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Ryan K Gorman, Claire A Wellbeloved-Stone, Rupa S Valdez
As patients transition from passive recipients to actors in their health management, there is an opportunity to enhance theoretical frameworks describing the patient work system. Previous macroergonomic frameworks depict how patients manage health outside the institutional healthcare system, though none formally integrate the concept of invisible work - self-management practices undervalued or unseen by healthcare providers. This article overlays invisible work onto the patient work system through a case study of breast cancer self-management...
November 2, 2018: Ergonomics
Iman Dianat, Johan Molenbroek, Héctor Ignacio Castellucci
Anthropometry is a key element of ergonomic studies for addressing the problem of fitting the tasks/products to user characteristics, but there is a gap between anthropometric data and their application for designing ergonomic products and environments. This research was conducted to review the literature on the methodology and applications of anthropometry for the ergonomic design of products and environments, and to identify where further research is needed to improve its application and evaluation protocols...
November 2, 2018: Ergonomics
Iman Shojaei, Cazmon Suri, Babak Bazrgari
Backpacks with ergonomic features are recommended to mitigate the risk of developing low back pain due to carrying a heavy school backpack. A repeated measure study was conducted on 40 college-age students to investigate the immediate changes in magnitude and timing aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination when carrying an ergonomically modified vs. a normal backpack relative to no backpack condition during trunk forward bending and backward return tasks. We found a smaller reduction in the thoracic range of rotation, an increase vs...
November 2, 2018: Ergonomics
Simon Ashley Bennett
Crew resource management (CRM) is credited with saving 185 lives at Sioux City. While the theory behind CRM is well documented, there are few studies of how CRM manifests on the line. This inductive in vivo study had three objectives. First, to describe how CRM manifests. Secondly, to evaluate the efficacy of CRM vis-à-vis flight safety. Thirdly, to suggest improvements to the CRM training syllabus. The study produced five conclusions: First, CRM is durable under conditions of moderate strain. Secondly, crews embed and refine CRM through reflection and action...
November 1, 2018: Ergonomics
Cheryl Haslam, Aadil Kazi, Myanna Duncan, Stacy Clemes, Ricardo Twumasi
This article presents longitudinal data from 1120 participants across 10 worksites enrolled in Walking Works Wonders, a tailored intervention designed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. The intervention was evaluated over 2 years, using a quasi-experimental design comprising 3 conditions: tailored information; standard information and control. This study explored the impact of the intervention on objective measures (BMI, %Fat, waist circumference, blood pressure and heart rate) and self-reported measures of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, physical and psychological health...
November 1, 2018: Ergonomics
Jessica A Dobson, Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Alison F Bell, Julie R Steele
Acceptable footwear fit, particularly width, is subjective and vaguely quantified. Proper shoe fit is important because it affects both comfort and the potential to prevent injury. Although mismatches between the feet of underground coal miners and their internal boot dimensions are known, no research has been undertaken to determine the impact of these mismatches on worker perceptions of fit, comfort and pain. This study aimed to quantitatively assess mining work boot fit relative to underground coal miners' subjectively rated work boot fit and comfort, reported foot problems, lower limb pain and lower back pain in order to develop evidence-based work boot fit recommendations...
November 1, 2018: Ergonomics
Kirsten M A Revell, Craig Allison, Rodney Sears, Neville A Stanton
Changes to crewing configurations in commercial airlines are likely as a means of reducing operating costs. To consider the safety implications for a distributed crewing configuration, system theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) was applied to a rapid decompression hazard. High level control structures for current operations and distributed crewing are presented. The CONOPS generated by STAMP-STPA for distributed crewing, and design constraints associated with unsafe control actions (UCAs) are offered to progress in the route to certification for distributed crewing, and improve safety in current operations...
October 29, 2018: Ergonomics
Álvaro Bustamante-Sánchez, Miguel Delgado-Terán, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Hypoxia remains the most important hazard in high altitude flights, but there is still a need for deeper analysis of the effect of hypoxia exposition in the psychophysiological and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to study the effect of hypoxia training in cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, muscle strength and cognitive function. We analysed 23 male aircrew personnel of the Spanish Army and Air Force (10 Helicopter Pilots, 7 Transport Aircrew, 3 Transport Pilots and 3 F-18 Fighter Pilots) before, during and after a normobaric hypoxia exposition...
October 29, 2018: Ergonomics
Brendan Ryan, Veli-Pekka Kallberg, Helena Rådbo, Grigore M Havârneanu, Anne Silla, Karoline Lukaschek, Jean-Marie Burkhardt, Jean-Luc Bruyelle, El-Miloudi El-Koursi, Eric Beurskens, Maria Hedqvist
It can be difficult to select from available safety preventative measures, especially where there is limited evidence of effectiveness in different contexts. This paper describes application of a method to identify and evaluate wide-ranging preventative measures for rail suicide and trespass fatalities. Evidence from literature and industry sources was collated and reviewed in a two stage process to achieve consensus among experts on the likely effects of the measures and factors influencing their implementation...
October 28, 2018: Ergonomics
Felix C Meier, Markus Schöbel, Markus A Feufel
Cockpit design is a core area of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E). Ideally, good design compensates for human capacity limitations by distributing task requirements over human and interface to improve safety and performance. Recent empirical findings suggest that the mere spatial layout of car cockpits may influence driver behaviour, expanding current views on HF/E in cockpit design. To assess the reliability of findings showing that an expansive driver seat space predicts parking violations, we replicated an original field study in a geographically and socio-culturally different location and included an additional covariate...
