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British Journal of Sociology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817189/from-preparedness-to-risk-from-the-singular-risk-of-nuclear-war-to-the-plurality-of-all-hazards
#1
Joe Deville, Michael Guggenheim
Debates on risk have largely assumed risk to be the outcome of calculative practices. There is a related assumption that risk objects come only in one form, and that the reason not everything can be transformed into a risk is because of the difficulties in calculating and creating universal quantitative comparisons. In this article, building on recent studies of preparedness that have broadened understandings of risk, we provide an analysis of how preparedness measures might themselves produce risk, in particular through risk's durable instantiation, or what we call 'concretization'...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817178/re-making-the-global-economy-of-knowledge-do-new-fields-of-research-change-the-structure-of-north-south-relations
#2
Raewyn Connell, Rebecca Pearse, Fran Collyer, João Maia, Robert Morrell
How is global-North predominance in the making of organized knowledge affected by the rise of new domains of research? This question is examined empirically in three interdisciplinary areas - climate change, HIV-AIDS, and gender studies - through interviews with 70 researchers in Southern-tier countries Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The study found that the centrality of the North was reinstituted as these domains came into existence, through resource inequalities, workforce mechanisms, and intellectual framing...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817176/the-intersection-of-class-origin-and-immigration-background-in-structuring-social-capital-the-role-of-transnational-ties
#3
Anton Andersson, Christofer Edling, Jens Rydgren
The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816362/social-space-and-cultural-class-divisions-the-forms-of-capital-and-contemporary-lifestyle-differentiation
#4
Magne Flemmen, Vegard Jarness, Lennart Rosenlund
In this article, we address whether and how contemporary social classes are marked by distinct lifestyles. We assess the model of the social space, a novel approach to class analysis pioneered by Bourdieu's Distinction. Although pivotal in Bourdieu's work, this model is too often overlooked in later research, making its contemporary relevance difficult to assess. We redress this by using the social space as a framework through which to study the cultural manifestation of class divisions in lifestyle differences in contemporary Norwegian society...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805946/racial-entanglements-and-sociological-confusions-repudiating-the-rehabilitation-of-integration
#5
Sivamohan Valluvan
In line with the broader nationalist advances currently remaking the Western political landscape, the concept of integration has witnessed a marked rehabilitation. Whilst many influential critiques of the sociology of integration are already available, this article contests the concept's renewed purchase through addressing its own internal incoherence. Based on research in Stockholm, this critique concerns the relationship between ethnic identity and cultural integration. It will be argued that integration and the production of difference are intertwined, entangled dualities, and far from being a benign entanglement, this duality is premised on the force and reach of everyday civic racisms...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802052/tax-policy-and-tax-protest-in-20-rich-democracies-1980-2010
#6
Isaac William Martin, Nadav Gabay
Why are some policies protested more than others? New data on protest against eight categories of taxation in twenty rich democracies from 1980 to 2010 reveal that economically and socially concentrated taxes are protested most, whereas taxes that confer entitlement to benefits are protested least. Other features of policy design often thought to affect the salience or visibility of costs are unimportant for explaining the frequency of protest. These findings overturn a folk theory that political sociology has inherited from classical political economy; clarify the conditions under which policy threats provoke protest; and shed light on how welfare states persist...
