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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#1
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886369/genomic-data-reveals-potential-for-hybridization-introgression-and-incomplete-lineage-sorting-to-confound-phylogenetic-relationships-in-an-adaptive-radiation-of-narrow-mouth-frogs
#2
A M Alexander, Y-C Su, C H Oliveros, K V Olson, S L Travers, R M Brown
The microhylid frog genus Kaloula is an adaptive radiation spanning the edge of the Asian mainland and multiple adjacent island archipelagos, with much of the clade's diversity associated with an endemic Philippine radiation. Relationships among clades from the Philippines, however, remain unresolved. With ultraconserved element (UCE) and mitogenomic data, we identified highly-supported differences in topology and areas of poor resolution, for each marker set. Using the UCE data, we then identified possible instances of contemporary hybridization, past introgression and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) within the Philippine Kaloula...
November 25, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882551/fitness-gains-in-guppies-support-evolution-s-role-in-coexistence
#3
Kelsey Lyberger
Understanding processes that drive the assembly of communities is not a new goal in ecology; researchers have long studied what leads to the coexistence of species. However, the study of rapid evolution as a driving process of community assembly is an emerging frontier in evolutionary-ecology research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882549/digest-mechanisms-of-assortative-mating-and-ecological-speciation
#4
Spencer Ingley, Gil Rosenthal
The origin of species has long held the attention of students of biology, yet this process in many ways has remained enigmatic. Of specific interest to many has been the role of assortative mating in speciation (Bolnick and Fitzpatrick 2007). Assortative mating, which occurs when individuals prefer mates who possess characteristics similar to their own, has been recognized as a critical component of speciation despite a general lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive this pattern. In this issue, Greenway et al...
November 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882534/hybridizing-in-a-big-way
#5
William Hatchett
Gene regulation plays an important role in an organism's development and morphological evolution. However, the importance of regulatory divergence in speciation remains unclear. Hybrids between mammalian species often differ in size from their parents due to dramatic parent-of-origin growth effects (Vrana 2007; Brekke and Good 2014, Wolf et al. 2014). The parent-of-origin effects on growth are usually manifest in the placenta and embryo development stage, when the embryo is highly sensitive to gene dosage/expression (Haig 1996)...
November 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882540/does-size-matter-examining-the-drivers-of-mammalian-vocalisations
#6
Kobe Martin, Marlee A Tucker, Tracey L Rogers
Previous studies of the vocalisation frequencies of mammals have suggested that it is either body mass or environment that drives these frequencies. Using 193 species across the globe from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and a model selection approach, we identified that the best supported model for minimum and maximum frequencies for vocalisation included both body mass and environment. The minimum frequencies of vocalisations of species from all environments retained the influence of body mass. For maximum frequency however, aquatic species are released from such a trend with body mass having little constraint on frequencies...
November 23, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868195/predicting-patterns-of-long-term-adaptation-and-extinction-with-population-genetics
#7
J Bertram, K Gomez, J Masel
Population genetics struggles to model extinction; standard models track the relative rather than absolute fitness of genotypes, while the exceptions describe only the short-term transition from imminent doom to evolutionary rescue. But extinction can result from failure to adapt not only to catastrophes, but also to a backlog of environmental challenges. We model long-term adaptation to long series of small challenges, where fitter populations reach higher population sizes. The population's long-term fitness dynamic is well approximated by a simple stochastic Markov chain model...
November 21, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859247/repeated-intra-specific-divergence-in-lifespan-and-ageing-of-african-annual-fishes-along-an-aridity-gradient
#8
Radim Blažek, Matej Polačik, Petr Kačer, Alessandro Cellerino, Radomil Řežucha, Caroline Methling, Oldřich Tomášek, Kamila Syslová, Eva Terzibasi Tozzini, Tomáš Albrecht, Milan Vrtílek, Martin Reichard
Lifespan and ageing are substantially modified by natural selection. Across species, higher extrinsic (environmentally-related) mortality (and hence shorter life expectancy) selects for the evolution of more rapid ageing. However, among populations within species, high extrinsic mortality can lead to extended lifespan and slower ageing as a consequence of condition-dependent survival. Using within-species contrasts of eight natural populations of Nothobranchius fishes in common garden experiments, we demonstrate that populations originating from dry regions (with short life expectancy) had shorter intrinsic lifespans and a greater increase in mortality with age, more pronounced cellular and physiological deterioration (oxidative damage, tumor load), and a faster decline in fertility than populations from wetter regions...
