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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325749/the-nca-1-and-nca-2-ion-channels-function-downstream-of-gq-and-rho-to-regulate-locomotion-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Irini Topalidou, Pin-An Chen, Kirsten Cooper, Shigeki Watanabe, Erik M Jorgensen, Michael Ailion
The heterotrimeric G protein Gq positively regulates neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. Previously, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio was identified as a direct effector of Gq that acts in parallel to the canonical Gq effector phospholipase C. Here we examine how Trio and Rho act to stimulate neuronal activity downstream of Gq in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Through two forward genetic screens, we identify the cation channels NCA-1 and NCA-2, orthologs of mammalian NALCN, as downstream targets of the Gq/Rho pathway...
March 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315838/germline-proliferation-is-regulated-by-somatic-endocytic-genes-via-jnk-and-bmp-signaling-in-drosophila
#2
Yaning Tang, Qing Geng, Di Chen, Shaowei Zhao, Xian Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Signals derived from the microenvironment contribute greatly to tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism requires thorough investigation. Here, we use Drosophila testis as a model system to address this question, taking the advantage of the ease to distinguish germline and somatic cells and to track the cell numbers. In an EMS mutagenesis screen, we identified Rab5, a key factor in endocytosis, for its non-autonomous role in germline proliferation. The disruption of Rab5 in somatic cyst cells, which escort the development of germline lineage, induced the over-proliferation of under-differentiated but genetically wild-type germ cells...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315837/a-search-for-genes-mediating-the-growth-promoting-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-disc
#3
Covadonga F Hevia, Ana López-Varea, Nuria Esteban, Jose F de Celis
TGFβ signalling has a complex influence in cell proliferation, acting to stop cell division in differentiating cells, but also promoting cell division in immature cells. The activity of the pathway in Drosophila is mostly required to stimulate the proliferation of neural and epithelial tissues. Most interestingly, this function is not absolutely required for cell division, but it is needed for these tissues to reach their correct size. It is not known how TGFβ signalling promotes cell division in imaginal discs, or what are the interactions between TGFβ activity and other signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315836/a-phylogenetic-codon-substitution-model-for-antibody-lineages
#4
Kenneth B Hoehn, Gerton Lunter, Oliver G Pybus
Phylogenetic methods have shown promise in understanding the development of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages (bNAbs). However, the mutational process that generates these lineages -- somatic hypermutation -- is biased by hotspot motifs, which violates important assumptions in most phylogenetic substitution models. Here, we develop a modified GY94-type substitution model that partially accounts for this context-dependency while preserving independence of sites during calculation. This model shows a substantially better fit to three well-characterized bNAb lineages than the standard GY94 model...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315835/prophage-provide-a-safe-haven-for-adaptive-exploration-in-temperate-viruses
#5
Lindi M Wahl, Tyler Pattenden
Prophage sequences constitute a substantial fraction of the temperate virus gene pool. Although subject to mutational decay, prophage sequences can also be an important source of adaptive mutations for these viral populations. Here we develop a life-history model for temperate viruses, including both the virulent (lytic) and the temperate phases of the life cycle. We then examine the survival of mutations that increase fitness during the lytic phase (attachment rate, burst size), increase fitness in the temperate phase (increasing host survival), or affect transitions between the two phases (integration or induction probability)...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292919/molecular-determinants-of-the-regulation-of-development-and-metabolism-by-neuronal-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Warakorn Kulalert, Harini Sadeeshkumar, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Dennis H Kim
Cell-non-autonomous effects of signaling in the nervous system of animals can influence diverse aspects of organismal physiology. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Ser49 of eIF2α in two chemosensory neurons by PEK-1/PERK promotes entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into dauer diapause. Here, we identified and characterized the molecular determinants that confer sensitivity to effects of neuronal eIF2α phosphorylation on development and physiology of C. elegans Isolation and characterization of mutations in eif-2B...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292918/non-homologous-end-joining-with-minimal-sequence-loss-is-promoted-by-the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-ctp1-complex-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#7
Yanhui Li, Jinyu Wang, Gang Zhou, Michael Lajeunesse, Nga Le, Brittany N Stawicki, Yalitza Lopez Corcino, Kathleen L Berkner, Kurt W Runge
