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British Journal of Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079398/feasibility-evaluation-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-using-an-integrated-mri-radiotherapy-system-for-response-assessment-to-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-rectal-cancer
#1
Narek Shaverdian, Yingli Yang, Peng Hu, Steven Hart, Ke Sheng, James Lamb, Minsong Cao, Nzhde Agazaryan, David Thomas, Michael Steinberg, Daniel A Low, Percy Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of on-board DWI with an integrated low-field MRI-radiotherapy system to assess responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NAC) in rectal cancer. METHODS: A spin echo-based planar imaging diffusion sequence on a 0.35 T MRI-radiotherapy system was acquired over the course of NAC. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) from the tumor region of interest (ROIs) were calculated. A functional diffusion map (fDM) was created showing a pixel-wise ADC analysis of the ROI over the course of treatment...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079395/diagnostic-performance-of-wrist-magnetic-resonance-mr-arthrography-comparison-of-three-dimensional-isotropic-t1-weighted-fast-spin-echo-mr-arthrography-and-two-dimensional-mr-arthrography
#2
Eunsun Oh, Young Cheol Yoon, Min Jong Park
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of wrist direct magnetic resonance arthrography (D-MRA) with 2D T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequences for detecting triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) central perforations and scapholunate ligament (SLL) and lunotriquetral ligament (LTL) tears. METHODS: Twenty-six patients who had undergone preoperative wrist D-MRA with 2D and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequences and subsequent arthroscopic surgeries were included...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059560/dose-specification-for-hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy-hs-wbrt-considerations-from-the-uk-hippo-trial-qa-programme
#3
Daniel Megias, Mark Phillips, Laura Clifton-Hadley, Elizabeth Harron, David J Eaton, Paul Sanghera, Gillian Whitfield
OBJECTIVES: The HIPPO trial is a UK randomised phase II trial of Hippocampal Sparing (HS) versus Conventional Whole Brain Radiotherapy after surgical resection or radiosurgery in favourable prognosis patients with 1-4 brain metastases. Each participating centre completed a planning benchmark case as part of the dedicated radiotherapy trials quality assurance programme (RTQA), promoting the safe and effective delivery of HS Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in a multi-centre trial setting...
January 6, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055253/image-quality-in-coronary-ct-angiography-challenges-and-technical-solutions
#4
Olivier Ghekiere, Rodrigo Salgado, Nico Buls, Tim Leiner, Isabelle Mancini, Piet Vanhoenacker, Paul Dendale, Alain Nchimi
Multidetector CT angiography has become a widely accepted examination for non-invasive evaluation of the heart and coronary arteries. Despite its ongoing success and worldwide clinical implementation, it remains an often-challenging procedure in which image quality, and hence diagnostic value, is determined by both technical and patient-related factors. Thorough knowledge of these factors is important to obtain high quality examinations. In this review, we discuss several key elements that may adversely affect coronary CT angiography image quality as well as potential measures that can be taken to mitigate their impact...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055252/the-role-of-technology-in-clinical-trials-using-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#5
Marianne Camille Aznar, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Ben Jm Heijmen
Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a highly technology-driven treatment modality. The wider availability of in-room imaging and advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques has led to more and more institutions offering SABR. While some technological challenges remain, the crucial point for the next generation of SABR clinical trials is that today's technology is used correctly and close to its optimal potential for accuracy. The credentialing procedure of SABR needs to be extensive, but this investment will benefit the trial itself, the patients, and the professionals involved...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055251/commentary-opportunities-for-research-in-molecular-radiotherapy
#6
Glenn D Flux, Joe O'Sullivan, Mark N Gaze, Kevin M Prise
Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals for 80 years. A recent NCRI report from the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) reviews the current status of molecular radiotherapy (MRT) and has highlighted the barriers to, and the opportunities for increased research activities. The report recommends a number of actions to promote this field, which in the dawning age of personalised medicine and theragnostics is of increasing importance, particularly with the clinical introduction of a range of new commercial radiotherapeutics at costs in line with those seen for conventional chemotherapeutics...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055250/assessment-of-chest-ct-at-ctdivol-less-than-1-mgy-with-iterative-reconstruction-techniques
#7
Atul Padole, Subba Digumarthy, Efren Flores, Rachna Madan, Shelly Mishra, Amita Sharma, Mannudeep K Kalra
OBJECTIVES: To assess the image quality of chest CT reconstructed with image-based (SafeCT), adaptive statistical (ASIR), and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) at CTDIvol less than 1 mGy. METHODS: In an IRB approved study, 25 patients gave written informed consent for acquisition of three Reduced Dose (RD) (0.25, 0.4, 0.8 mGy) chest CT after standard of care CT (8 mGy) on a 64-channel multi-detector CT (MDCT) and reconstructed with SafeCT, ASIR, and MBIR...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055249/volumetry-of-the-dominant-intraprostatic-tumour-lesion-intersequence-and-interobserver-differences-on-multiparametric-mri
