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Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051356/state-of-science-situation-awareness-in-individuals-teams-and-systems
#1
N A Stanton, P M Salmon, G H Walker, E Salas, P A Hancock
Our review addresses one of the most used, but debated, topics in Ergonomics: Situation Awareness (SA). We examine and elaborate upon key SA models. These models are divided into individual SA, team SA and systems SA categories. Despite, or perhaps because of, the debates surrounding SA it remains an enduring theme for research and practice in the domain of Ergonomics, now for over two decades. A contingent approach, which seeks to match different models of SA to different types of ergonomics problem, enables the differences between positions to be revealed and reconciled, and the practitioner guided towards optimum methodological solutions...
February 6, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092227/the-reliability-of-the-extra-load-index-as-a-measure-of-relative-load-carriage-economy
#2
Sean Hudson, Carlton Cooke, Ray Lloyd
The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h(-1), 6 km·h(-1) and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg...
February 1, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140793/quantification-of-baseline-pupillary-response-and-task-evoked-pupillary-response-during-constant-and-incremental-task-load
#3
Prithima R Mosaly, Lukasz M Mazur, Lawrence Marks
The methods employed to quantify the baseline pupil size and task evoked pupillary response (TEPR) may affect the overall study results. To test this hypothesis, the objective of this study was to assess variability in baseline pupil size and TEPR during two basic working memory tasks: constant load of 3-letters memorization-recall (10 trials), and incremental load memorization-recall (two trials of each load level), using two commonly used methods (1) change from trail/load specific baseline, (2) change from constant baseline...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112588/variation-at-work-alternations-between-physically-and-mentally-demanding-tasks-in-blue-collar-occupations
#4
Helena Jahncke, Staffan Hygge, Svend Erik Mathiassen, David Hallman, Susanna Mixter, Eugene Lyskov
The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135963/procedure-and-information-displays-in-advanced-nuclear-control-rooms-experimental-evaluation-of-an-integrated-design
#5
Yue Chen, Qin Gao, Fei Song, Zhizhong Li, Yufan Wang
In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records...
January 30, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112587/the-effects-of-gender-flow-and-video-game-experience-on-combat-identification-training
#6
John Paul Plummer, David Schuster, Joseph R Keebler
The present study examined the effects of gender, video game experience (VGE), and flow state on multiple indices of combat identification (CID) performance. Individuals were trained on six combat vehicles in a simulation, presented through either a stereoscopic or non-stereoscopic display. Participants then reported flow state, VGE and were tested on their ability to discriminate friend vs. foe and identify both pictures and videos of the trained vehicles. The effect of stereoscopy was not significant. There was an effect of gender across three dependent measures...
January 23, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102775/response-to-letter-by-spector-and-lieblich
#7
Alfredo Patrizi, Ettore Pennestrì, Pier Paolo Valentini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092224/visual-map-and-instruction-based-bicycle-navigation-a-comparison-of-effects-on-behaviour
#8
Dick de Waard, Frank Westerhuis, Danielle Joling, Stella Weiland, Ronja Stadtbäumer, Leonie Kaltofen
Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation...
January 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064733/a-work-systems-analysis-approach-to-understanding-fatigue-in-hospital-nurses
#9
Linsey M Steege, Kalyan S Pasupathy, Diane A Drake
Occupational fatigue is an important challenge in improving health and safety in healthcare systems. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey sample comprised of 340 hospital nurses was conducted to explore the relationships between components of the nursing work system (person, tasks, tools and technology, environment, organization) and nurse fatigue and recovery levels. All components of the work system were significantly associated with changes in fatigue and recovery. Results of a tree-based classification method indicated significant interactions between multiple work system components and fatigue and recovery...
January 9, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042740/the-association-between-shift-work-and-treatment-seeking-migraine-in-denmark
#10
Gitte Sofie Jakobsen, Anne Matilde Timm, Åse Marie Hansen, Anne Helene Garde, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen
In Europe, the one-year prevalence of migraine is 14.9% and migraine is on the top-ten list of leading causes of years lost to disability. Sleep disturbances and irregular daily routines are considered triggers of migraine and these factors are well-known consequences of shift work. We studied the association between treatment-seeking migraine and shift work, categorised as fixed evening work, fixed night work and variable working hours with and without night work in a Danish working population of 5,872 participants...
