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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778757/an-optimal-sampling-approach-to-modelling-whole-body-vibration-exposure-in-all-terrain-vehicle-driving
#1
Xiaoshu Lü, Esa-Pekka Takala, Esko Toppila, Ykä Marjanen, Leena Kaila-Kangas, Tao Lu
Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and several safety standards obligate to measure WBV. The high cost of direct measurements in large epidemiological studies raises the question of the optimal sampling for estimating WBV exposures given by a large variation in exposure levels in real worksites. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. A daily exposure to WBV was recorded for 9-24 days among 48 all-terrain vehicle drivers. Four data-sets based on root mean squared recordings were obtained from the measurement...
December 1, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875943/increasing-surfboard-volume-reduces-energy-expenditure-during-paddling
#2
Vuk Ekmecic, Ning Jia, Thomas G Cleveland, Maya Saulino, Jeff A Nessler, George H Crocker, Sean C Newcomer
The purpose of this study was to investigate how altering surfboard volume (BV) affects energy expenditure during paddling. Twenty surfers paddled in a swim flume on five surfboards in random order twice. All surfboards varied only in thickness and ranged in BV from 28.4 to 37.4 L. Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), pitch angle, roll angle and paddling cadence were measured. VO2 and HR significantly decreased on thicker boards [VO2: r = -0.984, p = 0.003; HR: r = -0.972, p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841090/-gun-gun-gun-an-exploration-of-law-enforcement-officers-decision-making-and-coping-under-stress-during-actual-events
#3
Kevin R Harris, David W Eccles, Carlos Freeman, Paul Ward
Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event...
November 30, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875937/operator-adaptation-to-changes-in-system-reliability-under-adaptable-automation
#4
Alain Chavaillaz, Juergen Sauer
This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. 40 participants were trained for 3h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA...
November 23, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875925/the-application-of-subjective-job-task-analysis-techniques-in-physically-demanding-occupations-evidence-for-the-presence-of-self-serving-bias
#5
Benjamin Lee-Bates, Daniel C Billing, Peter Caputi, Greg L Carstairs, Denise Linnane, Kane Middleton
The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee' demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank, and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task...
November 23, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827567/accident-history-risk-perception-and-traffic-safe-behaviour
#6
Robert Ngueutsa, Dongo Rémi Kouabenan
This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents...
November 21, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801614/exploring-predictors-and-consequences-of-embitterment-in-the-workplace
#7
Evie Michailidis, Mark Cropley
Research on the feeling of embitterment at work is still in its infancy. The present study investigated the predictors and consequences of the feeling of embitterment at work. It was hypothesised that organisational injustice as well as over-controlling supervision would predict embitterment at work and that embitterment would be associated with work-related rumination. Three hundred and thirty-seven employees completed an online survey. Regression analysis revealed that procedural injustice and over-controlling supervision were significant predictors of embitterment and that embitterment contributed significantly to the prediction of increased affective rumination and reduction in detachment...
November 21, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780437/whole-body-vibration-exposure-patterns-in-canadian-prairie-farmers
#8
Xiaoke Zeng, Aaron M Kociolek, Muhammad Idrees Khan, Stephan Milosavljevic, Brenna Bath, Catherine Trask
Whole body vibration is a significant physical risk factor associated with low back pain. This study assessed farmers' exposure to whole body vibration on the Canadian prairies according to ISO 2631-1. Eighty-seven vibration measurements were collected with a triaxial accelerometer embedded in a rubber seat pad at the operator-seat interface of agricultural machinery, including tractors, combines, pickup trucks, grain trucks, sprayers, swathers, all-terrain vehicles, and skid steers. Whole body vibration was highest in the vertical axis, with a mean (range) frequency-weighted root mean squared acceleration of 0...
November 21, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780424/characterisation-of-the-human-seat-coupling-in-response-to-vibration
#9
Eunyeong Kim, Mohammad Fard, Kazuhito Kato
Characterising the coupling between the occupant and vehicle seat is necessary to understand the transmission of vehicle seat vibration to the human body. In this study, the vibration characteristics of the human body coupled with a vehicle seat were identified in frequencies up to 100 Hz. Transmissibilities of three volunteers seated on two different vehicle seats were measured under multi-axial random vibration excitation. The results revealed that the human-seat system vibration was dominated by the human body and foam below 10 Hz...
November 21, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854562/full-shift-and-task-specific-upper-extremity-muscle-activity-among-u-s-large-herd-dairy-parlor-workers
#10
David I Douphrate, Nathan B Fethke, Matthew W Nonnenmann, Anabel Rodriguez, Robert Hagevoort, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
U.S. large-herd dairy parlor workers experience a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare full-shift and task-specific muscle activity of the upper extremity among parlor workers. Surface EMG data was recorded continuously throughout a full work shift for each participant (n=60). For a subset of participants (n=33) muscular effort was estimated for milking task cycles. Lower muscle activity levels and higher percent muscular rest was observed among rotary parlor participants as compared to herringbone and parallel parlor participants for anterior deltoid, forearm flexor and forearm extensor muscles...
