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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792576/using-a-deep-learning-network-to-recognize-low-back-pain-in-static-standing
#1
Boyi Hu, Chong Kim, Xiaopeng Ning, Xu Xu
Low back pain remains one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders, while algorithms that able to recognize low back pain patients from healthy population using balance performance data are rarely seen. In this study, human balance and body sway performance during standing trials were utilized to recognize chronic low back pain populations using deep neural networks. To be specific, forty-four chronic LBP and healthy individuals performed static standing tasks while their spine kinematics and center of pressure were recorded...
May 24, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792567/effects-of-age-and-body-mass-index-on-breast-characteristics-a-cluster-analysis
#2
Celeste E Coltman, Julie R Steele, Deirdre E McGhee
Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters...
May 24, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785880/oxygen-uptake-and-muscle-activity-limitations-during-ascending-on-a-stair-machine
#3
Amitava Halder, Chuansi Gao, Michael Miller, Kalev Kuklane
This laboratory study examined human stair ascending capacity and constraining factors including legs' local muscle fatigue (LMF) and cardiorespiratory capacity. Twenty-five healthy volunteers, mean age 35.3 years, with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) of 46.7 mL·min-1 ·kg-1 , and maximal heart rate of 190 bpm, ascended on a stair machine at 60% and 75% (3 min each), and 90% of VO2max (5 min or until exhaustion). The VO2 , HR and electromyography (EMG) of the leg muscles were measured. The average VO2highest reached 43...
May 22, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775425/pre-obesity-and-obesity-impacts-on-passive-joint-range-of-motion
#4
Yihun Jeong, Suyeon Heo, Giwhyun Lee, Woojin Park
Despite the prevalence of pre-obesity and obesity, the physical capabilities of pre-obese/obese individuals are not well documented. As an effort to address this, this study investigated the pre-obesity and obesity impacts on joint range of motion (RoM) for twenty-two body joint motions. A publicly available passive RoM dataset was analysed. Three BMI groups (normal-weight, pre-obese, and obese [Class I]) were statistically compared in joint RoM. The pre-obese and obese groups were found to have significantly smaller RoM means than the normal-weight for elbow flexion and supination, hip extension and flexion, knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion...
May 18, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757714/a-comparison-of-economy-and-sagittal-plane-trunk-movements-among-back-back-front-and-head-loading
#5
Sean Hudson, Carlton Cooke, Simeon Davies, Sacha West, Raeeq Gamieldien, Chris Low, Ray Lloyd
It has been suggested that freedom of movement in the trunk could influence load carriage economy. This study aimed to compare the economy and sagittal plane trunk movements associated with three load carriage methods that constrain posture differently. Eighteen females walked at 3 km.h-1 with loads of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 kg carried on the back, back/front and head. Load carriage economy was assessed using the Extra Load Index (ELI). Change in sagittal plane trunk forward lean and trunk angle excursion from unloaded to loaded walking were assessed...
May 14, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757713/conceptual-frameworks-for-the-workplace-change-adoption-process-elements-integration-from-decision-making-and-learning-cycle-process
#6
Radin Zaid Radin Umar, Carolyn M Sommerich, Steve A Lavender, Elizabeth Sanders, Kevin D Evans
Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision making, behavioral change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process...
May 14, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757710/what-went-right-an-analysis-of-the-protective-factors-in-aviation-near-misses
#7
Brian Thoroman, Natassia Goode, Paul Salmon, Matthew Wooley
Learning from successful safety outcomes, or what went right, is an important emerging component of maintaining safe systems. Accordingly, there are increasing calls to study normal performance in near misses as part of safety management activities. Despite this, there is limited guidance on how to accomplish this in practice. This article presents a study in which using Rasmussen's risk management framework to analyse sixteen serious incidents from the aviation domain. The findings show that a network of protective factors prevents accidents with factors identified across the sociotechnical system...
