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British Journal of Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555508/iterative-reconstruction-in-single-source-dual-energy-ct-angiography-feasibility-of-low-and-ultra-low-volume-contrast-medium-protocols
#1
Ping Hou, Xiangnan Feng, Jie Liu, Yue Zhou, Yaojun Jiang, Xiaochen Jiang, Jianbo Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using contrast medium (CM) of low and ultra-low volumes and injection rates in aortic CT angiography (CTA) through the joint application of single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). METHODS: 120 patients with known or suspected aortic dissection underwent aortic CTA and were equally divided into 3 groups. Conventional 120-kVp scan with a CM volume of 70 ml and an injection rate of 5 ml s(-1) was performed on Group A...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555505/comparison-of-dose-distribution-for-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-with-and-without-dose-painting-escalation-during-radiotherapy-realized-with-tomotherapy-unit
#2
Malgorzata Skorska, Tomasz Piotrowski, Adam Ryczkowski
OBJECTIVE: To determine and quantify the percentage dose increase to organs at risk (OARs) with multiple-level dose painting (DP) for patients with head and neck cancer in comparison with standard regimen. METHODS: 12 patients who had undergone fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan were retrospectively enrolled. Two treatment plans-one using DP escalation and one without-were optimized for each patient base on PET/CT data...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555503/spontaneous-isolated-dissection-and-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-superior-mesenteric-artery-the-vastly-different-occurrence-site-suggests-the-opposite-haemodynamic-aetiology
#3
Zhi-Gang Min, Hai-Rong Shan, Long Xu, Su Yan, Xue-Xia Sheng, Jian Ji, Zhi-Hong Cao
OBJECTIVE: The development of atherosclerotic plaques and spontaneous isolated dissection (SID) of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was considered to be related to opposite haemodynamics. The purpose of this study was to compare their occurrence sites and the morphology of the SMA to confirm the haemodynamic aetiologies. METHODS: 57 patients with SID and 64 patients with atherosclerotic plaques were compared about patient characteristics, location of SID and plaque, the distance from lesion to the aortic ostia, SMA branching angle and inlet diameter of the SMA...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511589/a-semi-automatic-method-for-the-extraction-of-the-portal-venous-input-function-in-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ct-of-the-liver
#4
Andrew B Gill, Nicholas J Hilliard, Simon T Hilliard, Martin J Graves, David J Lomas, Ashley Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To aid the extraction of the portal venous input function (PVIF) from axial dynamic contrast-enhanced CT images of the liver, eliminating the need for full manual outlining of the vessel across time points. METHODS: A cohort of 20 patients undergoing perfusion CT imaging of the liver was examined. Dynamic images of the liver were reformatted into contiguous thin slices. A region of interest was defined within a transverse section of the portal vein on a single contrast-enhanced image...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508689/age-choline-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-and-lipids-lactate-to-creatine-ratios-assemble-a-significant-cox-s-proportional-hazards-regression-model-for-survival-prediction-in-patients-with-high-grade-gliomas
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621548/an-investigation-into-the-mammographic-appearances-of-missed-breast-cancers-when-recall-rates-are-reduced
#6
Norhashimah Mohd Norsuddin, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Warren Reed, Mary Rickard, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether certain mammographic appearances of breast cancer are missed when radiologists read at lower recall rates. METHODS: Five radiologists read one identical test set of 200 mammographic (180 normal cases and 20 abnormal cases) three times and were requested to adhere to three different recall rate conditions: free recall, 15% and 10%. The radiologists were asked to mark the locations of suspicious lesions and provide a confidence rating for each decision...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613934/standard-fractionation-external-beam-radiotherapy-with-and-without-intraoperative-radiotherapy-for-locally-recurrent-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-local-therapy-in-patients-with-a-high-competing-risk-of-death-from-distant-disease
#7
Amar U Kishan, Justin C Voog, Jonathan Wiseman, Ryan R Cook, Marek Ancukiewicz, Percy Lee, David P Ryan, Jeffrey W Clark, David L Berger, James C Cusack, Jennifer Y Wo, Theodore S Hong
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of utilizing radiotherapy (RT) with standard fractionation, with or without intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), to treat locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). METHODS: Retrospective review of 25 patients with LRRC treated with standard fractionation RT from 2005-2011. Fifteen patients (60%) had prior pelvic RT and ten (40%) had synchronous metastases. The median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions was 30 Gy and 49...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613933/quantification-of-radiation-dose-reduction-by-reducing-z-axis-coverage-in-320-detector-coronary-ct-angiography