November 17, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822982/the-effect-of-firefighter-protective-garments-self-contained-breathing-apparatus-and-exertion-in-the-heat-on-postural-sway
#11
Scott C White, David Hostler
Fire suppression wearing thermal protective clothing (TPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) challenges a firefighter's balance and may explain firefighter falls. Postural control based on force plate center of pressure (COP) was compared for healthy subjects wearing TPC and SCBA before and after 20 minutes of heavy physical exertion in hot conditions. Baseline measures with and without TPC and SCBA (two different SCBA cylinder masses) were compared before and after exertion that included elements of fire suppression activities in an environmental chamber...
November 8, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809687/editorial-new-paradigms-in-ergonomics
#12
Neville A Stanton, Paul M Salmon, Guy H Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788619/the-effect-of-training-on-lumbar-spine-posture-and-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-active-duty-marines
#13
Ana E Rodriguez-Soto, David B Berry, Rebecca Jaworski, Andrew Jensen, Christine B Chung, Brenda Niederberger, Aziza Qadir, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Military training aims to improve load carriage performance and reduce risk of injuries. Data describing the lumbar spine (LS) postural response to load carriage throughout training are limited. We hypothesized that training would reduce the LS postural response to load. The LS posture of 27 Marines was measured from upright MR images: with and without load (22.6kg) at the beginning, middle and end of School of Infantry (SOI) training. Disc degeneration was graded at L5-S1. ANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to compare posture across training and by tasks, and disc health (α=0...
October 27, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781570/quantum-ergonomics-shifting-the-paradigm-of-the-systems-agenda
#14
Guy H Walker, Paul M Salmon, Melissa Bedinger, Neville A Stanton
A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance...
October 26, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778752/evaluation-of-quantitative-glare-technique-based-on-the-analysis-of-bio-signals
#15
Ho-Sang Lee, Jung-Yong Kim, Murali Subramaniyam, Sangho Park, Seung-Nam Min
This laboratory study evaluated the effect of glare source (Halogen, HID, and LED) and its illumination levels (0.7 lx, 2 lx and 5 lx) using a quantitative methodology. Pupil diameter and electroencephalography were measured using FaceLab and Biopac systems, respectively. The discomfort glare was assessed subjectively with Borg's CR-10 scale. Twenty healthy subjects participated. Pupil size was significantly affected by the headlamp type and illumination condition. Pupil size was smaller when exposed to the LED headlamp than other headlamps (Halogen > HID > LED)...
October 25, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764997/scan-posture-definition-and-hip-girth-measurement-the-impact-on-clothing-design-and-body-scanning
#16
Simeon Gill, Christopher J Parker
Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards...
October 20, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762172/the-effect-of-display-movement-angle-indicator-type-and-display-location-on-control-display-stereotype-strength
#17
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan
Much research on stereotype strength relating display and control movements for displays moving in the vertical or horizontal directions has been reported. Here we report effects of display movement angle, where the display moves at angles (relative to the vertical) of between 0 and 180 degrees. The experiment used six different controls, four display locations relative to the operator and three types of indicator. Indicator types were included because of the strong effects of the "scale-side principle" (Brebner and Sandow 1976a) that are variable with display angle...
October 20, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745528/the-physiological-effect-of-a-climb-assist-device-on-vertical-ladder-climbing
#18
Peter James Barron, Katherine Burgess, Kay Cooper, Arthur D Stewart
'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p < 0...
October 15, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633349/predicting-passenger-seat-comfort-and-discomfort-on-the-basis-of-human-context-and-seat-characteristics-a-literature-review
#19
Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Liesbeth Groenesteijn, Peter Vink, Lottie F M Kuijt-Evers
This literature review focused on passenger seat comfort and discomfort in a human-product-context interaction. The relationships between anthropometric variables (human level), activities (context level), seat characteristics (product level) and the perception of comfort and discomfort were studied through mediating variables, such as body posture, movement and interface pressure. It is concluded that there are correlations between anthropometric variables and interface pressure variables, and that this relationship is affected by body posture...
October 15, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684480/responsive-upper-limb-and-cognitive-fatigue-measures-during-light-precision-work-an-8-hour-simulated-micro-pipetting-study
#20
Marcus Yung, Richard P Wells
Many contemporary occupations are characterised by long periods of low loads. These lower force levels, which are relevant to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, are usually not the focus of fatigue studies. In studies that did measure fatigue in light manual or precision work, within and between measurement responses were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to identify fatigue measures that were responsive at lower force levels (<10% MVC) over the course of an 8-h period. A complementary set of fatigue measures, reflecting both neuromuscular and cognitive mechanisms, was measured during a light precision micro-pipetting task performed by 11 participants...
October 14, 2016: Ergonomics
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