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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293668/the-asymmetry-of-dermatoglyphic-finger-ridge-counts-and-the-geographic-altitude-of-the-jujenean-population-in-northwest-argentina
#1
J E Dipierri, E Gutiérrez-Redomero, N Rivaldería, M C Alonso-Rodríguez, E Alfaro
Asymmetry is omnipresent in the living world and therefore is a measure of developmental noise and instability. The main stressing agent in high-altitude ecosystems is hypobaric hypoxia. The variation in bilateral dermatoglyphic symmetry in populations from the Province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina is analyzed, and these results are compared to those for other populations with different ethnic and environmental backgrounds. Fingerprints were collected from 310 healthy students (140 males and 170 females) aged 18-20 years from three localities in Jujuy Province-Abra Pampa (3484 m above sea level), Humahuaca (2939 m above sea level), and San Salvador de Jujuy (1260 m above sea level)...
September 29, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30274660/union-of-the-medial-clavicular-epiphysis-in-a-south-african-black-skeletal-sample
#2
T Mahon, L J Friedling, G M Gordon
Current research points to an increase in the interest in and focus on the age at which the medial end of the clavicle begins and completes union in various populations worldwide. As it currently stands, no information exists for the South African population detailing the age at which this skeletal developmental marker commences or completes union. The aim of this study was to establish the age at which partial and complete unions occur and to find if there is any correlation between the age and the assigned stage score in a South African Black skeletal sample...
September 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269926/sex-estimation-from-cranial-morphological-traits-use-of-the-methods-across-american-indians-modern-north-americans-and-ancient-egyptians
#3
K Godde, M M Thompson, S M Hens
This paper focuses on estimating sex by visual assessment of human cranial morphology. Practitioners in the field report variation in sexual dimorphism across populations. This study evaluates again the general hypothesis that populations vary in their pattern of sexual dimorphism. Specifically, the study tests the degree of expression of four cranial morphological traits (glabella, supraorbital margins, nuchal crest, and mastoid process) across three samples from different time periods and which vary in sociocultural transitions: 1) modern Americans of rural and urban areas spanning the last 186 years; 2) Dynastic Egyptians; and 3) Averbuch American Indians, spanning approximately 1255 CE to 1425 CE, from the southeastern United States...
September 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269925/secular-trend-in-growth-and-nutritional-status-in-a-sample-of-girls-aged-7-9-years-from-serbia
#4
T M Pavlica, R S Rakić, B K Popović, V P Puškaš
Secular trend changes over time and therefore is a marker of the public health of the populations. The aim of the study is to compare the anthropometric data of 7-9 year-old girls obtained in recent investigations in Serbia with data from 1980/81, by using Z-score and percentile classification systems, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC anthropometric criteria. In 1980 and 1981 we used data for 800 schoolgirls aged 6.50-9.49 years. The data for the period 2011-2016 were obtained from recently conducted field investigations in certain parts of the Vojvodina region and from the East and Central Serbia...
September 19, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236856/juvenile-scurvy-from-late-medieval-knin-croatia
#5
D Nikitovic, P Rajić Šikanjić
In this study, we examine the scurvy associated skeletal lesions among juveniles from the late Medieval site Uzdolje-Grablje in Croatia. The study aims to establish a demographic pattern of scurvy using existing diagnostic criteria. The sample consists of 16 well-preserved and fairly complete juveniles, excavated from a cemetery dating to 1420-1920. Skeletal remains were analyzed macroscopically for signs of porosity and new bone formation. Scurvy is diagnosed using the "Ortner criteria" of cranial and postcranial lesions...
September 5, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219584/hemihyperplasia-history-of-medicine-assists-medical-genetics
#6
Michael Shterenshis, Yulia Roitblat, Sari Rosenberg, Monica Singer, Jeanne Lumbroso
This paper examines the role of the history of medicine in case of congenital isolated hemihyperplasia. Isolated hemihyperplasia is a genetic disorder in which one side of the body grows more than the other, causing visible lateral asymmetry of the human body. The date of the occurrence of the genetic mutation that leads to hemihyperplasia is not known yet. The aim of the current research was to confirm or to disprove the fact that isolated hemihyperplasia was first described in the first half of the 19th century...
