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British Journal of Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541123/new-exponential-functions-based-on-ct-density-to-estimate-the-percentage-of-liver-that-is-fat
#1
Georgia Keramida, A Michael Peters
OBJECTIVES: In FDG PET/CT, hepatic standardised uptake value (SUV) is reduced through 'signal dilution' by hepatic fat. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) is less affected than mean SUV (SUVmean), so SUVmax/SUVmean correlates with hepatic fat. SUV can be corrected for signal dilution using an equation relating CT density (CTD) to %fat. The objective was to exploit the relationship between SUV indices and CTD to assess the validity of two previously published equations (one linear, one sigmoid) for estimating %fat from CTD, and two new exponential equations...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541096/combining-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapy-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#2
Evert J Van Limbergen, Dirk K De Ruysscher, Veronica Olivo Pimentel, Damiënne Marcus, Maaike Berbee, Ann Hoeben, Nicolle Rekers, Jan Theys, Ala Yaromina, Ludwig J Dubois, Philippe Lambin
The advent of immunotherapy is currently revolutionizing the field of oncology, where different drugs are used to stimulate different steps in a failing cancer immune response chain. This review gives a basic overview of the immune response against cancer, as well as the historical and current evidence on the interaction of radiotherapy with the immune system and the different forms of immunotherapy. Furthermore the review elaborates on the many open questions on how to exploit this interaction to the full extent in clinical practice...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540739/hypoxia-imaging-and-radiotherapy-bridging-the-resolution-gap
#3
David Robert Grimes, Daniel R Warren, Samantha Warren
Oxygen distribution is a major determinant of treatment success in radiotherapy, with well-oxygenated tumour regions responding by up to a factor of three relative to anoxic volumes. Conversely, tumour hypoxia is associated with treatment resistance and negative prognosis. Tumour oxygenation is highly heterogeneous and difficult to measure directly. The recent advent of functional hypoxia imaging modalities such as fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography have shown promise in non-invasively determining regions of low oxygen tension...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466686/pre-operative-hyperfractionated-concurrent-radiochemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancers-a-phase-ii-clinical-study
#4
Adam Idasiak, Katarzyna Galwas-Kliber, Katarzyna Behrendt, Iwona Wziętek, Mariusz Kryj, Ewa Stobiecka, Ewa Chmielik, Rafał Suwiński
OBJECTIVE: The study was prospectively designed as a single-arm, single-institution prospective trial of pre-operative concomitant hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HART) with co-administration of chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in patients with T2/N+ or T3/any N resectable mid-low primary rectal cancer. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of accelerated HART with concurrent 5FU-based chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with resectable locally advanced (≥T3 or N+) rectal cancer were eligible...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466653/external-radiotherapy-and-brachytherapy-in-the-management-of-extrahepatic-and-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-available-evidence
#5
Puja Sahai, Senthil Kumar
This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence for the role of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in the management of cholangiocarcinoma. High locoregional disease recurrence rates after surgical resection alone for both the extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) provide a rationale for using adjuvant radiotherapy with chemotherapy. We performed a literature search related to radiotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma published between 2000 and 2016. The role of radiation is discussed in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant, definitive and the palliative setting...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452568/can-ct-scan-protocols-used-for-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-be-adjusted-to-optimize-image-quality-and-patient-dose-a-systematic-review
#6
Anne T Davis, Antony L Palmer, Andrew Nisbet
This article reviews publications related to the use of CT scans for radiotherapy treatment planning, specifically the impact of scan protocol changes on CT number and treatment planning dosimetry and on CT image quality. A search on PubMed and EMBASE and a subsequent review of references yielded 53 relevant articles. CT scan parameters significantly affect image quality. Some will also affect Hounsfield unit (HU) values, though this is not comprehensively reported on. Changes in tube kilovoltage and, on some scanners, field of view and reconstruction algorithms have been found to produce notable HU changes...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445074/unravelling-chloroma-review-of-imaging-findings
#7
Anuradha Singh, Pawan Kumar, Sheragaru Hanumanthappa Chandrashekhara, Atin Kumar
