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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432763/multiple-strong-postmating-and-intrinsic-postzygotic-reproductive-barriers-isolate-florally-diverse-species-of-jaltomata-solanaceae
#1
Jamie L Kostyun, Leonie C Moyle
Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of 9 postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits...
April 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422284/is-a-larger-refuge-always-better-dispersal-and-dose-in-pesticide-resistance-evolution
#2
Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo, David A Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and non-treated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution...
April 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419447/divergence-and-evolution-of-assortative-mating-in-a-polygenic-trait-model-of-speciation-with-gene-flow
#3
Himani Sachdeva, Nicholas H Barton
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces...
April 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401982/consequences-of-divergence-and-introgression-for-speciation-in-andean-cloud-forest-birds
#4
Benjamin M Winger
Divergence with gene flow is well documented and reveals the influence of ecological adaptation on speciation. Yet it remains intuitive that gene exchange inhibits speciation in many scenarios, particularly among ecologically similar populations. The influence of gene flow on the divergence of populations facing similar selection pressures has received less empirical attention than scenarios where differentiation is coupled with local environmental adaptation. I used a paired study design to test the influence of genomic divergence and introgression on plumage differentiation between ecologically similar allopatric replacements of Andean cloud forest birds...
April 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395112/introgression-and-repeated-co-option-facilitated-the-recurrent-emergence-of-c4-photosynthesis-among-close-relatives
#5
Luke T Dunning, Marjorie R Lundgren, Jose J Moreno-Villena, Mary Namaganda, Erika J Edwards, Patrik Nosil, Colin P Osborne, Pascal-Antoine Christin
The origins of novel traits are often studied using species trees and modeling phenotypes as different states of the same character, an approach that cannot always distinguish multiple origins from fewer origins followed by reversals. We address this issue by studying the origin of C4 photosynthesis, an adaptation to warm and dry conditions, in the grass Alloteropsis. We dissect the C4 trait into its components, and show two independent origins of the C4 phenotype via different anatomical modifications, and the use of distinct sets of genes...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394414/relaxation-of-herbivore-mediated-selection-drives-the-evolution-of-genetic-covariances-between-plant-competitive-and-defense-traits
#6
Akane Uesugi, Tim Connallon, André Kessler, Keyne Monro
Insect herbivores are important mediators of selection on traits that impact plant defense against herbivory and competitive ability. Although recent experiments demonstrate a central role for herbivory in driving rapid evolution of defense and competition-mediating traits, whether and how herbivory shapes heritable variation in these traits remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the structure and evolutionary stability of the G matrix for plant metabolites that are involved in defense and allelopathy in the tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394412/population-density-and-structure-drive-differential-investment-in-pre-and-postmating-sexual-traits-in-frogs
#7
Stefan Lüpold, Long Jin, Wen Bo Liao
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade-off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions is currently scarce...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394403/divergence-in-style-length-and-pollen-size-leads-to-a-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-barrier-among-populations-of-silene-latifolia
#8
Amanda N Brothers, Lynda F Delph
A central tenet of speciation research is the need to identify reproductive isolating barriers. One approach to this line of research is to identify the phenotypes that lead to reproductive isolation. Several studies on flowering plants have shown that differences in style length contribute to reproductive isolation between species, leading us to consider whether style length could act as a reproductive barrier among populations of a single species. This could occur if style length varied sufficiently and pollen size covaried with style length...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384386/lineages-of-silene-nutans-developed-rapid-strong-asymmetric-postzygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-allopatry
#9
Hélène Martin, Pascal Touzet, Mathilde Dufay, Cécile Godé, Eric Schmitt, Emna Lahiani, Lynda F Delph, Fabienne Van Rossum
Reproductive isolation can rise either as a consequence of genomic divergence in allopatry or as a byproduct of divergent selection in parapatry. To determine whether reproductive isolation in gynodioecious Silene nutans results from allopatric divergence or from ecological adaptation following secondary contact, we investigated the pattern of postzygotic reproductive isolation and hybridization in natural populations using two phylogeographic lineages, western (W1) and eastern (E1). Experimental crosses between the lineages identified strong, asymmetric postzygotic isolation between the W1 and the E1 lineages, independent of geographic overlap...
