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Experimental Cell Research

Kiran Rawat, Amit Shard, Manali Jadhav, Mayuri Gandhi, Prince Anand, Rituraj Purohit, Yogendra Padwad, Arun K Sinha
Gliomas are lethal and aggressive form of brain tumors with resistance to conventional radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapies; inviting continuous efforts for drug discovery and drug delivery. Interestingly, small molecule hybrids are one such pharmacophore that continues to capture interest owing to their pluripotent medicinal effects. Accordingly, we earlier reported synthesis of potent Styryl-cinnamate hybrids (analogues of Salvianolic acid F) along with its plausible mode of action (MOA). We explored iTRAQ-LC/MS-MS technique to deduce differentially expressed landscape of native & phospho-proteins in treated glioma cells...
December 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jingjing Cai, He Zhang, Yun-Feng Zhang, Zhonglou Zhou, Shengzhou Wu
Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPEs), a pigmented cell layer in the outer retina, are constantly exposed to photo-oxidative stress. Autophagy relieves the stress by removing oxidative protein adducts, protein aggregates, and damaged mitochondria. We previously found that miR-29 is downregulated in choroid/RPE tissue in a model of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), suggesting that miR-29 deficiency may contribute to autophagy inhibition and AMD progression. Here we wanted to test whether overexpression of miR-29 in RPEs could enhance autophagy, thereby facilitating removal of drusen components...
December 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Rongying Zhu, Xiang Xue, Mingjjng Shen, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
Cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H292CisR) and radioresistant (A549R26 and H292R22) sub-line non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were developed in our lab by long term treatment of parental cells with cisplatin or radiation. Our data showed no cross-resistance between these two sets of cell lines, indicating that molecular mechanisms of developing each resistance may be different. Using these sub-line cells, we sought to reveal the most significantly up-regulated molecules in cisplatin-resistant and radioresistant lung cancer cells, compared with parental cells...
November 30, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Chun Yang, Lei Wang, Weiji Weng, Shen Wang, Yuxiao Ma, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Rui Chen, Junfeng Feng
Direct current electric field (DC EF) plays a role in influencing the biological behaviors and functions of cells. We hypothesize that human astrocytes (HAs) could also be influenced in EF. Astrocytes, an important type of nerve cells with a high proportion quantitatively, are generally activated and largely decide the brain repair results after brain injury. So far, no electrotaxis study on HAs has been performed. We here obtained HAs derived from brain trauma patients. After purification and identification, HAs were seeded in the EF chamber and recorded in a time-lapse image system...
November 30, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Haoqing Yang, Jiao Fan, Yangyang Cao, Runtao Gao, Zhipeng Fan
Understanding the mechanism of osteo-/dentinogenic differentiation is beneficial for jaw bone and dental tissue regeneration. DLX5 is highly expressed in dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is upregulated by lysine-specific demethylase 4B (KDM4B), enabling it to regulate osteo-/dentinogenic differentiation, while the function of DLX5 in osteo-/dentinogenesis has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Therefore, we investigated DLX5 function using stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). SCAPs were obtained from the human wisdom tooth...
November 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Xue-Qin Wang, Hu Wang, Lu Zhang, Hai-Ning Liu, Jing Gao, Yong-Yong Wang, Xu Ma, Hong-Fei Xia
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Mutation in miRNAs results in various pathological conditions such as inflammation, viral infections, neurodegeneration, and autoimmunity. We have evaluated the association of miR-423 rs6505162 C>A and rs8067576 A>T among patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and controls from North China. Our study found that one SNP rs6505162 C>A in miR-423 coding region was associated with the increase risk of humanunexplained RPL (URPL), but no differences were found in another SNP rs8067576 A>T...
