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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155609/using-neural-networks-to-predict-hfacs-unsafe-acts-from-the-pre-conditions-of-unsafe-acts
#1
Don Harris, Wen-Chin Li
HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) is based upon Reason's (1990; 1997) organizational model of human error which suggests that there is a 'one to many' mapping of condition tokens (HFACS level 2 psychological precursors) to unsafe act tokens (HFACS level 1 error and violations). Using accident data derived from 523 military aircraft accidents, the relationship between HFACS level 2 pre-conditions and level 1 unsafe acts was modelled using an artificial Neural Network (NN). This allowed an empirical model to be developed congruent with the underlying theory of HFACS...
November 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086628/the-relationships-between-hand-coupling-force-and-vibration-biodynamic-responses-of-the-hand-arm-system
#2
Daniel Pan, Xueyan S Xu, Daniel E Welcome, Thomas W McDowell, Christopher Warren, John Wu, Ren G Dong
This study conducted two series of experiments to investigate the relationships between hand coupling force and biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system. In the first experiment, the vibration transmissibility on the system was measured as a continuous function of grip force while the hand was subjected to discrete sinusoidal excitations. In the second experiment, the biodynamic responses of the system subjected to a broadband random vibration were measured under five levels of grip forces and a combination of grip and push forces...
November 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134874/perceptions-of-performance-and-satisfaction-after-relocation-to-an-activity-based-office
#3
Linda Rolfö, Jörgen Eklund, Helena Jahncke
Many companies move from open-plan offices (OPO) to activity-based workplaces (ABWs). However, few studies examine the benefits and drawbacks following such a change. The aim of this study was to explore how physical conditions, office use, communication, privacy, territoriality, satisfaction and perceived performance change following a company's relocation from an OPO to an ABW. A mixed methods approach included pre- and post-relocation questionnaires and post-relocation focus groups, individual interviews and observations...
November 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137548/exploring-organisational-competences-in-human-factors-and-ux-project-work-managing-careers-project-tactics-and-organisational-strategy
#4
Dominic Furniss, Paul Curzon, Ann Blandford
Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences...
November 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137547/developing-a-framework-of-behaviours-before-suicides-at-railway-locations
#5
Brendan Ryan
Better knowledge of behaviours of people at railway property could help with identifying those at risk of suicide. Literature has been reviewed from a range of disciplines on what is known about studying behaviour in this type of public location. Secondary analysis has been carried out on descriptions of behaviour from structured exercises with experts and other pre-existing sources. A framework has been produced with five main classes (display of emotion, appearance, posture/movements, activities and interactions) and associated sub-classes...
November 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134876/effects-of-accessible-website-design-on-nondisabled-users-age-and-device-as-moderating-factors
#6
Sven Schmutz, Andreas Sonderegger, Juergen Sauer
This study examined how implementing recommendations from Web accessibility guidelines affects nondisabled people in different age groups using different technical devices. While recent research showed positive effects of implementing such recommendations for nondisabled users, it remains unclear whether such effects would apply to different age groups and kind of devices. A 2x2x2 design was employed with website accessibility (high accessibility vs. very low accessibility), age (younger adults vs. older adults) and type of device (laptop vs...
November 14, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125389/training-for-vigilance-on-the-move-a-video-game-based-paradigm-for-sustained-attention
#7
J L Szalma, T N Daly, G W L Teo, G M Hancock, P A Hancock
The capacity for superior vigilance can be trained by using knowledge of results (KR). Ourpresent experiments demonstrate the efficacy of such training using a first-person perspective movement videogame-based platform in samples ofstudents and Soldiers.Effectiveness was assessedby manipulating KR during a training phase and withdrawing it in a subsequent transfer phase. Relative to a no KR control condition, KR systematically improved performance for both Soldiers and students. These results build upon our previous findings that demonstrated that a video game-based platform can be used to create a movement-centered sustained attention task with important elements of traditional vigilance...
November 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115188/sit-stand-workstations-and-impact-on-low-back-discomfort-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Shuchi Agarwal, Craig Steinmaus, Carisa Harris-Adamson
BACKGROUND: Sit-stand workstations are proposed solutions to reduce sedentary time at work. Numerous companies are using them to mitigate health concerns such as musculoskeletal discomfort. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on sit-stand workstations and low back discomfort. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis on literature published before November 17, 2016 that addressed the relationship between sit-stand workstations and musculoskeletal discomfort, focusing on the low back...
November 8, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103354/mobile-technology-dominates-school-children-s-it-use-in-an-advantaged-school-community-and-is-associated-with-musculoskeletal-and-vision-symptoms
#9
Leon Straker, Courtenay Harris, John Joosten, Erin K Howie
This paper describes contemporary use of information technology devices by children in a socio-educationally advantaged school. A sample of 924 children (50% girls) from grades 5 to 12 (ages 10 to 19 years) completed an online survey in class. Total daily technology use was high and similar for girls and boys (mean 219(SD 148) mins/day; boys 207(142); t=-1.32; p=.186). Tablet computer was the dominant device used in grades 5 to 9, with laptop computer the dominant device in grades 10 to 12. Patterns of exposure were influenced by gender, device, grade and purpose of use interactions...
