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Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis, Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Wei-Zhe Liang
Effective interactions in both real and stereoscopic environments require accurate perceptions of size and position. This study investigated the effects of parallax and interpupillary distance (IPD) on size perception of virtual objects in widescreen stereoscopic environments. Twelve participants viewed virtual spherical targets displayed at seven different depth positions, based on seven parallax levels. A perceptual matching task using five circular plates of different sizes was used to report the size judgment...
September 20, 2018: Ergonomics
Julie Blythe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Ergonomics
Stephanie P Borgs, Nicholas J La Delfa, Clark R Dickerson
This study quantified changes in off-axis manual force production and upper extremity joint moments during sub-maximal one-handed push and pull tasks. Off-axis forces in the up/down and left/right directions were quantified in the presence or absence of constraints placed upon the direction of manual force application and/or arm posture. Resultant off-axis forces of 13.1% and 9.4% were produced for pulls and pushes, respectively. Off-axis forces during pulling were oriented downwards and to the right, and were associated with a decreased should flexion moment when posture was constrained...
September 19, 2018: Ergonomics
Harish Chander, Adam C Knight, John C Garner, Chip Wade, Daniel Carruth, Samuel J Wilson, Jacob R Gdovin, Caleb C Williams
Postural stability has been shown to be impacted by footwear and task performed. This study analysed the impact of two military footwear, standard boot (STB) and minimalist boot (MTB) on postural stability, before (PRE) and after (POST) a load carriage task. Sixteen participants were tested for postural stability using sensory organisation and motor control tests on Neurocom Equitest™. Postural sway, equilibrium scores and postural latencies were analysed using a two-factor repeated measures ANOVA: boot type (STB-MTB) × time (PRE-POST) load carriage task...
September 8, 2018: Ergonomics
Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant, Kirsten M A Revell, Thomas G C Griffin, Scott Moffatt, Maggie Stanton
The network analysis method, Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST), was used to examine routine aviation operations from multiple perspectives form six key areas (i.e., Dispatch, ATC, ATM, Maintenance, Loading, and the Cockpit). Data was collected over a five-day observational field trial at an international air cargo operator. Researchers recorded the activities of agents operating within the six key areas over three outbound and two inbound flights. Three networks (i.e., social, information and task) were created for four key phases of flight: (i) pre-flight checks and engines start (ii) taxi, take-off and assent, (iii) descent, landing and taxi, and (iv) park and shut down...
September 7, 2018: Ergonomics
Kirsten Revell, Craig Allison, Rodney Sears, Neville Stanton
Changes to crewing configurations in commercial airlines are likely as a means of reducing operating costs. To consider the safety implications for a distributed crewing configuration, System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) was applied to a rapid decompression hazard. High level control structures for current operations and distributed crewing are presented. The CONOPS generated by STAMP-STPA for distributed crewing, and design constraints associated with Unsafe Control Actions (UCAs) are offered to progress the route to certification for distributed crewing, and improve safety in current operations...
September 6, 2018: Ergonomics
Joost Heutink, Minou Broekman, Karel A Brookhuis, Bart Melis-Dankers, Christina Cordes
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a physical rest-frame, habituation and age on simulator sickness in an advanced mobility scooter driving simulator. METHOD: Twenty-six young and 34 older adults completed a total of twelve drives in an advanced mobility scooter driving simulator over two visits. A 2x2 crossover design was used to measure the effect of a rest frame that was added to the driving simulator on either the first or second visit. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire was used to measure simulator sickness symptoms...
September 6, 2018: Ergonomics
Denham Phipps
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Ergonomics
Lucy Swinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Ergonomics
Robert J B Hutton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Ergonomics
Jordan Navarro, Louis Heuveline, Eugénie Avril, Julien Cegarra
A seminal work by Sheridan and Verplank depicted 10 levels of automation, ranging from no automation to an automation that acts completely autonomously without human support. These levels of automation were later complemented with a four-stage model of human information processing. Next, human-machine cooperation centred models and associated cooperation modes were introduced. The objective of the experiment was to test which human-machine theorie describe automation use better. The participants were asked to choose repeatedly between four automation types (i...
September 5, 2018: Ergonomics
Peter Kearney, Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite
This research investigated controller' situation awareness by comparing COOPANS's acoustic alerts with newly designed semantic alerts. The results demonstrate that ATCOs' visual scan patterns had significant differences between acoustic and semantic designs. ATCOs established different eye movement patterns on fixations number, fixation duration and saccade velocity. Effective decision support systems require human-centered design with effective stimuli to direct ATCO's attention to critical events. It is necessary to provide ATCOs with specific alerting information to reflect the nature of the critical situation in order to minimise the side effects of startle and inattentional deafness...
September 5, 2018: Ergonomics
Roman Peter Kuster, Christoph Michael Bauer, Lukas Gossweiler, Daniel Baumgartner
Ergonomics science recommends office chairs that promote active sitting to reduce sitting related complaints. Since current office chairs do not fulfil this recommendation, a new chair was developed by inverting an existing dynamic chair principle. This study compares active sitting on the inverted chair during a simulated computer based office task to two existing dynamic office chairs (n = 8). Upper body stability was analysed using Friedman ANOVA (p=.01). Additionally, participants completed a questionnaire to rate their comfort and activity after half a working day...
August 31, 2018: Ergonomics
Robert J B Hutton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Ergonomics
Nick Colford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Ergonomics
Matt Holman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Ergonomics
Christopher Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Ergonomics
Yu Tian, Yifei Huang, Jibo He, Kunlin Wei
Texting on a cell phone disrupts walkers' gait performance. The performance decrement has been attributed to increased motor demand, decreased visual information and increased cognitive load. However, relative contributions of motor, visual and cognitive factors are poorly understood. Here we quantitatively estimated the relative contributions of these factors by comparing multiple walking conditions. Thirty-two adults walked for 20 m, with or without a dual task on the phone. The dual task was either a cognitively demanding digit ordering task or a casual tapping task...
August 16, 2018: Ergonomics
Amitava Halder, Chuansi Gao, Michael Miller, Kalev Kuklane
This laboratory study examined human stair ascending capacity and constraining factors including legs' local muscle fatigue (LMF) and cardiorespiratory capacity. Twenty-five healthy volunteers, with mean age 35.3 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) of 46.7 mL·min-1 ·kg-1 and maximal heart rate (HR) of 190 bpm, ascended on a stair machine at 60 and 75% (3 min each) and 90% of VO2max (5 min or until exhaustion). The VO2 , maximal heart rate (HRmax ) and electromyography (EMG) of the leg muscles were measured...
August 16, 2018: Ergonomics
Marco Costa, Leonardo Bonetti, Valeria Vignali, Claudio Lantieri, Andrea Simone
The role of peripheral vision in road sign identification and discrimination was investigated in two studies. Peripheral vision plays an important role in road signs perception due to their lateral positioning. In the first study 20 participants identified road signs presented at five levels of horizontal eccentricity (1.1°-12.4°), and two levels of vertical eccentricity (0°-2.5°). In the second study road sign discrimination was tested in a same-different discrimination task. The first study showed that a vertical offset of 2...
August 14, 2018: Ergonomics
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