November 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Li He, Muhammad Ahmad, Norbert Perrimon
Stem cells continuously perceive and respond to various environmental signals during development, tissue homeostasis, and pathological conditions. Mechanical force, one of the fundamental signals in the physical world, plays a vital role in the regulation of multiple functions of stem cells. The importance of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell junctions, and a mechanoresponsive cell cytoskeleton has been under intensive study in the fields of stem cell biology and mechanobiology. However, the involvement of mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels in the mechanical regulation of stem cell activity has just begun to be realized...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yuantong Liu, Jianmin Li, Yue Shang, Yan Guo, Zhenzhong Li
Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is involved in a variety of biological processes in different cell types and disease conditions, including myogenesis. However, the specific function of CARM1 in skeletal muscle wasting under pathologic conditions remains unclear. Here, we identify CARM1 as a novel participant in muscular atrophy. Increases in CARM1 protein levels correlated positively with the loss of muscle mass upon denervation in mice. Notably, the knockdown of CARM1 represses the progression of muscle wasting and the expression of the atrophy-related genes Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in vivo and in vitro...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Sara Ibrahim, Rania Dayoub, Sabrina Krautbauer, Gerhard Liebisch, Anja Kathrin Wege, Michael Melter, Thomas S Weiss
Cholestasis represents pathophysiologic syndromes defined as an impaired bile flow from the liver. As an outcome, bile acids accumulate and promote hepatocytes injury followed by liver cirrhosis and liver failure. Bile acids induce apoptosis, ER stress and mitochondrial membrane instability. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of cytosolic short form of ALR (Augmenter of Liver Regeneration) in the synthesis of bile acids and bile acid-induced apoptosis. Human hepatoma cells over-expressing the short form of ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), and then primary bile acids' production and apoptosis were analyzed...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jing Cai, Qiang Xiong, Xiaoliu Jiang, Shan Zhou, Tiande Liu
Ring finger protein 6 (RNF6), a RING-domain E3 ubiquitin Ligase, functions as a potential tumor promoter in several caners. However, the function and clinical significance of RNF6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we found that high RNF6 expression was detected frequently in primary HCC tissues, and was closely associated with malignant phenotype and shorter survival among the HCC patients. Multivariate analyses also revealed that RNF6 overexpression was independent prognostic factors for poor outcome of patients with HCC...
November 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Tommy A Karlsen, Jan E Brinchmann
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be used in several clinical applications. While MSCs are frequently cultured in fetal bovine serum for in vitro experimentation, human serum supplements are required for cells to be used in patients. Here we show how different human serum supplements and in vitro manipulations used during the cell culture impact on MSC proliferation rate and expression of inflammatory molecules. METHODS: MSCs were cultured in medium supplemented with human plasma or serum combined with human platelet lysate (PL) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2)...
November 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Mao-Ling Huang, You Zou, Rui Yang, Yang Jiang, Jian-Fei Sheng, Ji-Bo Han, Yong-Gang Kong, Ze-Zhang Tao, Shi-Ming Chen
The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of PLAC8 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The expression of PLAC8 in NPC and nasopharyngitis (NPG) tissues from 150 patients was determined using immunohistochemistry. The levels of PLAC8 in five NPC cell lines and nasopharyngeal permanent epithelial cell line were measured using western blotting. We then knocked out or overexpressed PLAC8 in CNE2 cells. Cell proliferation, wound healing, migration, and invasion assays were used to analyze the effects of PLAC8 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion in vivo and vitro...
November 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Delfine Cheng, Marco Morsch, Gerald J Shami, Roger S Chung, Filip Braet
Although liver transport routes have been extensively studied in rodents, live imaging under in situ and in vivo conditions of large volumes is still proven to be difficult. In this study, we took advantage of the optical transparency of zebrafish and their small size to explore their usefulness for correlative imaging studies and liver transport experimentations. First, we assessed the micro-architecture of the zebrafish liver and compared its fine structure to the rodent and humans' literature. Next, we investigated the transport routes and cellular distribution of albumin using combined and correlative microscopy approaches...