While the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex has known roles in repair processes like homologous recombination and microhomology-mediated end-joining, its role in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is unclear as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals have different requirements for repairing cut DNA ends. Most double-strand breaks (DSBs) require nucleolytic processing prior to DNA ligation. We therefore studied repair using the Hermes transposon, whose excision leaves a DSB capped by hairpin ends similar to structures generated by palindromes and trinucleotide repeats...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292917/paternal-genome-elimination-in-liposcelis-booklice-insecta-psocodea
#8
Christina N Hodson, Phineas T Hamilton, David Dilworth, Chris J Nelson, Caitlin I Curtis, Steve J Perlman
How sex is determined in insects is diverse and dynamic, and includes male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy. In many insect lineages, sex determination is either completely unknown or poorly studied. We studied sex determination in Psocodea, a species-rich order of insects that includes parasitic lice, barklice, and booklice. We focus on a recently discovered species of Liposcelis booklice (Troctomorpha: Psocodea), which are among the closest free-living relatives of parasitic lice. Using genetic, genomic, and immunohistochemical approaches, we show that this group exhibits paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual mode of sex determination that involves genomic imprinting...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283540/extrinsic-repair-of-injured-dendrites-as-a-paradigm-for-regeneration-by-fusion-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Meital Oren-Suissa, Tamar Gattegno, Veronika Kravtsov, Benjamin Podbilewicz
Injury triggers regeneration of axons and dendrites. Research identified factors required for axonal regeneration outside the CNS, but little is known about regeneration triggered by dendrotomy. Here we study neuronal plasticity triggered by dendrotomy and determine the fate of complex PVD arbors following laser surgery of dendrites. We find that severed primary dendrites grow towards each other and reconnect via branch fusion. Simultaneously, terminal branches lose self-avoidance and grow towards each other, meeting and fusing at the tips via an AFF-1-mediated process...
March 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280056/comparative-analyses-of-selection-operating-on-non-translated-intergenic-regions-of-diverse-bacterial-species
#10
Harry A Thorpe, Sion C Bayliss, Laurence D Hurst, Edward J Feil
Non-translated intergenic regions (IGRs) comprise 10-15% of bacterial genomes, and contain many regulatory elements with key functions. Despite this, there are few systematic studies on the strength and direction of selection operating on IGRs in bacteria using whole genome sequence datasets. Here we exploit representative whole genome datasets from six diverse bacterial species; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli We compare patterns of selection operating on IGRs using two independent methods; the proportion of singleton mutations, and the dI/dS ratio; where dI is the number of intergenic SNPs per intergenic site...
March 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258184/germ-granules-prevent-accumulation-of-somatic-transcripts-in-the-adult-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#11
Andrew Kekūpaʻa Knutson, Thea Egelhofer, Andreas Rechtsteiner, Susan Strome
The germ cells of multicellular organisms protect their developmental potential through specialized mechanisms. A shared feature of germ cells from worms to humans is the presence of non-membrane-bound ribonucleoprotein organelles called germ granules. Depletion of germ granules in Caenorhabditis elegans (i.e., P granules) leads to sterility and in some germlines expression of the neuronal transgene unc-119::gfp and the muscle myosin MYO-3. Thus, P granules are hypothesized to maintain germ cell totipotency by preventing somatic development, although the mechanism by which P granules carry out this function is unknown...
March 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258183/the-bacterial-sequential-markov-coalescent
#12
Nicola De Maio, Daniel J Wilson
Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree...
March 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258182/annealing-of-complementary-dna-sequences-during-double-strand-break-repair-in-drosophila-is-mediated-by-the-ortholog-of-smarcal1
#13
Julie Korda Holsclaw, Jeff Sekelsky
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) pose a serious threat to genomic integrity. If unrepaired, they can lead to chromosome fragmentation and cell death. If repaired incorrectly, they can cause mutations and chromosome rearrangements. DSBs are repaired using end-joining or homology-directed repair strategies, with the predominant form of homology-directed repair being synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). SDSA is the first defense against genomic rearrangements and information loss during DSB repair, making it a vital component of cell health and an attractive target for chemotherapeutic development...
March 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258181/a-pooled-sequencing-approach-identifies-a-candidate-meiotic-driver-in-drosophila
#14
Kevin H-C Wei, Hemakumar M Reddy, Chandramouli Rathnam, Jimin Lee, Deanna Lin, Shuqing Ji, James M Mason, Andrew G Clark, Daniel A Barbash
Meiotic drive occurs when a selfish element increases its transmission frequency above the Mendelian ratio by hijacking the asymmetric divisions of female meiosis. Meiotic drive causes genomic conflict and potentially has a major impact on genome evolution, but only a few drive loci of large effect have been described. New methods to reliably detect meiotic drive are therefore needed, particularly for discovering moderate-strength drivers that are likely to be more prevalent in natural populations than strong drivers...
