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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908490/y-chromosomal-haplogroup-distribution-in-the-tuzla-canton-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina-a-concordance-study-using-four-different-in-silico-assignment-algorithms-based-on-y-str-data
#1
S Dogan, N Babic, C Gurkan, A Goksu, D Marjanovic, V Hadziavdic
Y-chromosomal haplogroups are sets of ancestrally related paternal lineages, traditionally assigned by the use of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) markers. An increasingly popular and a less labor-intensive alternative approach has been Y-chromosomal haplogroup assignment based on already available Y-STR data using a variety of different algorithms. In the present study, such in silico haplogroup assignments were made based on 23-loci Y-STR data for 100 unrelated male individuals from the Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) using the following four different algorithms: Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor, Jim Cullen's World Haplogroup & Haplogroup-I Subclade Predictor, Vadim Urasin's YPredictor and the NevGen Y-DNA Haplogroup Predictor...
November 1, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890321/computerized-and-fingertip-measures-of-reaction-time-compared-in-individuals
#2
B Gutnik, V Lyakh, D Gierczuk, D Nash
The main purpose of our study was to discover the correlation between the field fingertip and computerized methods of measuring reaction time selectively of the dominant and non-dominant hands for individual, non-trained, healthy young people of senior school age. Forty one, 17 year old, strongly right handed scholars, 21 boys and 20 girls with body mass indices between 18.5 and 25.0, participated in the experiment. The field fingertip method employed a metal metric ruler and the computerized method used the Vienna Test System...
October 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890319/diachronic-changes-in-size-and-shape-of-human-proximal-tibia-in-central-europe-during-the-latest-1200-years
#3
H Brzobohatá, V Krajíček, Z Horák, P Sedlak, J Velemínská
During the past twelve centuries, the stature of Central European inhabitants has increased significantly with corresponding changes in the size of lower limb bones. The aim of our study was to determine whether these changes have occurred strictly in relation to size or if the shape of skeletal structures has been altered simultaneously. Diachronic size and shape changes in the proximal part of tibia in a Central European population (Czech Republic) were studied using geometric morphometrics (principal components analysis, Hotelling's test, linear discriminant analysis)...
October 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890320/trepanation-in-the-late-bronze-age-and-early-iron-age-in-armenia
#4
A Yu Khudaverdyan
In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury...
October 4, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890317/supernumerary-heads-to-biceps-brachii-muscle-and-asian-population-history
#5
N Techataweewan, Y Toomsan, C Maneenin, N Tungsrithong, N Tayles
Supernumerary heads of biceps brachii are one of the most common anatomic variants in the muscular system and appear to develop under genetic control and vary in prevalence among populations. Variation in prevalence and morphology therefore has the potential to contribute to understanding of human population history. Until now, there has been no publication of the prevalence of the variant in Southeast Asian populations. The aim of this research is to document the prevalence and morphology of the variant in a sample of Thai cadavers and to consider the significance of the findings...
October 1, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890318/the-mandibular-molar-pit-tubercle-mmpt-dental-nonmetric-trait-comprehensive-analysis-of-a-large-sample
#6
Luís Miguel Marado, Ana Maria Silva
Dental nonmetric traits are quasicontinous variables, mostly of genetic origin. Thus, sets of such traits allow biological distance estimation between samples. Mandibular molar pit-tubercle (MMPT) is a buccal trait defined by Weets (2009) in Irish samples. This study aims to analyze (a) trait frequencies, (b) grade definitions, (c) intraobserver error, (d) sexual dimorphism, (e) asymmetry, and (f) trait associations for MMPT in a Portuguese sample. The first (LM1), second (LM2) and third (LM3) lower molars of 600 identified individuals from the Coimbra collections were scored for MMPT in three scoring sessions...
September 20, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890316/is-there-a-dependence-between-children-s-body-weight-and-the-concentration-of-metals-in-deciduous-teeth
#7
Agnieszka Fischer, Danuta Wiechuła
Malnutrition, manifested by both overweight and underweight, can lead to serious health consequences. The subject of the study was to determine the concentration of elements such as chromium (Cr), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in children's deciduous teeth in relation to their body weight. The calculated body mass index (BMI) values and an application of the growth chart showed that 59% of children among the studied sample had normal weight. In 41% of children, weight disorders were observed including underweight - 28% and overweight - 12%...
