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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514571/influence-of-maternal-height-on-children-s-health-status-and-mortality-a-cross-sectional-study-in-poor-roma-communities-in-rural-serbia
#1
Jelena Čvorović
To determine possible variations in children's health status and mortality associated with variations in maternal stature, an anthropometric and demographic study was conducted in a Roma population of poor socio-economic status in rural Serbia. Data were collected during several years of anthropological fieldwork. The sample consisted of 691 women, ranging from 16 to 80 years of age. In addition to stature, Roma women's demographics, reproductive history, reproductive outcomes and health status of their children were collected...
November 27, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501895/the-mental-foramen-a-cone-beam-ct-study-of-the-horizontal-location-size-and-sexual-dimorphism-amongst-living-jordanians
#2
Firas Alsoleihat, Farah A Al-Omari, Ayat R Al-Sayyed, Ayah A Al-Asmar, Ameen Khraisat
Accurate information regarding the horizontal location and size of mental foramen (MF) has a well-known clinical importance. In addition, these variables have been reported to exhibit inter-population variation. The aims of the present study were to study the horizontal position and size of MF, as seen on cone beam CT (CBCT) images, and to assess sexual dimorphism in these variables. Total of 139 CBCT images of a random Jordanian sample (50 males, 89 females, average age = 43.5, SD = 13.0, range = 23-69 years) were included...
November 24, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501896/a-palaeopathological-analysis-of-skeletal-remains-from-bronze-age-mongolia
#3
S Karstens, J Littleton, B Frohlich, T Amgaluntugs, K Pearlstein, D Hunt
Little is known about the lifeways of the people who inhabited the Mongolian steppe during the Bronze Age (c. 4450-2650 BP). Palaeopathological analysis allows us to draw inferences about the lifeways of past people from the indicators of health and lifestyle recorded in human remains. This paper presents results of analysis of the remains of 25 individuals excavated in northern Mongolia. Overall, the remains demonstrated very little pathology. In particular the lack of evidence for both infectious and non-communicable diseases, along with the patterns of dental pathology indicate a group of people who experienced few health insults and little stress...
November 23, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477712/mitochondrial-dna-diversity-of-the-roma-from-northeastern-bosnia-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#4
Adisa Ahmic, Belma Kalamujic, Anel Ismailovic, Lejla Lasic, Emir Halilovic, Irma Mujkic, Naris Pojskic
This study is the first report on the mtDNA diversity in the Roma population from Bosnia. The main aim of this study was to analyse the mtDNA diversity in the studied population, evaluate the genetic relations with other European Roma populations, and analyse the influences of the Roma gene flow on the mitochondrial profile of the Roma from northeastern Bosnia. MtDNA variability in the analysed population has been studied by means of hypervariable segment I and II (HVSI/II) of the control region sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment-length polymorphisms of the coding region...
November 7, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392739/reevaluation-of-the-earlobe-types-in-koreans
#5
K E Kim, W J Song, D K Kim
The shape of the earlobes has a variety of genetic significance. This study analyzed the frequencies of the earlobe shapes in the Korean population. Data were collected on randomly selected 500 males and 500 females in Daegu Metropolitan City, with all participant ages being in their twenties. Obtuse angled earlobes accounted for 41.2% of the earlobes observed, while acute angled earlobes prevalence was calculated at 38.8% and right angled earlobe was 20.0% of the total (sexes combined). In men, the acute angled earlobe was the most frequent type (43...
October 29, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409395/illuminating-the-processes-of-microevolution-a-bioarchaeological-analysis-of-dental-non-metric-traits-from-armenian-highland
#6
A Yu Khudaverdyan
Non-metric dental traits provide useful information for assessing temporal changes as well as for assessing biological relationships among living and ancient populations. Dental morphological traits were employed in this study as direct indicators of biological affinities among the populations that inhabited the Armenian Highland from the Late Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age to Modern times. Sixteen morphological features in 2643 permanent adult teeth from 41 samples coming from 5 areas within the Armenian Highland were scored...
October 10, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463675/differential-evolution-of-cerebral-and-cerebellar-fossae-in-recent-homo-a-new-methodological-approach
#7
M A Cabestrero-Rincón, A Balzeau, C Lorenzo
The endocranium shows the influence of the shape and development of brain tissues and overall brain modifications. During the late Upper Pleistocene and Holocene smaller brains appeared and the higher position of endinion relative to inion might indicate changes in cerebellar and occipital lobes. In previous studies, the depths of the cerebral and cerebellar fossae were not specifically considered; new tools for quantitatively measuring these irregular, problematic curved areas need to be developed. This paper's main objective is to investigate to what degree changes in the fossae's depths of extant humans have occurred with respect to fossil anatomically modern humans (AMH) and older Homo species...