#8
D J Murphy, A Keraliya, N Himes, A Aghayev, R Blankstein, M L Steigner
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the radiation dose reduction achievable by minimizing z-axis coverage in 320-detector coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 130 CCTAs performed on 320-detector CT that offers up to 16cm z-axis coverage (adjustable in 2cm increments), allowing complete coverage of the heart in a single gantry rotation. For each CT we obtained the radiation dose (CTDIvol and DLP), measured the z-axis field of view and measured the craniocaudal cardiac size (distance from the left main coronary artery to the cardiac apex)...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613927/effect-of-total-lung-capacity-gender-and-height-on-ct-airways-measurements
#9
Maxime Hackx, Dorothée Francotte, Tiago Severo Garcia, Alain VAN Muylem, Michel Walsdorff, Pierre Alain Gevenois
OBJECTIVE: Testing the hypothesis that CT airways measurements could be influenced by total lung capacity (TLC), gender and height in normal individuals. METHODS: In this ethics committee-approved prospective trial, 87 healthy never-smoking volunteers who provided written informed consent were included. From a helical CT scan of the chest, the wall thickness (WT) and the lumen area (LA) were twice measured in third and fourth generation airways by three readers using a dedicated software...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613915/inter-country-analysis-of-breast-density-classification-using-visual-grading
#10
Christine N Damases, Peter Hogg, Mark F McEntee
OBJECTIVE: Disagreement in mammographic breast density (MBD) assessment can impact breast cancer risk stratification, choices of further breast cancer screening intervals and pathways. This study examines whether inter-country MBD expectations and assessment approaches are associated with differences in MBD assessment. METHODS: Twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) examiners and 24 United Kingdom (UK) practitioners using the 4(th) edition BI-RADS(®) lexicon assessed 40 mammogram cases of 20 women...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590814/a-dosimetric-parameter-to-limit-chest-wall-toxicity-in-sabr-of-nsclc
#11
Raphaël Jumeau, Édith Filion, Houda Bahig, Toni Vu, Louise Lambert, David Roberge, Robert Doucet, Marie-Pierre Campeau
OBJECTIVE: Chest wall (CW) toxicity (rib fracture and/or pain) is a recognized complication of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CW toxicity following SABR and to propose a new dosimetric parameter. METHODS: We reviewed the charts and SABR plans from patients treated for T1-T2N0 peripheral NSCLC between 2009 and 2015. The CW structure was created through a 3 cm expansion of the lung...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590813/imaging-features-of-solid-renal-masses
#12
Massimo Galia, Domenico Albano, Alberto Bruno, Antonino Agrusa, Giorgio Romano, Giuseppe Di Buono, Francesco Agnello, Giuseppe Salvaggio, Ludovico La Grutta, Massimo Midiri, Roberto Lagalla
The widespread use of abdominal imaging techniques has increased the detection of solid renal masses over the last years. Imaging plays a crucial role in the management, surveillance and in determining which lesions need treatment. The "Classical Angiomyolipoma" is the only benign solid renal mass that can be characterized with confidence by imaging through the detection of a fat-containing lesion without calcifications. There is a large overlap of imaging features between benign and malignant renal masses that often makes difficult a correct characterization of these lesions...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590780/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-for-differentiation-between-hepatocellular-adenoma-and-focal-nodular-hyperplasia
#13
Naim Jerjir, Luk Bruyneel, Marc Haspeslagh, Sarah Quenet, Kenneth Coenegrachts
OBJECTIVES: To examine if intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can be used as new and supplemental MRI technique to differentiate hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) from focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and analyse if diffusion parameter ADC and IVIM parameter D differ in doing so. METHODS: This prospective study included 21 patients (8 HCAs and 13 FNHs) who underwent a specifically designed MRI scanning protocol, including series for analysis of IVIM (4 b-values 0, 10, 150 and 800 s/mm(2)) and DCE-MRI...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590776/clinical-effects-of-chemoradiotherapy-in-pursuit-of-optimal-treatment-of-locally-advanced-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Kenta Sui, Takehiro Okabayashi, Yasuo Shima, Sojiro Morita, Jun Iwata, Tatsuaki Sumiyoshi, Yuichi Saisaka, Yasuhiro Hata, Yoshihiro Noda, Manabu Matsumoto, Akihito Nishioka, Tastuo Iiyama, Yasuhiro Shimada
