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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817353/measuring-mental-workload-with-the-nasa-tlx-needs-to-examine-each-dimension-rather-than-relying-on-the-global-score-an-example-with-driving
#1
Edith Galy, Julie Paxion, Catherine Berthelon
The distinction between several components of mental workload is often made in the ergonomics literature. However, measurements used are often established from a global score, notably with several questionnaires that originally reflect several dimensions. The present study tested the effect of driving situation complexity, experience and subjective levels of tension and alertness on each dimension of the NASA-TLX questionnaire of workload, in order to highlight the potential influence of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load factors...
August 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782425/the-effect-of-lighting-conditions-and-use-of-headlights-on-drivers-perception-and-appraisal-of-approaching-vehicles-at-junctions
#2
Yee Mun Lee, Elizabeth Sheppard
Use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) is mandatory in many countries for motorcycles, and in some for cars. However, in developing countries, DRLs may be optional or compliance low. The effect of car or motorcycle headlights and lighting conditions on Malaysian drivers' ability to perceive and judge the safety of pulling out was investigated. Stimuli were photographs depicting either daytime or nighttime taken at a T-junction with approaching vehicles with headlights on or off. Headlights improved drivers' ability to perceive cars and motorcycles in the nighttime photographs but not the daytime photographs, although this could be due to the bright weather in the photographs...
August 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697645/biomechanical-investigation-of-prolonged-driving-in-an-ergonomically-designed-truck-seat-prototype
#3
Michelle Cardoso, Colin McKinnon, Dan Viggiani, Michel J Johnson, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype...
August 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720055/review-for-textiles-and-human-thermophysiological-comfort-in-the-indoor-environment
#4
Han Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762892/physiological-response-to-firefighting-activities-of-various-work-cycles-using-extended-duration-and-prototype-scba
#5
Richard M Kesler, Ipek Ensari, Rachel E Klarenc, Robert W Motl, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler, Karl S Rosengren, Bo Fernhall, Denise L Smith, Gavin P Horn
Firefighters'self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBAs) protect the respiratory system during firefightingbut increases the physiological burden. Extended duration SCBA (>30min) have increased air supply, increasing the duration of firefighting work cycles. To examine the effects of SCBAconfigurationand work cycle (length and rest), 30firefighterscompleted seven trials using different SCBAand one or two bouts of simulated firefighting following work cycles common in the United States. Heart rate, core temperature, oxygen consumption, work output, and self-reported perceptions were recorded during all activities...
August 1, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756736/prevalence-of-work-related-musculoskeletal-and-non-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-healthcare-workers-the-implications-for-work-disability-management
#6
Nelson Ositadimma Oranye, Jayson Benneth
Objective To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal injuries in a cohort of workers in Manitoba healthcare sector, who made injury claims between 2002 and 2012. MethodsA retrospective study, using secondary data from WCB Manitoba. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for nature of work-related injuries among different groups of workers. Results Idiopathic work-related musculoskeletal disorders constituted 74.6% of all the injury claims. Injury risks varied between worker groups, and a significant difference was found within the female group, χ(2)=13...
July 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737481/thermal-response-to-firefighting-activities-in-residential-structure-fires-impact-of-job-assignment-and-suppression-tactic
#7
Gavin P Horn, Richard M Kesler, Steve Kerber, Kenneth W Fent, Tad J Schroeder, William S Scott, Patricia C Fehling, Bo Fernhall, Denise L Smith
Firefighters' thermal burden is generally attributed to high heat loads from the fire and metabolic heat generation, which may vary between job assignments and suppression tactic employed. Utilising a full-sized residential structure, firefighters were deployed in six job assignments utilising two attack tactics (1. Water applied from the interior, or 2. Exterior water application before transitioning to the interior). Environmental temperatures decreased after water application, but more rapidly with transitional attack...