May 14, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708054/comparison-of-nasa-tlx-scale-modified-cooper-harper-scale-and-mean-inter-beat-interval-as-measures-of-pilot-mental-workload-during-simulated-flight-tasks
#8
Heikki Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Don Harris
The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective rating scales and IBI were compared between categories...
April 30, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708048/one-handed-carrying-among-elderly-and-obese-individuals-a-systematic-review-to-identify-research-gaps
#9
Mohamed Badawy, Mark C Schall, Richard F Sesek, Sean Gallagher, Gerard A Davis, M Fehmi Capanoglu
A systematic review of the literature regarding one-handed load carrying was conducted to identify research gaps for future load carrying studies. Twenty-six articles that may be relevant to elderly and obese people were included. Only two studies evaluated the effect of age as an independent variable during one-handed carrying. Obesity was not included as an independent variable in any of the articles. In general, the results suggested that one-handed carrying is more physically demanding than other methods of load carrying...
April 30, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683404/agency-modulates-interactions-with-automation-technologies
#10
Kevin Le Goff, Arnaud Rey, Patrick Haggard, Olivier Oullier, Bruno Berberian
The increasing presence of automation between operators and automated systems tends to disrupt operators from action outcomes, leading them to leave the control loop. The theoretical framework of agency suggests that priming the operator about the system's upcoming behaviour could help restore an appropriate sense of control and increase user acceptance of what the system is doing. In a series of two experiments, we test whether providing information about what the system is about to do next leads to an increase in the level of user acceptance, concomitant with an increase in control and performance...
April 23, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681228/driving-in-an-urban-environment-the-stress-response-and-effects-of-exercise
#11
Michael Antoun, Ding Ding, Erika E Bohn-Goldbaum, Scott Michael, Kate M Edwards
Driving may be detrimental to health, with one hypothesis suggesting that driving may elicit an acute stress response and, with repeated exposures, may become a chronic stressor. The present study examined the stress response to driving and the effectiveness of a prior exercise bout in dampening this response. Twenty healthy adults performed three tasks: control, driving and exercise plus driving. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP) and cortisol were measured to quantify the acute stress response to each condition...
April 23, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508648/who-talks-to-whom-about-what-how-interdisciplinary-communication-and-knowledge-of-expertise-distribution-improve-in-integrated-r-d-labs
#12
Mareike Heinzen, Eugenia Cacciatori, Frank A Zoller, Roman Boutellier
Although several studies have examined the impact of open workspaces, there is still an on-going debate about its advantages and disadvantages. Our paper contributes to this debate by shedding light on three issues: the effect of open workspaces on (1) the flow of communication along and across hierarchical lines; (2) the content of communication; and (3) the specificities of open integrated laboratories. Our findings derive from a longitudinal case in a large pharmaceutical company that has relocated some R&D teams from enclosed to multi-space offices and labs...
April 13, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648499/burnout-among-pilots-psychosocial-factors-related-to-happiness-and-score-on-simulator-training
#13
Evangelia Demerouti, Wouter Veldhuis, Claire Coombes, Rob Hunter
In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting...
April 12, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637845/physical-employment-standard-for-canadian-wildland-fire-fighters-examining-test-retest-reliability-and-the-impact-of-familiarization-and-physical-fitness-training
#14
Robert J Gumieniak, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
To assess the impact of repeat performances (familiarization) plus exercise training on completion time for the Ontario Wildland Fire Fighter (WFF) Fitness Test circuit (WFX-FIT), normally active general population participants (n=145) were familiarized to the protocol then randomized into i) exercise training, ii) circuit only weekly performances, or iii) controls. At Baseline, the WFX-FIT the pass rate of all groups combined was 11% for females and 73% for males, indicating that the Ontario WFX-FIT standard had a possible adverse impact on females...
