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Thomas Englund, Lina Strömstedt, Anna M Johansson
In this study part of the mitochondrial D-loop was sequenced in a total of 40 samples from nine Swedish local chicken breeds. Among our 40 samples we observed 15 segregating sites and seven different haplotypes. The most common haplotype was present in all investigated individuals in five breeds and together with other haplotypes in three breeds. This haplotype is common in domestic chickens and has been found in both local and commercial breeds in many parts of the world. The breed Ölandshöna was most different from the other Swedish breeds with all three individuals sharing a haplotype that differed from the most common haplotype at nine of the 15 segregating sites...
December 2014: Hereditas
Xueling Ye, Tiefeng Song, Chang Liu, Hui Feng, Zhiyong Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt noncoding RNAs that influence the phenotypes of different species through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a few model plants, less is known about miRNAs specific to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, two libraries of cucumber RNA, one based on fruit samples and another based on mixed samples from leaves, stems, and roots, were prepared for deep-sequencing. A total of 110 sequences were matched to known miRNAs in 47 families, while 56 sequences in 46 families are newly identified in cucumber...
December 2014: Hereditas
Birgit Brockmann, Helena Mastel, Franz Oswald, Dieter Maier
Notch signalling mediates intercellular communication, which is effected by the transcription factor CSL, an acronym for vertebrate CBF1/RBP-J, Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and C. elegans Lag1. Nuclear import of CBF1/RBP-J depends on co-activators and co-repressors, whereas the export relies on RITA. RITA is a tubulin and CBF1/RBP-J binding protein acting as a negative regulator of Notch signalling in vertebrates. RITA protein is highly conserved in eumatazoa, but no Drosophila homologue was yet identified...
December 2014: Hereditas
Xiu-Hua Zhang, Wen-Bo Zhang, Xue-Hui Fan
We studied and established a DNA database of 15 Y-STRs (DYS438, DYS446, DYS391, DYS390, DYS458, DYS534, DYS426, DYS626, DYS504, DYS505, DYS576, DYS532, DYS594, DYS522, DYS540) in a population sample of 102 unrelated, healthy, male individuals of Henan Han population. Allelic frequencies and statistical parameters of Han population were calculated. Totally 90 alleles were observed, with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0098 to 0.9020. 102 haplotypes were found in the studied group, the haplotype diversity for 15 Y-STR loci was 1...
December 2014: Hereditas
Ke Wang, Shahidul Islam, Junhong Ma, Masood Anwar, Jing Chen, Yueming Yan, Rudi Appels, Wujun Ma
Wheat bread-making quality is mainly determined by glutenin proteins in the grain, which exist in a wide range of variable alleles with differential influence on processing attributes. A recently identified allele, Bx7 over-expression (Bx7(oe) ), has been showing highly significant positive effects on wheat dough strength over the normally expressed Bx7 allele. SDS-PAGE and normal RP-HPLC procedures failed to separate the two alleles. In the current study, an extensively optimised MALDI-TOF based procedure and a refined DNA based marker for efficiently differentiating Bx7(oe) from normal Bx7 allele were established...
December 2014: Hereditas
Marja-Liisa Koljonen, Riho Gross, Jarmo Koskiniemi
For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish...
December 2014: Hereditas
Elisa Wurmbach, Anette Preiss
The Enhancer of split complex [E(spl)-C] comprises twelve genes of different classes. Seven genes encode proteins of with a basic-helix-loop-helix-orange (bHLH-O) domain that function as transcriptional repressors and serve as effectors of the Notch signalling pathway. They have been named E(spl)m8-, m7-, m5-, m3-, mβ-, mγ- and mδ-HLH. Four genes, E(spl)m6-, m4-, m2- and mα-BFM are intermingled and encode Notch repressor proteins of the Bearded-family (BFM). The complex is split by a single gene of unrelated function, encoding a Kazal-type protease inhibitor (Kaz-m1)...
December 2014: Hereditas
Lorenzo Maggioni, Roland von Bothmer, Gert Poulsen, Ferdinando Branca, Rikke Bagger Jørgensen
Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations...