July 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745552/human-interaction-with-robotic-systems-performance-and-workload-evaluations
#8
L Reinerman-Jones, D J Barber, J L Szalma, P A Hancock
We first tested the effect of differing tactile informational forms (i.e. directional cues vs. static cues vs. dynamic cues) on objective performance and perceived workload in a collaborative human-robot task. A second experiment evaluated the influence of task load and informational message type (i.e. single words vs. grouped phrases) on that same collaborative task. In both experiments, the relationship of personal characteristics (attentional control and spatial ability) to performance and workload was also measured...
July 26, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743218/development-of-a-lumbar-emg-based-coactivation-index-for-the-assessment-of-complex-dynamic-tasks
#9
Peter Le, Alexander Aurand, Benjamin A Walter, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
The objective of this study was to develop and test an EMG-based coactivation index and compare it to a coactivation index defined by a biologically-assisted lumbar spine model to differentiate between tasks. The purpose was to provide a universal approach to assess coactivation of a multi-muscle system when a computational model is not accessible. The EMG-based index developed utilized anthropometric-defined muscle characteristics driven by torso kinematics and EMG. Muscles were classified as agonists/antagonists based upon 'simulated' moments of the muscles relative to the total 'simulated' moment...
July 26, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738728/job-task-characteristics-of-australian-emergency-services-volunteers-during-search-and-rescue-operations
#10
Aaron Silk, Gavin Lenton, Robbie Savage, Brad Aisbett
Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel...
July 25, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715938/the-design-of-civic-technology-factors-that-influence-public-participation-and-impact
#11
Andrew May, Tracy Ross
Civic technology needs to be better understood in terms of the factors that promote representative public participation and impact. This paper reports on a multi-methods study of a civic tech platform that enabled the public to provide feedback on public transport to the service providers. The overall aim of this research was to investigate the public's use of a leading civic tech platform, FixMyTransport. The key findings were that: an effective and easy to use civic technology platform enables broad participation; data and process complexity need to be removed; factual information can be captured in-situ with impacts, consequences and opinions added later; emotions (if important) need to be explicitly elicited; feedback to, and a 'conversation' with, the users is important for engagement, as is a feeling of being part of a community...
July 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689475/comparisons-between-shikoro-type-helmet-with-no-hood-and-typical-fire-protective-helmets-with-hood-in-a-hot-and-humid-environment
#12
Yoon Jeong Baek, Dahee Jung, Su-Young Son, Joo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiological and subjective responses while wearing the Shikoro-type helmet for firefighters when compared to typical helmets. Eight firefighters conducted a 30-min exercise at a 5 km h(-1) in three helmet conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C with 70%RH. The results showed that no significant differences in rectal, mean skin temperature and physiological strain index among the three conditions were found during exercise and recovery. Skin temperatures on the cheek, ear and neck during exercise were significantly lower for the Shikoro-type condition (p < 0...
July 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705111/use-of-portable-ladders-field-observations-and-self-reported-safety-performance-in-the-cable-tv-industry
#13
Wen-Ruey Chang, Yueng-Hsiang Huang, Christopher Brunette, Jin Lee
Portable ladders incidents remain a major cause of falls from heights. This study reported field observations of environments, work conditions and safety behaviour involving portable ladders and their correlations with self-reported safety performance. Seventy-five professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for 320 ladder usages at their worksites. The participants also filled out a questionnaire to measure self-reported safety performance. Proper setup on slippery surfaces, correct method for ladder inclination setup and ladder secured at the bottom had the lowest compliance with best practices and training guidelines...
July 14, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699840/distributed-improvisation-a-systems-perspective-of-improvisation-epics-by-led-outdoor-activity-leaders
#14
Margaret J Trotter, Paul M Salmon, Natassia Goode, Michael G Lenné
Improvisation represents the spontaneous and real-time conception and execution of a novel response to an unanticipated situation. In order to benefit from the positive safety potential of this phenomenon, it is necessary to understand what influences its appropriateness and effectiveness. This study has applied the system-based methodology Impromaps to analysing accounts of improvisation aimed at mitigating adverse safety outcomes. These accounts were obtained from led outdoor activity leaders through critical decision method interviews...