March 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249986/coordination-of-double-strand-break-repair-and-meiotic-progression-in-yeast-by-a-mek1-ndt80-negative-feedback-loop
#15
Evelyn Prugar, Cameron Burnett, Xiangyu Chen, Nancy M Hollingsworth
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by crossovers and sister chromatid cohesion. Interhomolog crossovers are generated by the highly regulated repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs). The meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, is critical for this regulation. Mek1 down-regulates the mitotic recombinase Rad51, indirectly promoting interhomolog strand invasion by the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Mek1 also promotes the formation of crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference and is the effector kinase for a meiosis-specific checkpoint that delays entry into Meiosis I until DSBs have been repaired...
March 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249985/inference-of-the-distribution-of-selection-coefficients-for-new-nonsynonymous-mutations-using-large-samples
#16
Bernard Y Kim, Christian D Huber, Kirk E Lohmueller
The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) has considerable importance in population genetics. To date, estimates of the DFE come from studies using a small number of individuals. Thus, estimates of the proportion of moderately to strongly deleterious new mutations may be unreliable because such variants are unlikely to be segregating in the data. Additionally, the true functional form of the DFE is unknown, and estimates of the DFE differ significantly between studies. Here we present a flexible and computationally tractable method, called Fit∂a∂i, to estimate the DFE of new mutations using the site frequency spectrum from a large number of individuals...
March 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249984/adult-muscle-formation-requires-drosophila-moleskin-for-proliferation-of-wing-disc-associated-muscle-precursors
#17
Kumar Vishal, David S Brooks, Simranjot Bawa, Samantha Gameros, Marta Stetsiv, Erika R Geisbrecht
Adult muscle precursor (AMP) cells located in the notum of the larval wing disc undergo rapid amplification and eventual fusion to generate the Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscles (IFMs). Here we find that loss of Moleskin (Msk) function in these wing disc-associated myoblasts reduces the overall AMP pool size, resulting in the absence of IFM formation. This myoblast loss is due to a decrease in the AMP proliferative capacity and is independent of cell death. In contrast, disruption of Msk during pupal myoblast proliferation does not alter the AMP number, suggesting that Msk is specifically required for larval AMP proliferation...
March 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235888/adaptation-of-candida-albicans-to-reactive-sulfur-species
#18
Yasmin Chebaro, Michael Lorenz, Alice Fa, Rui Zheng, Michael Gustin
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that is highly resistant to different oxidative stresses. How reactive sulfur species (RSS) such as sulfite regulate gene expression and the role of the transcription factor Zcf2 and the sulfite exporter Ssu1 in such responses is not known. Here, we show that C. albicans specifically adapts to sulfite stress and that Zcf2 is required for that response as well as induction of genes predicted to remove sulfite from cells and to increase the intracellular amount of a subset of nitrogen metabolites...
February 24, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213477/soft-selective-sweeps-in-evolutionary-rescue
#19
Benjamin A Wilson, Pleuni S Pennings, Dmitri A Petrov
Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is declining in size because of an environmental change is rescued from extinction by genetic adaptation. Evolutionary rescue is an important phenomenon at the intersection of ecology and population genetics, and the study of evolutionary rescue is critical to understanding processes ranging from species conservation to the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance. While most population genetic models of evolutionary rescue focus on estimating the probability of rescue, we focus on whether one or more adaptive lineages contribute to evolutionary rescue...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213476/editing-of-mitochondrial-transcripts-nad3-and-cox2-by-dek10-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-function-and-maize-plant-development
#20
Weiwei Qi, Zhongrui Tian, Lei Lu, Xiuzu Chen, Xinze Chen, Wei Zhang, Rentao Song
Respiration, the core of mitochondrial metabolism, depends on the function of five respiratory complexes. Many respiratory chain related proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and their RNAs undergo post-transcriptional modifications by nuclear genome expressed factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Maize defective kernel 10 (dek10) is a classic mutant with small kernels and delayed development. Through positional cloning we found that Dek10 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein localized in mitochondria...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
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