OBJECTIVES: The treatment of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer remains extremely challenging, particularly as the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear. METHODS: We studied 93 patients (8.0%) with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer without distant metastases from among a total group of 1168 patients who were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from March 2005 to November 2015 at Kochi Health Sciences Center. We therefore evaluated the clinical efficacy of CRT in patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590773/factors-influencing-brown-fat-activation-in-fdg-pet-ct-a-retrospective-analysis-of-15-000-cases
#15
Jeffrey D Steinberg, Wouter Vogel, Erik Vegt
OBJECTIVES: Brown fat can exhibit high uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) and interfere with interpretation of the scan. The goal of this study was to identify factors that may influence BAT activation. METHODS: A retrospective study of FDG PET scans was performed using a database of 15,109 PET/CT reports. BAT activation reported by nuclear medicine physicians and factors influencing BAT activation were gathered...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590771/non-contrast-mr-angiography-using-three-dimensional-balanced-steady-state-free-precession-imaging-for-evaluation-of-stenosis-in-the-celiac-trunk-and-superior-mesenteric-artery-a-preliminary-comparative-study-with-computed-tomography-angiography
#16
Patricia Prando Cardia, Thiago José Penachim, Adilson Prando, Ulysses S Torres, Giuseppe D'Ippólito
OBJECTIVES: Although non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) is well established for the evaluation of renal artery stenosis, its usefulness in the evaluation of other abdominal aortic branches remains to be studied. This study aimed at evaluating the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of NC-MRA using a three-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession sequence (bSSFP) in identifying stenosis in the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery as compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the reference standard...
June 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555500/updates-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Anne Gasnier, Nassim Parvizi
Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide and the commonest cancer in men in the United Kingdom. The recent updates on the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were discussed at a multidisciplinary day event organised by the British Institute of Radiology and held in London in November 2016. This day covered the use of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) biomarker and of advanced imaging techniques such as Multi-parametric and whole body MRI, choline-PET/CT and gallium-labelled prostate specific membrane antigen for the detection of prostate cancer...
May 30, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541123/new-exponential-functions-based-on-ct-density-to-estimate-the-percentage-of-liver-that-is-fat
#18
Georgia Keramida, A Michael Peters
OBJECTIVES: In FDG PET/CT, hepatic standardised uptake value (SUV) is reduced through 'signal dilution' by hepatic fat. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) is less affected than mean SUV (SUVmean), so SUVmax/SUVmean correlates with hepatic fat. SUV can be corrected for signal dilution using an equation relating CT density (CTD) to %fat. The objective was to exploit the relationship between SUV indices and CTD to assess the validity of two previously published equations (one linear, one sigmoid) for estimating %fat from CTD, and two new exponential equations...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541096/combining-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapy-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#19
Evert J Van Limbergen, Dirk K De Ruysscher, Veronica Olivo Pimentel, Damiënne Marcus, Maaike Berbee, Ann Hoeben, Nicolle Rekers, Jan Theys, Ala Yaromina, Ludwig J Dubois, Philippe Lambin
The advent of immunotherapy is currently revolutionizing the field of oncology, where different drugs are used to stimulate different steps in a failing cancer immune response chain. This review gives a basic overview of the immune response against cancer, as well as the historical and current evidence on the interaction of radiotherapy with the immune system and the different forms of immunotherapy. Furthermore the review elaborates on the many open questions on how to exploit this interaction to the full extent in clinical practice...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540739/hypoxia-imaging-and-radiotherapy-bridging-the-resolution-gap
#20
David Robert Grimes, Daniel R Warren, Samantha Warren
Oxygen distribution is a major determinant of treatment success in radiotherapy, with well-oxygenated tumour regions responding by up to a factor of three relative to anoxic volumes. Conversely, tumour hypoxia is associated with treatment resistance and negative prognosis. Tumour oxygenation is highly heterogeneous and difficult to measure directly. The recent advent of functional hypoxia imaging modalities such as fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography have shown promise in non-invasively determining regions of low oxygen tension...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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