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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160556/digest-room-for-geckos-of-all-shapes-and-sizes
#1
H Christoph Liedtke
Closely related lineages co-existing geographically are expected to show morphological divergence via character displacement. Moritz et al. (2017) use high-throughput sequencing to uncover cryptic diversity in a complex of Australian geckos and, with the resulting phylogeny, discern patterns of morphological evolution in relation to patterns of geographic overlap. They found that divergence in body size is greater in species pairs occurring in sympatry than in parapatry, which is consistent with the idea that body size divergence facilitates sympatry...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160554/digest-evolution-of-sperm-size-and-number-in-external-fertilizers
#2
Pedram Samani
Ejaculate evolution in externally fertilizing species is influenced by competition among sperm as well as the rate at which sperm and eggs encounter one another. Liao et al. (2017) found that ejaculate evolution in external fertilizers depended on spawning conditions. In anurans, gametes are released very close to eggs and are relatively protected from dispersal by water currents, thus sperm competition is more important. However, in fish, sperm-egg encounter rate plays a much more important role in ejaculate evolution because gametes may be easily dispersed when released into the aquatic environment...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160553/the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-adaptive-virginity-sex-allocation-and-altruistic-helping-in-haplodiploid-animals
#3
Petri Rautiala, Heikki Helanterä, Mikael Puurtinen
In haplodiploids, females can produce sons from unfertilized eggs without mating. However, virgin reproduction is usually considered to be a result of a failure to mate, rather than an adaptation. Here we build an analytical model for evolution of virgin reproduction, sex-allocation, and altruistic female helping in haplodiploid taxa. We show that when mating is costly (e.g. when mating increases predation risk), virginity can evolve as an adaptive female reproductive strategy. Furthermore, adaptive virginity results in strongly divergent sex-ratios in mated and virgin queen nests ('split sex ratios'), which promotes the evolution of altruistic helping by daughters in mated queen nests...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156096/males-that-drop-a-sexually-selected-weapon-grow-larger-testes
#4
Paul N Joseph, Zachary Emberts, Daniel A Sasson, Christine W Miller
Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae)...
November 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148573/phenotypic-and-genetic-integration-of-personality-and-growth-under-competition-in-the-sheepshead-swordtail-xiphophorus-birchmanni
#5
K Boulton, C A Walling, A J Grimmer, G G Rosenthal, A J Wilson
Competition for resources including food, physical space, and potential mates is a fundamental ecological process shaping variation in individual phenotype and fitness. The evolution of competitive ability, in particular social dominance, depends on genetic (co)variation among traits causal (e.g., behaviour) or consequent (e.g. growth) to competitive outcomes. If dominance is heritable, it will generate both direct and indirect genetic effects (IGE) on resource dependent traits. The latter are expected to impose evolutionary constraint because winners necessarily gain resources at the expense of losers...
November 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143964/signatures-of-selection-in-embryonic-transcriptomes-of-lizards-adapting-in-parallel-to-cool-climate
#6
Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Populations adapting independently to the same environment provide important insights into the repeatability of evolution at different levels of biological organization. In the 20(th) century, common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from southern and western Europe were introduced to England, north of their native range. Non-native populations of both lineages have adapted to the shorter season and lower egg incubation temperature by increasing the absolute rate of embryonic development. Here we tested if this adaptation is accompanied by signatures of directional selection in the transcriptomes of early embryos and, if so, if non-native populations show adaptive convergence...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#7
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134631/microbial-expansion-collision-dynamics-promote-cooperation-and-coexistence-on-surfaces
#8
Shuang Xu, J David Van Dyken
Microbes colonizing a surface often experience colony growth dynamics characterized by an initial phase of spatial clonal expansion followed by collision between neighboring colonies to form potentially genetically heterogeneous boundaries. For species with life cycles consisting of repeated surface colonization and dispersal, these spatially-explicit "expansion-collision dynamics" generate periodic transitions between two distinct selective regimes, "expansion competition" and "boundary competition", each one favoring a different growth strategy...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134627/the-evolution-of-genital-shape-variation-in-female-cetaceans
#9
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia Lr Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2-D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134623/repeated-evolution-and-reversibility-of-self-fertilization-in-the-volvocine-green-algae
#10
Erik R Hanschen, Matthew D Herron, John J Wiens, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Richard E Michod
Outcrossing and self-fertilization are fundamental strategies of sexual reproduction, each with different evolutionary costs and benefits. Self-fertilization is thought to be an evolutionary "dead-end" strategy, beneficial in the short term but costly in the long term, resulting in self-fertilizing species that occupy only the tips of phylogenetic trees. Here, we use volvocine green algae to investigate the evolution of self-fertilization. We use ancestral-state reconstructions to show that self-fertilization has repeatedly evolved from outcrossing ancestors and that multiple reversals from selfing to outcrossing have occurred...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125643/environmental-variation-partitioned-into-separate-heritable-components
#11
Michael Ørsted, Palle Duun Rohde, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Peter Sørensen, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Trait variation is normally separated into genetic and environmental components, yet genetic factors also control the expression of environmental variation, encompassing plasticity across environmental gradients and within-environment responses. We defined four components of environmental variation: plasticity across environments, variability in plasticity, variation within environments, and differences in within-environment variation across environments. We assessed these components for cold tolerance across five rearing temperatures using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
November 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120033/a-theoretical-approach-to-the-size-complexity-rule
#12
André Amado, Carlos Batista, Paulo R A Campos
The so-called size-complexity rule claims the existence of a positive correlation between organism size and number of cell types. In this spirit, here we address the relationship between organism size and number of potential tasks that can be performed. The modeling relies on the assumption that the states of the cells within the aggregates are such that the maximum fitness is realized, but also relies on the existence of tradeoffs among the distinct functions. For group sizes larger than the number of potential tasks, fitness maximization is attained when all cells in group specialize in a given task...
