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British Journal of Radiology

Amy R McDowell, Susan C Shelmerdine, David W Carmichael, Owen J Arthurs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of advanced diffusion imaging in Post-Mortem MRI (PMMR) at 3T.  Methods: We acquired PMMR brain and body imaging in 12 neonates, mean gestational age 33.4 weeks (range 29-37 weeks) at 3T and 1.5T. Head and body diffusion imaging at 1.5T using bipolar diffusion encoding and single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) for acquisition (TE 96ms; TR 2700ms; voxel size 1.8x1.8mm in-plane with slice thickness 5mm; b values of 500 and 1000 s/mm2 applied in three orthogonal directions; total acquisition time 2:12)...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Beverly Snaith, Martine A Harris, David Palmer
OBJECTIVES: Skill mix has been established as one method of maintaining imaging service delivery, with vertical and horizontal substitution of roles and tasks. Assistant practitioners (APs) have been undertaking limited imaging practice for almost two decades, but there remains a paucity of evidence related to the impact of their roles. METHODS: This article reports on an electronic survey of individual APs within the NHS in the United Kingdom (UK) to explore utilisation, role scope and aspirations...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Niraj Nirmal Pandey, Arun Sharma, Priya Jagia
Abnormal embryological development of the pulmonary veins can manifest as either partial or total anomalous drainage into the systemic venous circulation. Echocardiography does not provide adequate information in all cases as the optimal visualization of anomalous structures is limited by the availability of acoustic window; also it is highly operator dependent. However, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography, with its multiplanar reformatting & volume rendering techniques, offers precise information about the 3D anatomy and spatial relationships of the cardiovascular structures...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Varun Bansal, Pankaj Gupta, Saroj Sinha, Narender Dhaka, Naveen Kalra, Rajesh Vijayvergiya, Usha Dutta, Rakesh Kocchar
Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS), also known as hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction includes a group of conditions characterized by obstruction to the outflow of blood from the liver secondary to involvement of one or more hepatic veins (HVs), inferior vena cava (IVC) or the right atrium. There are a number of conditions that lead to BCS-ranging from hypercoagulable states to malignancies. In up to 25% patients, no underlying disorder is identified. Diagnosis of BCS is based on a combination of clinical and imaging features...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Kristian H Mortensen, Oliver Tann
Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) is an important imaging modality in congenital and acquired paediatric heart disease. Technological advances have resulted in marked improvements in spatial and temporal resolution with a concomitant increase in speed of data acquisition and a decrease in radiation doses. This has elevated CCT from being sparingly used to an essential diagnostic tool in the daily multimodality imaging practice alongside echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive angiography...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Sonja Stieb, Michelle Malla, Shaun Graydon, Oliver Riesterer, Stephan Klöck, Gabriela Studer, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
OBJECTIVE: Pitch, the rotation around the transversal axis of the patient during radiotherapy has little impact on the dose distribution of small spherical treatment volumes; however it might affect treatment of long volumes requiring a correction with a six degree of freedom (6 DoF) couch. METHODS: We included 10 patients each with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and esophageal cancer, treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Pitch was simulated by tilting the planning CT in ventral and dorsal direction by ±1...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ana Vaniqui, Brent van der Heyden, Isabel P Almeida, Lotte Ejr Schyns, Stefan J van Hoof, Frank Verhaegen
This work aims to analyse the effect of respiratory motion on optimal irradiation margins for murine lung tumour models.  Methods: Four-dimensional mathematical phantoms with different lung tumour locations affected by respiratory motion were created. Two extreme breathing curves were adopted and divided into time-points. Each time-point was loaded in a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations were performed for a 360° arc plan. A time-resolved dose was derived, considering the gantry rotation and the breathing motion...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
Oliver Scott is best known for his research into the role of tumour hypoxia in radiation oncology. Yet no less important were Oliver's activities in the development of concepts and methods for performing translational research on the effect of ionizing radiation on tumour in experimental animals, stressing the importance of using strictly inbred animals for transplantation of tumours which had arisen in exactly the identical mouse strain. Otherwise residual immunity would lead to uncontrollable bias in the results of cure experiments, invalidating conclusions...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Magnus Borga
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more frequently used in studies involving measurements of adipose tissue (AT) and volume and composition of skeletal muscles. The large amount of data generated by MRI calls for automated analysis methods. This review article presents a summary of automated and semi-automated techniques published between 2013 and 2017. Technical aspects and clinical applications for MRI-based AT and muscle composition analysis are discussed based on recently published studies. The conclusion is that very few clinical studies have used highly automated analysis methods, despite the rapidly increasing use of MRI for body composition analysis...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Andrea D Annoni, Daniele Andreini, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Alberto Formenti, Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Andrea Baggiano, Edoardo Conte, Marco Guglielmo, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Manuela Muratori, Laura Fusini, Daniela Trabattoni, Giovanni Teruzzi, Ana I Coutinho Santos, Marco Agrifoglio, Mauro Pepi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate feasibility, image quality and accuracy of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using a third generation wide array CT scanner. METHODS: 115 consecutive patients (51F, mean age 82.5 ± 6.2y, mean BMI 26.7 ± 3.6) referred for TAVI were examined with wide-array CT scanner with a combined scan protocol and a total amount of 50 ml contrast agent. A 4 point visual scale (4-1) was used to assess image quality ...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ruimin Wang, Baixuan Xu, Changbin Liu, Zhiwei Guan, Jinming Zhang, Fei Li, Lu Sun, Haiyan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorothymidine (FLT) interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: Forty-four patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of a rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimen. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) and changes in SUV (ΔSUV) were calculated for both tracers for the predominant lesion of each patient, for prediction of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Arshed Hussain Parry, Abdul Haseeb Wani, Feroze A Shaheen, Abrar Ahad Wani, Imza Feroz, Mohd Ilyas
