changes in nonlinear and linear measures of a surface electromyography signal during a brief (5 second) and sustained (2minute) isometric maximal voluntary contraction, combined with superimposed electrical stimulation involving the ankle plantar flexors over five identical trials. In this study, we repeated the testing protocol used in our previous study of 10 women (age 20.9, SD=0...
November 7, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175060/evaluation-of-the-contribution-of-d9s1120-to-anthropological-studies-in-native-american-populations
#6
J A Aguilar-Velázquez, V Manuel Martínez-Sevilla, M Sosa-Macías, A González-Martin, J F Muñoz-Valle, H Rangel-Villalobos
The D9S1120 locus exhibits a population-specific allele of 9 repeats (9RA) in all Native American and two Siberian populations currently studied, but it is absent in other worldwide populations. Although this feature has been used in anthropological genetic studies, its impact on the evaluation of the structure and genetic relations among Native American populations has been scarcely assessed. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropological impact of D9S1120 when it was added to STR population datasets in Mexican Native American groups...
October 26, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079296/secular-trends-in-stature-of-late-20th-century-white-south-africans-and-two-european-populations
#7
J Myburgh, K Staub, F J Rühli, J R Smith, M Steyn
During the 20th century a general positive secular trend for stature is observed in developed countries around the world while shorter statures, often associated with a lack of a positive secular trend, have mostly been observed in populations with lower SES. The purpose of this study was to compare secular changes in stature between 20th century South Africans of European descent and two European populations. The comparative samples include Dutch males with which there is an assumed genetic relationship, and Swiss males for which the genetic association is less clear...
October 7, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032805/influence-of-socio-economic-status-and-television-watching-on-childhood-obesity-in-kolkata
#8
S Bharati, M Pal, S Shome, P Roy, P Dhara, P Bharati
Obesity is fast becoming an epidemic among the urban children and it has its adverse effect on the status of health even during adulthood. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the percentage of obesity among 6-10 year children and assess the effect of different socio-economic variables and TV watching on childhood obesity. We restricted our study to primary school-going children who attended classes I-IV. The sample consisted of 5216 children from 20 different Bengali medium and English medium schools in Kolkata...
September 20, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066093/anthropometric-dimensions-provide-reliable-estimates-of-abdominal-adiposity-a-validation-study
#9
Z Pintér, A Pósa, C Varga, I Horváth, A Palkó, Z Just, G Pálfi
Abdominal fat accumulation is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of developing accurate estimation equations based on body measurements to determine total abdominal (TFA), subcutaneous (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA). Hungarian volunteers (n=198) aged between 20 and 81 years were enrolled in the study, which was conducted between July and November 2014. All persons underwent anthropometric measurements and computer tomographic (CT) scanning...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032963/exploring-sex-differences-in-diets-and-activity-patterns-through-dental-and-skeletal-studies-in-populations-from-ancient-corinth-greece
#10
D E Michael, C Eliopoulos, S K Manolis
Sex and temporal differences are assessed in relation to dietary habits and activity patterns in three ancient populations from Corinth, Greece. The skeletal sample spans time from the Geometric to the Early Byzantine Period (9th c. BCE-5th c. CE). Dental caries and tooth wear have been proven to be reliable dietary indicators. Similarly, spinal osteoarthritis, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl's nodes, have been used to infer activity patterns.
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029754/oral-pathology-patterns-in-late-farmers-of-the-central-andes-a-comparative-perspective-between-coastal-and-highland-populations
#11
Luis Pezo-Lanfranco, Arturo Peralta, Sonia Guillén, Sabine Eggers
Aiming at future comparisons with earlier hunter-gatherers or transitional populations, this paper intends to characterize and describe the oral pathology pattern of late agriculturalists from Central Andes dating to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP) and Inca periods (1000-1532 CE), and identify differences and/or similarities between coastal and highland populations. Although the botanical inventories of the LIP suggest carbohydrate-rich diets and similar components, it has been hypothesized that coastal and highland populations had, nevertheless, substantially different oral pathology patterns...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987535/blood-sweat-and-plaster-casts-reviewing-the-history-composition-and-scientific-value-of-the-raymond-a-dart-collection-of-african-life-and-death-masks
#12
T M R Houlton, B K Billings
This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987534/talking-heads-morphological-variation-in-the-human-mandible-over-the-last-500-years-in-the-netherlands
#13
A M Bosman, S R Moisik, D Dediu, A Waters-Rist
The primary aim of this paper is to assess patterns of morphological variation in the mandible to investigate changes during the last 500 years in the Netherlands. Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics is used on data collected from adults from three populations living in the Netherlands during three time-periods. Two of these samples come from Dutch archaeological sites (Alkmaar, 1484-1574, n=37; and Middenbeemster, 1829-1866, n=51) and were digitized using a 3D laser scanner. The third is a modern sample obtained from MRI scans of 34 modern Dutch individuals...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939186/is-the-lateral-angle-of-the-internal-acoustic-canal-sexually-dimorphic-in-non-adults-an-investigation-by-routine-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