September 1, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213448/age-estimation-accuracies-from-black-south-african-os-coxae
#7
M Jones, G Gordon, D Brits
The accurate estimation of age is considered important from an ethical, legal and archaeological perspective. Among the numerous methods based on macroscopic skeletal studies for age estimation, the Brooks and Suchey (1990) method for aging from the pubic symphysis and the Buckberry and Chamberlain (2002) method for aging from the auricular surface are considered more reliable. However, both these methods have been derived from American populations. Therefore, the following study aimed to assess the accuracy of the estimation of age-at-death from morphological age related changes seen on the pubic symphysis and the auricular surface in a black South African population...
August 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172355/biological-living-standards-in-north-korea-as-reflected-in-famine-to-post-famine-trends-in-birthweight-1998-2009
#8
D Schwekendiek
This research investigates the trend in birthweight as an indicator of living conditions in early life inside North Korea, one of the most secluded nations in the world that experienced a great famine in the 1990s. Descriptive analysis based on data taken from officially released national nutrition survey reports suggests that prevalence of low birthweight (= below 2500 g) declined from 9.0% in the famine year of 1998-5.7% in the post-famine period of 2009. Mean birthweight improved from 2800 g in 1998-2940 g in 2002, although more recent surveys await implementation...
August 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143235/bone-mineral-density-hand-grip-strength-smoking-status-and-physical-activity-in-polish-young-men
#9
Anna Kopiczko, Karol Gryko, Monika Łopuszańska-Dawid
The human skeleton undergoes constant changes encompassing the phases of growth, consolidation and involution of the bone tissue. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and such factors as hand grip strength, somatic structure or attitudes to tobacco smoking in men with different levels of physical activity. The study included 172 males aged 20-30 years. Mineral density and forearm bone mass were measured using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139618/altered-shapes-same-people-scaphocephaly-in-the-early-modern-bucharest
#10
A D Soficaru, C Ionică, M Constaninescu, M Enyedi
Premature sagittal suture synostosis was identified in eight specimens dated between the 18th and 20th centuries CE, of which seven are kept within the Rainer Osteological Collection in Bucharest and one was retrieved from the archaeologically investigated Saint Sava Church Cemetery. Our study focused on metric measurements, aiming to compare these specimens with three other samples comprising normal and scaphocephalic individuals, with both a Romanian and worldwide distribution. In total, 374 individuals were used in this study...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131179/a-diachronic-examination-of-biomechanical-changes-in-skeletal-remains-from-tombos-in-ancient-nubia
#11
Victoria E Gibbon, Michele R Buzon
Using morphometric assessment, we diachronically analyse mechanical stress and limb function at the Tombos (modern Sudan) archaeological site through time and changing socioeconomic circumstances. Based on previous research, we expect that during the Third Intermediate/Napatan (c. 1070-656 BCE) people were larger and more physically active than in the New Kingdom (∼1400-1070 BCE). On the appendicular skeleton of adults 57 measurements were obtained on individuals from 67 discrete burials and 370 commingled skeletal elements...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122644/women-s-height-in-several-african-countries-in-the-first-half-of-the-20th-century
#12
M E Danubio, F Masedu
Height and its variations in time are considered useful indicators of living conditions in countries and in periods where no written sources are available. Majority of data refer to male stature, whereas data concerning female stature are limited and cover only a short span. This paper investigates the height of 456 women in 6 African countries, born around the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The objective is to provide information on the stature of females from those areas at that time and to compare the results with those from the literature, which refer to more recent times...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097171/comparison-of-cranial-fluctuating-asymmetry-between-normal-and-pathological-specimens-from-a-modern-thai-skeletal-group
#13
Hyunwoo Jung, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
The purpose of this study was to compare fluctuating asymmetry (FA) levels across cranial modules of normal and pathological cranial specimens. It was examined whether pathological specimens have significantly higher FA scores than normal specimens in cranial regions affected by a developmental disorder. For this study, a modern Thai skeletal sample from Chulalongkorn University was analyzed. Ninety-two cranial landmarks were digitized on 66 adult and eight sub-adult normal specimens and on five pathological specimens including two adults with abnormal palates, two sub-adults with craniosynostosis, and one sub-adult with natal absence of nasal bones...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064824/descriptive-characteristics-of-the-area-of-origin-of-the-deltoid-muscle-on-the-human-clavicle-is-it-necessary-to-include-new-terms-in-the-terminologia-anatomica
