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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940364/digest-chemical-communication-and-sexual-selection-in-lizards
#1
Roberto García-Roa, Pau Carazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921508/selection-on-skewed-characters-and-the-paradox-of-stasis
#2
Suzanne Bonamour, Céline Teplitsky, Anne Charmantier, Pierre-André Crochet, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modelling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype...
September 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913907/primate-diversification-inferred-from-phylogenies-and-fossils
#3
James P Herrera
Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: 1) diversification rates increased through time; 2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene...
September 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895138/feed-backs-among-inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-traits-and-sperm-competition-can-drive-evolution-of-costly-polyandry
#4
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895136/the-evolution-of-hominoid-cranial-diversity-a-quantitative-genetic-approach
#5
Lauren Schroeder, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
Hominoid cranial evolution is characterized by substantial phenotypic diversity, yet the cause of this variability has rarely been explored. Quantitative genetic techniques for investigating evolutionary processes underlying morphological divergence are dependent on the availability of good ancestral models, a problem in hominoids where the fossil record is fragmentary and poorly understood. Here, we use a maximum likelihood approach based on a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change to estimate nested hypothetical ancestral forms from 15 extant hominoid taxa...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895124/ecological-opportunity-alters-the-timing-and-shape-of-adaptive-radiation
#6
Edward D Burress, Milton Tan
The uneven distribution of diversity is a conspicuous phenomenon across the tree of life. Ecological opportunity is a prominent catalyst of adaptive radiation and therefore may alter patterns of diversification. We evaluated the distribution of shifts in diversification rates across the cichlid phylogeny and the distribution of major clades across phylogenetic space. We also tested if ecological opportunity influenced these patterns. Colonization-associated ecological opportunity altered the tempo and mode of diversification during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884804/frequent-and-parallel-habitat-transitions-as-driver-of-unbounded-radiations-in-the-cape-flora
#7
Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi, H Peter Linder
The enormous species richness in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of Southern Africa is the result of numerous radiations, but the temporal progression and possible mechanisms of these radiations are still poorly understood. Here, we explore the macroevolutionary dynamics of the Restionaceae, that include 340 species which are found in all vegetation types in the Cape flora and are ecologically dominant in fynbos. Using an almost complete (i.e. 98%) species-level time calibrated phylogeny and models of diversification dynamics, we show that species diversification is constant through the Cenozoic, with no evidence of an acceleration with the onset of the modern winter-wet climate, or a recent density-dependent slowdown...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884796/the-evolution-of-between-species-reproductive-interference-capability-under-different-within-species-mating-regimes
#8
Daisuke Kyogoku, Teiji Sota
Sexual selection sometimes favors male traits that benefit their bearers, but harm their mates. The harmful effects of male traits may also extend to females of other species via heterospecific mating interactions. This could affect the coexistence of closely related species during secondary contact. We examined the evolution of the interspecific interfering capability of a beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) with a congener (C. maculatus) using C. chinensis males reared under conditions of monogamy and polygamy for 17 generations...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884795/assortment-and-the-analysis-of-natural-selection-on-social-traits
#9
Grant C McDonald, Damien R Farine, Kevin R Foster, Jay M Biernaskie
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to determine whether and how social interactions contribute to natural selection. This can be addressed with selection analyses that relate individual fitness to individual and social phenotypes. One such approach, known as social selection analysis, leads to the intuitive result that fitness effects from social partners will contribute to selection only if there is a correlation between the traits of individuals and their social partners (non-random phenotypic assortment)...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884791/how-does-mutation-affect-the-distribution-of-phenotypes
#10
Katrina McGuigan, Ernest Aw
The potential for mutational processes to influence patterns of neutral or adaptive phenotypic evolution is not well understood. If mutations are directionally biased, shifting trait means in a particular direction, or if mutation generates more variance in some directions of multivariate trait space than others, mutation itself might be a source of bias in phenotypic evolution. Here, we use mutagenesis to investigate the affect of mutation on trait mean and (co)variances in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Mutation altered the relationship between age and both prolonged swimming speed and body shape...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884790/fitness-change-in-relation-to-mutation-number-in-spontaneous-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#11
Susanne Kraemer, Katharina B Böndel, Robert W Ness, Peter D Keightley, Nick Colegrave
Although all genetic variation ultimately stems from mutations, their properties are difficult to study directly. Here, we used multiple mutation accumulation (MA) lines derived from five genetic backgrounds of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that have been previously subjected to whole genome sequencing to investigate the relationship between the number of spontaneous mutations and change in fitness from a non-evolved ancestor. MA lines were on average less fit than their ancestors and we detected a significantly negative correlation between the change in fitness and the total number of accumulated mutations in the genome...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881442/many-to-one-form-to-function-mapping-weakens-parallel-morphological-evolution
#12
Cole J Thompson, Newaz I Ahmed, Thor Veen, Catherine L Peichel, Andrew P Hendry, Daniel I Bolnick, Yoel E Stuart
Evolutionary ecologists aim to explain and predict evolutionary change under different selective regimes. Theory suggests that such evolutionary prediction should be more difficult for biomechanical systems in which different trait combinations generate the same functional output: "many-to-one mapping". Many-to-one mapping of phenotype to function enables multiple morphological solutions to meet the same adaptive challenges. Therefore, many-to-one mapping should undermine parallel morphological evolution, and hence evolutionary predictability, even when selection pressures are shared among populations...
