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Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615110/an-accident-at-work-traumatic-lesions-in-the-skeleton-of-a-4th-millennium-bce-wagon-driver-from-sharakhalsun-russia
#1
K Tucker, N Berezina, S Reinhold, A Kalmykov, A Belinskiy, J Gresky
The study of ante-mortem trauma is a popular and important aspect of palaeopathological analysis. The majority of publications focus on a particular assemblage, skeletal element or type of fracture, with case studies of single individuals with multiple/unusual traumata being much rarer in the literature. This paper presents the case of an adult male from the Bronze Age site of Sharakhalsun, Russia, buried, uniquely, in a sitting position on a fully assembled wagon, who displayed evidence for multiple healed ante-mortem fractures of the cranium, axial and appendicular skeleton...
June 1, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625342/dental-investigation-of-mummies-from-the-capuchin-catacombs-of-palermo-circa-18th-19th-century-ce
#2
R Seiler, D Piombino-Mascali, F Rühli
Within the framework of the Sicily Mummy Project, the orofacial complex of a significant sample of individuals (n=111) from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy, was inspected. The heads and dentitions of the mummies were documented and the recorded findings described: the state of preservation of skeletal and soft tissues; dental pathologies such as carious lesions and alveolar bone loss; enamel hypoplasia; and ante- and post-mortem tooth loss. Despite limitations in data collection, the oral health of these mummies was assessed and the frequencies of pathologies were compared to those of similar populations...
May 31, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576560/the-study-of-dental-occlusion-in-ancient-skeletal-remains-from-mallorca-spain-a-new-approach-based-on-dental-clinical-practice
#3
E Fiorin, P Ibáñez-Gimeno, J Cadafalch, A Malgosa
Occlusal characteristics, fundamental to assess the presence of malocclusion, have been often unexplored in bioarchaeological analyses. This is largely due to the fragmented condition of the skeletal remains. By applying a method that considers dental and maxillary features useful to evaluate occlusion in ancient fragmentary material, the purpose of this work is to define the occlusal features and explore the causes of malocclusion in a mediaeval population from Mallorca. The findings of this study suggest that normocclusion was present in ca...
May 10, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549622/multiple-abnormalities-in-the-feet-and-associated-changes-elsewhere-in-the-skeleton-the-case-of-3a-7-from-a-capsian-site-in-algeria
#4
M Jackes, M Parent, D Lubell
A skeleton with a number of abnormalities is described involving full discussion of alternative diagnoses. In this complex case, the primary diagnosis is of avulsion of the stem of the bifurcate ligament causing a fracture of the anterior process of the calcaneus. The bilateral fracture identified in Skeleton 3A-7 from Site 12, a Capsian site in Algeria, is a result of the feet being inverted and plantar flexed: the fracture is prone to non-union, which is asymmetrical here. There is also a separate anatomical variation of the feet, 3rd cuneiform and 3rd metatarsal coalition, which was not the cause of trauma...
May 5, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416164/morphological-variability-of-the-earlobe-in-a-spanish-population-sample
#5
O Rubio, V Galera, M C Alonso
This article shows the morphological variability of the earlobe in a Spanish population of European origin. The frequencies of four lobe characteristics (attachment, contour, modeling, and size) and their degree of expression were studied. The relationship among the characteristics and the differences involving sex and laterality were also considered. The least frequent morphology, and of main use in solving forensic cases, was the very small size with triangle-pulled contour into the skin and crossed-discontinuous modeling...
March 29, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404241/discrete-morphological-variants-of-human-cervical-vertebrae-exploring-pattern-of-distribution-and-biological-significance
#6
M K Karapetian
Studies on discrete traits of the human cervical vertebrae, appearing at certain intervals during the last century, posed some questions regarding evolutionary processes that human cervical spine underwent during phylogenesis. To address questions of significance of these morphological traits we need first a good knowledge of the extent of their variation in modern humans. The aim of the current work was to integrate available data on the occurrence of various non-metric traits in the human cervical spine and search for the pattern of their distribution on intra- and inter-population levels...