April 11, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637835/physical-employment-standard-for-canadian-wildland-fire-fighters-identifying-and-characterizing-critical-initial-attack-response-tasks
#15
Robert J Gumieniak, Jim Shaw, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
Physical employment standards evaluate whether a worker possesses the physical abilities to safely and efficiently perform all critical on-the-job tasks. Initial Attack (IA) wildland fire fighters (WFF) must perform such critical tasks in all terrains. Following a physical demands analysis, IA WFF (n=946 out of a possible 965) from all fire jurisdictions ranked the most demanding tasks and identified mountains, muskeg and rolling hills as the most challenging terrains. Experimental trials found the oxygen cost (mean ± SD VO2 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) while performing the hose pack back carry to be 40±7 in steep mountains, 34±5 in muskeg and 34±2 in rolling hills (n=168)...
April 11, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630479/associations-of-office-workers-objectively-assessed-occupational-sitting-standing-and-stepping-time-with-musculoskeletal-symptoms
#16
Pieter Coenen, Genevieve N Healy, Elisabeth Ah Winkler, David W Dunstan, Neville Owen, Marj Moodie, Anthony D LaMontagne, Elizabeth A Eakin, Peter O'Sullivan, Leon M Straker
We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e., usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper- and lower-extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders...
April 9, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628002/physical-employment-standard-for-canadian-wildland-fire-fighters-developing-and-validating-the-test-protocol
#17
Robert J Gumieniak, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
Developing the Canadian initial attack (IA) wildland fire fighter (WFF) physical employment standard (WFX-FIT) began in a previous investigation (Gumieniak et al. 2018) with a physical demands analysis in which hand and back carrying a 28.5 kg pump, back carrying a 25 kg hose pack and advancing charged hose were identified as the critical IA emergency tasks. In the present study, a circuit was created incorporating simulations of the critical tasks with faster completion times required for provinces with more arduous terrains...
April 9, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628001/transmission-of-vibration-through-glove-materials-effects-of-contact-force
#18
Khairil Anas Md Rezali, Michael J Griffin
This study investigated effects of applied force on the apparent mass of the hand, the dynamic stiffness of glove materials, and the transmission of vibration to the hand. For 10 subjects, three glove materials, and three contact forces, apparent masses and glove transmissibilities were measured at the palm and at a finger at frequencies in the range 5 to 300 Hz. The dynamic stiffnesses of the materials were also measured. With increasing force, the dynamic stiffnesses of the materials increased, the apparent mass at the palm increased at frequencies greater than the resonance, and the apparent mass at the finger increased at low frequencies...
April 9, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451105/human-automation-interaction-for-multiple-robot-control-the-effect-of-varying-automation-assistance-and-individual-differences-on-operator-performance
#19
Julia L Wright, Jessie Y C Chen, Michael J Barnes
In a human-automation interaction study, automation assistance level (AL) was investigated for its effects on operator performance in a dynamic, multi-tasking environment. Participants supervised a convoy of manned and unmanned vehicles traversing a simulated environment in three AL conditions, while maintaining situation awareness and identifying targets. Operators' situation awareness, target detection performance, workload and individual differences were evaluated. Results show increasing AL generally improved task performance and decreased perceived workload, however, differential effects due to operator spatial ability and perceived attentional control were found...
April 3, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560812/association-between-objectively-measured-static-standing-and-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-study-among-blue-collar-workers
#20
Francisco Locks, Nidhi Gupta, David Hallman, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Ana Beatriz Oliveira, Andreas Holtermann
This study aims to investigate the cross-sectional association between objectively measured total time and temporal patterns of static standing (short bouts: 0-5 min; moderate bouts: >5-10 min; and long bouts: >10 min) during work and leisure and low back pain (LBP) among 698 blue-collar workers. Workers reported LBP on a 0-10 scale. The association between time spent on static standing and LBP was tested with linear regression. A positive association with LBP intensity was found for long bouts of static standing (β = 0...
April 2, 2018: Ergonomics
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