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Simeon Gill, Christopher J Parker
Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards...
October 20, 2016: Ergonomics
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan
Much research on stereotype strength relating display and control movements for displays moving in the vertical or horizontal directions has been reported. Here we report effects of display movement angle, where the display moves at angles (relative to the vertical) of between 0 and 180 degrees. The experiment used six different controls, four display locations relative to the operator and three types of indicator. Indicator types were included because of the strong effects of the "scale-side principle" (Brebner and Sandow 1976a) that are variable with display angle...
October 20, 2016: Ergonomics
Peter James Barron, Katherine Burgess, Kay Cooper, Arthur D Stewart
'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p < 0...
October 15, 2016: Ergonomics
Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Liesbeth Groenesteijn, Peter Vink, Lottie F M Kuijt-Evers
This literature review focused on passenger seat comfort and discomfort in a human-product-context interaction. The relationships between anthropometric variables (human level), activities (context level), seat characteristics (product level) and the perception of comfort and discomfort were studied through mediating variables, such as body posture, movement and interface pressure. It is concluded that there are correlations between anthropometric variables and interface pressure variables, and that this relationship is affected by body posture...
October 15, 2016: Ergonomics
Marcus Yung, Richard P Wells
Many contemporary occupations are characterised by long periods of low loads. These lower force levels, which are relevant to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, are usually not the focus of fatigue studies. In studies that did measure fatigue in light manual or precision work, within and between measurement responses were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to identify fatigue measures that were responsive at lower force levels (<10% MVC) over the course of an 8-h period. A complementary set of fatigue measures, reflecting both neuromuscular and cognitive mechanisms, was measured during a light precision micro-pipetting task performed by 11 participants...
October 14, 2016: Ergonomics
Arun Garg, J Steven Moore, Jay M Kapellusch
The Revised Strain Index (RSI) is a distal upper extremity (DUE) physical exposure assessment model based on: intensity of exertion, frequency of exertion, duration per exertion, hand/wrist posture and duration of task per day. The RSI improves upon the 1995 Strain Index (SI) by using continuous rather than categorical multipliers, and replacing duty cycle with duration per exertion. In a simulation of 13,944 tasks, the RSI and 1995 SI showed good agreement in risk predictions for 1995 SI scores ≤3 (safe) and >13...
October 14, 2016: Ergonomics
Arun Garg, J Steven Moore, Jay M Kapellusch
The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted-average (TWA) and peak force, and COSI classified 66...
October 13, 2016: Ergonomics
Laura Cahill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Ergonomics
Milad Vazirian, Iman Shojaei, Anuj Agarwal, Babak Bazrgari
Age-related differences in lumbar contribution to the trunk motion in the sagittal plane were investigated. Sixty individuals between 20-70 years old in five gender-balanced age groups performed forward bending and backward return with slow and fast paces. Individuals older than 50 years old, irrespective of the gender or pace, had smaller lumbar contribution than those younger than this age. The lumbar contribution to trunk motion was also smaller in female participants than male participants, and under fast pace than under the slow pace...
October 12, 2016: Ergonomics
Samantha Jamson, Marco Mrozek
Road sign comprehension plays an important part in road safety management, particularly for those drivers who are travelling in an unfamiliar country. Previous research has established that comprehension can be improved if signs are designed to adhere to ergonomic principles. However, it may be difficult for sign designers to incorporate all the principles into a single sign and may thus have to make a judgement as to the most effective ones. This study surveyed drivers in three countries to ascertain their understanding of a range of road signs, each of which conformed in varying degrees and combinations to the ergonomic principles...
October 8, 2016: Ergonomics
Sue Hignett, Alexandra Lang, Laura Pickup, Christine Ives, Mike Fray, Celine McKeown, Sarah Tapley, Matthew Woodward, Paul Bowie
What prevents the delivery of effective, high quality, and safe healthcare in the National Health Service (NHS) in England? This paper presents 760 challenges which 330 NHS staff reported as preventing the delivery of effective, high quality and safe care. Some problems have been known for over 25 years (staff shortages, finance and patient complexity) but other challenges raise questions about the commitment of the NHS to patient and staff safety. For example Organisational Culture leading to 'stifling bureaucracy', 'odds stacked against smooth […] working' and Workload resulting in 'firefighting daily' and 'perpetual crisis mode'...