April 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370004/convergent-adaptation-to-dangerous-prey-proceeds-through-the-same-first-step-mutation-in-the-garter-snake-thamnophis-sirtalis
#10
Michael T J Hague, Chris R Feldman, Edmund D Brodie, Edmund D Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV 1...
March 29, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369831/evolutionary-adaptation-to-environmental-stressors-a-common-response-at-the-proteomic-level
#11
Jesper G Sørensen, Mads F Schou, Volker Loeschcke
Mechanistic trade-offs between traits under selection can shape and constrain evolutionary adaptation to environmental stressors. However, our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative overlap in the molecular machinery among stress tolerance traits is highly restricted by the challenges of comparing and interpreting data between separate studies and laboratories, as well as to extrapolating between different levels of biological organization. We investigated the expression of the constitutive proteome (833 proteins) of 35 Drosophila melanogaster replicate populations artificially selected for increased resistance to six different environmental stressors...
March 29, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369908/the-evolution-of-postpairing-male-mate-choice
#12
Nan Lyu, Maria R Servedio, Huw Lloyd, Yue-Hua Sun
An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369895/direct-benefits-of-choosing-a-high-fitness-mate-can-offset-the-indirect-costs-associated-with-intralocus-sexual-conflict
#13
Alison Pischedda, Adam K Chippindale
Intralocus sexual conflict generates a cost to mate choice: high fitness partners transmit genetic variation that confers lower fitness to offspring of the opposite sex. Our earlier work in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, revealed that these indirect genetic costs were sufficient to reverse potential "good genes" benefits of sexual selection. However, mate choice can also confer direct fitness benefits by inducing larger numbers of progeny. Here, we consider whether direct benefits through enhanced fertility could offset the costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict in D...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369868/pre-and-postcopulatory-sexual-selection-favor-aggressive-young-males-in-polyandrous-groups-of-red-junglefowl
#14
Grant C McDonald, Lewis G Spurgin, Eleanor A Fairfield, David S Richardson, Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection)...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369844/the-contribution-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-to-sex-specific-fitness-variance
#15
Shane R T Smith, Tim Connallon
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among mutations - including the correlation of mutant fitness effects between the sexes - on mitochondrial genetic variation for fitness...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369840/sexual-selection-and-population-divergence-ii-divergence-in-different-sexual-traits-and-signal-modalities-in-field-crickets-teleogryllus-oceanicus
#16
Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt, Nathan W Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all 15 traits, and Dmax explained nearly two-thirds of its variation...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346661/a-major-shift-in-diversification-rate-helps-explain-macroevolutionary-patterns-in-primate-species-diversity
#17
Jessica H Arbour, Sharlene E Santana
Primates represent one of the most species rich, wide ranging, and ecologically diverse clades of mammals. What major macroevolutionary factors have driven their diversification and contributed to the modern distribution of primate species remains widely debated. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to examine the role of clade age and evolutionary rate heterogeneity in the modern distribution of species diversity of Primates. Primate diversification has accelerated since its origin, with decreased extinction leading to a shift to even higher evolutionary rates in the most species rich family (Cercopithecidae)...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346658/spatially-heterogeneous-selection-in-nature-favors-phenotypic-plasticity-in-anuran-larvae
#18
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors six to nine days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334416/mate-choice-copying-a-fitness-enhancing-behavior-that-evolves-by-indirect-selection
#19
Mauro Santos, Manuel Sapage, Margarida Matos, Susana A M Varela
A spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model is used to study the spread of an allele for mate-choice copying (MCC) through horizontal cultural transmission when female innate preferences do or do not coevolve with a male viability-increasing trait. Evolution of MCC is unlikely when innate female preferences coevolve with the trait, as copier females cannot express a higher preference than non-copier females for high-fitness males. However, if a genetic polymorphism for innate preference persists in the population, MCC can evolve by indirect selection through hitchhiking: the copying allele hitchhikes on the male trait...
March 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323340/differential-scaling-patterns-of-vertebrae-and-the-evolution-of-neck-length-in-mammals
#20
Patrick Arnold, Eli Amson, Martin S Fischer
Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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