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Experimental Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642051/a-revisited-concept-contact-inhibition-of-growth-from-cell-biology-to-malignancy
#1
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
In cell biology, contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena, contact inhibition of locomotion and contact inhibition of proliferation, exhibited by fibroblasts when in contact with one another. Normal fibroblasts migrate across the surface of a culture dish until they make contact with a neighboring cell. Further cell migration is then inhibited, and normal cells adhere to each other, forming an orderly array of cells on the culture dish surface. Tumor cells, in contrast, continue moving after contact with their neighbors, migrating over adjacent cells, and growing in disordered, multilayered patterns...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633902/calcium-sensing-receptor-initiating-cystathionine-gamma-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-to-inhibit-platelet-activation-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-rat
#2
Yuwen Wang, Ziqing Zhao, Sa Shi, Fei Gao, Jichao Wu, Shiyun Dong, Weihua Zhang, Yanhong Liu, Xin Zhong
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, high homocysteine) induces the injury of endothelial cells (ECs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects ECs and inhibits the activation of platelets. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates the production of endogenous H2S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the injury of ECs and the activation of platelets by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H2S)/H2S pathway in hyperhomocysteinemia has not been previously investigated. Here, we tested the ultrastructure alterations of ECs and platelets, the changes in the concentration of serum homocysteine and the parameters of blood of hyperhomocysteinemia rats were measured...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625776/beta-carotene-preferentially-regulates-chicken-myoblast-proliferation-withdrawal-and-differentiation-commitment-via-bco1-activity-and-retinoic-acid-production
#3
C Praud, S Al Ahmadieh, E Voldoire, Y Le Vern, E Godet, N Couroussé, B Graulet, E Le Bihan Duval, C Berri, M J Duclos
The enzyme β-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) catalyzes the breakdown of provitamin A, including beta-carotene (BC), into retinal, prior to its oxidation into retinoic acid (RA). Allelic variation at the BCO1 locus results in differential expression of its mRNA and affects carotenoid metabolism specifically in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential myogenic effect of BC and the underlying mechanisms in chicken myoblasts. BCO1 mRNA was detected in myoblasts derived from chicken satellite cells...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624412/mild-hypothermia-protects-hippocampal-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-induced-injury-by-improving-lysosomal-function-and-autophagic-flux
#4
Tianen Zhou, Lian Liang, Yanran Liang, Tao Yu, Chaotao Zeng, Longyuan Jiang
Mild hypothermia has been proven to be useful to treat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine whether mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury via improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. The results showed that OGD/R induced the occurrence of autophagy, while the acidic environment inside the lysosomes was altered...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624413/srsf3-regulated-mir-132-212-controls-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-yap1
#5
Hye Ree Kim, Su Jin Hwang, Chang Hoon Shin, Kyung Hee Choi, Takbum Ohn, Hyeon Ho Kim
Although SRSF3 (Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3) plays a significant role in various biological processes, many of its functions still remain unclear. More particularly, little is known about SRSF3's involvement in the regulation of miRNA. In this report, we found that invasive and migratory abilities were inhibited in SRSF3-silenced U2OS and HeLa cells. We also found that a knockdown of SRSF3 results in a decreased expression level of REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor). The silencing of REST increased the expression of primary miR-132/212 as well as their mature forms...
June 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619648/biophysical-characterization-of-nanostructured-tio2-as-a-good-substrate-for-hbm-msc-adhesion-growth-and-differentiation
#6
L Petecchia, C Usai, M Vassalli, P Gavazzo
Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hBM-MSC) are widely utilized for clinical applications involving bone healing. In this context, their use has been often optimized in association to variously designed titanium substrates, being this material of great use in orthopaedic implants. According to recent findings, the ability of hBM-MSC to differentiate towards a specific lineage is not only driven by biochemical signals, but physical stimuli, such as rigidity or roughness of the substrate, can also support a commitment towards osteogenic differentiation...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610838/bcl-2-expression-is-essential-for-development-and-normal-physiological-properties-of-tooth-hard-tissue-and-saliva-production
#7
Mohammad Ali Saghiri, Armen Asatourian, Zafer Gurel, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays a fundamental role in appropriate tissue development and function. Although expression of Bcl-2 has been reported during tooth and submandibular gland (SMG) development, the physiological role Bcl-2 plays during these processes has not been addressed. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of Bcl-2 expression on the formation and properties of tooth hard tissue, and saliva production. METHODS: Twenty-four mice (12 males and 12 females) were divided into three groups of eight (n=8): group A (Bcl-2 +/+), group B (Bcl-2 +/-), and group C (Bcl-2 -/-) and subjected to micro-CT analyses...