October 7, 2016: Ergonomics
Sarah J Isherwood, Denis McKeown
The aim of this study was to explore operator experience and performance for semantically congruent and incongruent auditory icons and abstract alarm sounds. It was expected that performance advantages for congruent sounds would be present initially but would reduce over time for both alarm types. Twenty-four participants (12M/12F) were placed into auditory icon or abstract alarm groupings. For each group both congruent and incongruent alarms were used to represent different driving task scenarios. Once sounded, participants were required to respond to each alarm by selecting a corresponding driving scenario...
October 5, 2016: Ergonomics
Marcus Yung, Richard P Wells
Fatigue has been linked to deficits in production quality and productivity and, if of long duration, work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It may thus be a useful risk indicator and design and evaluation tool. However, there is limited information on the test-retest reliability, the sensitivity, and the effects of diurnal fluctuation on field usable fatigue measures. This study reports on an evaluation of 11 measurement tools and their 14 parameters. Eight measures were found to have test-retest ICC values greater than 0...
October 3, 2016: Ergonomics
Javier Cepriá-Bernal, Antonio Pérez-González, Marta C Mora, Joaquín L Sancho-Bru
Grip force and force sharing during two activities of daily living were analysed experimentally in ten right-handed subjects. Four different bottles, filled to two different levels, were manipulated for two tasks: transporting and pouring. Each test subject's hand was instrumented with eight thin wearable force sensors. The grip force and force sharing were significantly different for each bottle model. Increasing the filling level resulted in an increase in grip force, but the ratio of grip force to load force was higher for lighter loads...
September 12, 2016: Ergonomics
Thilina W Weerasinghe, Ravindra S Goonetilleke, Uwe Reischl
The objective was to develop a methodology to assess Pressure Discomfort Thresholds (PDT), Pressure Pain Thresholds (PPT), and tissue stiffness on the plantar surface of the foot. Ten male and ten female participants volunteered for the study. Foot landmarks were used to create a standardized grid-type template of 95 points. For each test point, PPT and PDT values were obtained, and stiffness was calculated for each of the twenty participants. Cluster analyses were performed to determine the regions of similarity for the three dependent variables, PPT, PDT and stiffness...
September 9, 2016: Ergonomics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Ergonomics
Neville A Stanton, Catherine Harvey
Risk assessments in Sociotechnical Systems (STS) tend to be based on error taxonomies, yet the term 'human error' does not sit easily with STS theories and concepts. A new break-link approach was proposed as a alternative risk assessment paradigm to reveal the effect of information communication failures between agents and tasks on the entire STS. A case study of the training of a Royal Navy crew detecting a low flying Hawk (simulating a sea-skimming missile) is presented using EAST to model the Hawk-Frigate STS in terms of social, information and task networks...
September 7, 2016: Ergonomics
Jérôme Bourbousson, Marina Fortes-Bourbousson
Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively...
September 6, 2016: Ergonomics
Jongil Lim, Christopher J Palmer, Michael A Busa, Avelino Amado, Luis D Rosado, Scott W Ducharme, Darnell Simon, Richard E A Van Emmerik
The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment...
September 3, 2016: Ergonomics
Jared Gragg, Ellison Klose, James Yang
The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) is a measure of the friction available between two surfaces, which for human gait would be the footwear-floor interface. It is often compared to the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) to determine the likelihood of a slip in gait. Both the ACOF and RCOF are stochastic by nature meaning that neither should be represented by a deterministic value, such as the sample mean. Previous research has determined that the RCOF can be modeled well by either the normal or lognormal distributions, but previous research aimed at determining an appropriate distribution for the ACOF was inconclusive...
September 2, 2016: Ergonomics
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