September 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875541/gene-duplication-and-the-evolution-of-phenotypic-diversity-in-insect-societies
#13
Linh M Chau, Michael A D Goodisman
Gene duplication is an important evolutionary process thought to facilitate the evolution of phenotypic diversity. We investigated if gene duplication was associated with the evolution of phenotypic differences in a highly social insect, the honeybee Apis mellifera. We hypothesized that the genetic redundancy provided by gene duplication could promote the evolution of social and sexual phenotypes associated with advanced societies. We found a positive correlation between sociality and rate of gene duplications across the Apoidea, indicating that gene duplication may be associated with sociality...
September 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861897/beyond-mean-allelic-effects-a-locus-at-the-major-color-gene-mc1r-associates-also-with-differing-levels-of-phenotypic-and-genetic-co-variance-for-coloration-in-barn-owls
#14
Luis M San-Jose, Valérie Ducret, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Céline Simon, Alexandre Roulin
The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic variance in the barn owl, Tyto alba...
September 1, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857165/no-mutual-mate-choice-for-quality-in-zebra-finches-time-to-question-a-widely-held-assumption
#15
Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Bart Kempenaers
Studies of mate choice typically assume that individuals prefer high quality mates and select them based on condition-dependent indicator traits. In species with bi-parental care, mutual mate choice is expected to result in assortative mating for quality. When assortment is not perfect, the lower quality pair members are expected to compensate by increased parental investment to secure their partner (positive differential allocation). This framework has been assumed to hold for monogamous species like the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), but progress has been hampered by the difficulty to define individual quality...
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857153/the-quantitative-genetic-basis-of-clinal-divergence-in-phenotypic-plasticity
#16
Belinda van Heerwaarden, Carla M Sgrò
Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be an important mechanism for adapting to environmental heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the genetic basis of plasticity is still not well understood. In Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, body size and thermal stress resistance show clinal patterns along the east coast of Australia, and exhibit plastic responses to different developmental temperatures. The genetic basis of thermal plasticity, and whether the genetic effects underlying clinal variation in traits and their plasticity are similar, remains unknown...
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857148/why-does-inbreeding-reduce-male-paternity-effects-on-sexually-selected-traits
#17
Jason N Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
Mating with relatives has often been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness ('inbreeding depression'). There is considerable evidence for inbreeding depression due to effects on naturally selected traits, particularly those expressed early in life, but there is less evidence of it for sexually selected traits. This is surprising because sexually selected traits are expected to exhibit strong inbreeding depression. Here we experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857142/different-evolutionary-dynamics-led-to-the-convergence-of-clinging-performance-in-lizard-toepads
#18
Sarin Tiatragula, Gopal Murali, James T Stroud
Does convergent evolution always result from different lineages experiencing similar evolutionary dynamics? Hagey et al (2017) report the dynamics of adhesive performance evolution to be distinct in two lizard clades (anoles and geckos) despite independent convergence in adhesive toe pad structures, suggesting convergence can occur with dissimilar macroevolutionary dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841748/intraspecific-adaptive-radiation-competition-ecological-opportunity-and-phenotypic-diversification-within-species
#19
Nicholas A Levis, Ryan A Martin, Kerry A O'Donnell, David W Pfennig
Intraspecific variation in resource-use traits can have profound ecological and evolutionary implications. Among the most striking examples are resource polymorphisms, where alternative morphs that utilize different resources evolve within a population. An underappreciated aspect of their evolution is that the same conditions that favor resource polymorphism-competition and ecological opportunity-might foster additional rounds of diversification within already existing morphs. We examined these issues in spadefoot toad tadpoles that develop into either a generalist "omnivore" or a specialist "carnivore" morph...
August 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841226/selection-on-an-extreme-weapon-in-the-frog-legged-leaf-beetle-sagra-femorata
#20
Devin M O'Brien, Masako Katsuki, Douglas J Emlen
Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hindleg length), and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hindleg length and body size), and provide evidence for directional selection on weapon size per se and stabilizing selection on a particular scaling relationship in this population...
August 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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