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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337356/stabilizing-selection-on-sperm-number-revealed-by-artificial-selection-and-experimental-evolution
#1
Silvia Cattelan, Andrea Di Nisio, Andrea Pilastro
Sperm competition is taxonomically widespread in animals and is usually associated with large sperm production, being the number of sperm in the competing pool the prime predictor of fertilization success. Despite the strong postcopulatory selection acting directionally on sperm production, its genetic variance is often very high. This can be explained by trade-offs between sperm production and traits associated with mate acquisition or survival, that may contribute to generate an overall stabilizing selection...
January 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336481/the-unguarded-x-and-the-genetic-architecture-of-lifespan-inbreeding-results-in-a-potentially-maladaptive-sex-specific-reduction-of-female-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Zahida Sultanova, Muhammed Andic, Pau Carazo
Sex differences in ageing and lifespan are ubiquitous in nature. The "unguarded-X" hypothesis (UXh) suggests they may be partly due to the expression of recessive mutations in the hemizygous sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex, which could help explain sex-specific ageing in a broad array of taxa. A prediction central to the UX hypothesis is that inbreeding will decrease the lifespan of the homogametic sex more than the heterogametic sex, because only in the former does inbreeding increase the expression of recessive deleterious mutations...
January 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331038/modeling-strategic-sperm-allocation-tailoring-the-predictions-to-the-species
#3
Biz R Turnell, Kerry L Shaw, H Kern Reeve
Two major challenges exist when empirically testing the predictions of sperm allocation theory. First, the study species must adhere to the assumptions of the model being tested. Unfortunately, the common assumption of sperm allocation models that females mate a maximum of once or twice does not hold for many, if not most, multiply and sequentially mating animals. Second, a model's parameters, which dictate its predictions, must be measured in the study species. Common examples of such parameters, female mating frequency and sperm precedence patterns, are unknown for many species used in empirical tests...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331019/cis-regulator-runaway-and-divergence-in-asexuals
#4
Frédéric Fyon, Thomas Lenormand
With the advent of new sequencing technologies, the evolution of gene expression is becoming a subject of intensive genomic research, with sparking debates upon the role played by these kinds of changes in adaptive evolution and speciation. In this paper, we model expression evolution in species differing by their reproductive systems. We consider different rates of sexual versus asexual reproduction and the different type of parthenogenesis (apomixis and the various modes of automixis). We show that competition for expression leads to two selective processes on cis-regulatory regions that act independently to organism-level adaptation...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319883/trait-specific-processes-of-convergence-and-conservatism-shape-ecomorphological-evolution-in-ground-dwelling-squirrels
#5
Bryan S McLean, Kristofer M Helgen, H Thomas Goodwin, Joseph A Cook
Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319173/digest-drivers-of-coral-diversification-in-a-major-marine-biodiversity-hotspot
#6
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Susannah Cass, Steven Dodsworth
Coral reefs are of great ecological importance to marine ecosystems, yet their origins are still poorly understood. Using a robust phylogenetic framework, Huang et al. (2017) show that most diversity within the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle region is driven by range expansions of lineages from outside the region, rather than rapid diversification within. This highlights the need for macroevolutionary studies to fully understand species assemblages in biodiversity hotspots, and the potential importance of adjacent areas for conservation...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315531/phanerozoic-survivors-actinopterygian-evolution-through-the-permo-triassic-and-triassic-jurassic-mass-extinction-events
#7
Fiann M Smithwick, Thomas L Stubbs
Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) successfully passed through four of the big five mass extinction events of the Phanerozoic, but the effects of these crises on the group are poorly understood. Many researchers have assumed that the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) and end-Triassic extinction (ETE) had little impact on actinopterygians, despite devastating many other groups. Here, two morphometric techniques, geometric (body shape) and functional (jaw morphology), are used to assess the effects of these two extinction events on the group...
January 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315523/digest-going-solo-self-fertilization-in-haploid-algae-may-not-lead-to-evolutionary-decline
#8
Alan Maxwell Vincent
Does the evolution of self-fertilization elevate species extinction rates? Hanschen et al. (2017) found that volvocine algae do not fit the expected phylogenetic pattern that selfing species go extinct faster. They suggest that this outcome results from their primarily haploid life cycle, which reduces the usual cost of self-fertilization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315521/a-species-specific-multigene-family-mediates-differential-sperm-displacement-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Vivek Jayaswal, Jamie Jimenez, Robert Magie, Kien Nguyen, Bryan Clifton, Shudan Yeh, José M Ranz
Sperm competition is a post-copulatory sexual selection mechanism in species in which females mate with multiple males. Despite its evolutionary relevance in shaping male traits, the genetic mechanisms underlying sperm competition are poorly understood. A recently originated multigene family specific to D. melanogaster, Sdic, is important for the outcome of sperm competition in doubly-mated females, although the mechanistic nature of this phenotype remained unresolved. Here we compared doubly-mated females, second mated to either Sdic knockout or non-knockout males, and directly visualize sperm dynamics in the female reproductive tract...
January 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315519/learning-of-salient-prey-traits-explains-batesian-mimicry-evolution
#10
Baharan Kazemi, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Therese Wåtz, Christer Wiklund, Olof Leimar
Batesian mimicry evolution involves an initial major mutation that produces a rough resemblance to the model, followed by smaller improving changes. To examine the learning psychology of this process, we applied established ideas about mimicry in Papilio polyxenes asterius of the model Battus philenor. We performed experiments with wild birds as predators and butterfly wings as semi-artificial prey. Wings of hybrids of P. p. asterius and P. machaon were used to approximate the first mutant, with melanism as the hypothesized first mimetic trait...
