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Experimental Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215636/sirtuin-6-prevents-matrix-degradation-through-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#1
Liang Kang, Jia Hu, Yuxiong Weng, Jie Jia, Yukun Zhang
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215635/mechanical-stimulation-promote-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-epigenetic-regulation-of-sonic-hedgehog
#2
Chuandong Wang, Shengzhou Shan, Chenglong Wang, Jing Wang, Jiao Li, Guoli Hu, Kerong Dai, Qingfeng Li, Xiaoling Zhang
Mechanical unloading leads to bone loss and disuse osteoporosis partly due to impaired osteoblastogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS) promotes osteoblastogenesis of BMSCs both in vivo and in vitro. Besides, we found that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway was activated in this process. Inhibition of which by either knockdown of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) or treating BMSCs with Hh inhibitors attenuated the osteogenic effect of CMS on BMSCs, suggesting that Hh signaling pathway acts as an endogenous mediator of mechanical stimuli on BMSCs...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215634/isolation-and-expansion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatic-progenitor-cells-by-growth-factor-defined-serum-free-culture-conditions
#3
Takayuki Fukuda, Kazuo Takayama, Mitsuhi Hirata, Yu-Jung Liu, Kana Yanagihara, Mika Suga, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Miho K Furue
Limited growth potential, narrow ranges of sources, and difference in variability and functions from batch to batch of primary hepatocytes cause a problem for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity during drug development. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells in vitro are expected as a tool for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Several studies have already reported efficient methods for differentiating hPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells, however its differentiation process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, cost-intensive, and unstable...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215633/tlr-4-mirna-32-5p-fstl1-signaling-regulates-mycobacterial-survival-and-inflammatory-responses-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages
#4
Zhi-Min Zhang, Ai-Rong Zhang, Min Xu, Jun Lou, Wei-Qiang Qiu
Macrophages play a pivotal role in host immune response against mycobacterial infection, which is tightly modulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biological function and potential mechanism of miR-32-5p in human macrophages during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. The results demonstrated that miR-32-5p was robustly enhanced in THP-1 and U937 cells in response to M.tb infection. TLR-4 signaling was required for upregulation of miR-32-5p induced by M...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209487/lipoxin-a4-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-raw264-7-cells-and-prevents-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss
#5
Changyu Liu, Hanfeng Guan, Cong Cai, Feng Li, Jun Xiao
Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4)...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209486/vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein-vasp-depletion-from-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells-inhibits-tumor-spheroid-invasion-through-downregulation-of-migfilin-%C3%AE-catenin-and-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-upa
#6
Vasiliki Gkretsi, Andreas Stylianou, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to invade surrounding tissues and form metastases. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM)-adhesion proteins are crucial in metastasis, connecting tumor ECM with actin cytoskeleton thus enabling cells to respond to mechanical cues. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is an actin-polymerization regulator which interacts with cell-ECM adhesion protein Migfilin, and regulates cell migration. We compared VASP expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer (BC) cells and found that more invasive MDA-MB-231 cells overexpress VASP...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202394/platelet-rich-plasma-prp-induces-chondroprotection-via-increasing-autophagy-anti-inflammatory-markers-and-decreasing-apoptosis-in-human-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#7
Mayssam Moussa, Daniel Lajeunesse, George Hilal, Oula El Atat, Gaby Haykal, Rim Serhal, Antonio Chalhoub, Charbel Khalil, Nada Alaaeddine
OBJECTIVES: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202395/sulfiredoxin-involved-in-the-protection-of-peroxiredoxins-against-hyperoxidation-in-the-early-hyperglycaemia
#8
Sa Shi, Yunqiu Guo, Yanping Lou, Quanfeng Li, Xiaona Cai, Xin Zhong, Hong Li
As a direct consequence of hyperglycaemia, the excessive generation of ROS is central to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesize that stimulation of high glucose (HG) results in an increased sulfiredoxin (Srx) expression, which regulates ROS signaling through reducing the hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (Prxs). We show that hyperoxidized Prxs were initially reduced in the preliminary stage but then dramatically increased in advanced stage and these changes corresponded to a significant increase of Srx expression in the heart of diabetic rats...
February 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196728/the-atypical-rho-gtpase-rhod-is-a-regulator-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-directed-cell-migration
#9
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Johan Heldin, Johan Kreuger, Pontus Aspenström
RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system...
February 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196727/nrf2-mediates-redox-adaptation-in-nox4-overexpressed-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#10
Qipeng Wu, Bei Yao, Ning Li, Lei Ma, Yanchao Deng, Yang Yang, Cheng Zeng, Zhicheng Yang, Bing Liu
The redox adaptation mechanisms in cancer cells are very complex and remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confers apoptosis resistance on NSCLC cells. However, the comprehensive mechanisms for NOX4-mediated oxidative resistance of cancer cells remain still undentified. The present study found that NOX4-derived H2O2 enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stability via disruption of redox-dependent proteasomal degradation and stimulated its activity through activation of PI3K signaling...
