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British Journal of Radiology

Takanori Masuda, Yoshinori Funama, Takeshi Nakaura, Tomoyasu Sato, Masahiro Tahara, Yoriaki Matsumoto, Naoyuki Imada, Osamu Miyazaki, Kazuo Awai
OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of test scans with undiluted and diluted contrast medium (CM) to predict contrast enhancement (CE) on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images of infants. METHODS: We divided 120 consecutive infants who had undergone CCTA on a 64-MDCT scanner into two equal groups. In one group the test bolus consisted of undiluted CM [protocol 1 (P1): injection volume = total  body weight (TBW) × 1.2  ml, injection time 5  sec], in the other (P2) it was TBW × 4...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ruchir Shah, Felice D'Arco, Bruno Soares, Jessica Cooper, Joe Brierley
Gadolinium is a contrast agent that is used in MRI. There is new evidence that gadolinium accumulates in a patient's body and the effects of this accumulation is unknown. This has resulted in different advice being given by European Medicine Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The European Medicine Agency recommended stopping the use of linear Gadolinium agents (requiring more proof of safety) while the Food and Drug Administration continues to permit its use (requiring more proof of harm). Gadolinium should be used if deemed clinically necessary...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Maria Gosein, Paramanand Maharaj, Pauline Balkaransingh, Renee Banfield, Camille Greene, Sunil Latchman, Alexander Sinanan
This article highlights the range of osseous findings that can be encountered as well as the imaging features of extramedullary haematopoiesis. As iron overload remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these disorders, we also discuss the MRI evaluation of hepatic and cardiac hemosiderosis, to aid in the optimization of iron chelation therapy. Future imaging use will be dictated by evolving clinical needs, such as in screening for emerging morbidities, including hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hayri Ogul, Kutsi Tuncer, Mehmet Kose, Berhan Pirimoglu, Mecit Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: To describe the posterior synovial folds found on direct MR arthrogram to distinguish them from false posterior labrum tears seen in conventional MR Using MR imaging and MR arthrography, we also examined vertical oblique extension, arthrographic morphology, and MR imaging appearance of the posterior synovial fold in the symptomatic shoulder. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 604 consecutive shoulder MR images and MR arthrograms obtained from April 2010 through January 2018...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Derek R Johnson, Julie B Guerin, Michael W Ruff, Shanna Fang, Christopher Harker Hunt, Jonathan M Morris, Padraig Pearse Morris, Timothy J Kaufmann
Neuroimaging plays a pivotal role in the care of patients with infiltrating gliomas, in whom imaging changes are often the first indications of tumor response or progression. Unfortunately, evaluation of glioma response is often not straightforward, even for experienced radiologists. Post-surgical or radiation-related changes may mimic the appearance of disease progression, while medications such as corticosteroids and antiangiogenic agents may mimic tumor response without truly arresting tumor growth or improving patient survival...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Raj Kumar Shrimali, Santam Chakraborty, Tapesh Bhattacharyya, Indranil Mallick, Rimpa Basu Achari, Sriram Prasath, B Arun, Anurupa Mahata, M Vidhya Shree, E Vishnupriya, Sanjoy Chatterjee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation planning for locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be time-consuming and iterative. Many cases cannot be planned satisfactorily using multisegment three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). We sought to develop and validate a predictive model which could estimate the probability that acceptable target volume coverage would need intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: Variables related to the planning target volume (PTV) and topography were identified heuristically...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Vickie Kong, Maisie Kwan, Susan Chen, Peter Chung, Tim Craig, Tara Rosewall
OBJECTIVE: The use of lipiodol or bladder wall surface (BWS) for image guidance has improved the treatment quality for partial bladder irradiation. Currently, this procedure is manually performed by different users. This study assessed the interobserver variability of using image guidance for partial bladder irradiation. METHODS: 7 observers were prospectively recruited to manually register 5 cone beam CTs (CBCT) from each of 20 bladder cancer patients with lipiodol injected for tumor demarcation...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Dario Zerini, Cristiana Fodor, Anna Viola, Giuseppe Fanetti, Stefania Volpe, Rosa Luraschi, Alessia Bazani, Elena Rondi, Federica Cattani, Andrea Vavassori, Cristina Garibaldi, Sarah Alessi, Paola Pricolo, Giuseppe Petralia, Gabriele Cozzi, Ottavio De Cobelli, Gennaro Musi, Roberto Orecchia, Giulia Marvaso, Delia Ciardo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate high-precision external beam reirradiation (re-EBRT) for local relapse of prostate cancer (PCa) after radiotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with biochemical failure and evidence of isolated local recurrence of PCa after radical/salvage EBRT or brachytherapy that received salvage stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT, re-EBRT). Biopsy was not mandatory if all diagnostic elements were univocal (prostate specific antigen evolution, choline-positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging)...