#8
Hugh Harvey, Matthew R Orton, Veronica A Morgan, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Cyril Fisher, Nandita M deSouza
OBJECTIVES: To establish interobserver reproducibility of tumour volumetry on individual multiparametric(mp) prostate MRI sequences, validate measurements with histology and determine whether functional to morphological volume ratios reflect Gleason score. METHODS: Forty-one men with prostate cancer treated with prostatectomy (cohort 1) or radical radiotherapy (cohort 2) who had pre-treatment mp (T2-W, DW-, DCE-) MRI were studied retrospectively. Dominant intraprostatic lesions (DIPLs) were manually delineated on each sequence and volumes compared between observers (n=40 analysable) and with radical prostatectomy (n=20)...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055248/review-article-functional-mri-for-quantitative-treatment-response-prediction-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#9
Trang T Pham, Gary P Liney, Karen Wong, Michael B Barton
Despite advances in multi-modality treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancer and improvements in loco-regional control, there is still a considerable variation in response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). Accurate prediction of response to neo-adjuvant CRT would enable early stratification of management according to good responders and poor responders, in order to adapt treatment to improve therapeutic outcomes in rectal cancer. Clinical studies in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have shown promising results for the prediction of therapeutic response in rectal cancer...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055247/-staging-of-breast-cancer-and-the-advanced-applications-of-digital-mammogram-what-the-physician-needs-to-know
#10
Maha Hussien Helal, Sahar Mahmoud Mansour, Mai Zaglol, Lamia Adel Salaleldin, Omniya Mokhtar Nada, Marwa Anas Haggag
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of advanced applications of digital mammogram whether contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the "T" staging of histologically proven breast cancer prior management planning. METHODS: This prospective analysis, we evaluated 98 proved malignant breast masses regarding their size, multiplicity and presence of associated clusters of microcalcifications. Evaluation methods included digital mammography, 3-D tomosynthesis and contrast enhanced spectral mammography...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055246/validation-of-a-semi-automated-technique-to-accurately-measure-abdominal-fat-distribution-using-ct-and-mri-for-clinical-risk-stratification
#11
Mohammed Abdul Waduud, Amal Sharaf, Iain Roy, Rosario Lopez-Gonzalez, Andrew Hart, David McGill, Giles Roditi, John Biddlestone
OBJECTIVES: A valid method for accurate quantification of abdominal fat distribution (AFD) using both computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. This method will be primarily useful in the prospective risk stratification of patients undergoing reconstructive breast surgery. Secondary applications in many other clinical specialities are foreseen. METHODS: 15 sequential patients who had undergone breast reconstruction following both CT and MRI imaging (30 scans) were retrospectively identified at our single centre...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055245/the-role-of-changes-in-maximum-standardized-uptake-value-of-fdg-pet-ct-for-post-treatment-surveillance-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy-preliminary-findings
#12
Munetaka Matoba, Hiroyuki Tuji, Yuzo Shimode, Tamaki Kondo, Kiyotaka Oota, Hisao Tonami
OBJECTIVE: No clear consensus exists regarding the optimal interval and frequency of follow-up PET-CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Here we sought to clarify whether the changes in the maximum standardized uptake value (ΔSUVmax) may be a valid parameter to help decision-making for surveillance management after CRT. METHODS: Forty patients underwent PET-CT at pretreatment and 3 months after CRT. Patients were followed by sequential PET-CT for 2 years after CRT...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936893/clinical-respiratory-motion-correction-software-reconstruct-register-and-averaged-rra-for-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-phantom-validation-practical-implications-and-patient-evaluation
#13
Anne-Charlotte Bouyeure-Petit, Mathieu Chastan, Agathe Edet-Sanson, Stephanie Becker, Sebastien Thureau, Estelle Houivet, Pierre Vera, Sebastien Hapdey
OBJECTIVE: On fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) CT of pulmonary or hepatic lesions, standard uptake value (SUV) is often underestimated due to patient breathing. The aim of this study is to validate, on phantom and patient data, a motion correction algorithm [reconstruct, register and averaged (RRA)] implemented on a PET-CT system. METHODS: Three phantoms containing five spheres filled with (18)F-FDG and suspended in a water or Styrofoam(®)(18)F-FDG-filled tank to create different contrasts and attenuation environment were acquired on a Discovery GE710...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936887/imaging-appearance-of-topical-haemostatic-agents-pictorial-review
#14
Howard T Heller, Brett S Walker, Cheryl A Sadow, Mary C Frates
Topical haemostatic agents have become an essential tool to assist with the control of bleeding during surgery as well as to facilitate wound closure. The imaging appearance of these agents can overlap that of abscess or tumour. Knowledge of the appearance of these various agents on ultrasound and CT is crucial to avoid misdiagnosing pathology, potentially resulting in unnecessary interventional procedures.