February 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192121/convulxin-a-c-type-lectin-like-protein-inhibits-hcasmcs-functions-via-wad-motif-integrin-%C3%AE-v-interaction-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-gene-suppression-of-gro-and-il-8
#11
Chun-Ho Shih, Tin-Bin Chiang, Wen-Jeng Wang
Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189640/hypoxia-triggers-angiogenesis-by-increasing-expression-of-lox-genes-in-3-d-culture-of-ascs-and-ecs
#12
Qiang Xie, Jiamin Xie, Taoran Tian, Quanquan Ma, Qi Zhang, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the expression changes of LOX (lysyl oxidase) family genes, VEGFA, and VEGFB under hypoxic conditions in a co-culture system of ASCs (adipose-derived stromal cells) and ECs (endothelial cells). MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASCs and ECs were co-cultured under hypoxic and normal oxygen conditions in a 1:1 ratio, and the formation of vessel-like was detected at 7 days. The transwell co-culture system was used and cell lysates were collected at 7 days after co-culture in hypoxic and normal oxygen condition...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189639/a-novel-rat-fibrosarcoma-cell-line-from-transformed-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-maintained-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-stemness-properties
#13
Meng-Yu Wang, Janne Nestvold, Øystein Rekdal, Gunnar Kvalheim, Øystein Fodstad
Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189638/lin28b-stimulates-the-reprogramming-of-rat-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-to-retinal-progenitors
#14
Chen Zhao, Zui Tao, Langyue Xue, Yuxiao Zeng, Yi Wang, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
In lower-order vertebrates, Müller glia exhibit characteristics of retinal progenitor cells, while in higher vertebrates, such as mammals, the regenerative capacity of Müller glia is limited. Recently, we reported previously that Lin28b promoted the trans-differentiation of Müller cells to rod photoreceptor and bipolar cells in the retina of retinitis pigmentosa rat model, whereas it is unclear whether Lin28b can stimulate the reprogramming of Müller glia in vitro for transplantation into a damaged retina...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189637/lateral-gene-transfer-between-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#15
Karsten B Sieber, Robin E Bromley, Julie C Dunning Hotopp
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an all-encompassing term for the movement of DNA between diverse organisms. LGT is synonymous with horizontal gene transfer, and the terms are used interchangeably throughout the scientific literature. While LGT has been recognized within the bacteria domain of life for decades, inter-domain LGTs are being increasingly described. LGTs between bacteria and complex multicellular organisms are of interest because they challenge the long-held dogma that such transfers could only occur in closely-related, single-celled organisms...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189636/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-via-lpa1-and-lpa3-regulates-cellular-functions-during-tumor-progression-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#16
Kaori Fukushima, Kaede Takahashi, Eri Yamasaki, Yuka Onishi, Nobuyuki Fukushima, Kanya Honoki, Toshifumi Tsujiuchi
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors exhibits a variety of biological effects, such as cell proliferation, motility and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of LPA1 and LPA3 in cellular functions during tumor progression in pancreatic cancer cells. LPA1 and LPA3 knockdown cells were generated from PANC-1 cells. The cell motile and invasive activities of PANC-1 cells were inhibited by LPA1 and LPA3 knockdown. In gelatin zymography, LPA1 and LPA3 knockdown cells indicated the low activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the presence of LPA...
February 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185836/differential-gene-expression-profiling-of-human-adipose-stem-cells-differentiating-into-smooth-muscle-like-cells-by-tgf%C3%AE-1-bmp4
#17
Ayşe Eser Elçin, Mahmut Parmaksiz, Arin Dogan, Sukran Seker, Serap Durkut, Klara Dalva, Yaşar Murat Elçin
Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs)...
February 7, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185835/requirement-of-hsp105-in-cocl2-induced-hif-1%C3%AE-accumulation-and-transcriptional-activation
#18
Hiroki Mikami, Youhei Saito, Namiko Okamoto, Ayana Kakihana, Takahisa Kuga, Yuji Nakayama
The mammalian stress protein Hsp105α protects cells from stress conditions. Several studies have indicated that Hsp105α is overexpressed in many types of solid tumors, which contain hypoxic microenvironments. However, the role of Hsp105α in hypoxic tumors remains largely unknown. We herein demonstrated the involvement of Hsp105α in HIF-1 functions induced by the hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl2. While Hsp105α is mainly localized in the cytoplasm under normal conditions, a treatment with CoCl2 induces the nuclear localization of Hsp105α, which correlated with HIF-1α expression levels...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185834/eva1a-inhibits-gbm-cell-proliferation-by-inducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#19
Xue Shen, Shifeng Kan, Zhen Liu, Guang Lu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yingyu Chen, Yun Bai
Eva-1 homolog A (EVA1A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein involved in autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-EVA1A vector (Ad5-EVA1A) to overexpress EVA1A in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and evaluated its anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We found that overexpression of EVA1A in three GBM cell lines (U251, U87 and SHG44) resulted in a suppression of tumor cell growth via activation of autophagy and induction of cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167131/erythropoietin-induced-cytoprotection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-linked-to-system-xc
#20
Colin Martin, Mikita Patel, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Brian Sims
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common but serious complication among premature babies. Currently, there are limited treatment options. These include intensive supportive care and surgical intervention. In this study, we hypothesize that erythropoietin (Epo) could be protective against cell necrosis by increasing the levels of glutathione. This can be regulated by increasing the activity of system xC(-). This was demonstrated using intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) as a model system. S4-CPG and sulfasalazine pharmacologically inhibit xCT, which induced cell death...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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