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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426469/phylogenomic-incongruence-hypothesis-testing-and-taxonomic-sampling-the-monophyly-of-characiform-fishes
#1
Ricardo Betancur-R, Dahiana Arcila, Richard P Vari, Lily C Hughes, Claudio Oliveira, Mark H Sabaj, Guillermo Ortí
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421788/increased-evolutionary-rates-and-conserved-transcriptional-response-following-allopolyploidisation-in-brown-algae
#2
Filipe Sousa, João Neiva, Neusa Martins, Rita Jacinto, Laura Anderson, Peter T Raimondi, Ester A Serrão, Gareth A Pearson
Genome mergers between independently evolving lineages, via allopolyploidy, can potentially lead to instantaneous sympatric speciation. However, little is known about the consequences of allopolyploidy and the resultant "genome shock" on genome evolution and expression beyond the plant and fungal branches of the Tree of Life. The aim of this study was to compare substitution rates and gene expression patterns in two allopolyploid brown algae (Phaeophyceae, Heterokonta) and their progenitors in the genus Pelvetiopsis N...
November 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421418/choice-of-high-quality-mates-versus-avoidance-of-low-quality-mates
#3
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Research in sexual selection assumes that individuals attempt to choose high-quality mates, and that sexual signals evolve to indicate high quality. But it may often be more important to instead discriminate and avoid low-quality mates, thus reducing the likelihood of large penalties in fitness. We show, using simulations, that avoidance of low-quality mates (i.e., rejecting low-quality and accepting either high- or medium-quality mates) evolves in socio-ecological circumstances such as monogamy with moderate opportunities for choice, costly choice, or abundant low-quality mates...
November 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421421/the-x-chromosome-favors-males-under-sexually-antagonistic-selection
#4
Manus M Patten
The X chromosome is found twice as often in females as males. This has led to an intuition that X-linked genes for traits experiencing sexually antagonistic selection should tend to evolve toward the female optimum. However, this intuition has never been formally examined. In this paper, I present a simple mathematical model and ask whether the X chromosome is indeed biased toward effecting female-optimal phenotypes. Counter to the intuition, I find that the exact opposite bias exists; the X chromosome is revealed to be a welcome spot for mutations that benefit males at the expense of females...
November 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417945/no-evidence-for-sibling-or-parent-offspring-coadaptation-in-a-wild-population-of-blue-tits-despite-high-power
#5
Caroline E Thomson, Jarrod D Hadfield
Parent and offspring behaviours are expected to act as both the agents and targets of selection. This may generate parent-offspring coadaptation in which parent and offspring behaviours become genetically correlated in a way that increases inclusive fitness. Cross-fostering has been used to study parent-offspring coadaptation, with the prediction that offspring raised by non-relatives, or parents raising non-relatives, should suffer fitness costs. Using long-term data from more than 400 partially crossed broods of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) we show there is no difference in mass or survival between crossed and non-crossed chicks...
November 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417348/quantifying-the-relative-contributions-of-the-x-chromosome-autosomes-and-mitochondrial-genome-to-local-adaptation
#6
Clementine Lasne, Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Carla M Sgrò, Tim Connallon
During local adaptation with gene flow, some regions of the genome are inherently more responsive to selection than others. Recent theory predicts that X-linked genes should disproportionately contribute to local adaptation relative to other genomic regions, yet this prediction remains to be tested. We carried out a multi-generation crossing scheme, using two cline-end populations of Drosophila melanogaster, to estimate the relative contributions of the X chromosome, autosomes and mitochondrial genome to adaptive divergence in four traits involved in local adaptation (wing size, and resistance to heat, desiccation, and starvation stresses)...