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925774/influence-of-backscatter-radiation-on-cranial-reconstruction-implants
#15
Yoshiaki Sakamoto, Naoyoshi Koike, Hideyuki Takei, Mari Ohno, Tomoru Miwa, Kazunari Yoshida, Naoyuki Shigematsu, Kazuo Kishi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate backscatter dose variations in different cranial bone implant materials in an experimental model designed to simulate post-operative radiotherapy. METHODS: We assessed the radiation backscatter doses associated with sheet- and mesh-type titanium plates and hydroxyapatite (HAP) samples (porosity: 35%, 50% and 85%). The samples were irradiated with 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a linear accelerator. Measurements were obtained using an ionization chamber and radiochromic films cut from the same batch...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897060/potential-for-adaptive-dose-escalation-in-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-low-mid-income-setting
#16
Sushma Agrawal, Sunil Kumar, Anil K Maurya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tumour volume regression on adaptive treatment planning, reduction in doses to organs at risk (OARs) and dose escalation. METHODS: 20 patients undergoing radical chemoradiotherapy were imaged in the fifth week of radiotherapy (CT_45) to evaluate differences in tumour volume regression between concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy. Replanning was carried out in the CT_45 in those with >20% regression (n = 10) and evaluated for change in target coverage indices (the coverage index and external volume index) and doses to the OAR [mean lung dose, V20 and V5 of whole and ipsilateral lung (MLDWL, V20WL, V5WL, MLDIL, V20IL, V5IL); mean oesophagus dose, V50oesophagus; and maximum spinal cord doses]...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897029/a-method-for-evaluating-the-performance-of-computer-aided-detection-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-lung-cancer-ct-screening-detection-limit-for-nodule-size-and-density
#17
Hajime Kobayashi, Masaki Ohkubo, Akihiro Narita, Janaka C Marasinghe, Kohei Murao, Toru Matsumoto, Shusuke Sone, Shinichi Wada
OBJECTIVE: We propose the application of virtual nodules to evaluate the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in cancer screening using low-dose CT. METHODS: The virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution measured for a CT system used in an institution providing cancer screening and were fused into clinical lung images obtained at that institution, allowing site specificity. First, we validated virtual nodules as an alternative to artificial nodules inserted into a phantom...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885857/dosimetric-trade-offs-in-breast-treatment-with-vmat-technique
#18
Antonella Fogliata, Jan Seppälä, Giacomo Reggiori, Francesca Lobefalo, Valentina Palumbo, Fiorenza De Rose, Davide Franceschini, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
OBJECTIVE: Breast planning with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been explored, especially for left-sided breast treatments, with the primary intent of lowering the heart dose and improving target dose homogeneity. As a trade-off, larger healthy tissue volumes would receive low dose levels, with the potential risk of increasing late toxicities and secondary cancer induction, although no clinical data are available today to confirm the risk level. The scope of this work is to explore the dosimetric trade-offs using two different VMAT plans...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885854/gossypibomas-a-surgeon-s-nightmare-patient-demographics-risk-factors-imaging-and-how-we-can-prevent-it
#19
Rishi P Mathew, Binston Thomas, Ram S Basti, Hadihally B Suresh
OBJECTIVE: Gossypibomas are a cottonoid matrix left behind following surgery. Owing to the legal issues associated with it, very few literature studies are available online, most of them being case reports. The purpose of our study was to identify the patient demographics, risk factors and imaging features. METHODS: Six surgically identified and histopathologically confirmed cases of gossypibomas recorded over a period of 5 years from a single tertiary institution were retrospectively evaluated for patient demographics [sex, age, body mass index (BMI)], type of surgery and duration from time of surgery to onset of symptoms...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008776/lymph-node-standardized-uptake-values-at-pretreatment-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-as-a-valuable-prognostic-factor-for-distant-metastasis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
Yuri Jeong, Seunghee Baek, Jae Won Park, Ji Hyeon Joo, Jae Seung Kim, Sang-Wook Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate prognostic values of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET parameters for predicting distant metastasis (DM) of nasopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: Seventy-three patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer with regional lymph node (LN) involvement who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET evaluation between January 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed the (18)F-FDG PET parameters of the primary tumors (T-) and regional LNs (N-)...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
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