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British Journal of Radiology

Dominik C Benz, Christoph Gräni, Beatrice Hirt Moch, Fran Mikulicic, Jan Vontobel, Tobias A Fuchs, Julia Stehli, Olivier F Clerc, Mathias Possner, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a low-dose (LD) and an ultra-low-dose (ULD) contrast protocol for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) on qualitative and quantitative image parameters in a clinical setting. METHODS: We scanned 120 consecutive patients with a 256-slice CT scanner applying a LD (60 patients, 35-55mL) or ULD (60 patients, 25-45mL) contrast protocol adapted to body mass index (BMI). Visually assessed image quality as well as attenuation measured in each coronary segment were retrospectively compared to 20 consecutive patients scanned with a normal-dose (ND, 40-105mL) contrast protocol...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Hironobu Yanagie, Novriana Dewi, Syushi Higashi, Ichiro Ikushima, Koji Seguchi, Ryoji Mizumachi, Yuji Murata, Yasuyuki Morishita, Atsuko Shinohara, Shoji Mikado, Nakahiro Yasuda, Mitsuteru Fujihara, Yuriko Sakurai, Kikue Mouri, Masashi Yanagawa, Tomoya Iizuka, Minoru Suzuki, Yoshinori Sakurai, Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Hiroki Tanaka, Takehisa Matsukawa, Kazuhito Yokoyama, Takashi Fujino, Koichi Ogura, Yasumasa Nonaka, Hirotaka Sugiyama, Tetsuya Kajiyama, Sho Yui, Ryohei Nishimura, Koji Ono, Sinichi Takamoto, Jun Nakajima, Minoru Ono, Masazumi Eriguchi, Kenichiro Hasumi, Hiroyuki Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a (10)BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. METHODS: We prepared the (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO) mix conventional emulsion...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Michael J Paldino, Zili D Chu, Mary L Chapieski, Farahnaz Golriz, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To measure the repeatability of metrics that quantify brain network architecture derived from resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients. METHODS: We identified patients with: 1. epilepsy; 2. brain MRI at 3 Tesla; 3. two identical rs-fMRI acquisitions performed on the same day. Undirected, weighted networks were constructed based on the resting state time series using a range of processing parameters including parcellation size and graph threshold...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Xinhua Li, Kai Yang, Matthew C DeLorenzo, Bob Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess radiation dose for patients who received abdominal quantitative CT and to compare the midpoint dose [DL(0)] at the center of 1-cm scan length with the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Although the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) proposed in AAPM Report No. 204 is not applicable for short length scans, commercial dose monitoring software, such as Radimetrics Enterprise Platform (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ), reports SSDE for all scans. SSDE was herein compared with DL(0)...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Antonio Giorgio, Maria Gabriella Merola, Luca Montesarchio, Francesca Merola, Pietro Gatti, Carmine Coppola, Valentina Giorgio, Giorgio Calisti
OBJECTIVES: To report on our 20 years' experience on complications after Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: From 1994 to 2014, 1787 RFA procedures were performed percutaneously in 1162 cirrhotic patients (852 Child A and 310 Child B) with HCC nodules (1.2-7cm), PT>50%, platelet count of 50.000mm3 and total Bilirubin ranging from 0,80 to 4.5mg/dl. In 67 patients RFA was performed on both intraparenchymal HCC nodule and tumor thrombus extended in the main portal vein and/or its branches...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
R E Naziroglu, C A J Puylaert, J A W Tielbeek, J C Makanyanga, A Menys, C Y Ponsioen, H Hatzakis, S A Taylor, J Stoker, L J van Vliet, F M Vos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a semi-automatic method for delineation of the bowel wall and measurement of the wall thickness in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with suspected or proven Crohn's disease were selected. Two radiologists independently supervised the delineation of regions with active Crohn's disease on MRI, yielding manual annotations (Ano1, Ano2). Three observers manually measured the maximal bowel wall thickness of each annotated segment...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Francis Boateng, Wilfred Ngwa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dosimetric impact of slow versus burst release of gold nanoparticles (GNP) from biodegradable brachytherapy spacers loaded with GNP, which has been proposed to increase therapeutic efficacy during brachytherapy application with in situ dose-painting. METHODS: Mathematical models were developed based on experimental data to study the release of GNP from a spacer designed with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The models addressed diffusion controlled-released process and PLGA degradation kinetics that were used to determine GNP concentration profiles in tumour and corresponding dose enhancement...