May 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483274/predictive-factors-for-alveolar-fenestration-and-dehiscence
#7
A-M Grimoud, V E Gibbon, I Ribot
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and incidence of two forms of alveolar bone resorption known as fenestration and dehiscence across time and space. To accomplish this a Medieval French population was studied and the results were compared with other studies to examine incidence and distribution of alveolar bone resorption. Thus, 1175 teeth were analysed for 81 individuals, from an agropastoral Medieval (12th-14th century) archaeological site of Vilarnau located in the South of France...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404240/determination-of-the-post-mortem-interval-in-skeletal-remains-by-the-comparative-use-of-different-physico-chemical-methods-are-they-reliable-as-an-alternative-to-14-c
#8
Alberto Amadasi, Annalisa Cappella, Cristina Cattaneo, Pacifico Cofrancesco, Lucia Cucca, Daniele Merli, Chiara Milanese, Andrea Pinto, Antonella Profumo, Valentina Scarpulla, Emanuela Sguazza
The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a challenging aspect in the forensic field. Previous studies focused their attention on different macroscopic and morphological aspects but a thorough and complete evaluation of the potential of chemical and physical analyses in this field of research has not been performed. In addition to luminol test and Oxford histology index (OHI) reported in a recent paper, widely spread and accessible methods based on physical aspect and chemical characteristics of skeletal remains have been investigated as potential alternatives to dating by determination of (14)C...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400060/factors-influencing-diurnal-variation-in-height-among-adults
#9
B Floyd, L Jayasinghe, C Dey
This study evaluates height loss during the day in light of variables assessable through participant self-report. Participants were 19 female and 15 male staff and students who met with us twice with a mean interval between measurement sessions of 6.96h (SD=0.86). Hypotheses were evaluated using two-stage least squares regression analysis (SYSTAT 10). Males and females lost similar amounts of height between sessions (male,x¯=6.9mm;female,x¯=7.4mm). Among factors considered to impact overall height loss, sleep duration (Adj...
March 19, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365126/prehistoric-funerary-complexity-in-northern-iberia-studied-by-using-dental-morphology
#10
Diego López-Onaindia, M Eulàlia Subirà
During the Neolithic Age and afterwards, several funerary practices coexisted in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. According to archaeological data, there was a coexistence of sepulchral caves and megalithic monuments at the end of the Neolithic, following the dominance of open-air pit burials during the Middle Neolithic. The aim of this work is to analyze the biological relationships between individuals representing those cultures, based on their dental morphology - the first such attempt...
March 9, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363458/ardipithecus-ramidus-and-the-evolution-of-language-and-singing-an-early-origin-for-hominin-vocal-capability
#11
Gary Clark, Maciej Henneberg
In this paper we analyse the possibility that the early hominin Ardipithecus ramidus had vocal capabilities far exceeding those of any extant non-human primate. We argue that erect posture combined with changes in craniofacial morphology, such as reduced facial and jaw length, not only provide evidence for increased levels of pro-sociality, but also increased vocal ability. Reduced length of the face and jaw, combined with a flexed cranial base, suggests the larynx in this species was situated deeper in the neck than in chimpanzees, a trait which may have facilitated increased vocal ability...
March 8, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365125/development-of-subcutaneous-fat-in-spanish-and-latin-american-children-and-adolescents-reference-values-for-biceps-triceps-subscapular-and-suprailiac-skinfolds
#12
M D Marrodán, M González-Montero de Espinosa, Á Herráez, E L Alfaro, I F Bejarano, M Carmenate, D B Lomaglio, N López-Ejeda, A Martínez, M S Mesa, B Méndez Pérez, J M Meléndez, S Moreno-Romero, J L Pacheco, V Vázquez, J E Dipierri
Subcutaneous fat skinfolds represent a reliable assessment instrument of adiposity status. This study provides current percentile references for four subcutaneous skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac) applicable to children and adolescents in Spain and in Latin American countries where data are scarce. The design consisted of a cross-sectional multicenter study performed with identical methods in 5 countries (Argentina, Cuba, Mexico, Spain and Venezuela). Total sample comprised 9163 children and youths (boys 4615 - girls 4548) aged 6-18 years, healthy and without apparent pathologies...