June 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606793/mir-20b-inhibits-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-inflammation-in-the-lung-of-mice-through-targeting-nlrp3
#8
Jun Lou, Yongli Wang, Zhimin Zhang, Weiqiang Qiu
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of immune-related disorders. Although dysregulation of miRNAs has been implicated in innate and adaptive immune response, the specific effect of miR-20b on TB has not been documented. In this study, downregulation of miR-20b and upregulation of NLRP3 were observed in macrophages of TB patients, increased levels of inflammatory factors secretion were observed in serum of TB patients. Next, we established a TB mice model by using M. tuberculosis infection and intravenous injection of miR-20b mimic...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602625/a-notch-independent-mechanism-contributes-to-the-induction-of-hes1-gene-expression-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-p19-cells
#9
Xiaofeng Zheng, Sampath Narayanan, Xiaowei Zheng, Sandra Luecke-Johansson, Katarina Gradin, Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina, Lorenz Poellinger, Teresa S Pereira
Hes1 is a Notch target gene that plays a major role during embryonic development. Previous studies have shown that HIF-1α can interact with the Notch intracellular domain and enhance Notch target gene expression. In this study, we have identified a Notch-independent mechanism that regulates the responsiveness of the Hes1 gene to hypoxia. Using P19 cells we show that silencing the Notch DNA binding partner CSL does not prevent hypoxia-dependent upregulation of Hes1 expression. In contrast to CSL, knockdown of HIF-1α or Arnt expression prevents Hes1 induction in hypoxia...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602628/overexpression-of-fibulin-5-attenuates-burn-induced-inflammation-via-trpv1-cgrp-pathway
#10
Xiaoqian Hou, Hui Li, Chunhua Zhang, Junling Wang, Xiuli Li, Xin Li
Fibulin-5, a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, is up-regulated in response to mechanical injury and can promote dermal wound healing. This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of Fibulin-5 in the pathogenesis of post-burn inflammation in thermally-injured mice. Here, we found that Fibulin-5 was up-regulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of burn-injured mice. After nociceptive behavioral testing, DRG was isolated and cultured to detect the mechanism of Fibulin-5 in thermal injury models by recombinant adenovirus overexpressing Fibulin-5, RT-qPCR, Western Blot, ELISA, AP20187 (an activator of one kind of kinase phosphorylating the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, eIF2α), capsaicin (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1), and an anti-CGRP neutralizing antibody...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602627/phosphorylation-of-depdc1-at-ser110-is-required-to-maintain-centrosome-organization-during-mitosis
#11
Dan Chen, Satoko Ito, Toshinori Hyodo, Eri Asano-Inami, Hong Yuan, Takeshi Senga
DEPDC1 (DEP domain containing 1) is overexpressed in multiple cancers and is associated with cell cycle progression. In this report, we have investigated the expression, localization, phosphorylation and function of DEPDC1 during mitosis. DEPDC1 has two isoforms (isoform a and isoform b), and both of them are increased in mitosis and degraded once cells exit mitosis. DEPDC1a is localized to the centrosome in metaphase, whereas DEPDC1b is localized to the entire cell cortex during mitosis. DEPDC1a, but not DEPDC1b, was required for the integrity of centrosome and organization of the bipolar spindle...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602626/endothelial-cell-cell-adhesion-and-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Camilla Cerutti, Anne Ridley
Endothelial cells line blood vessels and provide a dynamic interface between the blood and tissues. They remodel to allow leukocytes, fluid and small molecules to enter tissues during inflammation and infections. Here we compare the signaling networks that contribute to endothelial permeability and leukocyte transendothelial migration, focusing particularly on signals mediated by small GTPases that regulate cell adhesion and the actin cytoskeleton. Rho and Rap GTPase signaling is important for both processes, but they differ in that signals are activated locally under leukocytes, whereas endothelial permeability is a wider event that affects the whole cell...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591554/nlrp3-participates-in-the-regulation-of-emt-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Rui Tian, Yong Zhu, Jiayi Yao, Xiaoxiao Meng, Jinfeng Wang, Hui Xie, Ruilan Wang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and irreversible lung disease. Studies have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of IPF. The NLRP3 inflammasome is reported to be activated and play an important role in many respiratory diseases. However, whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in alveolar epithelial cells as well as the regulatory role of NLRP3 in EMT have not been reported. In this study, we transfected NLRP3 siRNA into A549 and RLE-6TN cells and treated them with bleomycin (BLM) for 24h...
