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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

David Wheatcroft, Anna Qvarnström
Divergence of male sexual signals and female preferences for those signals often maintains reproductive boundaries between closely related, co-occurring species. However, contrasting sources of selection, such as interspecific competition, can lead to weak divergence or even convergence of sexual signals in sympatry. When signals converge, assortative mating can be maintained if the mating preferences of females diverge in sympatry (reproductive character displacement; RCD), but there are few explicit examples...
May 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sheela Turbek
The idea that genetic differentiation can proceed despite genetic exchange between divergent lineages is gaining support in evolutionary biology (Nosil 2008). Though theoretically difficult to achieve because interbreeding counteracts population differentiation, divergence with gene flow has shaped the evolutionary histories of diverse organisms including Heliconius butterflies (Martin et al. 2013) and Galápagos finches (de León et al. 2010). In some taxa, such as the haplochromine cichlids, hybridization may even have played a creative role, providing the genetic variation necessary to fuel adaptive radiations (Meier et al...
May 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sarah A Signor, Mohammad Abbasi, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Despite strong purifying or directional selection, variation is ubiquitous in populations. One mechanism for the maintenance of variation is indirect genetic effects, as the fitness of a given genotype will depend somewhat on the genes of its social partners. Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe the effect of genes in social partners on the expression of the phenotype of a focal individual. Here we ask what effect IGEs, and variation in IGEs between abiotic environments, has on locomotion in Drosophila...
May 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Tia L Harrison, Corlett W Wood, Katy D Heath, John R Stinchcombe
Gene flow between genetically differentiated populations can maintain variation in species interactions, especially when population structure is congruent between interacting species. However, large-scale empirical comparisons of the population structure of interacting species are rare, particularly in positive interspecific interactions (mutualisms). One agriculturally and ecologically important mutualism is the partnership between legume plants and rhizobia. Through characterizing and comparing the population genomic structure of the legume Medicago lupulina and two rhizobial species (Ensifer medicae and E...
May 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kozo Watanabe, Michael T Monaghan
A fundamental question linking population genetics and community ecology is how adaptive processes (e.g., natural selection) and neutral processes (e.g., drift-migration equilibrium) underpin the species-genetic diversity correlation (SGDC). Here we combine genome scans and outlier loci detection with community analysis to separately test for neutral and non-neutral SGDCs in four species of stream insect. We sampled 60 localities in Japan and examined the relationships among population AFLP band richness (Br), taxon richness of the total community (S) and of the trophic guild (Str ), and 15 habitat parameters that could potentially drive adaptation and influence richness...
May 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Brian D Connelly, Katherine J Dickinson
Microbial populations commonly reside in environments that are awash with iron, which is essential for their growth. However, iron is rarely found in an accessible form. In order to mine bioavailable iron from their environment, microbes produce a wide variety of iron-binding compounds called siderophores (Wandersman and Delepelaire 2004). When excreted into the surrounding environment, these molecules are extremely effective at targeting and binding iron. Once bound, iron-siderophore complexes are readily recognized and transported into any cell bearing specific outer membrane receptors...
May 5, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, Matthew W Pennell
Species selection - variation in diversification rates associated with variation in species traits - was once a fringe idea, at least among population biologists. But following the development of a novel suite of phylogenetic comparative methods (e.g, BiSSE; Maddison et al. 2007), comparative biologists went looking for evidence of species selection and found it, seemingly everywhere. However, recent studies have shown that state-dependent speciation and extinction models (SSE) were prone to detecting associations between diversification rates with phenotypic traits under a variety of situations where the diversification rates were simulated completely independently of the traits (Maddison and FitzJohn 2015, Rabosky and Goldberg 2015)...
May 5, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jessie C Tanner, Jessica L Ward, Ruth G Shaw, Mark A Bee
Animal signals are complex, comprising multiple components that receivers may use to inform their decisions. Components may carry information of differing value to receivers, and selection on one component could modulate or reverse selection on another, necessitating a multivariate approach to estimating selection gradients. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have estimated the strength of phenotypic selection on complex signals with appropriate design and adequate power to detect non-linear selection...
May 5, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Eddie K H Ho, Aneil F Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead nonrecombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex assumed constant diversification rates...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jiaqi Tan, Xian Yang, Lin Jiang
Adaptive radiation is an important evolutionary process, through which a single ancestral lineage rapidly gives rise to multiple newly formed lineages that specialize in different niches. In the first-arrival hypothesis, David Lack emphasized the importance of species colonization history for adaptive radiation, suggesting that the earlier arrival of a diversifying species would allow it to radiate to a greater extent. Here, we report on the first rigorous experimental test of this hypothesis, using the rapidly evolving bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and six different bacterial competitors...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kalina T J Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sherry N N Du, Fariborz Khajali, Neal J Dawson, Graham R Scott
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Guillem Pérez I de Lanuza, Miguel A Carretero, Enrique Font
Sexual selection is one of the main processes involved in the emergence and maintenance of heritable colour polymorphisms in a variety of taxa. Here we test whether the intensity of sexual selection, estimated from population sex ratio, predicts morph diversity in Podarcis muralis, a colour polymorphic lizard with discrete white, yellow, orange, white-orange, and yellow-orange male and female phenotypes (i.e. morphs). In a sample of 116 Pyrenean populations and 5421 lizards, sex ratios (m/f) vary from 0.29 to 2...
April 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Øystein H Opedal, Geir H Bolstad, Thomas F Hansen, W Scott Armbruster, Christophe Pélabon
Accurate estimates of trait evolvabilities are central to predicting the short-term evolutionary potential of populations, and hence their ability to adapt to changing environments. We quantify and evaluate the evolvability of herkogamy, the spatial separation of male and female structures in flowers, a key floral trait associated with variation in mating systems. We compiled genetic-variance estimates for herkogamy and related floral traits, computed evolvabilities, and compared these among trait groups and among species differing in their mating systems...
April 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Laura R Stein, Yuheng Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jamie L Kostyun, Leonie C Moyle
Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of 9 postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits...
April 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo, David A Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and nontreated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size, and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution...
April 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Himani Sachdeva, Nicholas H Barton
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces...
April 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Benjamin M Winger
Divergence with gene flow is well documented and reveals the influence of ecological adaptation on speciation. Yet, it remains intuitive that gene exchange inhibits speciation in many scenarios, particularly among ecologically similar populations. The influence of gene flow on the divergence of populations facing similar selection pressures has received less empirical attention than scenarios where differentiation is coupled with local environmental adaptation. I used a paired study design to test the influence of genomic divergence and introgression on plumage differentiation between ecologically similar allopatric replacements of Andean cloud forest birds...
April 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Luke T Dunning, Marjorie R Lundgren, Jose J Moreno-Villena, Mary Namaganda, Erika J Edwards, Patrik Nosil, Colin P Osborne, Pascal-Antoine Christin
The origins of novel traits are often studied using species trees and modeling phenotypes as different states of the same character, an approach that cannot always distinguish multiple origins from fewer origins followed by reversals. We address this issue by studying the origins of C4 photosynthesis, an adaptation to warm and dry conditions, in the grass Alloteropsis. We dissect the C4 trait into its components, and show two independent origins of the C4 phenotype via different anatomical modifications, and the use of distinct sets of genes...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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