November 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417345/digest-early-exposure-to-facial-cues-facilitates-facial-learning-in-paper-wasps
#7
Matías I Muñoz
Tibbetts et al. (2018) evaluated the influence of the rearing environment on the facial learning capacity of the paper wasp Polistes metricus. Wasps reared with cues signaling individual identity learned to discriminate faces more accurately than wasps reared in the absence of facial cues. These findings indicate that developmental plasticity plays a significant role in the evolution of animal communication systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 11, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414183/gene-exchange-between-two-divergent-species-of-the-fungal-human-pathogen-coccidioides
#8
Colin S Maxwell, Kathleen Mattox, David A Turissini, Marcus M Teixeira, Bridget M Barker, Daniel R Matute
The fungal genus Coccidioides is composed of two species, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. These two species are the causal agents of coccidioidomycosis, a pulmonary disease also known as valley fever. The two species are thought to have shared genetic material due to gene exchange in spite of their long divergence. To quantify the magnitude of shared ancestry between them, we analyzed the genomes of a population sample from each species. Next, we inferred what is the expected size of shared haplotypes that might be inherited from the last common ancestor of the two species and find a cutoff to find what haplotypes have conclusively been exchanged between species...
November 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411346/melanosome-diversity-and-convergence-in-the-evolution-of-iridescent-avian-feathers-implications-for-paleocolor-reconstruction
#9
Klara K Nordén, Jaeike Faber, Frane Babarović, Thomas L Stubbs, Tara Selly, James D Schiffbauer, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Gerald Mayr, Fiann Smithwick, Jakob Vinther
Some of the most varied colors in the natural world are created by iridescent nanostructures in bird feathers, formed by layers of melanin-containing melanosomes. The morphology of melanosomes in iridescent feathers is known to vary, but the extent of this diversity, and when it evolved, is unknown. We use scanning electron microscopy to quantify the diversity of melanosome morphology in iridescent feathers from 97 extant bird species, covering 11 orders. In addition, we assess melanosome morphology in two Eocene birds, which are the stem lineages of groups that respectively exhibit hollow and flat melanosomes today...
November 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411338/the-role-of-infectious-disease-in-the-evolution-of-females-evidence-from-anther-smut-disease-on-a-gynodioecious-alpine-carnation
#10
Emily L Bruns, Ian Miller, Michael E Hood, Valentina Carasso, Janis Antonovics
In flowering plants, the evolution of females is widely hypothesized to be the first step in the evolutionary pathway to separate male and female sexes, or dioecy. Natural enemies have the potential to drive this evolution if they preferentially attack hermaphrodites over females. We studied sex-based differences in exposure to anther-smut (Microbotryum), a sterilizing pollinator-transmitted disease, in Dianthus pavonius, a gynodioecious perennial herb. We found that within a heavily diseased population, females consistently had lower levels of Microbotryum spore deposition relative to hermaphrodites and that this difference was driven by rapid floral closing in females following successful pollination...
November 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411337/a-meta-analysis-of-the-agents-of-selection-on-floral-traits
#11
Christina M Caruso, Katherine Eisen, Ryan A Martin, Nina Sletvold
Floral traits are hypothesized to evolve primarily in response to selection by pollinators. However, selection can also be mediated by other environmental factors. To understand the relative importance of pollinator-mediated selection and its variation among trait and pollinator types, we analyzed directional selection gradients on floral traits from experiments that manipulated the environment to identify agents of selection. Pollinator-mediated selection was stronger than selection by other biotic factors (e...
November 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382578/masculinization-of-gene-expression-is-associated-with-male-quality-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Rebecca Dean, Camille Hammer, Vanessa Higham, Damian K Dowling
The signature of sexual selection has been revealed through the study of differences in patterns of genome-wide gene expression, both between the sexes and between alternative reproductive morphs within a single sex. What remains unclear, however, is whether differences in gene expression patterns between individuals of a given sex consistently map to variation in individual quality. Such a pattern, particularly if found in males, would provide unambiguous evidence that the phenotypic response to sexual selection is shaped through sex-specific alterations to the transcriptome...