December 2014: Hereditas
Lili Zhang, Xianjiang Zhong, Zhiguo An, Shuxian Han, Xiao Luo, Yongyong Shi, Qizhong Yi
GRM8 is a schizophrenia candidate gene that is also thought to be involved in the glutamate pathway, which is very important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between GRM8 and schizophrenia in the Uygur Chinese population. Rs2237748 and rs2299472, located in the GRM8 gene, were selected for genotyping in a set of Uygur Chinese case-control samples, which included 723 cases and 561 controls, using TaqMan assays and capillary sequencing. The statistical analysis was carried out using the online software program SHEsis, and a meta-analysis was carried out to identify other relevant studies using Review Manager 5...
December 2014: Hereditas
Bengt O Bengtsson
In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern...
December 2014: Hereditas
Anssi Saura
Two papers published in HEREDITAS between 1921 and 1939 show how the attitude towards race biology changed in the course of the interwar period in the Nordic countries. In the early 1920s race biology was seen to constitute a legitimate science. Ordinary human genetics prevailed, however, over race biology already in the very beginning on the pages of HEREDITAS. Population thinking was introduced into the study of human heredity around the year 1930. It effectively contradicted the concept of the race. Interestingly, HEREDITAS does not carry a single paper on eugenics and sterilization...
December 2014: Hereditas
Stefan Baumgartner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Hereditas
Mattias Höglund, Bengt O Bengtsson
The Mendelian Society in Lund was founded in 1910. The initiative came from two young biologists supported by a wide circle of interested plant breeders and academics. Already from the start the society was dominated by the towering personality Herman Nilsson-Ehle. After two active years, the Society went into temporal hibernation until it resumed its activities in spring 1916, when Nilsson-Ehle was on his way to become Sweden's first professor of genetics. One of the aims of the Society was to launch a scientific journal for local scientists directed at an international audience...
December 2014: Hereditas
Udda Lundqvist
In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s...
December 2014: Hereditas
Waheeb K Heneen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Hereditas
Monika Bugno-Poniewierska, Przemysław Solek, Mariusz Wronski, Leszek Potocki, Grażyna Jezewska-Witkowska, Maciej Wnuk
The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status...
December 2014: Hereditas
Anja C Nagel, Anette Preiss
Cellular differentiation during eumetazoan development is based on highly conserved signalling pathways. Two of them, the Notch and the EGFR signalling pathways, are closely intertwined. We have identified two potential target sites of the Mitogen activated kinase (MAPK), the downstream effector kinase of EGFR, within Hairless (H), the major antagonist of Notch signalling in Drosophila. Assuming that phosphorylation of these sites modulates H activity, a direct influence of EGFR signalling on Notch pathway regulation might be possible...
October 2014: Hereditas
Mbaki Muzila, Gun Werlemark, Rodomiro Ortiz, Jasna Sehic, Moneim Fatih, Moffat Setshogo, Wata Mpoloka, Hilde Nybom
The genus Harpagophytum has two species: H. procumbens which is an important medicinal plant in southern Africa, and H. zeyheri. Genetic diversity in 96 samples, obtained by germinating seeds collected from Botswana, was assessed using six inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. These DNA markers yielded a total of 138 polymorphic bands. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 for ISSR primers, and from 0.09 to 0.43 for RAPD primers...
October 2014: Hereditas
Elnura Torutaeva, Abdybek Asanaliev, Maria Luisa Prieto-Linde, Anna Zborowska, Rodomiro Ortiz, Tomas Bryngelsson, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson
The genetic diversity of 23 chickpea accessions representing Kyrgyz landraces and cultivars, ICARDA breeding lines, Spanish and Turkish cultivars was characterized using nine microsatellite (SSR) markers which generated a total of 122 alleles. The number of alleles (Na) per locus varied from 9 to 20. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged between 0.05 and 0.43 (average 0.13) whereas both the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.90 (average 0.83). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 62% of the total genetic variation was found within accessions while the remaining 38% was found among accessions...
October 2014: Hereditas
Dilek Deǧirmenci Karataş, Hüseyin Karataş, Valérie Laucou, Gölge Sarikamiş, Leila Riahi, Roberto Bacilieri, Patrice This
Wild grapevine genetic diversity in southeast Turkey has not been documented to date. In the present work, in order to clarify the relationships between wild and cultivated grape accessions from southeastern Turkey, 22 nuclear and three chloroplast microsatellite loci were used on 21 wild grapevine Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin) and 13 cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa accessions. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from 4 (VVIn16) to 20 (VVIv67) and the mean allele number per locus was 10...
October 2014: Hereditas
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