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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317449/safety-leadership-and-systems-thinking-application-and-evaluation-of-a-risk-management-framework-in-the-mining-industry
#1
Sarah-Louise Donovan, Paul M Salmon, Michael G Lenné, Tim Horberry
Safety leadership is an important factor in supporting safety in high-risk industries. This article contends that applying systems-thinking methods to examine safety leadership can support improved learning from incidents. A case study analysis was undertaken of a large-scale mining landslide incident in which no injuries or fatalities were incurred. A multi-method approach was adopted, in which the Critical Decision Method, Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and Accimap method were applied to examine the safety leadership decisions and actions which enabled the safe outcome...
March 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306388/effects-of-body-mapping-designed-clothing-on-heat-stress-and-running-performance-in-a-hot-environment
#2
Jiao Jiao, Yi Li, Lei Yao, Yajun Chen, Yueping Guo, Stephen H S Wong, Frency S F Ng, Junyan Hu
To investigate clothing-induced differences in human thermal response and running performance, eight male athletes participated in a repeated-measure study by wearing three sets of clothing (CloA, CloB, and CloC). CloA and CloB were body-mapping-designed with 11% and 7% increased capacity of heat dissipation respectively than CloC, the commonly used running clothing. The experiments were conducted by using steady-state running followed by an all-out performance running in a controlled hot environment. Participants' thermal responses such as core temperature (Tc), mean skin temperature [Formula: see text], heat storage (S), and the performance running time were measured...
March 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306384/the-dichotomy-of-the-application-of-a-systems-approach-in-uk-healthcare-the-challenges-and-priorities-for-implementation
#3
Laura Pickup, Alexandra Lang, Sarah Atkinson, Sarah Sharples
There is increasing demand for a systems approach within national healthcare guidelines to provide a systematic and sustainable framework for improvements in patient safety. Supported by this is the growing body of evidence within Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) healthcare literature for the inclusion of this approach in health service design, provision and evaluation. This paper considers the current interpretation of this within UK healthcare systems and the dichotomy which exists in the challenge to implement a systems approach...
March 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304226/integration-of-active-pauses-and-pattern-of-muscular-activity-during-computer-work
#4
Nancy St-Onge, Afshin Samani, Pascal Madeleine
Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest...
March 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303759/examining-social-facilitation-in-vigilance-a-hit-and-a-miss
#5
Victoria Lynne Claypoole, James L Szalma
Vigilance is the ability of an observer to maintain attention for extended periods of time; however, performance tends to decline with time on watch, a pattern referred to as the vigilance decrement. Previous research has focused on factors that attenuate the decrement; however, one factor rarely studied is the effect of social facilitation. The purpose for the present investigation was to determine how different types of social presence affected the performance, workload, and stress of vigilance. It was hypothesized that the presence of a supervisory figure would increase overall performance, but may occur at the cost of increased workload and stress...
March 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300480/impossible-decision-an-investigation-of-risk-trade-offs-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#6
Tom W Reader, Geetha Reddy, Stephen J Brett
In the intensive care unit (ICU), clinicians must often make risk trade-offs on patient care. For example, on deciding whether to discharge a patient before they have fully recovered in order to create a bed for another, sicker, patient. When misjudged, these decisions can negatively influence patient outcomes: yet it can be difficult, if not impossible, for clinicians to evaluate with certainty the safest course of action. Using a vignette-based interview methodology, a naturalistic decision-making approach was utilised to study this phenomena...
March 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271959/anthropometry-of-brazilian-air-force-pilots
#7
Gilvan V da Silva, Manny Halpern, Claire C Gordon
Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017...
March 14, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287041/noise-disturbance-in-open-plan-study-environments-a-field-study-on-noise-sources-student-tasks-and-room-acoustic-parameters
#8
Ella Braat-Eggen, Anne van Heijst, Maarten Hornikx, Armin Kohlrausch
The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters...
March 13, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271962/job-design-employment-practices-and-well-being-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#9
Kevin Daniels, Cigdem Gedikli, David Watson, Antonina Semkina, Oluwafunmilayo Vaughn
There is inconsistent evidence that deliberate attempts to improve job design realise improvements in well-being. We investigated the role of other employment practices, either as instruments for job redesign or as instruments that augment job redesign. Our primary outcome was well-being. Where studies also assessed performance, we considered performance as an outcome. We reviewed 33 intervention studies. We found that well-being and performance may be improved by: training workers to improve their own jobs; training coupled with job redesign; and system wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design and a range of other employment practices...