January 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287128/digest-ontogenesis-and-evolutionary-allometry-shape-divergent-evolution-of-genitalia-in-female-cetaceans
#11
Jia Yu Wang, Wen Bo Liao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280478/convergent-evolution-of-floral-shape-tied-to-pollinator-shifts-in-iochrominae-solanaceae
#12
Stacey D Smith, Ricardo Kriebel
Flower form is one of many floral features thought to be shaped by pollinator-mediated selection. Although the drivers of variation in flower shape have often been examined in microevolutionary studies, relatively few have tested the relationship between shape evolution and shifts in pollination system across clades. In the present study, we use morphometric approaches to quantify shape variation across the Andean clade Iochrominae and estimate the relationship between changes in shape and shifts in pollination system using phylogenetic comparative methods...
December 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280149/a-phylogenetic-comparative-method-for-evaluating-trait-coevolution-across-two-phylogenies-for-sets-of-interacting-species
#13
Dean C Adams, John D Nason
Evaluating trait correlations across species within a lineage via phylogenetic regression is fundamental to comparative evolutionary biology, but when traits of interest are derived from two sets of lineages that co-evolve with one another, methods for evaluating such patterns in a dual-phylogenetic context remain underdeveloped. Here we extend multivariate permutation-based phylogenetic regression to evaluate trait correlations in two sets of interacting species while accounting for their respective phylogenies...
December 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265369/the-genetics-of-egg-retention-and-fertilization-success-in-drosophila-one-step-closer-to-understanding-the-transition-from-facultative-to-obligate-viviparity
#14
Barbara Horváth, Alex T Kalinka
Oviparous, facultative egg retention enables Drosophila females to withhold fertilized eggs in their reproductive tracts until circumstances favor oviposition. The propensity to retain fertilized eggs varies greatly between species, and is correlated with other reproductive traits, such as egg size and ovariole number. While previous studies have described the phenomenon, no study to date has characterized within-species variation or the genetic basis of the trait. Here, we develop a novel microscope-based method for measuring egg retention in Drosophila females and determine the range of phenotypic variation in mated female egg retention in a subset of 91 Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) lines...
December 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265367/preference-for-conspecifics-evolves-earlier-in-males-than-females-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-radiation-of-fishes
#15
Tamra C Mendelson, Jennifer M Gumm, Michael D Martin, Patrick J Ciccotto
Speciation by sexual selection is generally modeled as the coevolution of female preferences and elaborate male ornaments leading to behavioral (sexual) reproductive isolation. One prediction of these models is that female preference for conspecific males should evolve earlier than male preference for conspecific females in sexually dimorphic species with male ornaments. We tested that prediction in darters, a diverse group of freshwater fishes with sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Focusing on the earliest stages of divergence, we tested preference for conspecific mates in males and females of seven closely related species pairs...
December 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238970/the-consequences-of-sexual-selection-in-well-adapted-and-maladapted-populations-of-bean-beetles
#16
Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojković, David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation when it is most needed...
December 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238958/parasites-driving-host-diversity-incidence-of-disease-correlated-with-daphnia-clonal-turnover
#17
Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak, Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia - Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with high temporal resolution from 1998 until 2013, using first allozyme and later microsatellite markers...
December 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235117/greater-pollination-generalization-is-not-associated-with-reduced-constraints-on-corolla-shape-in-antillean-plants
#18
Simon Joly, François Lambert, Hermine Alexandre, Julien Clavel, Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, John L Clark
Flowers show important structural variation as reproductive organs but the evolutionary forces underlying this diversity are still poorly understood. In animal-pollinated species, flower shape is strongly fashioned by selection imposed by pollinators, which is expected to vary according to guilds of effective pollinators. Using the Antillean subtribe Gesneriinae (Gesneriaceae), we tested the hypothesis that pollination specialists pollinated by one functional type of pollinator have maintained more similar corolla shapes through time due to more constant and stronger selection constraints compared to species with more generalist pollination strategies...
December 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235104/chaos-and-the-un-predictability-of-evolution-in-a-changing-environment
#19
Artur Rego-Costa, Florence Débarre, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Among the factors that may reduce the predictability of evolution, chaos, characterized by a strong dependence on initial conditions, has received much less attention than randomness due to genetic drift or environmental stochasticity. It was recently shown that chaos in phenotypic evolution arises commonly under frequency-dependent selection caused by competitive interactions mediated by many traits. This result has been used to argue that chaos should often make evolutionary dynamics unpredictable. However, populations also evolve largely in response to external changing environments, and such environmental forcing is likely to influence the outcome of evolution in systems prone to chaos...
December 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231989/sexual-imprinting-and-speciation-in-two-peromyscus-species
#20
E K Delaney, H E Hoekstra
Sexual isolation, a reproductive barrier, can prevent interbreeding between diverging populations or species. Sexual isolation can have a clear genetic basis; however, it may also result from learned mate preferences that form via sexual imprinting. Here, we demonstrate that two sympatric species of mice-the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and its sister species, the cotton mouse (P. gossypinus)-hybridize only rarely in the wild despite co-occurrence in the same habitat and lack of any measurable intrinsic postzygotic barriers in laboratory crosses...
December 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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