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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733989/detecting-ancient-co-dispersals-and-host-shifts-by-double-dating-of-host-and-parasite-phylogenies-application-in-proctophyllodid-feather-mites-associated-with-passerine-birds
#1
Pavel B Klimov, Sergey V Mironov, Barry M OConnor
Inferring co-phylogeographic events requires matching the timing of these events on both host and symbiont (e.g., parasites) phylogenies because divergences of hosts and their symbionts may not temporally coincide, and host switches may occur. We investigate a large radiation of birds (Passeriformes) and their permanent symbionts, the proctophyllodid feather mites (117 species from 116 bird species; 6 genes, 11,468 nt aligned) using two time-calibration strategies for mites: fossils only and host phylogeography only...
July 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722759/lifetime-reproductive-success-selection-on-lifespan-and-multiple-sexual-ornaments-in-male-european-barn-swallows
#2
Alessandra Costanzo, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Gatti, Marco Parolini, Luca Canova, Diego Rubolini, Andrea Romano, Luca Gianfranceschi, Nicola Saino
Natural and sexual selection arise when individual fitness varies according to focal traits. Extra-pair paternities (EPPs) can affect the intensity of selection by influencing variance in fitness among individuals. Studies of selection require that individual fitness is estimated using proxies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS). However, estimating LRS is difficult in large, open populations where EPPs cause reallocation of biological paternity. Here we used extensive field sampling to estimate LRS in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) to estimate selection on lifespan and ornamental traits of males...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722748/evolution-and-plasticity-divergence-of-song-discrimination-is-faster-in-birds-with-innate-song-than-in-song-learners-in-neotropical-passerine-birds
#3
Benjamin G Freeman, Graham A Montgomery, Dolph Schluter
Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that 1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and 2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and non-learning suboscines (N = 27)...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722132/evolution-of-the-selfing-syndrome-anther-orientation-and-herkogamy-together-determine-reproductive-assurance-in-a-self-compatible-plant
#4
Per Toräng, Linus Vikström, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, George Coupland, Jon Ågren
Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722119/sexual-selection-on-spontaneous-mutations-strengthens-the-between-sex-genetic-correlation-for-fitness
#5
Scott L Allen, Katrina McGuigan, Tim Connallon, Mark W Blows, Stephen F Chenoweth
A proposed benefit to sexual selection is that it promotes purging of deleterious mutations from populations. For this benefit to be realised, sexual selection, which is usually stronger on males, must purge mutations deleterious to both sexes. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that sexual selection on males purges deleterious mutations that affect both male and female fitness. We measured male and female fitness in two panels of spontaneous mutation-accumulation lines of the fly, Drosophila serrata, each established from a common ancestor...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714591/experimental-evolution-with-a-multicellular-host-causes-diversification-within-and-between-microbial-parasite-populations-differences-in-emerging-phenotypes-of-two-different-parasite-strains
#6
Michaela H Kloesener, Joy Bose, Rebecca D Schulte
Host-parasite coevolution is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences, potentially leading to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic diversity for both antagonists. However, little is known about variation in phenotypic responses to coevolution between different parasite strains exposed to the same experimental conditions. We infected Caenorhabditis elegans with one of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and either allowed the host and the parasite to experimentally coevolve (coevolution treatment) or allowed only the parasite to adapt to the host (one-sided parasite adaptation)...
July 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714571/domestication-and-fitness-in-the-wild-a-multivariate-view
#7
Jarle Tufto
Domesticated species continually escaping and interbreeding with wild relatives impose a migration load on wild populations. As domesticated stocks become increasingly different as a result of artificial and natural selection in captivity, fitness of escapees in the wild is expected to decline, reducing the effective rate of migration into wild populations. Recent theory suggest that this may alleviate and eventually eliminate the resulting migration load. I develop a multivariate model of trait and wild fitness evolution resulting from the joint effects of artificial and natural selection in the captive environment...
July 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703292/a-reassessment-of-explanations-for-discordant-introgressions-of-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genomes
#8
Timothée Bonnet, Raphaël Leblois, François Rousset, Pierre-André Crochet
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant evolutionary process, in particular because it can lead to introgression of genes from one species to another. A striking pattern of discordance in the amount of introgression between mitochondrial and nuclear markers exists such that substantial mitochondrial introgression is often found in combination with no or little nuclear introgression. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this discordance, including positive selection for introgressing mitochondrial variants, several types of sex-biases, drift, negative selection against introgression in the nuclear genome, and spatial expansion...
