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British Journal of Sociology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441524/the-economy-of-smiles-affect-labour-and-the-contemporary-deserving-poor
#1
Jessica Gerrard
This paper examines the affective dimensions of new forms of informal entrepreneurial work carried out in spaces of unemployment. Situating the analysis within contemporary scholarship on deservingness and on affect and labour, I shed light on the forms of entrepreneurial labour that rely upon affect-driven economies of exchange underpinned by moral judgements of deservingness, value and worth. In particular, this paper draws on a multi-city (Melbourne, London, San Francisco) study of homeless street press sellers (The Big Issue and Street Sheet) to explore the ways in which contemporary practices of charity and care are carried out through individualized market-place exchanges...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392711/the-collective-roots-and-rewards-of-upward-educational-mobility
#2
Shirin Shahrokni
Drawing on in-depth interviews with descendants of North African working-class immigrants admitted to elite higher institutions in France, this paper investigates the under-researched role of family dynamics in facilitating upward educational mobility and informing the experience of social ascension. It shows that concrete mobility strategies, such as authoritative parenting and close mentorship from older siblings have been deployed to enable the respondents' educational attainment. Moreover, a set of moral resources transmitted through stories about family-rooted aspirations and stories about post-migration hardships and sacrifices have contributed to forging strong motivational dispositions that have facilitated school success among the respondents...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363115/do-terrorist-attacks-affect-ethnic-discrimination-in-the-labour-market-evidence-from-two-randomized-field-experiments
#3
Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund, Tak Wing Chan, Elisabeth Ugreninov, Arnfinn H Midtbøen, Jon Rogstad
Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322493/the-struggle-for-via-bologna-street-market-crisis-racial-denial-and-speaking-back-to-power-in-naples-italy
#4
Antonia Dawes
This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted with migrant and Italian street vendors in Naples, southern Italy, in 2012. It tells the story of Via Bologna market which was nearly closed down by the City Hall at the time. Naples is a city where issues of poverty and unemployment pre-date and have been exacerbated by manifold narratives of crisis now unfolding across Europe regarding the economy, political legitimacy, security and migration. Street markets have always been an important and visible economic survival strategy for both Neapolitans and migrants there...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285757/agency-in-advanced-liberal-services-grounding-sociological-knowledge-in-homeless-people-s-accounts
#5
Cameron Parsell, Andrew Clarke
This paper aims to understand how people who are homeless respond to advanced liberal social services that endeavour to promote their autonomy and responsible actions. We prioritize the experiences and positions of people who are homeless, and what agentic action means to them. Sociological literature is selective about what accounts are deemed agentic. Agency is associated with accounts that resist or subvert dominant neoliberal framings of homelessness as failure of individuals. When people experiencing homelessness or poverty themselves foreground autonomy or responsibility, sociologists treat them as cultural dopes who have internalized neoliberal discourse...
December 29, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277976/a-struggle-on-two-fronts-boundary-drawing-in-the-lower-region-of-the-social-space-and-the-symbolic-market-for-down-to-earthness
#6
Vegard Jarness, Magne Paalgard Flemmen
In this article we use qualitative interviews to examine how Norwegians possessing low volumes of cultural and economic capital demarcate themselves symbolically from the lifestyles of those above and below them in social space. In downward boundary drawing, a range of types of people are regarded as inferior because of perceived moral and aesthetic deficiencies. In upward boundary drawing, anti-elitist sentiments are strong: people practising resource-demanding lifestyles are viewed as harbouring 'snobbish' and 'elitist' attitudes...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271472/the-diversification-of-inequality
#7
Malcolm Brynin, Simonetta Longhi, Wouter Zwysen
We examine intersectionality on the basis of increasingly complex interactions between gender and ethnic groups, which we argue derive from the growing diversity of these groups. While we critique the concept of superdiversity, we suggest that increased diversity leads to a 'diversification of inequality'. This is characterised by an increasing incidence of inequality through the growth in migration and of the size and variety of ethnic minorities, and by a weakening of specific inequalities. We demonstrate this using the Labour Force Survey and conclude that there is a clear diversification of inequality but also that ethnicity is a more potent source of inequality than gender...
December 22, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265355/an-investigation-of-social-class-inequalities-in-general-cognitive-ability-in-two-british-birth-cohorts
#8
Roxanne Connelly, Vernon Gayle
The 'Flynn effect' describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology's standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive ability test scores over time...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265346/talking-about-time-temporality-and-motivation-for-international-christian-humanitarian-actors-in-south-sudan
#9
Amy Kaler, John R Parkins
We investigate ways in which international evangelical Christian humanitarians talk about time as they engaged in humanitarian assistance and development work in South Sudan. Our focus on Christian development work is motivated by a desire to understand how and why people persevere in humanitarian work and reconcile seemingly impossible circumstances and to further elaborate sociological conceptions of time as experienced by people in their own lives. We argue that their faith commitments produce ways of understanding time and causality which make possible their attachment to risky and dangerous work...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265339/science-or-liberal-arts-cultural-capital-and-college-major-choice-in-china
#10
Anning Hu, Xiaogang Wu
Previous studies on major East Asian societies such as Japan and Korea generally fail to find a strong effect of cultural capital in educational inequality, partly due to the characteristic extreme focus on standardized test and curriculum. This study shifts attention to the horizontal stratification of education by investigating the association between family background, cultural capital, and college major choice in contemporary China. Based on analysis of data from the Beijing College Students Panel Survey (BCSPS), we found that, on average, cultural capital significantly mediates the relationship between family background and college major preference...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265335/the-logic-of-counterfactual-analysis-in-case-study-explanation
#11
James Mahoney, Rodrigo Barrenechea
In this paper, we develop a set-theoretic and possible worlds approach to counterfactual analysis in case-study explanation. Using this approach, we first consider four kinds of counterfactuals: necessary condition counterfactuals, SUIN condition counterfactuals, sufficient condition counterfactuals, and INUS condition counterfactuals. We explore the distinctive causal claims entailed in each, and conclude that necessary condition and SUIN condition counterfactuals are the most useful types for hypothesis assessment in case-study research...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243840/conjugal-intimacy-gender-and-modernity-in-contemporary-china
#12
Jieyu Liu, Eona Bell, Jiayu Zhang
The new generation of modernity theorists have forecast the democratization of gender relations within intimate relationships in late-modern times. Chinese society has undergone rapid and dramatic changes in its unique trajectory of political, social and economic reform. Using China as an example of a region which has been largely ignored in contemporary social theory, this article enters the debate to contest the extent to which conjugal relationships are democratized in line with modernity. We further test the assertion that modern marriages are characterized by increased self-disclosure and communication between partners...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219166/muslim-gay-men-identity-conflict-and-politics-in-a-muslim-majority-nation
#13
Nassim Hamdi, Monia Lachheb, Eric Anderson
While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations...