Chloroma refers to the extramedullary proliferation of immature myeloid precursors occurring in a gamut of myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic conditions; acute myeloid leukaemia being the commonest. With non-specific clinical and imaging manifestations, it runs a high risk of misdiagnosis which may significantly affect the outcome of an otherwise treatable lesion. Also with these lesions heralding impending blast crises, awareness of the imaging findings becomes imperative. Imaging not only helps raise the suspicion but also guides further confirmation by demonstration of specific immunohistochemistry markers, ensuring timely institution of chemotherapy...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406312/repeatability-of-graph-theoretical-metrics-derived-from-resting-state-functional-networks-in-paediatric-epilepsy-patients
#8
Michael J Paldino, Zili D Chu, Mary L Chapieski, Farahnaz Golriz, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To measure the repeatability of metrics that quantify brain network architecture derived from resting-state functional MRI in a cohort of paediatric patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We identified patients with: (1) epilepsy; (2) brain MRI at 3 T; (3) two identical resting-state functional MRI acquisitions performed on the same day. Undirected, weighted networks were constructed based on the resting-state time series using a range of processing parameters including parcellation size and graph threshold...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402125/assessment-of-radiation-dose-from-abdominal-quantitative-ct-with-short-scan-length
#9
Xinhua Li, Kai Yang, Matthew C DeLorenzo, Bob Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess radiation dose for patients who received abdominal quantitative CT and to compare the midpoint dose [DL(0)] at the centre of a 1-cm scan length with the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Although the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) proposed in The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No. 204 is not applicable for short-length scans, commercial dose-monitoring software, such as Radimetrics(™) Enterprise Platform (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ), reports SSDE for all scans...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401775/semi-automatic-bowel-wall-thickness-measurements-on-mr-enterography-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#10
Robiel E Naziroglu, Carl A J Puylaert, Jeroen A W Tielbeek, Jesica Makanyanga, Alex Menys, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Haralambos Hatzakis, Stuart A Taylor, Jaap Stoker, Lucas J van Vliet, Frans M Vos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a semi-automatic method for delineation of the bowel wall and measurement of the wall thickness in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: 53 patients with suspected or proven Crohn's disease were selected. Two radiologists independently supervised the delineation of regions with active Crohn's disease on MRI, yielding manual annotations (Ano1, Ano2). Three observers manually measured the maximal bowel wall thickness of each annotated segment...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511589/a-semi-automatic-method-for-the-extraction-of-the-portal-venous-input-function-in-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ct-of-the-liver
#11
Andrew B Gill, Nicholas J Hilliard, Simon T Hilliard, Martin Graves, David J Lomas, Ashley Shaw
OBJECTIVES: To aid the extraction of the portal venous input function (PVIF) from axial dynamic contrast-enhanced CT images of the liver, eliminating the need for full manual outlining of the vessel across time-points. METHODS: A cohort of 20 patients undergoing perfusion CT imaging of the liver were examined. Dynamic images of the liver were reformatted into contiguous thin slices. A region of interest (ROI) was defined within a transverse section of the portal vein on a single contrast-enhanced image...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511550/ct-features-in-surgically-proven-cases-of-ovarian-torsion-a-pictorial-review
#12
Sunita Dhanda, Swee Tian Quek, Ying Ting Mok, Clement Yong Hsiang Rong, Yuik Sing Eric Ting, Pooja Jagmohan, Bernard Wee
Ovarian torsion is a surgical emergency characterized by a partial or complete rotation of the ovarian vascular pedicle, causing obstruction to venous outflow followed by arterial inflow. Clinically, ovarian torsion frequently mimics other causes of acute pelvic pain such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, renal colic etc. Ultrasonography (US) is the first line imaging modality of choice for evaluation of ovarian torsion. MRI is useful as a problem solving tool in patients with equivocal or non diagnostic US studies...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511549/radiological-findings-on-irradiation-ct-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-breast-cancer
#13
Hans Jonas Meyer, Johannes Uhlig, Dominik Schramm, Andreas Gunter Bach, Alexey Surov
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of incidental findings on native CT treatment planning scans for radiation in breast cancer patients. METHODS: The treatment-planning scans of 382 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed for additional findings. The planning scan area covered the entire thorax and the upper part of the abdomen. Incidental findings were classified according to their clinical relevance Results: Overall 892 incidental findings were detected in the CT treatment-planning scans (mean 2...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508724/the-impact-of-simulated-motion-blur-on-lesion-detection-performance-in-full-field-digital-mammography