November 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105753/digest-unpacking-fitness-effects-of-spontaneous-mutations
#13
Sonia Singhal
New biological variation originates from mutations, so understanding their effects-and how those effects vary with environment or genetic background-is critical to evolutionary studies. Kraemer et al. (2017) sequenced and measured the fitness of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lineages that had experienced minimal selection. They found that mutations in these lineages had a small average deleterious effect attributable to mutations in coding regions, and average mutational effects varied depending on the ancestor's genotype...
November 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105748/digest-gene-duplication-and-social-evolution-using-big-open-data-to-answer-big-open-questions
#14
Brock A Harpur, Nicholas M A Smith
What genomic features underpin the evolution of behavioral complexity? Do species exhibiting such complexity have more genes, more complex gene regulation, or both? In this issue, Chau and Goodisman (2017) provide a useful jumping-off point for investigating social evolution from a genomic perspective by examining the relationship between sociality and the rate of gene duplication across bee species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098691/male-mate-choice-via-cuticular-hydrocarbon-pheromones-drives-reproductive-isolation-between-drosophila-species
#15
Michael P Shahandeh, Alison Pischedda, Thomas L Turner
Mate discrimination is a key mechanism restricting gene flow between species. While studied extensively with respect to female mate choice, mechanisms of male mate choice between species are far less studied. Thus, we have little knowledge of the relative frequency, importance, or overall contribution of male mate discrimination to reproductive isolation. In the present study, we estimated the relative contributions of male and female choice to reproductive isolation between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia, and show that male mate discrimination accounts for the majority of the current isolation between these species...
November 3, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098686/polygenic-evolution-drives-species-divergence-and-climate-adaptation-in-corals
#16
Noah H Rose, Rachael A Bay, Megan K Morikawa, Stephen R Palumbi
Closely related species often show substantial differences in ecological traits that allow them to occupy different environmental niches. For few of these systems is it clear what the genomic basis of adaptation is and whether a few loci of major effect or many genome-wide differences drive species divergence. Four cryptic species of the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus are broadly sympatric in American Samoa; here we show that two common species have differences in key environmental traits such as microhabitat distributions and thermal stress tolerance...
November 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094340/integrating-phylogenomic-and-population-genomic-patterns-in-avian-lice-provides-a-more-complete-picture-of-parasite-evolution
#17
Andrew D Sweet, Bret M Boyd, Julie M Allen, Scott M Villa, Michel P Valim, Jose L Rivera-Parra, Robert E Wilson, Kevin P Johnson
Parasite diversity accounts for most of the biodiversity on earth, and is shaped by many processes (e.g. cospeciation, host-switching). To identify the effects of the processes that shape parasite diversity, it is ideal to incorporate both deep (phylogenetic) and shallow (population) perspectives. To this end, we developed a novel workflow to obtain phylogenetic and population genetic data from whole genome sequences of body lice parasitizing New World ground-doves. Phylogenies from these data showed consistent, highly resolved species-level relationships for the lice...
November 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076160/evolution-of-extreme-ontogenetic-allometric-diversity-and-heterochrony-in-pythons-a-clade-of-giant-and-dwarf-snakes
#18
Damien Esquerré, Emma Sherratt, J Scott Keogh
Ontogenetic allometry, how species change with size through their lives, and heterochony, a decoupling between shape, size and age, are major contributors to biological diversity. However, macro-evolutionary allometric and heterochronic trends remain poorly understood because previous studies have focused on small groups of closely related species. Here we focus on testing hypotheses about the evolution of allometry and how allometry and heterochrony drive morphological diversification at the level of an entire species-rich and diverse clade...
October 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076151/linking-micro-and-macroevolutionary-perspectives-to-evaluate-the-role-of-quaternary-sea-level-oscillations-in-island-diversification
#19
Anna Papadopoulou, L Lacey Knowles
With shifts in island area, isolation, and cycles of island fusion-fission, the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations as drivers of diversification is complex and not well understood. Here we conduct parallel comparisons of population and species divergence between two island areas of equivalent size that have been affected differently by sea-level oscillations, with the aim to understand the micro- and macroevolutionary dynamics associated with sea-level change. Using genome-wide datasets for a clade of seven Amphiacusta ground cricket species endemic to the Puerto Rico Bank (PRB), we found consistently deeper interspecific divergences and higher population differentiation across the unfragmented Western PRB, in comparison to the currently fragmented Eastern PRB that has experienced extreme changes in island area and connectivity during the Quaternary...
October 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071709/the-evolution-of-costly-mate-choice-against-segregation-distorters
#20
Andri Manser, Anna K Lindholm, Franz J Weissing
The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated under such circumstances...
October 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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