December 8, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194559/the-limits-of-the-decentred-state-the-case-of-policing-insurance-claims-fraud
#14
Anders Stenström
Existing research clearly shows that the public-private divide is continuously being challenged, recast and transformed. However, this article argues that a sharp distinction between public and private continues to operate as an important norm for professionals involved in the investigation of insurance claims fraud in Sweden. It shows how power within private insurance companies and the police authority is organized around the public-private divide, which is in turn mobilized to justify repression and to give investigations legitimacy...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194589/pathological-integration-or-how-east-europeans-use-racism-to-become-british
#15
Jon E Fox, Magda Mogilnicka
East Europeans are integrating into life in the UK. This entails learning to get along with their new neighbours, but it also involves not getting along with certain neighbours. Integration is not confined to benevolent forms of everyday cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism and conviviality; it can also include more pathological forms, like racism. Whilst integration is generally seen as desirable, the learning that it entails necessarily includes less desirable practices and norms. The aim of this article is to show how East Europeans in the UK have been acquiring specifically British competencies of racism...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193014/information-barriers-and-social-stratification-in-higher-education-evidence-from-a-field-experiment
#16
Giovanni Abbiati, Gianluca Argentin, Carlo Barone, Antonio Schizzerotto
Our contribution assesses the role of information barriers for patterns of participation in Higher Education (HE) and the related social inequalities. For this purpose, we developed a large-scale clustered randomised experiment involving over 9,000 high school seniors from 62 Italian schools. We designed a counseling intervention to correct student misperceptions of the profitability of HE, that is, the costs, economic returns and chances of success of investments in different tertiary programs. We employed a longitudinal survey to test whether treated students' educational trajectories evolved differently relative to a control group...
November 29, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369726/stagnation-only-on-the-surface-the-implications-of-skill-and-family-responsibilities-for-the-gender-wage-gap-in-sweden-1974-2010
#17
Katarina Boye, Karin Halldén, Charlotta Magnusson
The wage differential between women and men persists in advanced economies despite the inflow of women into qualified occupations in recent years. Using five waves of the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU), this paper explores the gender wage gap in Sweden during the 1974-2010 period overall and by skill level. The empirical analyses showed that the general gender wage gap has been nearly unchanged for the past 30 years. However, the gender difference in wage in less qualified occupations fell considerably, whereas the gender pay gap remained stable for men and women in qualified occupations...
December 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164592/the-moral-economy-of-ready-made-food
#18
Kathryn Wheeler
The aim of this paper is to develop and apply a framework to explore how moralities of consumption are constituted in and through markets. Using the case of ready-made foods, this paper argues moral economies are comprised through interactions between micro-, meso- and macro-level processes in the form of instituted systems of provision, state regulation, collective food customs promoted though media, NGOs and lifestyle practitioners, and the everyday reflections of consumers. Building on a theoretical framework developed to understand the moral economy of work and employment (Bolton and Laaser 2013), this paper explores how markets for ready-made food are incessantly negotiated in the context of moral ideas about cooking, femininity and individual responsibility...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114874/the-revolt-of-the-rust-belt-place-and-politics-in-the-age-of-anger
#19
Michael McQuarrie
This paper argues that the election of Donald Trump is the product of a confluence of historical factors rather than the distinctive appeal of the victor himself. By paying particular attention to the geography of unusual voting behaviour the analytical question comes into view: why did so much uncharacteristic voting occur in the Rust Belt states of the upper Midwest? It is impossible to answer this question adequately using conventional categorical attributes. The usual hypotheses of 'economic anxiety' and white revanchism are unable to account for sudden shifts in the voting behaviour of both white and black voters in post-industrial territories...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114873/brexit-trump-and-methodological-whiteness-on-the-misrecognition-of-race-and-class
#20
Gurminder K Bhambra
The rhetoric of both the Brexit and Trump campaigns was grounded in conceptions of the past as the basis for political claims in the present. Both established the past as constituted by nations that were represented as 'white' into which racialized others had insinuated themselves and gained disproportionate advantage. Hence, the resonant claim that was broadcast primarily to white audiences in each place 'to take our country back'. The politics of both campaigns was also echoed in those social scientific analyses that sought to focus on the 'legitimate' claims of the 'left behind' or those who had come to see themselves as 'strangers in their own land'...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
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