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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106259/selection-on-parental-performance-opposes-selection-for-larger-body-mass-in-a-wild-population-of-blue-tits
#1
Caroline E Thomson, Florian Bayer, Nicholas Crouch, Samantha Farrell, Elizabeth Heap, Elizabeth Mittell, Mar Zurita-Cassinello, Jarrod D Hadfield
There is abundant evidence in many taxa for positive directional selection on body size, and yet little evidence for microevolutionary change. In many species, variation in body size is partly determined by the actions of parents, so a proposed explanation for stasis is the presence of a negative genetic correlation between direct and parental effects. Consequently, selecting genes for increased body size would result in a correlated decline in parental effects, reducing body size in the following generation...
January 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094439/adaptive-evolution-to-novel-predators-facilitates-the-evolution-of-damselfly-species-range-shifts
#2
Adam M Siepielski, Jeremy M Beaulieu
Most species have evolved adaptations to reduce the chances of predation. In many cases adaptations to coexist with one predator generate tradeoffs in the ability to live with other predators. Consequently, the ability to live with one predator may limit the geographic distributions of species, such that adaptive evolution to coexist with novel predators may facilitate range shifts. In a case study with Enallagma damselflies, we used a comparative phylogenetic approach to test the hypothesis that adaptive evolution to live with a novel predator facilitates range size shifts...
January 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094438/environmental-niche-conservatism-explains-the-accumulation-of-species-richness-in-mediterranean-hotspot-plant-genera
#3
Alexander Skeels, Marcel Cardillo
The causes of exceptionally high plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots are not fully understood. We asked whether a mechanism similar to the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis could explain the diversity of four large genera (Protea, Moraea, Banksia, and Hakea) with distributions within and adjacent to the Greater Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) or the Southwest Floristic Region (Australia). Using phylogenetic and spatial data we estimated the environmental niche of each species, and reconstructed the mode and dynamics of niche evolution, and the geographic history, of each genus...
January 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085192/macroevolutionary-synthesis-of-flowering-plant-sexual-systems
#4
Emma E Goldberg, Sarah P Otto, Jana C Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera that contain both dioecious and non-dioecious species...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085191/developmental-dynamics-of-ecomorphological-convergence-in-a-transcontinental-lizard-radiation
#5
Christy A Hipsley, Johannes Müller
Phenotypic convergence has confounded evolutionary biologists for centuries, explained as adaptations to shared selective pressures, or alternatively, the result of limited developmental pathways. We tested the relative roles of adaptation and constraint in generating convergent cranial morphologies across a large lizard radiation, the Lacertidae, whose members inhabit diverse environments throughout the Old World and display high amounts of homoplasy associated with ecological niche. Using three-dimensional X-ray computed tomography, we quantified cranial shape variation associated with ontogeny, allometry, and ecology, covering all lacertid genera and one-third of species diversity...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085190/digest-beating-pathogens-at-their-own-game
#6
Sonia Singhal
In recent years, the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens has prompted searches for new ways to control them. While many studies have focused on discovering new antimicrobials, fewer have looked at the ecological interactions that control pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria are embedded in multi-species microbial communities where they interact with other bacterial species and their own parasitic enemies, bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria; also called phages). Interactions with these other microbes may hinder, benefit, or have no effect on the pathogen...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085189/digest-splendid-continental-radiations
#7
Bryan McLean
Henry Fairfield Osborn, vertebrate paleontologist and long-time president of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, once referred to adaptive radiation as "one of the essential features of divergent evolution … the idea of differentiation of habit in several directions from a primitive type … . This idea of radiation becomes a means of interpretation, and a way of imagining the relations of extinct and living faunae. As perceived by [E. D.] Cope, it applies both on a small and on a vast scale" (Osborn 1902)...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085187/digest-climate-effects-on-chipmunk-cranial-morphology
#8
Jeremy Rehm
The threat of rapid climate change raises questions not only about species' survival and global biodiversity, but also about how climate impacts morphological evolution. Many studies have sought answers by studying climatic shifts in geologic history, and they have produced mixed results. Renaud et al. (2005), for example, showed how the drying and cooling climate between the late Miocene and Pliocene promoted the dental evolution of two genera of rodents, one a diet generalist and the other a specialist, from the same phylogenetic lineage...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085186/the-ability-of-drosophila-hybrids-to-locate-food-declines-with-parental-divergence
#9
David A Turissini, Aaron A Comeault, Geoffrey Liu, Yuh Chwen G Lee, Daniel R Matute
Hybrids are generally less fit than their parental species, and the mechanisms underlying their fitness reductions can manifest through different traits. For example, hybrids can have physiological, behavioral, or ecological defects, and these defects can generate reproductive isolation between their parental species. However, the rate that mechanisms of postzygotic isolation other than hybrid sterility and inviability evolve has remained largely uninvestigated, despite isolated studies showing that behavioral defects in hybrids are not only possible but might be widespread...