November 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859231/digest-females-that-look-alike-do-not-always-mate-alike
#9
Rebecca Nagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861812/digest-love-is-in-the-air-sticklebacks-choice-of-mate-depends-on-dissolved-oxygen-levels
#10
Nicola Simcock
For mate selection, physical appearance can be an important indicator of general health and the potential genetic gains available to future offspring. Accurate assessment of mate quality can drive trait development and differentiation, and may contribute to reproductive isolation. However, in changing environmental conditions, static traits are not always reliable indicators of mate quality (Wong et al., 2007). Some males invest resources in developing "extended phenotypes": expression of genes manifested outside the organism's body, such as nest size...
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861806/the-key-to-pollen-stigma-dimorphisms-dissecting-the-functional-significance-of-the-heterostylous-syndrome
#11
Julia Kreiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861800/barriers-to-gene-flow-and-ring-species-formation
#12
Ayana de Brito Martins, Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar
Ring species are groups of organisms that dispersed along a ring-shaped region in such a way that the two ends of the population that meet after many generations are reproductively isolated. They provide a rare opportunity to understand the role of spatial structuring in speciation. Here, we simulate the evolution of ring species assuming that individuals become sexually isolated if the genetic distance between them is above a certain threshold. The model incorporates two forms of dispersal limitation: exogenous geographic barriers that limit the population range and endogenous barriers that result in genetic structuring within the population range...
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861781/digest-salamanders-slow-slither-into-genomic-gigantism
#13
Steven Dodsworth, Maïté Guignard, Oriane Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer
Genome size varies enormously across the eukaryotic tree of life (c. 66,000-fold), with the largest reported nuclear genomes found in vertebrates (e.g. salamanders, lungfish) and angiosperms (e.g. mistletoe, fritillaries). Yet despite this huge diversity, most genomes are considerably smaller than the largest reported (c. 150 Gb), with the mean size of both vertebrate and plant genomes being similar, c. 5 Gb. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859214/adaptive-divergence-in-flowering-time-among-natural-populations-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-estimates-of-selection-and-qtl-mapping
#14
Jon Ågren, Christopher G Oakley, Sverre Lundemo, Douglas W Schemske
To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic tradeoffs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped QTL. There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden...
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859040/digest-ant-workers-might-use-ancient-regulatory-pathways-to-divide-labor
#15
Ulrich R Ernst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859037/digest-live-fast-or-slow-temperature-does-not-impose-selection-on-metabolic-rate
#16
Daniel K Fabian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859032/evolution-of-haploid-diploid-life-cycles-when-haploid-and-diploid-fitnesses-are-not-equal
#17
Michael F Scott, Marie Rescan
Many organisms spend a significant portion of their life cycle as haploids and as diploids (a haploid-diploid life cycle). However, the evolutionary processes that could maintain this sort of life cycle are unclear. Most previous models of ploidy evolution have assumed that the fitness effects of new mutations are equal in haploids and homozygous diploids, however, this equivalency is not supported by empirical data. With different mutational effects, the overall (intrinsic) fitness of a haploid would not be equal to that of a diploid after a series of substitution events...
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861813/consequences-of-genetic-linkage-for-the-maintenance-of-sexually-antagonistic-polymorphism-in-hermaphrodites
#18
Colin Olito
When selection differs between males and females, pleiotropic effects among genes expressed by both sexes can result in sexually antagonistic selection (SA), where beneficial alleles for one sex are deleterious for the other. For hermaphrodites, alleles with opposing fitness effects through each sex function represent analogous genetic constraints on fitness. Recent theory based on single-locus models predicts that the maintenance of SA genetic variation should be greatly reduced in partially selfing populations...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861795/sex-specific-mitonuclear-epistasis-and-the-evolution-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-ageing-and-life-history-in-seed-beetles
#19
Mirko Đorđević, Biljana Stojković, Uroš Savković, Elina Immonen, Nikola Tucić, Jelica Lazarević, Göran Arnqvist
The role of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of life-history traits remains debated. We examined mitonuclear effects on the activity of the multisubunit complex of the electron transport chain (ETC) involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) across lines of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for a short (E) or a long (L) life for more than >160 generations. We constructed and phenotyped mitonuclear introgression lines, which allowed us to assess the independent effects of the evolutionary history of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859046/defensive-traits-exhibit-an-evolutionary-trade-off-and-drive-diversification-in-ants
#20
Benjamin D Blanchard, Corrie S Moreau
Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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