November 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Hang Zhu, Hao Xue, Qin-Hua Jin, Jun Guo, Yun-Dai Chen
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia in the clinical setting and the foremost cause of stroke, results from a progressive decrease in atrial refractoriness. In addition, defective calcium signaling has been shown to play a central role in AF pathogenesis. Recently it was shown that the miR-106b-25 cluster is suppressed in patients with AF, which increased ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) expression. Expression of the miR-106b-25 cluster and RyR2 protein were determined in our institutional series of patients with AF...
November 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Wenjing Lang, Jianyi Zhu, Fangyuan Chen, Jiayi Cai, Jihua Zhong
High expression of the oncogene ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI-1) is an independent negative prognostic indicator of survival in leukemia patients. This study aimed to examine the effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on EVI-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of AML patients and healthy donors. EVI-1 expression in hematopoietic cells was evaluated by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. EVI-1 was highly expressed in both primary AML and leukemia cell lines (THP-1 and K562)...
November 22, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Tammy N Jessen, Jason R Jessen
Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) is a four-pass transmembrane protein required for a variety of polarized cell behaviors underlying embryonic development. Recent data show human VANGL2 interacts with integrin αv to control cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. The goal of this study was to further define the functional relationship between integrin αv and VANGL2. We demonstrate integrin αv regulates VANGL2 protein levels both in vitro and in the zebrafish embryo. While integrin αv knockdown reduces VANGL2 expression at membrane compartments, it does not affect VANGL2 transcription...
November 22, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Kamilla Mahkamova, Nani Md Latar, Sebastian Aspinall, Annette Meeson
Comparison of studies of cells derived from normal and pathological tissues of the same organ can be fraught with difficulties, particular with cancer where a number of different diseases are considered cancer within the same tissue. In the thyroid, there are 4 main types of cancer, three of which arise from follicular epithelial cells; papillary and follicular which are classified as differentiated, and anaplastic which is classified as undifferentiated. One assay that can be utilised for isolation of cancer stem cells is the side population (SP) assay...
November 19, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
M Kathryn Leonard, Marián Novak, Devin Snyder, Grace Snow, Nidhi Pamidimukkala, Joseph R McCorkle, Xiuwei H Yang, David M Kaetzel
Expression of the metastasis suppressor NME1 in melanoma is associated with reduced cellular motility, invasion, and metastasis, but mechanisms underlying these activities are not completely understood. Herein we report a novel mechanism through which NME1 drives formation of large, stable focal adhesions (FAs) in melanoma cells via induction of integrin β3 (ITGβ3), and in one cell line, concomitant suppression of integrin β1 (ITGβ1) transcripts. Forced expression of NME1 resulted in a strong activation of the promoter region (-301 to +13) of the ITGB3 gene...
November 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Fei Huang, Junying Chen, Ruilong Lan, Zeng Wang, Ruiqing Chen, Jingan Lin, Lengxi Fu
Hypoxia frequently occurs in solid tumors, hepatocellular carcinoma included. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) upregulated in hypoxia can induce various downstream target genes to resist hypoxia stress, resulting in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. Therefore, hypoxia associated genes are usually cancer progression associated genes and can be potential therapy targets for cancer therapy. In our present work, we find that the hypoxia-inducible transcriptional factor, HIF1α, can directly upregulate the expression of the gene Ctnnd2, which codes the protein δ-Catenin...
November 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Chunhui Ma, Zhonghui Liu, Shumi Shang, Lingling Jiang, Xinran Lv, Yan Qi, Xueling Cui, Jingyan Ge
Activin A, a multifunctional cytokine of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, can be produced by the diverse immune cells. NK cells in peripheral blood are one of the major immune cells applied to cancer therapy in recent years. However, whether activin A can be produced by natural killer (NK) cells and be involved in regulation of peripheral blood NK cells activities of mouse are not well characterized. Here, we found that activin type IIA and IIB receptors and signaling molecules Smad2, 3 were expressed in peripheral blood NK cells of mouse by flow cytometry and RT-PCR...
November 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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