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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

Sevan S Suni, Robin Hopkins
The process of speciation involves the accumulation of reproductive isolation (RI) between diverging lineages. Selection can favor increased RI via the process of reinforcement, whereby costs to hybridization impose selection for increased prezygotic RI. Reinforcement results in phenotypic divergence within at least one taxon, as a result of costly hybridization between sympatric taxa. The strength of selection driving reinforcement is determined by the cost of hybridization and the frequency of hybridization...
May 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Maartje Liefting, Katja M Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M Smid, Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with a host reward, the ability to learn visual associations was enhanced within 10 generations of selection...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl Erik Olsen, Jonathan D Blount, Martin Stevens
The distinctive black and red wing pattern of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae, L.) is a classic example of aposematism, advertising their potent cyanide-based defences. While such warning signals provide a qualitatively honest signal of unprofitability, the evidence for quantitative honesty, whereby variation in visual traits could provide accurate estimates of individual toxicity, is more equivocal. Combining measures of cyanogenic glucoside content and wing colour from the perspective of avian predators, we investigate the relationship between coloration and defences in Z...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Alexis Simon, Maud Duranton
Complex demography and selection at linked sites can generate spurious signatures of divergent selection. Unfortunately, many attempts at demographic inference consider overly simple models and neglect the effect of selection at linked sites. In this issue, Rougemont and Bernatchez (2018) applied an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework that accounts for indirect selection to reveal a complex history of secondary contacts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that might explain a high rate of latitudinal clines in this species...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Peter Kriesner, Ary A Hoffmann
Wolbachia endosymbionts that are maternally inherited can spread rapidly in host populations through inducing sterility in uninfected females, but some Wolbachia infections do not influence host reproduction yet still persist. These infections are particularly interesting because they likely represent mutualistic endosymbionts, spreading by increasing host fitness. Here we document such a spread in the wAu infection of Drosophila simulans. By establishing multiple replicate cage populations, we show that wAu consistently increased from an intermediate frequency to near fixation, representing an estimated fitness advantage of around 20% for infected females...
May 15, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Gabriela K Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Nicolas Margraf, Helen L Osmond, Craig A Walling, Loeske E B Kruuk
Inbreeding depression plays a major role in shaping mating systems: in particular, inbreeding avoidance is often proposed as a mechanism explaining extra-pair reproduction in socially-monogamous species. This suggestion relies on assumptions which are rarely comprehensively tested: that inbreeding depression is present, that higher kinship between social partners increases infidelity, and that infidelity reduces the frequency of inbreeding. Here, we test these assumptions using 26 years of data for a cooperatively-breeding, socially-monogamous bird with high female infidelity, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus)...
May 15, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
D Justin Yeh, Janette W Boughman, Glenn-Peter Saetre, Maria R Servedio
Reinforcement is the process whereby assortative mating evolves due to selection against costly hybridization. Sexual imprinting could evolve as a mechanism of reinforcement, decreasing hybridization, or it could potentially increase hybridization in genetically purebred offspring of heterospecific social pairs. We use deterministic population genetic simulations to explore conditions under which sexual imprinting can evolve through reinforcement. We demonstrate that a sexual imprinting component of female preference can evolve as a one-allele assortative mating mechanism by reducing the risk of hybridization, and is generally effective at causing trait divergence...
May 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Pedro Lanzas, Francisco Perfectti, Manuel A Garrido-Ramos, Carmelo Ruíz-Rejón, Mónica González-Sánchez, María Puertas, Juan Pedro M Camacho
B chromosomes have been reported in about 15% of eukaryotes, but long term dynamics of B chromosomes in a single natural population has rarely been analysed. Prospero autumnale plants collected in 1981 and 1983 at Cuesta de La Palma population have shown the presence of B chromosomes. We analyze here seven additional samples collected between 1987 and 2015, and show that B frequency increased significantly during the 1980's and showed minor fluctuations between 2005 and 2015. A mother-offspring analysis of B chromosome transmission, at population level, showed significant drive on the male side (kB = 0...
May 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Tuomas Hämälä, Tiina M Mattila, Outi Savolainen
How the balance between selection, migration and drift influences the evolution of local adaptation has been under intense theoretical scrutiny. Yet, empirical studies that relate estimates of local adaptation to quantification of gene flow and effective population sizes have been rare. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant trial, a common garden trial, and a whole-genome based demography analysis to examine these effects among Arabidopsis lyrata populations from two altitudinal gradients in Norway. Demography simulations indicated that populations within the two gradients are connected by gene flow (0...