November 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Heather Kate Moriarty, Roisin O Cearbhaill, Peter Daniel Moriarty, Emma Stanley, Leo Lawler, Eoin Kavanagh
Spinal haematoma is a rare occurrence, however has the potential to cause significant spinal injury and morbidity. MRI is the gold-standard of investigation, and urgent imaging is required for early diagnosis and treatment to ensure best patient outcomes. We present a pictorial review demonstrating the imaging features of spinal haematoma based on meningeal space assignment; epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intramedullary and a combination of these locations. In this review, we summarise the literature and imaging findings of spinal haematoma on MRI...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Seitaro Oda, Hiroko Takaoka, Kazuhiro Katahira, Keiichi Honda, Takeshi Nakaura, Yasunori Nagayama, Narumi Taguchi, Masafumi Kidoh, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Yoshinori Funama, Katsuo Noda, Shuichi Oshima, Yasuyuki Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) using dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography (CT) on the image quality of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) acquired by using a low contrast material (CM) dose. METHODS: We used a VMI 50keV protocol with a 50%  CM dose (140  mgI kg-1 ) to scan 30 patients with renal insufficiency and a 120kVp with the standard CM dose (280  mgI/kg) to scan 30 controls without renal insufficiency...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Makoto Suzuki, Satoru Morita, Yasuhiro Goto, Hitoshi Tadenuma, Yu Nishina, Masami Yoneyama, Isao Tanaka, Shuji Sakai
OBJECTIVE: To compare single-shot turbo spin-echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) and echo-planar imaging (EPI) DWIBS to determine the feasibility of direct-coronal TSE-DWIBS. METHODS: All measurements were performed using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. In the phantom study, we compared the contrast ratios (CRs) of tumor-mimicking phantom (tumor) to muscle-mimicking phantom (muscle) and water to muscle and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between TSE-DWIBS and EPI-DWIBS...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ana Vaniqui, Lotte E J R Schyns, Isabel P Almeida, Brent van der Heyden, Mark Podesta, Frank Verhaegen
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of different image reconstruction techniques on image quality and dual energy CT (DECT) imaging metrics. METHODS: A software platform for pre-clinical cone beam CT X-ray image reconstruction was built using the open-source reconstruction toolkit. Pre-processed projections were reconstructed with filtered back-projection and iterative algorithms, namely Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress (FDK), Iterative FDK, simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and conjugate gradient...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Pawan Kumar, Anuradha Singh, Ashwin Deshmukh, Ravi Hari Phulware, Sameer Rastogi, Adarsh Barwad, S H Chandrashekhara, Vishwajeet Singh
OBJECTIVE: To identify important qualitative and quantitative clinical and imaging features that could potentially differentiate renal primitiveneuroectodermal tumor (PNET) from various subtypes of renalcell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients, 143 with pathologically proven RCC and 21 with pathologically proven renal PNET. Univariate analysis of each parameter was performed. In order to differentiate renal PNET from RCC subtypes and overall RCC as a group, we generated ROC curves and determined cutoff values for mean attenuation of the lesion, mass to aorta attenuation ratio and mass to renal parenchyma attenuation ratio in the nephrographic phase...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Alasdair Rutherford, Katrina Stevenson, Amanda Tulk, Anthony J Chalmers