September 19, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659542/assessing-size-and-strength-of-the-clavicle-for-its-usefulness-for-sex-estimation-in-a-british-medieval-sample
#8
Thomas Atterton, Isabelle De Groote, Constantine Eliopoulos
The construction of the biological profile from human skeletal remains is the foundation of anthropological examination. However, remains may be fragmentary and the elements usually employed, such as the pelvis and skull, are not available. The clavicle has been successfully used for sex estimation in samples from Iran and Greece. In the present study, the aim was to test the suitability of the measurements used in those previous studies on a British Medieval population. In addition, the project tested whether discrimination between sexes was due to size or clavicular strength...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659541/sexual-dimorphism-in-two-mediaeval-muslim-populations-from-spain
#9
D Charisi, Z Laffranchi, S A Jiménez-Brobeil
Sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly observed as a difference in the anatomy of genitals and breasts. There are also some differences in the stature and metric or morphological traits of the skeleton. Degree of sexual dimorphism varies among populations and depends on their genetic composition and various cultural and environmental factors. In this study, two Mediaeval Muslim populations from Granada, Spain, were compared, testing whether differences in living environment (urban vs. rural) would result in distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism of long bones...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659540/craniometric-examination-of-longxian-and-qi-li-cun-archaeological-sites-to-assess-population-continuity-in-ancient-northern-china
#10
Victoria E Gibbon, Tarun A Porter, Xiujie Wu, Wu Liu
In this paper, population continuity and discontinuity in northern China are explored using craniometric analyses from two archaeological sites, Longxian (Warring States) and Qi Li Cun (Han Dynasty). Neither population has been previously studied. Artefactual evidence shows the individuals from Qi Li Cun were Xianbei, descendants from Mongolia. Longxian is from further south in the central plains at an earlier time, thus, we expect to observe variability between these groups. In total, 24 cranial measurements were obtained on 66 crania from these sites...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650853/what-to-expect-from-an-evolutionary-hypothesis-for-a-human-disease-the-case-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
Milind Watve, Manawa Diwekar-Joshi
Evolutionary medicine has a promise to bring in a conceptual revolution in medicine. However, as yet the field does not have the same theoretical rigour as that of many other fields in evolutionary studies. We discuss here with reference to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) what role an evolutionary hypothesis should play in the development of thinking in medicine. Starting with the thrifty gene hypothesis, evolutionary thinking in T2DM has undergone several transitions, modifications and refinements of the thrift family of hypotheses...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369814/the-influence-of-climate-on-age-at-menarche-augmented-with-the-influence-of-ancestry
#12
Kitae Sohn
Samples representative of South Korea, Indonesia, and Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the influence of climate on age at menarche was investigated. The sample size was 24,651 for Korea (birth years 1941-1992), for Indonesia 8331 (birth years 1944-1988) plus 20,519 (birth years 1978-1997), and 2842 for Peninsular Malaysia (birth years 1927-1968). Respondents recalled their age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was calculated for each birth year by country, and for Malaysia, additionally by ancestry...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255160/an-analysis-of-the-origin-of-an-early-medieval-group-of-individuals-from-gr%C3%A3-dek-based-on-the-analysis-of-stable-oxygen-isotopes
#13
A Lisowska-Gaczorek, S Kozieł, B Cienkosz-Stepańczak, K Mądrzyk, J Pawlyta, S Gronkiewicz, M Wołoszyn, K Szostek
In the early Middle Ages, the region of the Cherven Towns, which is now located on both sides of the Polish-Ukrainian border, was fiercely contested by Slavs in the process of forming their early states. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the homogeneity of an early medieval population uncovered in that region, in the town of Gródek on the Bug River, by screening for non-local individuals. The origin of the studied skeletons was ascertained using analysis of oxygen isotopes in the phosphates isolated from bone tissue...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238548/does-age-difference-really-matter-facial-markers-of-biological-quality-and-age-difference-between-husband-and-wife
#14
D P Danel, A Dziedzic-Danel, K Kleisner
Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157866/age-related-changes-in-pelvis-size-among-adolescent-and-adult-females-with-reference-to-parturition-from-naraingarh-haryana-india
#15
Krishan Sharma, Puneet Gupta, Shailza Shandilya
This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132876/a-morphometric-analysis-of-prognathism-and-evaluation-of-the-gnathic-index-in-modern-humans
#16
K M Lesciotto, L L Cabo, H M Garvin
Subnasal prognathism is a morphological feature often described in studies of paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, and forensic anthropology. This trait is commonly quantified using the gnathic index, which compares basion-prosthion and basion-nasion lengths. This study used geometric morphometrics to assess whether the gnathic index is a reliable indicator of subnasal prognathism and to explore the effects of sex, population, and allometry on this trait. Nineteen craniofacial landmarks were collected from three-dimensional cranial surface scans of 192 individuals across five population groups...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107785/os-parietale-partitum-exploring-the-prevalence-of-this-trait-in-four-contemporary-populations
#17
P S Almeida Prado, J G Garcia-Donas, H Langstaff, E Cunha, P Kyriakou, E F Kranioti
Os parietale partitum is a variable segmentation of the parietal bone. This manifests as a parietal division in the anteroposterior or superoinferior planes that is separated by an unusual suture and can be complete or incomplete. The existence of parietal divisions was observed and documented more than 260 years ago. The main objectives of this paper are to record the incidence of this rare trait in four modern populations with no previous records of it and provide a review of the literature. Four contemporary skeletal collections from Crete (Greece), Limassol (Cyprus), Coimbra (Portugal) and Salvador (Brazil) were assessed by the authors of this paper for non-metric cranial traits...
August 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908489/parental-smoking-during-pregnancy-shortens-offspring-s-legs
#18
E Żądzińska, S Kozieł, B Borowska-Strugińska, I Rosset, A Sitek, W Lorkiewicz
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire...
June 29, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181627/fatness-of-female-field-hockey-players-comparison-of-estimates-with-different-methods
#19
M Krzykała, J M Konarski, R M Malina, K Rachwalski, P Leszczyński, E Ziółkowska-Łajp
The aim of the study was to compare relative body fat (% fat) in female field hockey players using several methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. Participants were 31 Polish hockey players 16-30 years of age, 17 national and 14 youth level. Percent body fat was estimated by DXA (reference method), conventional and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and predicted from skinfolds (SKF). National and youth team members did not differ in estimated body fat. Correlations between BIA and skinfold estimates of % fat and DXA % fat though significant, were moderate...
May 6, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129623/phenotypic-characteristics-of-adolescents-with-concave-and-convex-facial-profiles-the-national-health-examination-survey
#20
P P Hujoel, A-M Bollen, K C J Yuen, I A Hujoel
It has been suggested that facial traits are informative on the inherited susceptibility to tuberculosis and obesity, two current global health issues. Our aim was to compare the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents with dental markers for a concave (n=420), a convex (n=978), and a straight (n=3542) facial profile in a nationally representative sample of United States adolescents. The results show that adolescents with a concave facial profile, when compared to a straight facial profile, had an increased waist-to-height ratio (Δ, 1...
April 18, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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