July 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700095/smaller-beaks-for-colder-winters-thermoregulation-drives-beak-size-evolution-in-australasian-songbirds
#9
Nicholas R Friedman, Lenka Harmáčková, Evan P Economo, Vladimír Remeš
Birds' beaks play a key role in foraging, and most research on their size and shape has focused on this function. Recent findings suggest that beaks may also be important for thermoregulation, and this may drive morphological evolution as predicted by Allen's rule. However, the role of thermoregulation in the evolution of beak size across species remains largely unexplored. In particular, it remains unclear whether the need for retaining heat in the winter or dissipating heat in the summer plays the greater role in selection for beak size...
July 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685894/digest-using-transcriptomics-to-map-parental-care-behavior-in-burying-beetles
#10
Peter J Flynn
Excepting highly social insects such as bees and ants, a broad range of insects care for their young but do not exhibit other social behaviors. For example, burying beetles (Nicrophorus) exhibit highly elaborate parental care behavior. To feed their young, male and female Nicrophorus parents find a vertebrate carcass and bury it to avoid competitors. They then prepare the carcass by rolling it into a ball and coating it with secretions to slow decay. Once the larvae hatch, one or both parents provide direct care to the offspring by predigesting the carcass and regurgitating it straight into the mouth of their visibly begging young - an example of parental provisioning...
July 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685868/body-size-evolution-in-an-old-insect-order-no-evidence-for-cope-s-rule-in-spite-of-fitness-benefits-of-large-size
#11
John T Waller, Erik I Svensson
We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or non-existent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success...
July 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685854/digest-shifting-biomes-insight-into-patterns-of-plant-radiation-and-dispersal
#12
Chloe M Nash
What determines a taxon's range? This is a deceptively simple question. It represents the intersection of ecology and evolution, requiring an understanding of the fundamental relationship between biotic and abiotic factors that can both constrain and drive assemblage structure and rates of lineage diversification. Modern methods have enabled robust analyses of this complex relationship through the integrated use of phylogenomics, community ecology, functional morphology, and biogeography. This article is protected by copyright...
July 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685813/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-integration-how-directional-selection-reshapes-covariation-in-mice
#13
Anna Penna, Diogo Melo, Sandra Bernardi, Maria Inés Oyarzabal, Gabriel Marroig
Variation is the basis for evolution, and understanding how variation can evolve is a central question in biology. In complex phenotypes, covariation plays an even more important role, as genetic associations between traits can bias and alter evolutionary change. Covariation can be shaped by complex interactions between loci, and this genetic architecture can also change during evolution. In this article, we analyzed mouse lines experimentally selected for changes in size to address the question of how multivariate covariation changes under directional selection, as well as to identify the consequences of these changes to evolution...
July 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654210/do-plant-eating-insect-lineages-pass-through-phases-of-host-use-generalism-during-speciation-and-host-switching-phylogenetic-evidence
#14
Nate B Hardy
The Oscillation Hypothesis posits that plant-eating insect diversity is generated by cycles of diet breadth expansion and contraction. Although at any given time most plant-eating insect species are host specialists, host-use evolution and speciation tend to entail a phase of generalism. The main evidence for this comes from comparative phylogenetic studies, but with mixed support. Here, I review and add to this evidence. I show that some of the original work that inspired the Oscillation Hypothesis is flawed in a way that leads to spurious inferences about trends in the evolution of diet diversity...
June 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640437/repeated-evolution-of-vertebrate-pollination-syndromes-in-a-recently-diverged-andean-plant-clade
#15
Laura P Lagomarsino, Elisabeth J Forrestel, Nathan Muchhala, Charles C Davis
While specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640400/little-evidence-for-intralocus-sexual-conflict-over-the-optimal-intake-of-nutrients-for-lifespan-and-reproduction-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#16
James Rapkin, Ruth C Archer, Charles E Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640393/malagasy-cichlids-differentially-limit-impacts-of-body-shape-evolution-on-oral-jaw-functional-morphology
#17
Christopher M Martinez, John S Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, such as integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping (MTOM) of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640391/selective-sweeps-of-mitochondrial-dna-can-drive-the-evolution-of-uniparental-inheritance
#18
Joshua R Christie, Madeleine Beekman
While the uniparental (or maternal) inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widespread, the reasons for its evolution remain unclear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: selection against individuals containing different mtDNAs (heteroplasmy) and selection against "selfish" mtDNA mutations. Recently, uniparental inheritance was shown to promote adaptive evolution in mtDNA, potentially providing a third hypothesis for its evolution. Here we explore this hypothesis theoretically and ask if the accumulation of beneficial mutations provides a sufficient fitness advantage for uniparental inheritance to invade a population in which mtDNA is inherited biparentally...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636789/out-of-the-dark-350-million-years-of-conservatism-and-evolution-in-diel-activity-patterns-in-vertebrates
#19
Samantha R Anderson, John J Wiens
Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e...
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636212/digest-ecological-opportunity-competition-and-diversity-dependence-in-macroevolution
#20
James T Stroud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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