OBJECTIVE: Small animal radiotherapy research platforms such as XStrahl's SARRP enable more precise irradiation of tumours and normal tissues in pre-clinical models of cancer. Using an orthotopic G7 glioblastoma xenograft model we studied the impact of four different radiotherapy plans on tumour and normal tissue dosimetry. METHODS: Plans were created using four different approaches (single beam, parallel opposed pair, single plane arcs, couch rotation arcs) and dose volume histograms (DVH) for the tumour and the relevant organs at risk (OARs) (mouth, ipsilateral brain, contralateral brain, brain stem) were compared for a sample mouse subject...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Isabel P Almeida, Ana Vaniqui, Lotte Ejr Schyns, Brent van der Heyden, James Cooley, Townsend Zwart, Armin Langenegger, Frank Verhaegen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Mevion S250i with HYPERSCAN clinical proton system could be used for pre-clinical research with millimetric beams. METHODS: The nozzle of the proton beam line, consisting of an energy modulation system (EMS) and an adaptive aperture (AA), was modelled with the TOPAS Monte Carlo Simulation Toolkit. With the EMS, the 230 MeV beam nominal range can be decreased in multiples of 2.1 mm. Monte Carlo dose calculations were performed in a mouse lung tumour CT image...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Juergen Meyer, John Eley, Thomas E Schmid, Stephanie E Combs, Remi Dendale, Yolanda Prezado
Extraordinary normal tissue response to highly spatially fractionated X-ray beams has been explored for over 25 years. More recently, alternative radiation sources have been developed and utilized with the aim to evoke comparable effects. These include protons, which lend themselves well for this endeavour due to their physical depth dose characteristics as well as corresponding variable biological effectiveness. This paper addresses the motivation for using protons to generate spatially fractionated beams and reviews the technological implementations and experimental results to date...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Masatoyo Nakajo, Megumi Jinguji, Tetsuya Shinaji, Atsushi Tani, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Masayuki Nakajo, Akihiro Nakajo, Shoji Natsugoe, Takashi Yoshiura
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study examined whether the primary tumour 18F-FDG uptake features could predict the high-risk of recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. METHODS: The enrolled 114 DTC patients underwent preoperative 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and 6 texture parameters were obtained. Because the texture features can be confounded by the tumour volume effects, 18 F-FDG-avid tumour patients were divided into two groups (tumours with MTV ≤ 10...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hayri Ogul, Nurmuhammet Tas, Kutsi Tuncer, Gokhan Polat, Yasemin Ogul, Berhan Pirimoglu, Mecit Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric MR arthrographic findings of shoulder joint capacity in patients with primary adhesive capsulitis. METHODS: Thin-section 3D volumetric MR arthrography sequences of the shoulder joint were obtained in 28 patients with clinically and radiologically proven primary adhesive capsulitis and in 25 controls. Volumetric measurements of the total glenohumeral joint capacity, extra-articular contrast material leakage, and the rotator interval, axillary recess, and biceps tendon sheath capacities were performed for the study and control groups...
November 5, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Noam Tau, Alejandro Berlin, Ivan Yeung, Jaydeep Halankar, Grainne Murphy, Kartik S Jhaveri, Sangeet Ghai, Ur Metser
OBJECTIVES: To describe dynamic 18F-Fluoromethycholine PET (dPET) and dynamic contrast enhancement MR (DCE MR) parameters in localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), and determine whether these differ from normal prostate. Furthermore, to determine whether a correlation exists between dPET and DCE MR parameters. METHODS: Forty-one consenting patients who underwent prostate DCE MR and dPET were included in this institutionally approved study. Intraprostatic lesions on MR were assigned a PI-RADS v2 score, and focal lesions on PET were documented...
November 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Indra J Das, Kiaran P McGee, Neelam Tyagi, Hesheng Wang
Technical innovations and developments in areas such as disease localization, dose calculation algorithms, motion management and dose delivery technologies have revolutionized radiation therapy resulting in improved patient care with superior outcomes. A consequence of the ability to design and accurately deliver complex radiation fields is the need for improved target visualization through imaging. While CT imaging has been the standard of care for more than three decades, the superior soft tissue contrast afforded by MR has resulted in the adoption of this technology in radiation therapy...
November 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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