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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

Jessica H Arbour, Sharlene E Santana
Primates represent one of the most species rich, wide ranging and ecologically diverse clades of mammals. What major macroevolutionary factors have driven their diversification and contributed to the modern distribution of primate species remains widely debated. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to examine the role of clade age and evolutionary rate heterogeneity in the modern distribution of species diversity of Primates. Primate diversification has accelerated since its origin, with decreased extinction leading to a shift to even higher evolutionary rates in the most species rich family (Cercopithecidae)...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6-9 days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Mauro Santos, Manuel Sapage, Margarida Matos, Susana A M Varela
A spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model is used to study the spread of an allele for mate-choice copying (MCC) through horizontal cultural transmission when female innate preferences do or do not coevolve with a male viability-increasing trait. Evolution of MCC is unlikely when innate female preferences coevolve with the trait, as copier females cannot express a higher preference than non-copier females for high-fitness males. However, if a genetic polymorphism for innate preference persists in the population, MCC can evolve by indirect selection through hitchhiking: the copying allele hitchhikes on the male trait...
March 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Patrick Arnold, Eli Amson, Martin S Fischer
Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Katherine E Eisen
Understanding how closely related species coexist in communities is one of the oldest goals of ecology and evolutionary biology. One long-standing hypothesis is that the evolution of key differences in species' niches or ecological requirements (a process known as niche differentiation) can minimize competition and promote coexistence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Aurora García-Dorado
I present analytical predictions for the equilibrium inbreeding load expected in a population under mutation, selection and a regular mating system, for any population size and for any magnitude and recessivity of the deleterious effects. Using this prediction, I deduce the relative fitness of mutant alleles with small effect on selfing, to explore the situations where selfing or outcrossing are expected to evolve. The results obtained are in agreement with previous literature, showing that natural selection is expected to lead to stable equilibria where populations show either complete outcrossing or complete selfing, and that selfing is promoted by large deleterious mutation rates...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rene Niehus, Aurore Picot, Nuno M Oliveira, Sara Mitri, Kevin R Foster
Microbes have the potential to be highly cooperative organisms. The archetype of microbial cooperation is often considered to be the secretion of siderophores, molecules scavenging iron, where cooperation is threatened by "cheater" genotypes that use siderophores without making them. Here we show that this view neglects a key piece of biology: siderophores are imported by specific receptors that constrain their use by competing strains. We study the effect of this specificity in an eco-evolutionary model, in which we vary siderophore sharing among strains, and compare fully shared siderophores with private siderophores...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ching-Ho Chang, Amanda M Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10-15 Mya...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Russell Lande, Emmanuelle Porcher
The bimodal distribution of fitness effects of new mutations and standing genetic variation, due to early-acting strongly deleterious recessive mutations and late-acting mildly deleterious mutations, is analyzed using the Kondrashov model for lethals (K), with either the infinitesimal model for selfing (IMS) or the Gaussian allele model (GAM) for quantitative genetic variance under stabilizing selection. In the combined models (KIMS and KGAM) high genomic mutation rates to lethals and weak stabilizing selection on many characters create strong interactions between early and late inbreeding depression, by changing the distribution of lineages selfed consecutively for different numbers of generations...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Daniel L Rabosky, Emma E Goldberg
It is widely assumed that phenotypic traits can influence rates of speciation and extinction, and several statistical approaches have been used to test for correlations between character states and lineage diversification. Recent work suggests that model-based tests of state-dependent speciation and extinction are sensitive to model inadequacy and phylogenetic pseudoreplication. We describe a simple non-parametric statistical test ("FiSSE") to assess the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates...
March 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Andrea Manica, Anders Eriksson, Ana S L Rodrigues
Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities - i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities - from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by gene flow...