June 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587745/an-ex-vivo-spinal-cord-injury-model-to-study-ependymal-cells-in-adult-mouse-tissue
#14
Teresa Fernandez-Zafra, Simone Codeluppi, Per Uhlén
Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583763/measuring-clinically-relevant-endpoints-in-a-serum-free-three-dimensional-primary-cell-culture-system-of-human-osteoarthritic-articular-chondrocytes
#15
Grace Bundens, Andrea Buckley, LaBraya Milton, Kathryn Behling, Sarah Chmielewski, Ellen Cho, Xiomara Lozano-Torres, Abdulhafez Selim, Richard Lackman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Lawrence Miller, Marina D'Angelo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage within the joint, inflammation and pain. The purpose of this study was to develop a primary, serum free cell culture system of human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes (HOACs) with which to study manifestations of the disease process. Joint tissues were obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). HOACs isolated from the femoral condyles and tibial plateau of the same side were combined, plated in three-dimensional, alginate beads and cultured for five days in serum, hormone and protein free medium...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583762/puerarin-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-suppressing-ros-dependent-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stresses
#16
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Yong Yao, Miao Zhuang, Chengye Tan, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a critical stimulator that promotes the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by Aβ is estimated to be responsible for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction in such disease. Puerarin, one of the major active constituents of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of AMD in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism remains far from clear. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanism of puerarin against Aβ1-40-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-primed ARPE-19 cells...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571915/3d-spheroids-what-can-they-tell-us-about-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cell-phenotype
#17
Nicoletta Gagliano, Chiarella Sforza, Michele Sommariva, Alessandra Menon, Vincenzo Conte, Patrizia Sartori, Patrizia Procacci
We aimed at analyzing the effect of the 3D-arrangement on the expression of some genes and proteins which play a key role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression in HPAF-II, HPAC and PL45 PDAC cells cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Cytokeratins 7, 8, 18, 19 were differently expressed in 3D-spheroids compared to 2D-monolayers. Syndecan 1 was upregulated in HPAF-II and PL45 3D-spheroids, and downregulated in HPAC. Heparanase mRNA levels were almost unchanged in HPAF-II, and increased in HPAC and PL45 3D-spheroids...
May 29, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552586/adipocyte-differentiation-is-regulated-by-mitochondrial-trifunctional-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-via-sirtuin-1
#18
Hong-Xia Liu, Yan-Mei Wang, Jian-Ping Hu, Li-Ying Huang, Ning-Yuan Fang
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein α-subunit (MTPα) is involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway. Two MTPα activities, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain hydratase, have been linked with the occurrence and development of obesity and obesity-related disorders. These activities catalyze two steps in the FAO pathway (the second and third reactions). However, the role of MTPα in the pathogenesis of obesity has not been evaluated, and the functional role of MTPα in adipocyte differentiation has not been determined...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552585/phosphoinositide-phosphatase-sac3-regulates-the-cell-surface-expression-of-scavenger-receptor-a-and-formation-of-lipid-droplets-in-macrophages
#19
Shin Morioka, Kiyomi Nigorikawa, Kaoru Hazeki, Michiko Ohmura, Hiromi Sakamoto, Takuma Matsumura, Shunsuke Takasuga, Osamu Hazeki
The findings of this study suggest that the phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3 maintains the protein level of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and regulates foam cell formation. RAW264.7 macrophages were transfected with short hairpin RNAs that target Sac3. The knockdown decreased the level of the cell surface SR-A and suppressed the acetylated low density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The associated regulator of PIKfyve (ArPIKfyve) is a scaffold protein that protects Sac3 from proteasome-dependent degradation...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551377/increased-chromatin-plasticity-supports-enhanced-metastatic-potential-of-mouse-melanoma-cells
#20
Yael Maizels, Adi Elbaz, Rosari Hernandez-Vicens, Oshrat Sandrusy, Anna Rosenberg, Gabi Gerlitz
Metastasis formation is strongly dependent on the migration capabilities of tumor cells. Recently it has become apparent that nuclear structure and morphology affect the cellular ability to migrate. Previously we found that migration of melanoma cells is both associated with and dependent on global chromatin condensation. Therefore, we anticipated that tumor progression would be associated with increased chromatin condensation. Interestingly, the opposite has been reported for melanoma. In trying to resolve this contradiction, we show that during growth conditions, tumor progression is associated with global chromatin de-condensation that is beneficial for faster proliferation...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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