April 6, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Balaji Jeevanandham, Tejas Kalyanpur, Prashant Gupta, Mathew Cherian
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown that meningeal abnormalities with contrast enhancement go undetected in routine post contrast MPRAGE images. This study was to assess theusefulness of newer 3D T1-SPACE and 3D T2-FLAIR sequences in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities. METHODS: 78 patients presented with high suspicion of meningeal abnormalities were evaluated with post contrast 3D T2-FLAIR, 3D T1 MPRAGE and 3D T1 SPACE sequences. The images were evaluated independently by two radiologists for cortical gyral, sulcal space, basal cisterns and dural enhancement...
April 4, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Nagy N N Naguib, Constanze Hey, Mohamed S Shaaban, Amr M Elabd, Heba Hassan, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Benjamin Kaltenbach, Marc Harth, Hanns Ackermann, Timo Stoever, Thomas J Vogl, Nour-Eldin A Nour-Eldin
OBJECTIVES: To test using the facial nerve as a reference for assessment of the cochlear nerve size in patients with acquired longstanding-sensorineural-hearing-loss (SNHL) using MRI multiplanar-reconstruction (MPR). METHODS: The study was retrospectively performed on 86 patients. Group 1 (study group, n=53) with bilateral longstanding-SNHL. Group 2 (control group, n=33) without hearing loss. Nerve size was measured by drawing region of interest around the cross-sectional circumference of the nerve in MPR images...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Foucauld Chamming's, Ellen Kao, Ann Aldis, Romuald Ferré, Atilla Omeroglu, Caroline Reinhold, Benoit Mesurolle
OBJECTIVES: To review the imaging features of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) seen on Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in comparison with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and to evaluate whether DBT could improve conspicuity and tumor size assessment of ILC in comparison with digital mammography (DM). METHODS: Institutional review board with waiver of informed consent was obtained for this retrospective study. Patients with ILC or IDC who underwent DBT and DM at the time of diagnosis were included...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Christopher John Wiggins, Andreas Schäfer, Bibek Dhital, Denis Le Bihan, Robert Turner
OBJECTIVES: A fine structure of the corpus callosum, consisting of radial lines, is seen in historical anatomical atlases as far back as that of Vicq d'Azyr (1786). This study examines a similar pattern observed in-vivo using high-resolution MR images at 7 Tesla. METHODS: 8 healthy subjects were examined with 7 Tesla MRI. Anatomical images were collected with a gradient echo scan with 0.5mm isotropic resolution, which were rated for visibility of the radial pattern...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
J Ciaran Hutchinson, Susan C Shelmerdine, Ian C Simcock, Neil J Sebire, Owen J Arthurs
Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) has traditionally been used in industry and preclinical studies, although it may find new applicability in the routine clinical setting. It can provide high resolution three dimensional (3D) digital imaging datasets to the same level of detail as microscopic examination without the need for tissue dissection. Micro-CT is already enabling non-invasive detailed internal assessment of various tissue specimens, particularly in breast imaging and early gestational fetal autopsy, not previously possible from more conventional modalities such as MRI or CT...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Mark S Igra, David Paling, Mike P Wattjes, Daniel Ja Connolly, Nigel Hoggard
MRI has long been established as the most sensitive in vivo technique for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The 2010 revisions of the McDonald Criteria have simplified imaging criteria, such that a diagnosis of MS can be made on a single contrast-enhanced MRI scan in the appropriate clinical context. New disease modifying therapies have proven effective in reducing relapse rate and severity. Several of these therapies, most particularly natalizumab, but also dimethyl fumarate and fingolimod have been associated with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML)...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Nicki Groom, Elena Wilson, Corinne Faivre-Finn