November 1, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374977/digest-experimental-evolution-provides-a-window-into-the-evolution-of-generalized-pollination
#13
Katherine E Eisen
Do plants with multiple pollinators evolve unique trait combinations or intermediate phenotypes compared to plants with one pollinator? Using experimental evolution, Schiestl et al. (2018) found that plants pollinated by bumble bees and hoverflies evolved trait values not observed in plants pollinated by one taxon, which provides evidence for the existence of a unique generalized pollination phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 29, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374954/song-complexity-no-correlation-between-standard-deviation-of-frequency-and-traditionally-used-song-complexity-metrics-in-passerines-a-comment-on-pearse-et-al-2018
#14
Peter Mikula, Tereza Petrusková, Tomáš Albrecht
In a recent paper, Pearse et al. (2018) used a large citizen science dataset, Xeno-canto (www.xeno-canto.org), and machine learning techniques to characterise avian song characteristics, including song complexity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 29, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370539/complexity-is-complicated-and-so-too-is-comparing-complexity-metrics-a-response-to-mikula-et-al-2018
#15
William D Pearse, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Logan S James, Maxwell Farrell, Frédéric Boivin, T Jonathan Davies
In a recent publication (Pearse et al. 2018b), we explored the macroevolution and macroecology of passerine song using a large citizen science database of bird songs and powerful machine learning tools. Mikula et al. (2018) examine a small subset (<8%) of the data we used, and suggest that our metric of song complexity, the standard deviation of frequency (SDF), does not correlate to other metrics of birdsong complexity, specifically syllable repertoire size and syllable diversity. We comment on the diversity of complexity metrics that exist in the field at present, and, while acknowledging that metrics may differ, outline how this variety allows us to ask more biologically nuanced questions...
October 29, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370693/evolvability-and-craniofacial-diversification-in-genus-homo
#16
Karen L Baab
There is abundant theoretical and empirical evidence for the influence of variational properties of populations on microevolution, and more limited support for their lasting impact during macroevolution. This study applies evolutionary quantitative genetic approaches to assess the long-term impact of within-population phenotypic variation and covariation (the P matrix) on population divergence in recent humans and species diversification in genus Homo. Similarity between the primary axes of within- and between-population craniofacial variation confirms a role for pmax in human population divergence, although diversification is not constrained to be unidimensional...
October 28, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370653/digest-adaptive-radiations-and-the-multidimensional-niche
#17
Renan Maestri
Adaptive radiations depend critically on ecological opportunity as a driver. Aristide et al. (2018) found that a model incorporating the multivariate niche explains the morphological divergence in New World monkeys better than models with a single ecological axis. This raises the question of whether other continental radiations would show signals of adaptive radiation if the niche is more accurately described. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 28, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370648/encephalization-and-longevity-evolved-in-a-correlated-fashion-in-euarchontoglires-but-not-in-other-mammals
#18
Alex R DeCasien, Nicole A Thompson, Scott A Williams, Milena R Shattuck
Across mammals, encephalization and longevity show a strong correlation. It is not clear, however, whether these traits evolved in a correlated fashion within mammalian orders, or when they do, whether one trait drives changes in the other. Here, we compare independent and correlated evolutionary models to identify instances of correlated evolution within six mammalian orders. In cases of correlated evolution, we subsequently examined transition patterns between small/large relative brain size and short/long lifespan...
October 28, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346031/you-can-t-have-it-all-heritability-and-constraints-of-predator-induced-developmental-plasticity-in-a-neotropical-treefrog
#19
Justin Charles Touchon, Jeanne Marie Robertson
Many organisms have evolved phenotypic plasticity but examples of a heritable genetic basis or genetic constraints for plasticity across environments remain scarce. Tadpoles of the Neotropical treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus alter tail coloration and shape differently in response to fish or aquatic insect predators. To assess the genetic basis of plasticity we raised 1020 tadpoles from 17 maternal half-sib pairs (34 unique families) individually with chemical cues of fish or aquatic insects, or with cue-free control water...
October 22, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334259/queenless-honey-bees-build-infrastructure-for-direct-reproduction-until-their-new-queen-proves-her-worth
#20
Michael L Smith
The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that individuals will alter their reproductive investments based on reproductive prospects. This hypothesis, however, has never been tested at the colony-level, where reproductive prospects for thousands of individuals can change instantly with the death of a single individual: the queen. A honey bee queen's death also changes the reproductive mechanism; if the queen is not replaced, then workers reproduce directly, by producing males in reproductive comb-drone comb-before the colony dies...
October 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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