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to evaluate patients of suspected intracranial tuberculomas with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). METHODS: The present study evaluated 116 patients known or suspected of having central nervous system tuberculosis with advanced MRI techniques comprising of DWI, MRS and SWI in addition to the conventional MRI. RESULTS: Apparent diffusion coefficient value of tuberculomas was not significantly different (p > 0...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Duygu Göller Bulut, Seval Bayrak, Ummügül Uyeturk, Handan Ankarali
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate fractal dimension (FD), mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), and mandibular cortical index (MCI) on panoramic radiographs to determine the mandibular cortical and trabecular bone changes in females with breast cancer undergoing aromatase inhibitors (AIs) treatment . METHODS: In this retrospective study, FD analysis, PMI, MCI, and MCW were assessed over panoramic radiographs of 34 females under AI therapy as a patient group and 34 healthy age-gender matched individuals as a control group...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jayantee Kalita, Neetu Soni, Deepanshu Dubey, Sunil Kumar, Usha Kant Misra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optic nerve involvement in sub acute combined degeneration (SACD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and visual evoked potential (VEP) studies, and their changes following cobalamine treatment. METHODS: Six patients with SACD and six healthy matched controls were included. Visual acuity, field and color of vision were tested. Pattern shift VEP was done, and P100 latency and amplitude were measured. Optic nerve MRI, and DTI of optic nerve to muscle ratio were measured, and fractional anisotropy ratio (FAR), axial diffusivity ratio (ADR), radial diffusion ratio (RDA) and mean diffusivity ratio (MDR) were calculated...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Delgermaa Demchig, Caludia Mello-Thoms, Warwick B Lee, Khulan Khurelsukh, Asai Ramish, Patrick C Brennan
To compare the diagnostic accuracy between radiologists' from a country with and without breast cancer screening.  Methods: All participating radiologists gave informed consent. A test-set involving 60 mammographic cases (20 cancer and 40 non-cancer) were read by 11 radiologists from a non-screening country (NS) during a workshop in July 2016. Fifty-two radiologists from a screening country read the same test-set at the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists' meetings in July 2015. The screening radiologists were classified into two groups: those with less than or equal to 5 years of experience; those with more than 5 years of experience, and each group was compared to the group of non-screening radiologists...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Sidra J Tayyab, Beatriz E Adrada, Gaiane M Rauch, Wei T Yang
Fat necrosis of the breast is a well-described benign entity that can result in unnecessary biopsy of breast lesions. The pathogenesis of fat necrosis is a nonsuppurative inflammatory process of adipose tissue, which may be seen after trauma, surgery, biopsy, post-breast reconstruction, post-fat grafting, post-radiotherapy, infection, and duct ectasia, among other conditions. Clinically, these patients may be asymptomatic or may present with a palpable lump, skin tethering, induration and occasionally axillary lymphadenopathy...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Bentao Yang, Jing Li, Jiyong Dong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the imaging feature of sinonasal oncocytic papilloma (OP) with inverted papilloma (IP). METHODS: The CT and MR imaging manifestations of 17 pathology proven sinonasal OPs were reviewed and compared with seventeen IPs randomly selected as a control group over the same period. RESULTS: Seventeen sinonasal OPs had unilateral occurrence and 16 of them (94.1%) had a lobulated configuration.The distribution of original sites differed significantly between OPs and IPs(P< 0...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jiacheng Song, Qiming Hu, Junwen Huang, Ting Chen, Zhanlong Ma, Haibin Shi
OBJECTIVES: To detect cervical cancer and compare tumor invasiveness using a molecular targeted probe. METHODS: Tenascin-C expression was evaluated in 15 specimens. 5 of them were cervical cancer with node metastasis (group A), 5 were cervical cancer without node metastasis (group B), and another 5 were normal cervix tissues (group C). Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and tenascin-C antibody were conjugated as an MR probe. After the fresh tissues incubated with the probe for 24 h, MR was performed to analysis the tissue signal changes...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hannah Tharmalingham, Peter Hoskin
The concept of tumour hypoxia as a cause of radiation resistance has been prevalent for over 100 years. During this time, our understanding of tumour hypoxia has matured with the recognition that oxygen tension within a tumour is influenced by both diffusion and perfusion mechanisms. In parallel, clinical strategies to modify tumour hypoxia with the expectation that this will improve response to radiation have been developed and tested in clinical trials. Despite many disappointments, meta-analysis of the data on hypoxia modification confirms a significant impact on both tumour control and survival...
July 6, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Mitsuteru Tsuchiya, Takayuki Masui, Yoshiro Otsuki, Harumi Sakahara
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit is a rare and aggressive form of chondrosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively identify the imaging features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit. METHODS: This study included 5 patients with histologically confirmed mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit who had undergone either computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both. Images were evaluated for the following: location, size, margin, CT density and presence or absence of calcification and/or ossification, MRI findings including dynamic contrast-enhancement and time-intensity curves...
July 5, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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