January 2, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027697/ergonomics-at-60-mature-thriving-and-still-leading-the-way
#11
Roger Haslam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915585/the-impact-of-office-chair-features-on-lumbar-lordosis-intervertebral-joint-and-sacral-tilt-angles-a-radiographic-assessment
#12
Diana De Carvalho, Diane Grondin, Jack Callaghan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine which office chair feature is better at improving spine posture in sitting. METHOD: Participants (n = 28) were radiographed in standing, maximum flexion and seated in four chair conditions: control, lumbar support, seat pan tilt and backrest with scapular relief. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral joint angles and sacral tilt were compared between conditions and sex. RESULTS: Sitting consisted of approximately 70% of maximum range of spine flexion...
December 23, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854562/full-shift-and-task-specific-upper-extremity-muscle-activity-among-us-large-herd-dairy-parlour-workers
#13
David I Douphrate, Nathan B Fethke, Matthew W Nonnenmann, Anabel Rodriguez, Robert Hagevoort, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
US large-herd dairy parlour workers experience a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare full-shift and task-specific muscle activity of the upper extremity among parlour workers. Surface electromyography data were recorded continuously throughout a full work shift for each participant (n = 60). For a subset of participants (n = 33), muscular effort was estimated for milking task cycles. Lower muscle activity levels and higher per cent muscular rest was observed among rotary parlour participants as compared to herringbone and parallel parlour participants for anterior deltoid, forearm flexor and forearm extensor muscles...
December 23, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875925/the-application-of-subjective-job-task-analysis-techniques-in-physically-demanding-occupations-evidence-for-the-presence-of-self-serving-bias
#14
Benjamin Lee-Bates, Daniel C Billing, Peter Caputi, Greg L Carstairs, Denise Linnane, Kane Middleton
The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task...
December 9, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778757/an-optimal-sampling-approach-to-modelling-whole-body-vibration-exposure-in-all-terrain-vehicle-driving
#15
Xiaoshu Lü, Esa-Pekka Takala, Esko Toppila, Ykä Marjanen, Leena Kaila-Kangas, Tao Lu
Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and several safety standards obligate to measure WBV. The high cost of direct measurements in large epidemiological studies raises the question of the optimal sampling for estimating WBV exposures given by a large variation in exposure levels in real worksites. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. A daily exposure to WBV was recorded for 9-24 days among 48 all-terrain vehicle drivers. Four data-sets based on root mean squared recordings were obtained from the measurement...
December 1, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875943/increasing-surfboard-volume-reduces-energy-expenditure-during-paddling
#16
Vuk Ekmecic, Ning Jia, Thomas G Cleveland, Maya Saulino, Jeff A Nessler, George H Crocker, Sean C Newcomer
The purpose of this study was to investigate how altering surfboard volume (BV) affects energy expenditure during paddling. Twenty surfers paddled in a swim flume on five surfboards in random order twice. All surfboards varied only in thickness and ranged in BV from 28.4 to 37.4 L. Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), pitch angle, roll angle and paddling cadence were measured. VO2 and HR significantly decreased on thicker boards [VO2: r = -0.984, p = 0.003; HR: r = -0.972, p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841090/-gun-gun-gun-an-exploration-of-law-enforcement-officers-decision-making-and-coping-under-stress-during-actual-events
#17
Kevin R Harris, David W Eccles, Carlos Freeman, Paul Ward
Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event...
November 30, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119569/biomechanical-and-organisational-stressors-and-associations-with-employment-withdrawal-among-pregnant-workers-evidence-and-implications
#18
Sylvia Guendelman, Alison Gemmill, Leslie A MacDonald
The distribution of exposure to biomechanical and organisational job stressors (BOJS) and associations with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave, unemployment) was examined in a case-control study of 1114 pregnant workers in California. We performed descriptive and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses. At pregnancy onset, 57% were exposed to one or more biomechanical stressors, including frequent bending, heavy lifting and prolonged standing. One-third were simultaneously exposed to BOJS...
December 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115867/a-comparison-of-the-burden-and-resultant-risk-associated-with-occupational-falls-from-a-height-and-on-the-same-level-in-australia
#19
Jean Mangharam, Rachael Moorin, Leon Straker
Occupational falls are one of the leading causes of occupational injury and death internationally. This study described the nature of occupational falls following an analysis of workers compensation data in Western Australia. Frequencies, proportions and incidence rates were calculated following mechanism, gender, age and industry stratification. The natures of injury and bodily locations affected were compared between mechanisms of fall. Industry incidence rates were ranked and their corresponding proportions reported...
December 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110964/multi-modal-demands-of-a-smartphone-used-to-place-calls-and-enter-addresses-during-highway-driving-relative-to-two-embedded-systems
#20
Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Ian Reagan, David Kidd, Jonathan Dobres
There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone...
December 2016: Ergonomics
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