October 26, 2018: Ergonomics
Steven Visser, Henk F van der Molen, Judith K Sluiter, Monique H W Frings-Dresen
To improve the use of ergonomics tools by construction workers, the effect of two guidance strategies - a face-to-face strategy (F2F) and an e-guidance strategy (EG) - of a participatory ergonomics intervention was studied. Twelve construction companies were randomly assigned to the F2F group or the EG group. The primary outcome measure, the percentage of workers using ergonomics tools, and secondary outcome measures - work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems - were assessed using surveys at baseline and after 6 months...
October 23, 2018: Ergonomics
Rachel L Whittaker, Nicholas J La Delfa, Clark R Dickerson
Repetitive workplace tasks are associated with fatigue-induced changes to shoulder muscular strategies, potentially altering kinematics and elevating susceptibility to tissue overexposures. Accessible and reliable methods to detect shoulder muscle fatigue in the workplace are therefore valuable. Detectable changes in joint motion may provide a plausible fatigue identification method. In this investigation, the onset of the first kinematic changes, as identified by a symbolic motion representation (SMSR) algorithm, and the onset of substantial sEMG MPF fatigue were not significantly different, both occurring around 10% of task duration...
October 15, 2018: Ergonomics
Whitney P Mantooth, Ranjana K Mehta, Joohyun Rhee, Lora A Cavuoto
The purpose of this study was to examine task and sex differences in forearm muscle oxygenation, measured using near infrared spectroscopy, during sustained submaximal handgrip exercises. Forty-eight adults (50% males) performed fatiguing handgrip exercises at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of their maximum handgrip strength. While males and females exhibited similar levels of relative fatigability, forearm oxygenation was found to be task (i.e. contraction intensity and phase of fatigue development) and sex dependent...
October 14, 2018: Ergonomics
Lan-Peng Li, Zhi-Gang Liu, Hai-Yan Zhu, Lin Zhu, Yuan-Chun Huang
The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) combined with heart rate variability indices, for the evaluation of the mental workload of urban rail transit drivers under simulated driving conditions, particularly during task engagement and disengagement. Experienced metro drivers wearing fNIRS monitoring systems were asked to drive for 90 min in a professional metro driving simulator. Workload stimulus tasks were added and an n-back task (n = 3) was implemented to induce workload in the simulated driving experiment...
October 11, 2018: Ergonomics
Charlène Cotard, Estelle Michinov
The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of team member familiarity on both technical and non-technical skills of police officers and to examine the mediating role of transactive memory components (specialization, coordination and credibility). Student police officers (N = 150) carried out professional simulation sessions in groups of three, with either familiar (n = 22 teams) or unfamiliar (n = 28 teams) team members, followed by a skills evaluation exercise. Professional instructors evaluated skills through direct observation of team member behaviours...
October 10, 2018: Ergonomics
Yu Huang, Penglin Zhang
Current standards assume the same frequency weightings for discomfort at all magnitudes of vibration, whereas biodynamic and psychological studies show that the frequency-dependence of objective and subjective responses of the human body depends on the magnitude of vibration. This study investigated the discomfort of seated human body caused by vertical whole-body vibration over the frequency range 2-100 Hz at relatively high magnitudes from 1.0 to 2.5 ms-2 r.m.s. Twenty-eight subjects (15 males and 13 females) judged the discomfort using the absolute magnitude estimation method...
October 8, 2018: Ergonomics
Benjamin Stone, Barry S Mason, Andrea Bundon, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
Our understanding of handbike configuration is limited, yet it can be a key determinant of performance in handcycling. This study explored how fourteen handcycling experts (elite handcyclists, coaches, support staff and manufacturers) perceived aspects of recumbent handbike configuration to impact upon endurance performance via semi-structured interviews. Optimising the handbike for comfort, stability and power production were identified as key themes. Comfort and stability were identified to be the foundations of endurance performance and were primarily influenced by the seat, backrest, headrest and their associated padding...
October 3, 2018: Ergonomics
J Rose, C Bearman, A Naweed, J Dorrian
Verbal protocol analysis (VPA) is often used to elicit information about the cognitive processes of operators as it provides rich data and can be used in naturalistic settings. Recently VPA has been used to investigate the acquisition and maintenance of situation awareness (SA), and to make comparisons between groups despite a lack of research regarding the efficacy of using VPA for this purpose. This train simulator experiment investigated whether VPA can effectively measure SA. Novice and expert participants were recorded on an audio device while talking aloud throughout the trials and their verbalisations were transcribed verbatim...
September 28, 2018: Ergonomics
Maral Babapour, Linda Rolfö
Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations...
September 24, 2018: Ergonomics
Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis, Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Wei-Zhe Liang
Effective interactions in both real and stereoscopic environments require accurate perceptions of size and position. This study investigated the effects of parallax and interpupillary distance (IPD) on size perception of virtual objects in widescreen stereoscopic environments. Twelve participants viewed virtual spherical targets displayed at seven different depth positions, based on seven parallax levels. A perceptual matching task using five circular plates of different sizes was used to report the size judgment...
September 20, 2018: Ergonomics
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