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Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

Sabrina Renaud, Ronan Ledevin, Benoit Pisanu, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Petra Quillfeldt, Emilie A Hardouin
Convergent evolution in similar environments constitutes strong evidence of adaptive evolution. Transported with people around the world, house mice colonized even remote areas, such as Sub-Antarctic islands. There, they returned to a feral way of life, shifting towards a diet enriched in terrestrial macroinvertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that this triggered convergent evolution of the mandible, a morphological character involved in food consumption. Mandible shape from four Sub-Antarctic islands was compared to phylogeny, tracing the history of colonization, and climatic conditions...
March 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sumit Dhole, Caitlin A Stern, Maria R Servedio
The evolution of mating displays as indicators of male quality has been the subject of extensive theoretical and empirical research for over four decades. Research has also addressed the evolution of female mate choice favoring such indicators. Yet, much debate still exists about whether displays can evolve through the indirect benefits of female mate choice. Here, we use a population genetic model to investigate how the extent to which females can directly detect male quality influences the evolution of female choosiness and male displays...
March 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ralph A Saporito, Taran Grant
Amézquita et al. (2017) recently concluded that species of the Allobates femoralis group are toxic to mice at levels equivalent to syntopic alkaloid-containing poison frogs, which they attributed to the presence of alkaloids in skin secretions. However, the chemical composition of skin secretions was not analyzed, and here we present additional data supporting the absence of alkaloids in skin secretions of the Allobates femoralis group. Instead, we suggest the observed toxicity was caused by the anesthetic benzocaine, which was applied to the buccal cavity to euthanize frogs prior to skin removal...
March 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Maggie R Wagner, Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Phenotypic plasticity is thought to impact evolutionary trajectories by shifting trait values in a direction that is either favored by natural selection ("adaptive plasticity") or disfavored ("nonadaptive" plasticity). However, it is unclear how commonly each of these types of plasticity occurs in natural populations. To answer this question, we measured glucosinolate defensive chemistry and reproductive fitness in over 1,500 individuals of the wild perennial mustard Boechera stricta, planted in four common gardens across central Idaho, USA...
March 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Joel Sharbrough, Meagan Luse, Jeffrey L Boore, John M Logsdon, Maurine Neiman
Harmful mutations are ubiquitous and inevitable, and the rate at which these mutations are removed from populations is a critical determinant of evolutionary fate. Closely related sexual and asexual taxa provide a particularly powerful setting to study deleterious mutation elimination because sexual reproduction should facilitate mutational clearance by reducing selective interference between sites and by allowing the production of offspring with different mutational complements than their parents. Here, we compared the rate of removal of conservative (i...
March 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Matthew Hartfield
As beneficial mutations spread through a population, they affect genetic diversity at linked neutral loci. It is generally assumed that only tightly-linked loci are affected by these selective sweeps, yet Allman and Weissman (2018) demonstrate that if multiple beneficial mutations are spreading throughout a spatial environment, then even loosely-linked loci are affected by selection. These results indicate that selective and demographic effects can be more strongly intertwined than previously assumed. This article is protected by copyright...
March 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Laura A B Wilson
Morphological divergence of domesticated as compared to wild forms must result from changes in the ontogenetic process. Species-specific tests for heterochrony have rejected a single explanation of domestic forms representing juveniles of their wild relatives. Ontogenetic allometric trajectories for 12 pairs of wild and domestic mammals were examined using skull growth data for 1070 specimens, including representatives from all lineages in which domestication has occurred. A suite of tests were performed to quantify allometric disparity in wild and domestic forms and assess the extent and patterning of modification to allometric trajectories...
March 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Darren C Hunter, Josephine M Pemberton, Jill G Pilkington, Michael B Morrissey
In nature, selection varies across time in most environments, but we lack an understanding of how specific ecological changes drive this variation. Ecological factors can alter phenotypic selection coefficients through changes in trait distributions or individual mean fitness, even when the trait-absolute fitness relationship remains constant. We apply and extend a regression-based approach in a population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) and suggest metrics of environment-selection relationships that can be compared across studies...
March 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Vaishali Katju, Lucille B Packard, Peter D Keightley
The consequences of mutations for population fitness depends on their individual selection coefficients and the effective population size. An earlier study of Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneous mutation accumulation lines evolved for 409 generations at three population sizes found that Ne   = 1 populations declined significantly in fitness whereas the fitness of larger populations (Ne   = 5, 50) was indistinguishable from the ancestral control under benign conditions. To test if larger MA populations harbor a load of cryptic deleterious mutations that are obscured under benign laboratory conditions, we measured fitness under osmotic stress via exposure to hypersaline conditions...