October 9, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340759/new-linear-regression-equations-to-calculate-body-height-from-tibial-length-in-modern-maya-populations
#8
Saul Chay, José Batún, Alonso Vázquez-Gómez, Vera Tiesler, Federico Dickinson
Height cannot always be measured directly, hence the need for height estimation formulae. This study presents two new linear regression equations for estimating height from tibial length among Maya populations. Body height and percutaneous tibial length were measured in two living Maya samples from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The first sample comprises 100 adults (63 females and 37 males) from the community of Dzemul, (Group 1) and the second sample comprises 71 adults (26 females and 45 males) from the city of Mérida (Group 2)...
September 29, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293668/the-asymmetry-of-dermatoglyphic-finger-ridge-counts-and-the-geographic-altitude-of-the-jujenean-population-in-northwest-argentina
#9
J E Dipierri, E Gutiérrez-Redomero, N Rivaldería, M C Alonso-Rodríguez, E Alfaro
Asymmetry is omnipresent in the living world and therefore is a measure of developmental noise and instability. The main stressing agent in high-altitude ecosystems is hypobaric hypoxia. The variation in bilateral dermatoglyphic symmetry in populations from the Province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina is analyzed, and these results are compared to those for other populations with different ethnic and environmental backgrounds. Fingerprints were collected from 310 healthy students (140 males and 170 females) aged 18-20 years from three localities in Jujuy Province-Abra Pampa (3484 m above sea level), Humahuaca (2939 m above sea level), and San Salvador de Jujuy (1260 m above sea level)...
September 29, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337063/determinants-of-demographic-characteristics-of-the-lamkang-tribe-manipur
#10
Gangaina Kameih, Gautam K Kshatriya
The present study provides the demographic account of the Lamkang tribe of Manipur who suffered the bottleneck effect in 1840s and 1992. The objectives are: (i) to determine the age-sex composition of the Lamkang, (ii) to see the sex disparity among the Lamkang (iii) to examine the various biological and social factors that govern the fertility pattern among the Lamkang tribe of Manipur. The present study reveals that the Lamkang population is showing tendency towards fertility transition as evident from the population pyramid...
September 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30274660/union-of-the-medial-clavicular-epiphysis-in-a-south-african-black-skeletal-sample
#11
T Mahon, L J Friedling, G M Gordon
Current research points to an increase in the interest in and focus on the age at which the medial end of the clavicle begins and completes union in various populations worldwide. As it currently stands, no information exists for the South African population detailing the age at which this skeletal developmental marker commences or completes union. The aim of this study was to establish the age at which partial and complete unions occur and to find if there is any correlation between the age and the assigned stage score in a South African Black skeletal sample...
September 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269926/sex-estimation-from-cranial-morphological-traits-use-of-the-methods-across-american-indians-modern-north-americans-and-ancient-egyptians
#12
K Godde, M M Thompson, S M Hens
This paper focuses on estimating sex by visual assessment of human cranial morphology. Practitioners in the field report variation in sexual dimorphism across populations. This study evaluates again the general hypothesis that populations vary in their pattern of sexual dimorphism. Specifically, the study tests the degree of expression of four cranial morphological traits (glabella, supraorbital margins, nuchal crest, and mastoid process) across three samples from different time periods and which vary in sociocultural transitions: 1) modern Americans of rural and urban areas spanning the last 186 years; 2) Dynastic Egyptians; and 3) Averbuch American Indians, spanning approximately 1255 CE to 1425 CE, from the southeastern United States...
September 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269925/secular-trend-in-growth-and-nutritional-status-in-a-sample-of-girls-aged-7-9-years-from-serbia
#13
T M Pavlica, R S Rakić, B K Popović, V P Puškaš
Secular trend changes over time and therefore is a marker of the public health of the populations. The aim of the study is to compare the anthropometric data of 7-9 year-old girls obtained in recent investigations in Serbia with data from 1980/81, by using Z-score and percentile classification systems, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC anthropometric criteria. In 1980 and 1981 we used data for 800 schoolgirls aged 6.50-9.49 years. The data for the period 2011-2016 were obtained from recently conducted field investigations in certain parts of the Vojvodina region and from the East and Central Serbia...