#14
Ahmed K Abdullah, John D Thompson, Claire E Mercer, Rob Aspin, Judith Kelly, Peter Hogg
OBJECTIVE: Motion blur is a known phenomenon in full-field digital mammography, but the impact on lesion detection is unknown. This is the first study to investigate detection performance with varying magnitudes of simulated motion blur. METHOD: Seven observers (15±5 years' reporting experience) evaluated 248 cases (62 containing malignant masses, 62 containing malignant microcalcifications and 124 normal cases) for three conditions: no blurring (0 mm) and two magnitudes of simulated blurring (0...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508689/re-age-choline-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-and-lipids-lactate-to-creatine-ratios-assemble-a-significant-cox%C3%A2-s-proportional-hazards-regression-model-for-survival-prediction-in-patients-with-high-grade-gliomas
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508679/comparison-of-fdg-pet-metabolic-tumour-volume-versus-adc-histogram-prognostic-value-of-tumour-treatment-response-and-survival-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-uterine-cervical-cancer
#16
Yoshiko Ueno, Robert Lisbona, Tsutomu Tamada, Amer Alaref, Kazuro Sugimura, Caroline Reinhold
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic utility of volume-based parameters of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis for tumour response to therapy and event-free survival (EFS) in patients with uterine cervical cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: The study included 21 patients diagnosed as locally advanced uterine cervical cancer who underwent pre-treatment MRI and (18)F-FDG PET and were treated with concurrent CRT...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508663/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-polymyalgia-rheumatica-a-pictorial-review
#17
Zdenek Rehak, Andrea Sprlakova-Pukova, Tomas Kazda, Zdenek Fojtik, Lenka Vargova, Petr Nemec
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is one of the inflammatory rheumatic diseases that can potentially be detected by PET/CT. High (18)F-FDG accumulation around the shoulders, sternoclavicular and hip joints are the most common pre-treatment features of PMR patients. Another common sign is increased (18)F-FDG uptake in extraarticular regions between columnal spinous processes, near ischial tuberosities and in the praepubic area. Some patients also present with high (18)F-FDG uptake in main arteries, corresponding to the characteristics of giant cell arteritis...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486040/gata2-expression-and-biochemical-recurrence-following-salvage-radiation-therapy-for-relapsing-prostate-cancer
#18
Jessica L Robinson, Katherine S Tzou, Alexander S Parker, Michael G Heckman, Kevin J Wu, Tracy W Hilton, Thomas M Pisansky, Steven E Schild, Jennifer L Peterson, Laura A Vallow, Steven J Buskirk
OBJECTIVES: High GATA2 expression has been associated with an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP), however has not been studied in relation to risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) for recurrent prostate cancer after RP. Our aim was to evaluate the association between protein expression levels of GATA2 in primary prostate cancer tumor samples and risk of BCR after SRT. METHODS: 109 men who were treated with SRT were included...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485985/breast-metastases-from-extramammary-malignancies-multimodality-imaging-aspects
#19
Almir G V Bitencourt, Roberta R M Gama, Luciana Graziano, Erika M S Negrão, Silvia M P S Sabino, Anapaula H U Watanabe, Camila S Guatelli, Juliana A Souza, Edmundo C Mauad, Elvira F Marques
Breast metastases from extramammary cancers are rare and usually related to poor prognosis. The extramammary tumors most frequently exhibiting breast metastases are melanoma, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, lung, neuroendocrine tumors, and sarcomas. Due to the lack of reliable and specific clinical or radiological signs for the diagnosis of breast metastases, a combination of techniques is needed to differentiate these lesions from primary breast carcinoma or even benign breast lesions. Multiple imaging methods may be used to evaluate these patients, including mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET/CT)...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471264/angiosarcoma-clinical-and-imaging-features-from-head-to-toe
#20
Ayman H Gaballah, Corey T Jensen, Sarah Palmquist, Perry J Pickhardt, Alper Duran, Gregory Broering, Khaled M Elsayes
Angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma with a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis associated with a generally poor prognosis, unless diagnosed early. Given the vascular endothelial cell origin of angiosarcoma, tumours may develop in essentially any organ; however, there is a predilection for the skin where half of all tumours arise, increasing in prevalence with age. The most common risk factors are chronic lymphoedema and history of radiation. We review the most important radiological findings along the spectrum of angiosarcoma from head to toe throughout the body, including uncommon and rare locations...
May 4, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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