May 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Mads F Schou, Jesper Bechsgaard, Joaquin Muñoz, Torsten N Kristensen
Inbreeding depression is often intensified under environmental stress (i.e. inbreeding-stress interaction). While the fitness consequences of this phenomenon are well-described, underlying mechanisms such as an increased expression of deleterious alleles under stress, or a lower capacity for adaptive responses to stress with inbreeding, have rarely been investigated. We investigated a fitness component (egg-to-adult viability) and gene-expression patterns using RNA-seq analyses in non-inbred control lines and in inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to benign temperature or heat stress...
May 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Nicholas Werry
Model organisms are powerful tools in the investigation of many biological phenomena, but key differences exist between controlled and wild populations. In this work, Neiman et al. (2018) survey numerous papers related to the maintenance of sexual reproduction in wild populations. They find information which supports some common hypotheses of how sex is maintained and contradicts others. Biases and limitations of the published literature are identified, presenting an opportunity to question established conclusions...
May 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Dean C Adams, Michael L Collyer
Phylogenetic regression is frequently utilized in macroevolutionary studies, and its statistical properties have been thoroughly investigated. By contrast, phylogenetic ANOVA has received relatively less attention, and the conditions leading to incorrect statistical and biological inferences when comparing multivariate phenotypes among groups remains under-explored. Here we propose a refined method of randomizing residuals in a permutation procedure (RRPP) for evaluating phenotypic differences among groups while conditioning the data on the phylogeny...
April 22, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Mélissa Verin, Aurélien Tellier
Seed (egg) banking is a common bet-hedging strategy maximizing the fitness of organisms facing environmental unpredictability by the delayed emergence of offspring. Yet, this condition often requires fast and drastic stochastic shifts between good and bad years. We hypothesize that the host seed banking strategy can evolve in response to coevolution with parasites because the coevolutionary cycles promote a gradually changing environment over longer times than seed persistence. We study the evolution of host germination fraction as a quantitative trait using both pairwise competition and multiple mutant competition methods, while the germination locus can be genetically linked or unlinked with the host locus under coevolution...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Clémentine Lasne, Sandra B Hangartner, Tim Connallon, Carla M Sgrò
Natural selection varies widely among locations of a species' range, favouring population divergence and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Selection also differs between females and males, favouring the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Both forms of within-species evolutionary diversification are widely studied, though largely in isolation, and it remains unclear whether environmental variability typically generates similar or distinct patterns of selection on each sex. Studies of sex-specific local adaptation are also challenging because they must account for genetic correlations between female and male traits, which may lead to correlated patterns of trait divergence between sexes, whether or not local selection patterns are aligned or differ between the sexes...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Leto Peel, Massimo Stella, Andreas Wagner, Joshua L Payne
Recent advances in high-throughput technologies are bringing the study of empirical genotype-phenotype (GP) maps to the fore. Here, we use data from protein binding microarrays to study an empirical GP map of transcription factor (TF) binding preferences. In this map, each genotype is a DNA sequence. The phenotype of this DNA sequence is its ability to bind one or more TFs. We study this GP map using genotype networks, in which nodes represent genotypes with the same phenotype, and edges connect nodes if their genotypes differ by a single small mutation...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Felix Zajitschek, Tim Connallon
Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) - where alleles of a gene increase some components of fitness at a cost to others - can generate balancing selection, and contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness traits, such as survival, fecundity, fertility, and mate competition. Previous theory suggests that AP is unlikely to maintain variation unless antagonistic selection is strong, or AP alleles exhibit pronounced differences in genetic dominance between the affected traits. We show that conditions for balancing selection under AP expand under the likely scenario that the strength of selection on each fitness component differs between the sexes...
April 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Piotr Minias, Ewa Pikus, Linda A Whittingham, Peter O Dunn
Recent advancements in sequencing technology have resulted in rapid progress in the study of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in non-model avian species. Here, we analyse a global dataset of avian MHC class I and class II sequences (ca. eleven thousand sequences from over 250 species) to gain insight into the processes that govern macroevolution of MHC genes in birds. Analysis of substitution rates revealed striking differences in the patterns of diversifying selection between passerine and non-passerine birds...
April 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Anne Leinweber, Michael Weigert, Rolf Kümmerli
Phenotypic plasticity in response to competition is a well-described phenomenon in higher organisms. Here, we show that also bacteria have the ability to sense the presence of competitors and mount fine-tuned responses to match prevailing levels of competition. In our experiments, we studied inter-specific competition for iron between the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and its competitor Burkholderia cenocepacia (BC). We focused on the ability of PA to phenotypically adjust the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging siderophore...
April 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
Heterospory was a pivotal evolutionary innovation for land plants, but it has never been clear why it evolved. We used the geographic distributions of 114 species of the heterosporous lycophyte Selaginella to explore the functional ecology of microspore and megaspore size, traits that would be correlated with many aspects of a species' regeneration niche. We characterized habitats at a global scale using leaf area index (LAI), a measure of foliage density and thus shading, and net primary productivity (NPP), a measure of growth potential...
April 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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