March 8, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271961/diagnostic-expertise-in-organisational-environments
#10
Ella-Mae Hubbard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271956/diagnosing-barriers-to-safety-and-efficiency-in-robotic-surgery
#11
Ken R Catchpole, Elyse Hallett, Sam Curtis, Tannaz Mirchi, Colby P Souders, Jennifer T Anger
Recent studies exploring the effects of surgical robots on teamwork are revealing challenges not reflected in clinical studies. This study is a sub analysis of observational data collected from 89 procedures utilising the da Vinci systems. Previous analyses had demonstrated interactions between flow disruptions and contextual factors. This study sought a more granular analysis to provide better insight for improvement. Raters sub-classified disruptions, based upon the original notes, grouped according to four operative phases (pre-robot; docking; surgeon on console; undocking; and finish)...
March 8, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277169/predicted-endurance-times-during-overhead-work-influences-of-duty-cycle-and-tool-mass-estimated-using-perceived-discomfort
#12
Deepti Sood, Maury A Nussbaum, Kris Hager, Helen C Nogueira
A need for overhead work remains in several industries and such work is an important risk factor for shoulder musculoskeletal problems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of duty cycle and tool mass on endurance times during overhead work. A psychophysical approach was used, via a new methodology that was implemented to more efficiently estimate endurance times (rather than through direct measurements). Participants performed a simulated overhead task in specified combinations of tool mass and duty cycle...
February 21, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277170/human-factors-in-automotive-engineering-and-technology
#13
Nikolaos Gkikas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277171/systems-scenarios-a-tool-for-facilitating-the-socio-technical-design-of-work-systems
#14
Helen P N Hughes, Chris W Clegg, Lucy E Bolton, Lauren C Machon
The socio-technical systems approach to design is well documented. Recognising the benefits of this approach, organisations are increasingly trying to work with systems, rather than their component parts. However, few tools attempt to analyse the complexity inherent in such systems, in ways that generate useful, practical outputs. In this paper, we outline the 'System Scenarios Tool' (SST), which is a novel, applied methodology that can be used by designers, end-users, consultants or researchers to help design or re-design work systems...
February 7, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051356/state-of-science-situation-awareness-in-individuals-teams-and-systems
#15
N A Stanton, P M Salmon, G H Walker, E Salas, P A Hancock
Our review addresses one of the most used, but debated, topics in Ergonomics: Situation Awareness (SA). We examine and elaborate upon key SA models. These models are divided into individual SA, team SA and systems SA categories. Despite, or perhaps because of, the debates surrounding SA it remains an enduring theme for research and practice in the domain of Ergonomics, now for over two decades. A contingent approach, which seeks to match different models of SA to different types of ergonomics problem, enables the differences between positions to be revealed and reconciled, and the practitioner guided towards optimum methodological solutions...
February 6, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042740/the-association-between-shift-work-and-treatment-seeking-migraine-in-denmark
#16
Gitte Sofie Jakobsen, Anne Matilde Timm, Åse Marie Hansen, Anne Helene Garde, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen
In Europe, the one-year prevalence of migraine is 14.9% and migraine is on the top-10 list of leading causes of years lost to disability. Sleep disturbances and irregular daily routines are considered triggers of migraine and these factors are well-known consequences of shift work. We studied the association between treatment-seeking migraine and shift work, categorised as fixed evening work, fixed night work and variable working hours with and without night work in a Danish working population of 5872 participants...
February 4, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092227/the-reliability-of-the-extra-load-index-as-a-measure-of-relative-load-carriage-economy
#17
Sean Hudson, Carlton Cooke, Ray Lloyd
The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h(-1), 6 km·h(-1) and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg...
February 1, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140793/quantification-of-baseline-pupillary-response-and-task-evoked-pupillary-response-during-constant-and-incremental-task-load
#18
Prithima R Mosaly, Lukasz M Mazur, Lawrence Marks
The methods employed to quantify the baseline pupil size and task evoked pupillary response (TEPR) may affect the overall study results. To test this hypothesis, the objective of this study was to assess variability in baseline pupil size and TEPR during two basic working memory tasks: constant load of 3-letters memorization-recall (10 trials), and incremental load memorization-recall (two trials of each load level), using two commonly used methods (1) change from trail/load specific baseline, (2) change from constant baseline...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112588/variation-at-work-alternations-between-physically-and-mentally-demanding-tasks-in-blue-collar-occupations
#19
Helena Jahncke, Staffan Hygge, Svend Erik Mathiassen, David Hallman, Susanna Mixter, Eugene Lyskov
The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092224/visual-map-and-instruction-based-bicycle-navigation-a-comparison-of-effects-on-behaviour
#20
Dick de Waard, Frank Westerhuis, Danielle Joling, Stella Weiland, Ronja Stadtbäumer, Leonie Kaltofen
Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
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