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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636789/out-of-the-dark-350-million-years-of-conservatism-and-evolution-in-diel-activity-patterns-in-vertebrates
#1
Samantha R Anderson, John J Wiens
Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e...
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636212/ecological-opportunity-competition-and-diversity-dependence-in-macroevolution
#2
James T Stroud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636147/floral-ambush-in-the-sun-evolution-of-flower-dwelling-and-uv-white-reflectance-in-crab-spiders
#3
Brooke L Weigel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636097/finding-new-homes-multilevel-selection-on-birth-timing-and-growth-in-north-american-red-squirrels
#4
James Marvel-Coen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608545/an-alternative-pathway-to-eusociality-exploring-the-molecular-and-functional-basis-of-fortress-defense
#5
Sarah P Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail Lind, Andrew W Legan, Jessica N Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the lethality of aphid soldiers derives in part from the induction of exaggerated immune responses in insects they attack...
June 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608539/host-resistance-and-pathogen-aggressiveness-are-key-determinants-of-coinfection-in-the-wild
#6
Hanna Susi, Anna-Liisa Laine
Coinfection, whereby the same host is infected by more than one pathogen strain, may favor faster host exploitation rates as strains compete for the same limited resources. Hence, coinfection is expected to have major consequences for pathogen evolution, virulence and epidemiology. Theory predicts genetic variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity to play a key role in how coinfections are formed. The limited number of studies available have demonstrated coinfection to be a common phenomenon, but little is known about how coinfection varies in space, and what its determinants are...
June 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598501/effect-of-craniofacial-genotype-on-the-relationship-between-morphology-and-feeding-performance-in-cichlid-fishes
#7
David G Matthews, R Craig Albertson
The relationship between morphology and performance is complex, but important for understanding the adaptive nature of morphological variation. Recent studies have sought to better understand this system by illuminating the interconnectedness of different functional systems, however the role of genetics is often overlooked. In this study we attempt to gain insights into this relationship by examining the effect of genotypic variation at putative craniofacial loci on the relationship between morphology and feeding performance in cichlids...
June 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598499/an-experimental-test-of-local-adaptation-among-cytotypes-within-a-polyploid-complex
#8
Patrick J McIntyre, Sharon Strauss
The geographic distributions of polyploids suggest they can have distinct and sometimes broader niches compared to diploids. However, relatively few field experiments have investigated whether range differences are associated with local adaptation or reflect other processes, such as dispersal limitation. In three years of transplants across the elevational ranges of five cytotypes in the Claytonia perfoliata complex, we found evidence for local adaptation. In at least one study year germination was higher within the natural range for each cytotype, and four of the five cytotypes attained larger biomass within their natural range...
June 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590028/phenotypic-plasticity-drives-a-depth-gradient-in-male-conspicuousness-in-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#9
Chad D Brock, Molly E Cummings, Daniel I Bolnick
Signal evolution is thought to depend on both a signal's detectability or conspicuousness (signal design) as well as any extractable information it may convey to a potential receiver (signal content). While theoretical and empirical work in sexual selection has largely focused on signal content, there has been a steady accrual of evidence that signal design is also important for trait evolution. Despite this, relatively little attention has been paid to spatial variation in the conspicuousness of a given signal, especially over small spatial scales (relative to an organism's dispersal distance)...
June 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590013/prophage-as-a-genetic-reservoir-promoting-diversity-and-driving-innovation-in-the-host-community
#10
A Nadeem, Lindi M Wahl
Sequencing of bacterial genomes has revealed an abundance of prophage sequences in many bacterial species. Since these sequences are accessible, through recombination, to infecting phages, bacteria carry an arsenal of genetic material that can be used by these viruses. We develop a mathematical model to isolate the effects of this phenomenon on the coevolution of temperate phage and bacteria. The model predicts that prophage sequences may play a key role in maintaining the phage population in situations that would otherwise favor host cell resistance...
June 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590008/time-limited-environments-affect-the-evolution-of-egg-body-size-allometry
#11
Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Will Sowersby, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Björn Rogell
Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the co-evolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. In order to rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound to having a large initial size, and consequently, the evolution of egg size will be tightly matched to that of body size, compared to less time-limited systems...
June 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574174/the-evolution-of-vertebrate-eye-size-across-an-environmental-gradient-phenotype-does-not-predict-genotype-in-a-trinidadian-killifish
#12
Shannon M Beston, Elijah Wostl, Matthew R Walsh
Vertebrates exhibit substantial variation in eye size. Eye size correlates positively with visual capacity and behaviors that enhance fitness, such as predator avoidance. This foreshadows a connection between predation and eye size evolution. Yet, the conditions that favor evolutionary shifts in eye size, besides the well-known role for light availability, are unclear. We tested the influence of predation on the evolution of eye size in Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii. Rivulus are located across a series of communities where they coexist with visually oriented piscivores ("high predation" sites), and no predators ("Rivulus-only" sites)...