August 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783230/the-madoffization-of-irish-society-from-ponzi-finance-to-sociological-critique
#7
Lee F Monaghan, Micheal O'Flynn
Financialization and neoliberal policy created the Celtic Tiger. This economic 'miracle' furthered creditors' and property developers' speculative interests, leading to an unstable financial pyramid that eventually imploded in 2008 with catastrophic consequences for Irish society. Using the sociological imagination as social critique, this paper offers a lens on fictitious capital and Ponzi finance in the context of Ireland's boom and bust. Critique is advanced using the Madoffization of society thesis, a sociological heuristic that draws formal comparisons between Bernie Madoff's US$65 billion Ponzi scheme, which collapsed in 2008, and financialized capitalism...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783229/breaking-the-taboo-a-history-of-monetary-financing-in-canada-1930-1975
#8
Josh Ryan-Collins
Monetary financing - the funding of state expenditure via the creation of new money rather than through taxation or borrowing - has become a taboo policy instrument in advanced economies. It is generally associated with dangerously high inflation and/or war. Relatedly, a key institutional feature of modern independent central banks is that they are not obligated to support government expenditure via money creation. Since the financial crisis of 2007-2008, however, unorthodox monetary policies, in particular quantitative easing, coupled with stagnant growth and high levels of public and private debt have led to questions over the monetary financing taboo...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783219/childcare-by-grandparents-in-married-and-cohabiting-couples-evidence-from-italy
#9
Silvia Meggiolaro
The process of union formation and the context of childrearing have profoundly changed with the spread of cohabitation in the last few decades. It is only recently that some attention has been paid to the implications of these changes for family ties. This study considers, with reference to Italy, a specific relationship between individuals in couples and their family of origin - childcare by grandparents. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, we investigate whether children of cohabiting couples are cared for by their grandparents to a lower extent compared to children of married couples...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742950/becoming-independent-political-participation-and-youth-transitions-in-the-scottish-referendum
#10
Maddie Breeze, Hugo Gorringe, Lynn Jamieson, Michael Rosie
Sociological debates on youth engagement with electoral politics play out against a backdrop of supposed 'decline' in civic participation (e.g. Putnam , Norris, ), in turn contextualized by theories of individualization in 'late' or 'reflexive' modernity (Beck, Giddens). However, the enfranchisement of 16 and 17 year olds in the 2014 Scottish Independence Referendum catalysed remarkably high levels of voter turnout among this youngest group, and was accompanied by apparently ongoing political engagement. We explored this engagement among a strategic sample of young 'Yes' voters, in the immediate aftermath of this exceptional political event...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742276/heteronomy-in-the-arts-field-state-funding-and-british-arts-organizations
#11
Victoria D Alexander
For Bourdieu, the field of cultural production is comprised of an autonomous and a heteronomous sector. A heteronomous sector is one that is interpenetrated by the commercial field. I discuss an arena that, until recently, was part of the relatively autonomous sector in the field of cultural production - the supported arts sector in the United Kingdom - and argue that it became more heteronomous, due to the penetration by the state. Heteronomy due to the commercial field is present but secondary to, and driven by, the actions of the state...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718880/-i-just-don-t-want-to-connect-my-life-with-this-occupation-working-class-young-men-manual-labour-and-social-mobility-in-contemporary-russia
#12
Charlie Walker
A key strand in the Western literature on working-class masculinities focuses on whether young men are capable of the feminized performances apparently required of them in new service economies. However, the wider literature on processes of neoliberalization - emphasizing the 'hollowing out' of labour markets, the cultural devaluation of lower-skilled forms of employment, and the pathologization of working-class lives - would suggest that it is as much a classed as a gendered transformation that is demanded of young men leaving school with few qualifications...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718874/everyday-territories-homelessness-outreach-work-and-city-space
#13
Robin James Smith, Tom Hall
This article develops a situational approach to understanding urban public life and, in particular, the production of urban territories. Our aim is to examine the ways in which city space might be understood as comprising multiple, shifting, mobile and rhythmed territories. We argue that such territories are best understood through attending to their everyday production and negotiation, rather than handling territory as an a priori construct. We develop this argument from the particular case of the street-level politics of homelessness and street care...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700078/are-postgraduate-qualifications-the-new-frontier-of-social-mobility