November 6, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103342/glasses-type-wearable-computer-displays-usability-considerations-examined-with-a-3d-glasses-case-study
#10
Joonho Chang, Seung Ki Moon, Kihyo Jung, Wonmo Kim, Matthew Parkinson, Andris Freivalds, Timothy W Simpson, Seon Pill Baik
This study presents usabilityconsiderations and solutions for the design of glasses-type wearable computer displays and examines their effectiveness in a case study.Design countermeasures were investigated by a four-step design process: (1) preliminary design analysis;(2) design idea generation; (3) final design selection; and (4) virtual fitting trial.Three design interventionswere devised from the design process: (1) weight balance to reduce pressure concentrated on the nose, (2) compliant temples to accommodate diverse head sizes, and (3) a hanger mechanism to help spectacle users hang theirwearable display on their eye glasses...
November 6, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099336/an-integrated-measure-of-display-clutter-based-on-feature-content-user-knowledge-and-attention-allocation-factors
#11
Carl Pankok, David B Kaber
Existing measures of display clutter in the literature generally exhibit weak correlations with task performance, which limits their utility in safety-critical domains. A literature review led to formulation of an integrated display data- and user knowledge-driven measure of display clutter. A driving simulation experiment was conducted in which participants were asked to search 'high' and 'low' clutter displays for navigation information. Data-driven measures and subjective perceptions of clutter were collected along with patterns of visual attention allocation and driving performance responses during time periods in which participants searched the navigation display for information...
November 3, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092687/behavioural-modification-framework-to-address-wastage-in-household-electricity-consumption
#12
Stephanie K A Cheah, Paul H P Yeow, Sumesh R Nair, Felix B Tan
Household electricity wastage poses a sustainability issue. Ergonomic interventions that prevent wastagethrough technological innovations are expensive and complex,making consumers unwilling to adopt them.The study aimed to investigate the motivations and impediments in avoiding electricity wastage. Thirteen Repertory Grid interviews were conducted on household electricity users relating to the behaviour of those living with them.The key motivational themes found were altruistic and egoistic reasons while the impediments were perceived behavioural control, hedonism and self-efficacy...
November 2, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076757/state-of-science-ergonomics-and-global-issues
#13
Andrew Thatcher, Patrick Waterson, Andrew Todd, Neville Moray
In his 1993 IEA keynote address Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world...
October 27, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065793/the-three-dimensional-shape-of-underground-coal-miner-s-feet-do-not-match-the-internal-dimensions-of-their-work-boots
#14
Jessica A Dobson, Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Alison F Bell, Julie R Steele
Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supportingminers' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, theyfrequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their feet and their boots. This study aimed toidentify whether dimensions derived from the three-dimensional scans of 208 underground coal miner's feet (age 38.3 ± 9.8 years)differed from the internal dimensions of their work boots...
October 25, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054132/measuring-mental-workload-ocular-astigmatism-aberration-as-a-novel-objective-index
#15
Raimundo Jiménez, David Cárdenas, Rosario G Anera, José R Jiménez, Jesús Vera
This study assessed the effect of two perceptually matched mental tasks with different levels of mental demand on ocular aberrations in a group of young adults. We measured ocular aberration with a wave-front sensor, and total, internal, and corneal RMS (root mean square) aberrations were calculated from Zernike coefficients, considering natural and scaled pupils (5, 4.5, and 4 mm). We found that total, internal, and corneal astigmatism RMS showed significant differences between mental tasks with natural pupils (p<...
October 20, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027875/human-factors-challenges-in-emergency-management-enhancing-individual-and-team-performance-in-fire-and-emergency-services
#16
Karen King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019443/complexity-and-the-human-experience-modelling-complexity-in-the-humanities-and-social-sciences
#17
Ella-Mae Hubbard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960142/health-and-social-care-ergonomics-patient-safety-in-practice
#18
Sue Hignett, Sara Albolino, Ken Catchpole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965479/effects-of-the-weight-configuration-of-hand-load-on-trunk-musculature-during-static-weight-holding
#19
Saman Madinei, Xiaopeng Ning
The performance of manual material handling tasks is one major cause of lower back injuries. In the current study, we investigated the influence of the weight configuration of hand loads on trunk muscle activities and the associated spinal stability. Thirteen volunteers each performed static weight holding tasks using two different 9 kg weight bars (with medial and lateral weight configurations) at two levels of heights (low and high) and one fixed horizontal distance (which resulted in constant spinal joint moment across conditions)...
October 2, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962544/characterization-of-regional-skin-temperatures-in-recreational-surfers-wearing-a-2mm-wetsuit
#20
Luis J Corona, Grant H Simmons, Jeff A Nessler, Sean C Newcomer
The purpose of this study was to investigate skin temperatures across surfers' bodies while wearing a wetsuit during recreational surfing. Forty-six male recreational surfers participated in this study. Participants were instrumented with eight wireless iButton thermal sensors for the measurement of skin temperature, a Polar RCX5 heart rate monitor, and a 2mm full wetsuit. Following instrumentation, participants were instructed to engage in recreational surfing activities as normal. Significant differences (p<0...
September 29, 2017: Ergonomics
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