June 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568812/second-order-cooperation-cooperative-offspring-as-a-living-public-good-arising-from-second-order-selection-on-non-cooperative-individuals
#13
Antoine Frénoy, François Taddei, Dusan Misevic
Switching rate between cooperating and non-cooperating genotypes is a crucial social evolution factor, often neglected by game theory-inspired theoretical and experimental frameworks. We show that the evolution of alleles increasing the mutation or phenotypic switching rates toward cooperation is in itself a social dilemma. Although cooperative offspring are often unlikely to reproduce, due to high cost of cooperation, they can be seen both as a living public good and a part of the extended parental phenotype...
May 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568476/reversal-of-response-to-artificial-selection-on-body-size-in-a-wild-passerine
#14
Thomas Kvalnes, Thor Harald Ringsby, Henrik Jensen, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Bernt Rønning, Henrik Pärn, Håkon Holand, Steinar Engen, Bernt-Erik Saether
A general assumption in quantitative genetics is the existence of an intermediate phenotype with higher mean individual fitness in the average environment than more extreme phenotypes. Here, we investigate the evolvability and presence of such a phenotype in wild bird populations from an eleven-year experiment with four years of artificial selection for long and short tarsus length, a proxy for body size. The experiment resulted in strong selection in the imposed directions. However, artificial selection was counteracted by reduced production of recruits in offspring of artificially selected parents...
May 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568242/history-cleans-up-messes-the-impact-of-time-in-driving-divergence-and-introgression-in-a-tropical-suture-zone
#15
Sonal Singhal, Ke Bi
Contact zones provide an excellent arena in which to address questions about how genomic divergence evolves during lineage divergence. They allow us to both infer patterns of genomic divergence in allopatric populations isolated from introgression and to characterize patterns of introgression after lineages meet. Thusly motivated, we analyze genome-wide introgression data from four contact zones in three genera of lizards endemic to the Australian Wet Tropics. These contact zones all formed between morphologically cryptic lineage-pairs within morphologically defined species, and the lineage-pairs meeting in the contact zones diverged anywhere from 3...
May 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568351/adaptation-to-competition-by-new-mutation-in-clones-of-alexandrium-minutum
#16
Eduardo Costas, Blanca Nieto, Victoria Lopez-Rodas, Conchita Salgado, Miguel Toro
We describe two competition experiments between clones of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. In the first experiment, two clones originating from a single haploid cell competed until one of the clones was almost driven to extinction. In the second experiment, these two clones were allowed to compete with the original populations, which were previously kept as cysts. The results indicate that an improvement of the competitive ability in both clones has occurred during the history of competition. This adaptation to competition must be attributed to selection acting on the new genetic variation that has arisen by mutation...
April 1998: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568350/butterflies-and-plants-a-phylogenetic-study
#17
Niklas Janz, Sören Nylin
A database on host plant records from 437 ingroup taxa has been used to test a number of hypotheses on the interaction between butterflies and their host plants using phylogenetic methods (simple character optimization, concentrated changes test, and independent contrasts test). The butterfly phylogeny was assembled from various sources and host plant clades were identified according to Chase et al.'s rbcL-based phylogeny. The ancestral host plant appears to be associated within a highly derived rosid clade, including the family Fabaceae...
April 1998: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568349/the-relative-importance-of-historical-events-and-gene-flow-on-the-population-structure-of-a-mediterranean-ragwort-senecio-gallicus-asteraceae
#18
Hans Peter Comes, Richard J Abbott
Comparisons of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity within and among natural plant populations have the potential to distinguish the relative influences of seed and pollen dispersal on contemporary gene flow, or alternatively, may permit inferences of the colonization history of a species via seed. We examined patterns of cpDNA and allozyme variation in Senecio gallicus, a diploid, annual plant that occurs in both coastal and ruderal inland areas of the Iberian Peninsula and southern France. The species appears to have a strong propensity for long-distance seed dispersal...
April 1998: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568348/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1998: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568347/evolutionary-associations-of-brood-parasitic-finches-vidua-and-their-host-species-analyses-of-mitochondrial-dna-restriction-sites
#20
Nedra K Klein, Robert B Payne
The species-specific associations of the African brood parasitic finches Vidua with their estrildid finch host species may have originated by cospeciation with the host species or by later colonizations of new hosts. Predictions of these alternative models were tested in two species groups of brood parasites (indigobirds, paradise whydahs) and their hosts. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the brood parasites and their hosts did not speciate in parallel. The parasitic indigobirds share mitochondrial haplotypes with each other, and species limits in both indigobirds and paradise whydahs do not correspond with their gene trees...
April 1998: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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