#14
Paul Wakeling, Daniel Laurison
We investigate the relationship between social origin, postgraduate degree attainment, and occupational outcomes across five British age-group cohorts. We use recently-available UK Labour Force Survey data to conduct a series of logistic regressions of postgraduate (masters or doctorate) degree attainment among those with first degrees, with controls for measures of degree classification, degree subject, age, gender, ethnicity and national origin. We find a marked strengthening of the effect of class origin on degree- and occupational attainment across age cohorts...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700077/belonging-across-the-lifetime-time-and-self-in-mass-observation-accounts
#15
Vanessa May
Our sense of belonging rarely stands still, yet the research literature has hitherto paid little attention to the temporal nature of belonging. Based on an analysis of 62 Mass Observation Project (MOP) accounts written by people living in the UK aged from their 20s to their 90s, this paper argues that as people age, how they locate belonging in time shifts. This has to do with changing concerns related to belonging, but also to metaphysical issues of temporality and mortality, namely how people experience their own finite lifetime...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700076/why-have-relative-rates-of-class-mobility-become-more-equal-among-women-in-britain
#16
Erzsébet Bukodi, John H Goldthorpe, Heather Joshi, Lorraine Waller
In a previous paper it has been shown that across three cohorts of men and women born in Britain in 1946, 1958 and 1970 a gender difference exists in regard to relative rates of class mobility. For men these rates display an essential stability but for women they become more equal. The aim of the present paper is to shed light on the causes of this trend-or, that is, of increasing social fluidity-among women. We begin by considering a refined version of the perverse fluidity hypothesis: that is, one that proposes that part-time work leads to increasing downward worklife mobility among women that also entails downward intergenerational mobility and thus promotes greater fluidity...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688168/-hidden-identities-perceptions-of-sexual-identity-in-beijing
#17
Toby Miles-Johnson, Yurong Wang
This article draws upon responses given by volunteers who work in the Beijing LGBT Centre regarding perceptions of sexual identity, and how Chinese culture affects hidden or open sexual identities of Chinese lesbian and gay people in this region. The insights gained from those working carefully to create social change offers an important and original contribution to the field of gay and lesbian studies in China. The findings indicate the volunteers at the Beijing LGBT Centre are frustrated by the lack of acceptance of non-heterosexual relationships among Chinese culture and society, and by the disregard of lesbian gay and bisexual (LGB) people by the Chinese government...
July 8, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609543/reframing-sociologies-of-ethnicity-and-migration-in-encounters-with-chinese-london
#18
Caroline Knowles
In this paper I argue that the intersecting sociologies of ethnicity and migration work from a series of interconnected blind spots hindering effective analysis of the current UK situation. Both operate analytically within the limitations of an 'immigrant problem' framework; are overinvested in state agendas; privilege a nation state analysis; are narrowly focused on distributions of migrant bodies, and on receiving, at the expense of sending, contexts. Exploring these limitations with data derived from a modest small-scale qualitative study of young Chinese migrants in London, I argue for a reframing along four dimensions...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591428/does-disestablishment-lead-to-religious-vitality-the-case-of-switzerland
#19
Jörg Stolz, Mark Chaves
Economists and sociologists of religion have claimed that religious establishment dampens religious vitality, leading to lower recruitment efforts, low attendance, declining membership within established congregations, and the 'crowding out' of non-established congregations. Conversely, these authors have told us, disestablishment will lead to more religious vitality. Remarkably, even though these claims rest on the connection between establishment and the organizational and membership behaviour of local religious congregations, no research has directly examined that connection...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556919/ethical-living-relinking-ethics-and-consumption-through-care-in-chile-and-brazil
#20
Tomas Ariztia, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi
Mainstream conceptualizations of 'ethical consumption' equate the notion with conscious, individual, market-mediated choices motivated by ethical or political aims that transcend ordinary concerns. Drawing on recent sociology and anthropology of consumption literature on the links between ordinary ethics and ethical consumption, this article discusses some of the limitations of this conceptualization. Using data from 32 focus groups conducted in Chile and Brazil, we propose a conceptualization of ethical consumption that does not centre on individual, market-mediated choices but understands it at the level of practical outcomes, which we refer to as different forms of 'ethical living'...
May 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
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