February 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242083/association-of-five-snps-with-human-hair-colour-in-the-polish-population
#13
A Siewierska-Górska, A Sitek, E Żądzińska, G Bartosz, D Strapagiel
Twenty-two variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) of the genes involved in hair pigmentation (OCA2, HERC2, MC1R, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, TYRP1) were genotyped in a group of 186 Polish participants, representing a range of hair colours (45 red, 64 blond, 77 dark). A genotype-phenotype association analysis was performed. Using z-statistics we identified three variants highly associated with different hair colour categories (rs12913832:A>G in HERC2, rs1805007:T>C and rs1805008:C>T in MC1R)...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238406/the-effect-of-trauma-on-neanderthal-culture-a-mathematical-analysis
#14
W Nakahashi
Traumatic lesions are often observed in ancient skeletal remains. Since ancient medical technology was immature, severely traumatized individuals may have frequently lost the physical ability for cultural skills that demand complex body movements. I develop a mathematical model to analyze the effect of trauma on cultural transmission and apply it to Neanderthal culture using Neanderthal fossil data. I estimate from the data that the proportion of adult individuals who suffered traumatic injuries before death was approximately 0...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034447/c282y-h63d-hemochromatosis-mutations-and-microevolution-speculations-concerning-the-basque-population
#15
F Bauduer
The Basques live at the Western extremity of the Pyrenees. According to linguistic and genetic data they could be considered as one of the most ancient European populations. Numerous studies have evidenced particular patterns in the frequency of several genetic polymorphisms in this relatively unmixed human group. We discuss herein the puzzling distribution of the two major hemochromatosis HFE mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis. Thus, one can observe a low frequency of C282Y and, in contrast, one of the highest European frequencies of H63D...
January 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043653/fluctuating-asymmetry-in-dental-and-mandibular-nonmetric-traits-as-evidence-for-childcare-sex-bias-in-19th-20th-century-portugal
#16
L M Marado, A M Silva, J D Irish
Fluctuating asymmetry, often considered a measure of developmental instability, was studied in the dental morphological traits of 600 individuals from among the poorest sectors of society in 19th-20th century Portugal. The aims are to identify and interpret any differences between: (1) males and females, and (2) patterns of distribution among teeth with different odontogenic timings, to assess if any sex bias existed in childcare. Dental and mandibular morphological traits were recorded using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System...
December 15, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017294/variation-of-facial-features-among-three-african-populations-body-height-match-analyses
#17
M G Taura, L H Adamu, A Gudaji
Body height is one of the variables that show a correlation with facial craniometry. Here we seek to discriminate the three populations (Nigerians, Ugandans and Kenyans) using facial craniometry based on different categories of body height of adult males. A total of 513 individuals comprising 234 Nigerians, 169 Ugandans and 110 Kenyans with mean age of 25.27, s=5.13 (18-40 years) participated. Paired and unpaired facial features were measured using direct craniometry. Multivariate and stepwise discriminate function analyses were used for differentiation of the three populations...
December 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011080/reaction-time-norms-as-measured-by-ruler-drop-method-in-school-going-south-asian-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
V P Aranha, S Saxena, M Moitra, K Narkeesh, N Arumugam, A J Samuel
This study aimed to estimate normative range for reaction time using ruler drop method for school-going South Asian children between 6 and 12 years of age. A cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the reaction time for 204 children. Normal values for each age group were obtained. The results of multiple linear regressions showed a decrease in the reaction time values with age, and a significant change occurring between six and eight years of age. No difference in reaction time was obtained between boys and girls...
December 9, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024658/the-association-between-socioeconomic-status-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-polish-postmenopausal-women-from-urban-and-rural-communities
#19
M Kaczmarek, J Pacholska-Bogalska, W Kwaśniewski, J Kotarski, B Halerz-Nowakowska, A Goździcka-Józefiak
In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps...
December 1, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908490/y-chromosomal-haplogroup-distribution-in-the-tuzla-canton-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina-a-concordance-study-using-four-different-in-silico-assignment-algorithms-based-on-y-str-data
#20
S Dogan, N Babic, C Gurkan, A Goksu, D Marjanovic, V Hadziavdic
Y-chromosomal haplogroups are sets of ancestrally related paternal lineages, traditionally assigned by the use of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) markers. An increasingly popular and a less labor-intensive alternative approach has been Y-chromosomal haplogroup assignment based on already available Y-STR data using a variety of different algorithms. In the present study, such in silico haplogroup assignments were made based on 23-loci Y-STR data for 100 unrelated male individuals from the Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) using the following four different algorithms: Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor, Jim Cullen's World Haplogroup & Haplogroup-I Subclade Predictor, Vadim Urasin's YPredictor and the NevGen Y-DNA Haplogroup Predictor...
December 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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