March 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, José M Ponciano, J Gordon Burleigh
Although numerous studies have surveyed the frequency with which different plant characters are associated with polyploidy, few statistical tools are available to identify the factors that potentially facilitate polyploidy. We describe a new probabilistic model, BiChroM, designed to associate the frequency of polyploidy and chromosomal change with a binary phenotypic character in a phylogeny. BiChroM provides a robust statistical framework for testing differences in rates of polyploidy associated with phenotypic characters along a phylogeny while simultaneously allowing for evolutionary transitions between character states...
March 15, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ilse Höllinger, Joachim Hermisson
We investigate the conditions for the origin and maintenance of postzygotic isolation barriers, so called (Bateson-)Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities or DMIs, among populations that are connected by gene flow. Specifically, we compare the relative stability of pairwise DMIs among autosomes, X chromosomes, and mitochondrial genes. In an analytical approach based on a continent-island framework, we determine how the maximum permissible migration rates depend on the genomic architecture of the DMI, on sex bias in migration rates, and on sex-dependence of allelic and epistatic effects, such as dosage compensation...
March 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Amanda K Powers
Shared environmental pressures often give rise to the convergence of morphological characters in unrelated and geographically distinct species. Darwin (1859) wrote that "analogous variation" of traits in different organisms could be explained by similar influences or challenges in their environment. Convergence of traits can be driven by adaptive radiation when animals invade similar ecological feeding niches and consequently converge on similar morphologies, such as broader beak shape in seed-crushing species of Darwin's finches (Grant, 1999)...
March 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Diala Abu Awad, Sylvain Billiard
Phylogenies indicate that the transition from outcrossing to selfing is frequent, with selfing populations being more prone to extinction. The rates of transition to selfing and extinction, acting on different timescales, could explain the observed distributions of extant selfing species among taxa. However, phylogenetic and theoretical studies consider these mechanisms independently, i.e. transitions do not cause extinction. Here, we theoretically explore the demographic consequences of the evolution of self-fertilization...
March 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Claire Morandin, Alexander S Mikheyev, Jes Søe Pedersen, Heikki Helanterä
Development of polymorphic phenotypes from similar genomes requires gene expression differences. However, little is known about how morph-specific gene expression patterns vary on a broad phylogenetic scale. We hypothesize that evolution of morph specific gene expression, and consequently morph specific phenotypic evolution, may be constrained by gene essentiality and the amount of pleiotropic constraints. Here, we use comparative transcriptomics of queen and worker morphs, i.e. castes, from 15 ant species to understand the constraints of morph-biased gene expression...
March 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Eben J Gering
Biologists are still discovering diverse and powerful ways sexual conflicts shape biodiversity. The present study examines how the proportion of females in a population that exhibit male mimicry, a mating resistance trait, influences conspecific males' behavior, condition and survival. Like most female-polymorphic damselflies, Ischnura ramburii harbors both "andromorph" females, which closely resemble males, and sexually dimorphic "gynomorph" counterparts. There is evidence that male mimicry helps andromorphs evade detection and harassment, but males can also learn to target locally prevalent morph(s) via prior mate encounters...
March 3, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jostein Gohli, Lawrence R Kirkendall, Sarah M Smith, Anthony I Cognato, Jiri Hulcr, Bjarte H Jordal
The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation...
March 3, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Benjamin J Parker, Jan Hrček, Ailsa H C McLean, H Charles J Godfray
The microbial symbionts of eukaryotes influence disease resistance in many host-parasite systems. Symbionts show substantial variation in both genotype and phenotype, but it is unclear how natural selection maintains this variation. It is also unknown whether variable symbiont genotypes show specificity with the genotypes of hosts or parasites in natural populations. Genotype by genotype interactions are a necessary condition for coevolution between interacting species. Uncovering the patterns of genetic specificity among hosts, symbionts, and parasites is therefore critical for determining the role that symbionts play in host-parasite coevolution...
March 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nadja Vogt-Burri, Pierick Mouginot, Aline Schlatter, Dita B Vizoso, Nathan W Bailey, Lukas Schärer
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this in a series of experiments in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano...
March 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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