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Experimental Cell Research

Yanchao Deng, Yang Yang, Bei Yao, Lei Ma, Qipeng Wu, Zhicheng Yang, Luyong Zhang, Bing Liu
High expression of tumoral vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is correlated with clinical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis and patient survival. Nevertheless, the comprehensive mechanisms accounting for VEGF-C-mediated cancer progression remain largely unclear. The present study found that VEGF-C expression was upregulated in various NSCLC cell lines. By utilizing transwell migration assay, we found that both recombinant VEGF-C protein and overexpression of VEGF-C in NSCLC cells (A549 and H441 cell lines) could efficiently enhance RAW264...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Shaobo Tian, Jia Hu, Kaixiong Tao, Jian Wang, Yanan Chu, Jing Li, Zhibo Liu, Xueliang Ding, Luming Xu, Qilin Li, Ming Cai, Jinbo Gao, Xiaoming Shuai, Guobin Wang, Lin Wang, Zheng Wang
Human anterior gradient-2 (AGR2), a member of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, is present in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. Although AGR2 is overexpressed in various human cancers and reported to promote aggressive tumor features, little is known regarding AGR2's extracellular functions during tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that secreted AGR2 promotes cell migration and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, secreted AGR2 elevated Wnt11 expression, triggering non-canonical Wnt signaling: the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Haijie Li, Jingqin Lan, Caishun Han, Kaixuan Guo, Guihua Wang, Junbo Hu, Jianping Gong, Xuelai Luo, Zhixin Cao
Liver fibrosis, an important health concern associated to chronic liver injury that provides a permissive environment for cancer development, is characterized by the persistent deposition of extracellular matrix components mainly derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Brg1, the core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, has been proved to associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which may progress to cirrhosis. Herein, we determined whether Brg1 regulates liver fibrosis and examined its mechanism by focusing on HSCs activation...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Reiko Suzuki, Kodwo Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism by sensing the intracellular energy status and nutrients. Recently, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (Lars) was identified as an intracellular sensor of leucine involved in the activation of mTOR signaling. However, there is still no evidence for the activation of mTOR signaling by Lars and its physiological roles in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we determined the potential roles of Lars for the activation of mTOR signaling, skeletal muscle cell differentiation, hypertrophy, and metabolism using small interfering (si)-RNA knockdown...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Rong Li, Yizhou Quan, Weiliang Xia
SIRT3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been reported to restrain prostate cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo, however, its role in metastatic prostate cancer has not been revealed. In this study, we reported that SIRT3 inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration of prostatic cancer cells in vitro and their metastasis in vivo. Consistently, based on analyses of tissue microarray and microarray datasets, lower SIRT3 expression level was correlated with higher prostate cancer Gleason scores, and SIRT3 expression were significantly decreased in metastatic tissues compared with prostate tumor tissues...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Fang Cheng, Lars-Åke Fransson, Katrin Mani
Import of the polyamine spermine from the extracellular environment depends on the presence of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as glypican-1. This proteoglycan is internalized by endocytosis, releases its heparan sulfate chains in endosomes by a nitric oxide-, copper- and amyloid precursor protein-dependent mechanism, then penetrates the membrane and is transported to the nucleus and then to autophagosomes. This process is spontaneous or induced by ascorbate depending on the growth-state of the cell...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Malte Puchert, Christian Koch, Jürgen Engele
The chemokine, CXCL12, promotes cancer growth and metastasis through interaction with either CXCR4 and/or CXCR7. This tumor-specific organization of the CXCL12 system obscures current therapeutic approaches, aiming at the selective inactivation of CXCL12 receptors. Since it has been previously suggested that the cellular use of CXCR4 or CXCR7 is dictated by the 5T4 oncofetal glycoprotein, we have now tested whether 5T4 would represent a general and reliable marker for the organization of the CXCL12 system in cancer cells...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yanmei Yi, Zhaotong Wang, Yanqin Sun, Junhu Chen, Biao Zhang, Minhua Wu, Tianyu Li, Li Hu, Jun Zeng
FAPα is a cell surface serine protease, mainly expressed in tumor stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of human epithelial carcinomas. Due to its almost no expression in normal tissues and its tumor-promoting effects, FAPα has been studied as a novel potential target for antitumor therapy. However, the regulation mechanism on FAPα expression is poorly understood. In this study, we found that overexpression of snail significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of FAPα in malignant melanoma B16 and SK-MEL-28 cells...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Minhui Dai, Pinhua Pan, Haitao Li, Shuai Liu, Lemeng Zhang, Chao Song, Yi Li, Qian Li, Zhi Mao, Yuan Long, Xiaoli Su, Chengping Hu
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative coccobacillus found primarily in hospital settings that has recently emerged as a source of hospital-acquired infections, including bacterial pneumonia. The hLF(1-11) peptide comprising the first 11 N-terminal residues of human lactoferrin exerts antimicrobial activity in vivo and was highly effective against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in vitro and in vivo. Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory cell death process and is induced by various microbial infections...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
M Raja Gopal Reddy, S Mullapudi Venkata, U K Putcha, S M Jeyakumar
Previously, we reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in the reduction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, which corroborated with attenuation of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin A deficiency on SCD1, MUFA levels and their impact on pancreas' structure and functions. Male weanling Wistar rats fed one of the four diets, namely control (Con), vitamin A-deficient (VAD), highfructose (HFr) and vitamin A-deficient diet with highfructose (VADHFr) for 16 weeks period...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Juan Wang, Yun-Xiao Shang, Xu-Xu Cai, Li-Yun Liu
Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Airway remodeling is irreversible by current antiasthmatic drugs, and it is the main cause of severe asthma. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) act as the main effector cells for airway remodeling; the proliferation and hypertrophy of which are involved in airway remodeling. Caveolin (Cav)-1 is present on the surface of ASMCs, which is involved in cell cycle and signal transduction regulation, allowing ASMCs to change from proliferation to apoptosis...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Lijun Xu, Mingjing Shen, Xiaodong Chen, Dong-Rong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
Previous reports, including our experimental results, showed that macrophages migrate to prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We tested whether the migrated macrophages affect the susceptibility of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) cells to cytotoxic actions of natural killer (NK) cells. We found treatment of tumor cells with the conditioned media (CM) of the PMA/IL-4 treated THP-1 cells (M2 type macrophages) (THP-1 CM) decreased the susceptibility of tumor cells to NK cell cytotoxicity, as a result of increased programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) and decreased NK group 2D (NKG2D) ligands in CRPC cells...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Feihong Chen, Xiufeng Jin, Jian Zhao, Shaohua Gou
DN604, a carboplatin analogue with a functional dicarboxylato ligand, was deeply investigated to explore its ability to induce apoptosis as well as its antitumor mechanism of action. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that DN604 could effectively inhibit cell viability of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells and exhibited stronger antitumor activity than carboplatin and comparable activity to cisplatin. Significantly in contrast to cisplatin, DN604 resulted in negligible toxic effects in vivo with the same tumor growth inhibition effect as cisplatin...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Soumya Maity, Amit Bera, Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury, Falguni Das, Balakuntalam S Kasinath, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury
TGFβ contributes to mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein increase in various kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Deptor is an mTOR-interacting protein and suppresses mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities. We have recently shown that TGFβ-induced inhibition of deptor increases the mTOR activity. The mechanism by which TGFβ regulates deptor expression is not known. Here we identify deptor as a target of the microRNA-181a. We show that in mesangial cells, TGFβ increases the expression of miR-181a to downregulate deptor...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Shani Ben Harosh-Davidovich, Isam Khalaila
O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Hao Yao, Cheng-Cheng Ji, Yun-Jiu Cheng, Xu-Miao Chen, Li-Juan Liu, Jun Fan, Su-Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that mutation in KCNE1, β-subunits of cardiac potassium channel, involved in ventricular fibrillation. Whereas its role in early repolarization syndrome (ERS) is less well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study whether mutant in KCNE1 is associated with ERS and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Whole genome from four unrelated families with ERS was amplified and sequenced. Wild-type (WT) KCNE1 and/or KCNE1-S38G (S38G) were expressed in HEK293 cells with KCNQ1...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
M A Quezada-Ramírez, R Castañeda-Arellano, G Pérez-Sánchez, J Hernández-Soto, J Segovia
Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a signaling mediator for the development of the central nervous system that works as a co-receptor for sonic hedgehog (SHH) to induce the amplification of neural progenitors during the patterning of the mammalian neural tube and establishing granular cells in the cerebellum. Recently, we confirmed that Gas1 is also expressed by neural progenitors of the developing cortex and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The presence of GAS1 in progenitor stages indicates that one of its principal roles is the maintenance of these cells during neurogenic events...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Domenico Ribatti
The development of the microscope was a precondition for the discovery of cells. This instrument magnifies objects too small to be seen by the naked eye. In 1673, the Dutch botanist, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, made a more advanced microscope and reported seeing a myriad of microscopic "animalcules" in water. He also made further studies of red blood cells and sperm cells. Most studies that followed were done on the easily studied plant tissues. Plant cells, rigidly encased in their cell walls, were ideal to study in situ...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Dongsheng Bai, Yue Zhao, Qin Zhu, Yihui Zhou, Yiqiao Zhao, Taiming Zhang, Qinglong Guo, Na Lu
Macrophage polarization is involved in the process of inflammation. Regulation of macrophage polarization is considered to be an effective method for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. In our study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism of the flavonoid compound LZ205, which exhibits anti-inflammatory property. Results showed that LZ205 significantly reduced M1 macrophage-associated proinflammatory cytokines secretion by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway without affecting M2 macrophage-associated cytokines mRNA levels...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yu-Xue Xu, Caoxin Huang, Minyi Liu, Ningning Chen, Wenting Chen, Chen Yang, Yan Zhao, Xuejun Li, Junguo Duan, Suhuan Liu, Shuyu Yang
Diabetic vascular complications are often defined by vascular endothelial lesions. However, as a plastic cell type, whether endothelial cells could transit from quiescence to hyper-active status and hamper vascular stability upon hyperglycemia stimulation and whether this process is involved in diabetic vascular complications remain obscure. Survivin has been identified as an anti-apoptotic protein in tumor or epithelial cells by either promoting proliferation or inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the effects of hyperglycemia on endothelial cell status and the potential involvement of survivin...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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