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of deviation from protocol in heart delineation for the CONVERT Trial ( Identifier NCT00433563) quality assurance (QA) programme, and the effect of that on mean cardiac dose and percentage of heart volume receiving ≥5Gy (V5%) and ≥30Gy (V30%). METHODS: CONVERT trial patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) were randomised to receive 45Gy in 30# BD or 66Gy in 33# OD radiotherapy, with concurrent chemotherapy in both arms...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Jeremy R Wortman, Wendy Landman, Urvi P Fulwadhva, Salvatore G Viscomi, Aaron D Sodickson
Acute GI bleeding is a common cause of both Emergency Department visits and hospitalizations in the United States, and can have a high morbidity and mortality if not treated rapidly. Imaging is playing an increasing role in both the diagnosis and management of GI bleeding. In particular, CT angiography is a promising initial test for acute gastrointestinal bleeding as it is universally available, can be performed rapidly, and may provide diagnostic information to guide management. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the uses of imaging in the diagnosis and management of acute GI bleeding, with a focus on CT angiography...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Seong Jong Yun, Hyun Cheol Kim, Dal Mo Yang, Sang Won Kim, Sun Jung Rhee, Sung Eun Ahn
Diagnostic errors remain an inevitable occurrence during abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) interpretation, despite advances in imaging technology. The main cause of error is failure to identify a lesion (i.e., perceptual error) and failure to recognize a finding's significance (i.e., interpretive or cognitive error). Awareness and understanding of the causes of errors can reduce their occurrence and may lead to a reduction in morbidity and mortality. This pictorial essay highlights various causes of error in interpreting APCT scans and briefly discusses possible solutions for minimizing these errors...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Zhen-Guo Huang, Min-Xing Yang, Xiao-Liang Chen, Ran Yan, He Chen, Bao-Xiang Gao, Li-Guo Yin, Kai-Ning Shi, Chan Queenie, Guo-Chun Wang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of coronal short-tau inversion recovery whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (STIR-WBMRI) for screening osteonecrosis in patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). METHODS: The imaging and medical records of 129 PM/DM patients who met the Bohan and Peter diagnostic criteria were retrospectively analyzed. STIR-WBMRI was performed in all patients. 18 patients had follow-up STIR-WBMRI. 12 patients underwent regional knee and/or hip MRI, while 25 patients underwent radiography of the lower extremities...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Jinxing Yu, Ann S Fulcher, Sarah G Winks, Mary A Turner, Ryan D Clayton, Michael Brooks, Sean Li
Many of the current clinical screening methods for prostate cancer (PCa) such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing or transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy lack sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of PCa of the transition zone (TZ). Recent technical advances in multiparametric-MRI have markedly improved detection of PCa of the TZ. However, there are many diagnostic challenges that we still encounter in our daily practice that compromise the accuracy of the diagnosis. By performing both MRI-guided and ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided biopsies, we have gained extensive experience in the diagnosis of PCa of the TZ...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Julianne M Pollard, Zhifei Wen, Ramaswamy Sadagopan, Jihong Wang, Geoffrey S Ibbott
Advances in image-guided radiotherapy (RT) have allowed for dose escalation and more precise radiation treatment delivery. Each decade brings new imaging technologies to help improve RT patient setup. Currently, the most frequently used method of three-dimensional pre-treatment image verification is performed with cone beam CT. However, more recent developments have provided RT with the ability to have on-board MRI coupled to the teleradiotherapy unit. This latest tool for treating cancer is known as MR-guided RT...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
A'Di Chen, HaoSen Wang, Bing Fan, YaWei Xu, Wei Chen, Neng Dai
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have confirmed high diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether the superior diagnostic accuracy could translate into improved mortality outcomes remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of normal PET MPI. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify related studies up to June 2016...
March 17, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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