#14
M A Villarroel, P A Lizana
The clavicular portion of the deltoid muscle (CPDM) in the human clavicle does not have a nomenclature in the Terminologia Anatomica (TA). This area is relevant in anatomy since the muscle participates in motions of glenohumeral articulation. The aim of this study was to describe the origin of the CPDM and to propose a name for the structure. Dry clavicles of 176 adults were studied, without distinction by sex. An osteometric board was used to measure the maximum length of the clavicles and a digital caliper to measure length of the CPDM's origin, distance from the origin to the sternal end, distance from the origin to the acromial end, distance of the lateral third and middle vertical diameter...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055809/a-new-analysis-interpreting-nilotic-relationships-and-peopling-of-the-nile-valley
#15
K Godde
The process of the peopling of the Nile Valley likely shaped the population structure and early biological similarity of Egyptians and Nubians. As others have noted, affinity among Nilotic populations was due to an aggregation of events, including environmental, linguistic, and sociopolitical changes over a great deal of time. This study seeks to evaluate the relationships of Nubian and Egyptian groups in the context of the original peopling event. Cranial nonmetric traits from 18 Nubian and Egyptian samples, spanning Lower Egypt to Lower Nubia and approximately 7400 years, were analyzed using Mahalanobis D2 as a measure of biological distance...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055808/an-association-between-adult-lifespan-and-stature-in-preindustrial-lithuanian-populations-analysis-of-skeletons
#16
Š Jatautis, A Suchomlinov, R Jankauskas
The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that no relationship between maximal living stature and adult lifespan had existed in prehistoric and historic Lithuanian populations. The sample analyzed consisted of 1713 skeletons of adult individuals who died between the 2nd century CE and the beginning of the 19th century CE, collected from 118 archaeological sites located in the current territory of Lithuania. A cumulative logit model was applied to model ordinal age-related changes in the auricular surface and the pubic symphysis (measures of lifespan) as a function of maximal length of femur (an indicator of maximal living stature), sex, burial site and its chronology as a proxy for the place of residence and period...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029775/sexual-dimorphism-in-human-facial-expressions-by-3d-surface-processing
#17
M Jandová, P Urbanová
Human face is a dynamic system where facial expressions can rapidly modify geometry of facial features. Facial expressions are believed to be universal across world populations, but only a few studies have explored whether grimacing is sexually dimorphic and if so to what extent. The present paper explores inter- and intra-individual variation of human facial expressions with respect to individual's sex based on a set of neutral and expression-varying 3D facial scans. The study sample composed of 20 individuals (10 males and 10 females) for whom 120 scans featuring grimaces associated with disgust, surprise, "u" sound, smile and wide smile were collected by an optical scanner Vectra XT...
May 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017379/spatial-diffusion-of-surnames-by-long-transhumance-routes-between-highland-and-lowland-a-study-in-sardinia
#18
A Orrù, S De Iasio, P Frederic, M Girotti, R Boano, E Sanna
RIASSUNTO.
May 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017378/sinistrality-is-associated-with-slightly-lower-general-intelligence-a-data-synthesis-and-consideration-of-the-secular-trend-in-handedness
#19
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Heitor B F Fernandes, Satoshi Kanazawa, Edward Dutton
The relationship between the general factor of intelligence (g) and handedness is investigated using a combined sample of 23511 respondents from three large databases: the NLSY'79 (US), NLSY'97 (US) and NCDS (UK). Dextrals - those who use their right hands were found to be 1.22 IQ points higher than sinistrals (left handers) after controlling for sex and age and correcting for sources of measurement error. To see if the association between IQ and handedness was strongest on the abilities that were the best measures of g, the method of correlated vectors was used to test for moderation...
May 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017377/differences-in-the-auxological-characters-of-children-with-short-stature-differential-diagnostic-possibilities-of-hypothyreosis
#20
R Daniš, M Hill, P Sedlak
This study aimed to define the differences in growth characteristics in the three most frequent causes of growth retardation - growth hormone deficiency, hypothyreosis and constitutional delay of growth and development - in order to provide diagnostic means for distinguishing these disorders. The study included 166 children with growth disorders aged 4-18 years. The height for age, the bone age using the TW3 method, the predicted height as the target height and the current prediction using the TW3 method were studied...
May 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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