March 7, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Timothy D Weaver, Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa...
March 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kathryn P Kohl, Nadia D Singh
Phenotypic plasticity is pervasive in nature. One mechanism underlying the evolution and maintenance of such plasticity is environmental heterogeneity. Indeed, theory indicates that both spatial and temporal variation in the environment should favor the evolution of phenotypic plasticity under a variety of conditions. Cyclical environmental conditions have also been shown to yield evolved increases in recombination frequency. Here were use a panel of replicated experimental evolution populations of D. melanogaster to test whether variable environments favor enhanced plasticity in recombination rate and/or increased recombination rate in response to temperature...
February 22, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Njal Rollinson, Locke Rowe
Bergmann's Rule is the propensity for species-mean body size to decrease with increasing temperature. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation has been hypothesized to help drive temperature-size relationships among ectotherms, including Bergmann's Rule, where organisms reduce body size under warm oxygen-limited conditions, thereby maintaining aerobic scope. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation should be most pronounced among aquatic ectotherms that cannot breathe aerially, as oxygen solubility in water decreases with increasing temperature...
February 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Miguel A Gomez-Llano, Hanna M Bensch, Erik I Svensson
Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict since the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens)...
February 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Marjorie G Weber, N Ivalu Cacho, Martin J Q Phan, Caprice Disbrow, Santiago R Ramírez, Sharon Y Strauss
Because of their function as reproductive signals in plants, floral traits experience distinct selective pressures related to their role in speciation, reinforcement, and prolonged coexistence with close relatives. However, few studies have investigated whether population-level processes translate into detectable signatures at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we ask whether patterns of floral trait evolution and range overlap across a clade of California Jewelflowers reflect processes hypothesized to shape floral signal differentiation at the population level...
February 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Malcolm F Rosenthal, Matthew R Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka, Eileen A Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs...
February 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Peter J Hundt, Andrew M Simons
The dentition of fishes can be quite striking and is often correlated with a specific diet. Combtooth blennies have long incisiform oral teeth, unlike most actinopterygians. It has been suggested that the long tooth morphology is an adaptation for detritivory, but given the diversity of diets (detritus, coral polyps, polychaetes, and pieces of other fishes), are blenny teeth indeed monomorphic? Or does tooth variation associated with diet still exist at this extreme? To explore tooth and diet diversification, we used a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Blenniidae, measured tooth shape, number, and mode of attachment, and quantified blenniid diet...
February 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Anurag A Agrawal, Amy P Hastings, Daniel M Fines, Steve Bogdanowicz, Meret Huber
To address the role of insect herbivores in adaptation of plant populations and the persistence of selection through succession, we manipulated herbivory in a long-term field experiment. We suppressed insects in half of 16 plots over nine years and examined the genotypic structure and chemical defense of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), a naturally colonizing perennial apomictic plant. Insect suppression doubled dandelion abundance in the first few years, but had negligible effects thereafter. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we genotyped >2500 plants and demonstrate that insect suppression altered the genotypic composition of plots in both sampling years...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Erin L McCullough, Bruno A Buzatto, Leigh W Simmons
When females mate with more than one male, sexual selection acts both before and after mating. The interaction between pre- and post-mating episodes of selection is expected to be context dependent, but few studies have investigated how total sexual selection changes under different ecological conditions. We examined how population density mediates the interaction between pre- and post-mating sexual selection by establishing replicate populations of the horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus at low, medium, and high densities, and using microsatellite-based parentage analyses to measure male fitness...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Diala Abu Awad, Denis Roze
The mating system of a species is expected to have important effects on its genetic diversity. In this paper, we explore the effects of partial selfing on the equilibrium genetic variance Vg, mutation load L and inbreeding depression δ under stabilizing selection acting on a arbitrary number n of quantitative traits coded by biallelic loci with additive effects. When the U/n ratio is low (where U is the total haploid mutation rate on selected traits) and effective recombination rates are sufficiently high, genetic associations between loci are negligible and the genetic variance, mutation load and inbreeding depression are well predicted by approximations based on single-locus models...
February 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
William D Pearse, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Logan S James, Maxwell Farrell, Frédéric Boivin, T Jonathan Davies
Studying the macroevolution of the songs of Passeriformes (perching birds) has proved challenging. The complexity of the task stems not just from the macroevolutionary and macroecological challenge of modelling so many species, but also from the difficulty in collecting and quantifying birdsong itself. Using machine learning techniques, we extracted songs from a large citizen science dataset, and then analysed the evolution, and biotic and abiotic predictors of variation in birdsong across 578 passerine species...
February 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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