G O Afacan, T Onal, G Akansel, A S Arslan
The lateral angle of the internal acoustic canal is one of the measurements of petrous bone that has been previously studied for sex estimation, mostly in adults. We aimed at evaluating the effects of age, side, and sex on the lateral angle of the internal acoustic canal in pediatric patients. Pediatric routine cranial MRI studies were retrospectively investigated for this study. The lateral angle was measured on T2-weighted axial images when the anterior and posterior lips of the meatus and the cochlea were clearly visible on the same image...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867122/sexual-dimorphism-in-dermatoglyphic-traits-and-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-bulgarians-from-northeast-bulgaria
#15
Emilia Andreenko, Sofia Baltova
In parallel with the development of dermatoglyphics as a method of identification, data have been accumulated on the characteristics of fingerprints related to sex and ethnic origin which make up the statistical basis of this study. The aims of the present study are to determine phenotype variations in the asymmetry of dermatoglyphics in both sexes within the scope of the entire hand skin ridge system; to investigate correlations between the phenotypes; and, to assess the fluctuating asymmetry among the Bulgarian population from the region of northwest Bulgaria...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838744/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-tunisians-reveals-a-mosaic-genetic-structure-with-recent-population-expansion
#16
S Frigi, L Mota-Vieira, L Cherni, M van Oven, R Pires, S Boussetta, A Ben Ammar El-Gaaied
Tunisia is a country of great interest for human population genetics due to its strategic geographic position and rich human settlement history. These factors significantly contributed to the genetic makeup of present-day Tunisians harbouring components of diverse geographic origins. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of Tunisians by performing a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comparison of 15 Tunisian population groups, in order to explore their complex genetic landscape. All Tunisian data were also analysed against 40 worldwide populations...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764853/a-revised-method-for-the-preparation-of-dry-bone-samples-used-in-histological-examination-five-simple-steps
#17
J G García-Donas, A Dalton, I Chaplin, E F Kranioti
Histology of dry bone tissue has many scientific applications. The histological analysis of bone requires the production of good quality thin sections. Many researchers have developed new histological techniques and/or they have refined existing ones. In this paper, we describe a revision of histological techniques for obtaining thin sections from modern dry bone. The method is easy to apply and the equipment required is commonly found in a histology laboratory. In comparison to other techniques presented in the literature, this adapted method reduces the number of consumables and steps, thereby improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the procedure...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733025/revisiting-historical-khoe-san-skeletal-remains-in-european-collections-a-search-for-identity-through-craniometric-analysis
#18
D Botha, M Steyn, Y Scholtz, I Ribot
As the identity of a large number of Khoe-San skeletal material in European collections recently came into question during its documentation, a re-evaluation of the remains by employing a non-invasive method such as craniometrics was done to investigate the biological affinity. For this purpose, gene flow and population diversity present within the group, as well as between the study sample (N=63) and other modern and historic population groups from southern, central and east Africa were explored. Available comparative groups included the historic Khoe-San from Riet River (N=31), the Sotho-Tswana from southern Africa (N=61), the Basuku from central Africa (N=66) and the Bahutu (N=53) and Teita (N=24) from east Africa...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693827/giovanni-boccaccio-s-1313-1375-disease-and-demise-the-final-untold-tale-of-liver-and-heart-failure
#19
Francesco M Galassi, Fabrizio Toscano, Emanuele Armocida, Giovanni Spani, Michael Papio, Frank J Rühli
Giovanni Boccaccio's fatal disease(s) and cause of death have long remained a mystery. Now, for the first time, a thorough multidisciplinary reassessment has finally been carried out. By combining philological and clinical approaches, it is at last possible to suggest a solid retrospective diagnosis based upon a study of his correspondence, poetry and iconography, as well as references to his physical decay in coeval and later sources. It would appear that he suffered over the last three years of his life from hepatic and cardiac failure, conditions that resulted in edema and potentially even hepatic carcinoma...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625342/dental-investigation-of-mummies-from-the-capuchin-catacombs-of-palermo-circa-18th-19th-century-ce
#20
R Seiler, D Piombino-Mascali, F Rühli
Within the framework of the Sicily Mummy Project, the orofacial complex of a significant sample of individuals (n=111) from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy, was inspected. The heads and dentitions of the mummies were documented and the recorded findings described: the state of preservation of skeletal and soft tissues; dental pathologies such as carious lesions and alveolar bone loss; enamel hypoplasia; and ante- and post-mortem tooth loss. Despite limitations in data collection, the oral health of these mummies was assessed and the frequencies of pathologies were compared to those of similar populations...
August 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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