September 19, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236856/juvenile-scurvy-from-late-medieval-knin-croatia
#14
D Nikitovic, P Rajić Šikanjić
In this study, we examine the scurvy associated skeletal lesions among juveniles from the late Medieval site Uzdolje-Grablje in Croatia. The study aims to establish a demographic pattern of scurvy using existing diagnostic criteria. The sample consists of 16 well-preserved and fairly complete juveniles, excavated from a cemetery dating to 1420-1920. Skeletal remains were analyzed macroscopically for signs of porosity and new bone formation. Scurvy is diagnosed using the "Ortner criteria" of cranial and postcranial lesions...
September 5, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219584/hemihyperplasia-history-of-medicine-assists-medical-genetics
#15
Michael Shterenshis, Yulia Roitblat, Sari Rosenberg, Monica Singer, Jeanne Lumbroso
This paper examines the role of the history of medicine in case of congenital isolated hemihyperplasia. Isolated hemihyperplasia is a genetic disorder in which one side of the body grows more than the other, causing visible lateral asymmetry of the human body. The date of the occurrence of the genetic mutation that leads to hemihyperplasia is not known yet. The aim of the current research was to confirm or to disprove the fact that isolated hemihyperplasia was first described in the first half of the 19th century...
September 1, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213448/age-estimation-accuracies-from-black-south-african-os-coxae
#16
M Jones, G Gordon, D Brits
The accurate estimation of age is considered important from an ethical, legal and archaeological perspective. Among the numerous methods based on macroscopic skeletal studies for age estimation, the Brooks and Suchey (1990) method for aging from the pubic symphysis and the Buckberry and Chamberlain (2002) method for aging from the auricular surface are considered more reliable. However, both these methods have been derived from American populations. Therefore, the following study aimed to assess the accuracy of the estimation of age-at-death from morphological age related changes seen on the pubic symphysis and the auricular surface in a black South African population...
August 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172355/biological-living-standards-in-north-korea-as-reflected-in-famine-to-post-famine-trends-in-birthweight-1998-2009
#17
D Schwekendiek
This research investigates the trend in birthweight as an indicator of living conditions in early life inside North Korea, one of the most secluded nations in the world that experienced a great famine in the 1990s. Descriptive analysis based on data taken from officially released national nutrition survey reports suggests that prevalence of low birthweight (= below 2500 g) declined from 9.0% in the famine year of 1998-5.7% in the post-famine period of 2009. Mean birthweight improved from 2800 g in 1998-2940 g in 2002, although more recent surveys await implementation...
August 21, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143235/bone-mineral-density-hand-grip-strength-smoking-status-and-physical-activity-in-polish-young-men
#18
Anna Kopiczko, Karol Gryko, Monika Łopuszańska-Dawid
The human skeleton undergoes constant changes encompassing the phases of growth, consolidation and involution of the bone tissue. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and such factors as hand grip strength, somatic structure or attitudes to tobacco smoking in men with different levels of physical activity. The study included 172 males aged 20-30 years. Mineral density and forearm bone mass were measured using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139618/altered-shapes-same-people-scaphocephaly-in-the-early-modern-bucharest
#19
A D Soficaru, C Ionică, M Constaninescu, M Enyedi
Premature sagittal suture synostosis was identified in eight specimens dated between the 18th and 20th centuries CE, of which seven are kept within the Rainer Osteological Collection in Bucharest and one was retrieved from the archaeologically investigated Saint Sava Church Cemetery. Our study focused on metric measurements, aiming to compare these specimens with three other samples comprising normal and scaphocephalic individuals, with both a Romanian and worldwide distribution. In total, 374 individuals were used in this study...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131179/a-diachronic-examination-of-biomechanical-changes-in-skeletal-remains-from-tombos-in-ancient-nubia
#20
Victoria E Gibbon, Michele R Buzon
Using morphometric assessment, we diachronically analyse mechanical stress and limb function at the Tombos (modern Sudan) archaeological site through time and changing socioeconomic circumstances. Based on previous research, we expect that during the Third Intermediate/Napatan (c. 1070-656 BCE) people were larger and more physically active than in the New Kingdom (∼1400-1070 BCE). On the appendicular skeleton of adults 57 measurements were obtained on individuals from 67 discrete burials and 370 commingled skeletal elements...
July 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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