January 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075480/costs-of-selfing-prevent-the-spread-of-a-self-compatibility-mutation-that-causes-reproductive-assurance
#10
Nathan C Layman, M Thilina R Fernando, Christopher R Herlihy, Jeremiah W Busch
In flowering plants, shifts from outcrossing to partial or complete self-fertilization have occurred independently thousands of times, yet the underlying adaptive processes are difficult to discern. Selfing's ability to provide reproductive assurance when pollination is uncertain is an oft-cited ecological explanation for its evolution, but this benefit may be outweighed by genetic costs diminishing its selective advantage over outcrossing. We directly studied the fitness effects of a self-compatibility (SC) mutation that was backcrossed into a self-incompatible (SI) population of Leavenworthia alabamica, illuminating the direction and magnitude of selection on the mating-system modifier...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075479/different-contributions-of-local-and-distant-regulatory-changes-to-transcriptome-divergence-between-stickleback-ecotypes
#11
Asano Ishikawa, Makoto Kusakabe, Kohta Yoshida, Mark Ravinet, Takashi Makino, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Differential gene expression can play an important role in phenotypic evolution and divergent adaptation. Although differential gene expression can be caused by both local- and distant-regulatory changes, we know little about their relative contribution to transcriptome evolution in natural populations. Here, we conducted expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis to investigate the genetic architecture underlying transcriptome divergence between marine and stream ecotypes of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075012/rare-ecomorphological-convergence-on-a-complex-adaptive-landscape-body-size-and-diet-mediate-evolution-of-jaw-shape-in-squirrels-sciuridae
#12
Miriam Leah Zelditch, Ji Ye, Jonathan S Mitchell, Donald L Swiderski
Convergence is widely regarded as compelling evidence for adaptation, often being portrayed as evidence that phenotypic outcomes are predictable from ecology, overriding contingencies of history. However, repeated outcomes may be very rare unless adaptive landscapes are simple, structured by strong ecological and functional constraints. One such constraint may be a limitation on body size because performance often scales with size, allowing species to adapt to challenging functions by modifying only size. When size is constrained, species might adapt by changing shape; convergent shapes may therefore be common when size is limiting and functions are challenging...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071791/niche-evolution-and-diversification-in-a-neotropical-radiation-of-birds-aves-furnariidae
#13
Glenn F Seeholzer, Santiago Claramunt, Robb T Brumfield
Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071790/synthesizing-perspectives-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-within-and-between-species
#14
Jessica L Barker, Judith L Bronstein, Maren L Friesen, Emily I Jones, H Kern Reeve, Andrew G Zink, Megan E Frederickson
Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intra-specific and inter-specific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline three advantages of cooperation relative to non-cooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain these advantages...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071788/chromosome-inversions-and-ecological-plasticity-in-the-main-african-malaria-mosquitoes
#15
Diego Ayala, Pelayo Acevedo, Marco Pombi, Ibrahima Dia, Daniela Boccolini, Carlo Costantini, Frédéric Simard, Didier Fontenille
Chromosome inversions have fascinated the scientific community, mainly because of their role in the rapid adaption of different taxa to changing environments. However, the ecological traits linked to chromosome inversions have been poorly studied. Here, we investigated the roles played by 23 chromosome inversions in the adaptation of the four major African malaria mosquitoes to local environments in Africa. We studied their distribution patterns by using spatially explicit modeling and characterized the ecogeographical determinants of each inversion range...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071784/a-continued-role-for-signalling-functions-in-the-early-evolution-of-feathers
#16
Graeme D Ruxton, Walter S Persons, Philip J Currie
Persons and Currie (2015) argued against either flight, thermoregulation, or signalling as a functional benefit driving the earliest evolution of feathers; rather, they favoured simple feathers having an initial tactile sensory function, which changed to a thermoregulatory function as density increased. Here, we explore the relative merits of early simple feathers that may have originated as tactile sensors progressing instead towards a signalling, rather than (or in addition to), a thermoregulatory function...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067425/conspicuousness-color-resemblance-and-toxicity-in-geographically-diverging-mimicry-the-pan-amazonian-frog-allobates-femoralis
#17
Adolfo Amézquita, Óscar Ramos, Mabel Cristina González, Camilo Rodríguez, Iliana Medina, Pedro Ivo Simões, Albertina Pimentel Lima
Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067418/genome-wide-selection-components-analysis-in-a-fish-with-male-pregnancy
#18
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, non-pregnant males, pregnant males and their offspring...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067408/digest-toward-predicting-evolutionary-response-to-environmental-change-the-power-of-integrated-experimental-and-genetic-studies
#19
Øystein H Opedal
How do populations become locally adapted? Answering this requires accurate estimates of two core components of evolution: natural selection acting on phenotypic traits in natural populations, and the genetic architecture of these traits. Despite an ever-growing number of studies, our current understanding is incomplete for both components. In this issue, Ågren et al. examine the genetic basis of differences between two locally adapted populations of thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their study is exemplary in jointly investigating both components of evolution in the wild, and in combining several of the most powerful experimental approaches available to students of evolution...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067402/ontogenetic-timing-as-a-condition-dependent-life-history-trait-high-condition-males-develop-quickly-peak-early-and-age-fast
#20
Amy K Hooper, Foteini Spagopoulou, Zachariah Wylde, Alexei A Maklakov, Russell Bonduriansky
Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs which limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioural secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition-dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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