July 12, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697704/radio-gaga-intra-team-communication-of-australian-rules-football-umpires-effect-of-radio-communication-on-content-structure-and-frequency
#15
Timothy J Neville, Paul M Salmon, Gemma J M Read
Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication...
July 12, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697685/interruptions-and-multitasking-in-surgery-a-multicentre-observational-study-of-the-daily-work-patterns-of-doctors-and-nurses
#16
Tommaso Bellandi, Alessandro Cerri, Giulia Carreras, Scott Walter, Cipriana Mengozzi, Sara Albolino, Eleonora Mastrominico, Fernando Renzetti, Riccardo Tartaglia, Johanna Westbrook
The aim of this study was to obtain baseline data on doctors' and nurses' work activities and rates of interruptions and multi-tasking to improve work organization and processes. Data were collected in six surgical units with the WOMBAT (Work Observation Method by Activity Timing) tool. Results show that doctors and nurses received approximately 13 interruptions per hour, or one interruption every 4.5 minutes. Compared to doctors, nurses were more prone to interruptions in most activities, while doctors performed multitasking (33...
July 12, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697682/a-comfort-assessment-of-existing-cervical-orthoses
#17
Joe Langley, Silvia Pancani, Karen Kilner, Heath Reed, Andy Stanton, Nicola Heron, Simon Judge, Avril McCarthy, Susan Baxter, Claudia Mazzà, Christopher J McDermott
PURPOSE: identify location and intensity of discomfort experienced by healthy participants wearing cervical orthoses. METHOD: convenience sample of 34 healthy participants wore Stro II, Philadelphia, Headmaster, and AspenVista(®) cervical orthoses for four-hour periods. Participants reported discomfort level (scale 0-6) and location. RESULTS: participants reported mean discomfort for all orthoses over the four-hour test between 'a little discomfort' and 'very uncomfortable' (mean discomfort score=1...
July 12, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689467/an-investigation-on-four-different-sit-stand-workstation-use-schedules
#18
Stephen Bao, Jia-Hua Lin
Twelve office workers participated in a study investigating effects of four sit/stand schedules (90-min sit/30-min stand, 80/40, 105/15, and 60/60) via several objective and subjective measures (muscle fatigue, foot swelling, spinal shrinkage, and self-reported discomfort). Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoulder and low back static muscle activities between sitting and standing. Muscle fatigue was developed during workday under all schedules. The longest standing schedule seemed to have a tendency of reducing muscle fatigue...
July 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689462/measuring-working-memory-load-effects-on-electrophysiological-markers-of-attention-orienting-during-a-simulated-drive
#19
Veerle Ross, Alexandra Y Vossen, Fren T Y Smulders, Robert A C Ruiter, Tom Brijs, Kris Brijs, Geert Wets, Ellen M M Jongen
Intersection accidents result in a significant proportion of road fatalities, and attention allocation likely plays a role. Attention allocation may depend on (limited) working memory (WM) capacity. Driving is often combined with tasks increasing WM load, consequently impairing attention orienting. This study (n = 22) investigated WM load effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attention orienting. A simulated driving environment allowed continuous lane-keeping measurement. Participants were asked to orient attention covertly towards the side indicated by an arrow, and to respond only to moving cars appearing on the attended side by pressing a button...
July 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679350/functional-work-breaks-in-a-high-demanding-work-environment-an-experimental-field-study
#20
André Scholz, Argang Ghadiri, Usha Singh, Johannes Wendsche, Theo Peters, Stefan Schneider
Work breaks are known to have positive effects on employees' health, performance and safety. Using a sample of twelve employees working in a stressful and cognitively demanding working environment, this experimental field study examined how different types of work breaks (boxing, deep relaxation and usual breaks) affect participants' mood, cognitive performance and neurophysiological state compared to a control condition without any break. In a repeated measures experimental design, cognitive performance was assessed using an auditory oddball test and a Movement Detection Test...
July 10, 2017: Ergonomics
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