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British Journal of Radiology

Eun Jee Song, Yu-Mee Sohn, Mirinae Seo
OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinico-radiologic and pathologic features of breast cancer with quantitative and qualitative shear wave elastographic parameters. METHODS: 82 breast cancers in 75 patients examined by B-mode ultrasound (US) and shear wave elastography (SWE) were included. SWE parameters including quantitative factors [maximum elasticity (Emax ), mean elasticity (Emean ), elasticity ratio (Eratio ) and standard deviation (SD)] and qualitative factor (color pattern) were correlated with clinico-radiologic and pathological features using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Scott J Lee, Jianmin Liu, Jianhua Yao, Andrew Kanarek, Ronald M Summers, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a fully-automated CT-based adiposity tool, applying it to a longitudinal adult screening cohort. METHODS: A validated automated adipose tissue segmentation algorithm was applied to non-contrast abdominal CT scans in 8852 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 3926M/4926F) undergoing colonography screening. The tool was also applied to follow-up CT scans in a subset of 1584 individuals undergoing longitudinal surveillance (mean interval, 5...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
B Jones, R G Dale
A summary of the key aspects of radiobiological modelling is provided, based on the theoretical and practical concepts of the linear quadratic (LQ) model, which gradually replaced other numerical approaches. The closely related biological effective dose (BED) concept is useful in many clinical applications. BED formulations in conventional photon-based radiotherapy continue to be developed, and can be extended to the now increasingly used proton and ion-beam therapy, to very low or high dose ranges, the dose rate effect, hypoxia and repopulation...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Monica M Olcina, Ryan K Kim, Stavros Melemenidis, Edward E Graves, Amato J Giaccia
The complement system is an innate immune pathway typically thought of as part of the first line of defence against "non-self" species. In the context of cancer, complement has been described to have an active role in facilitating cancer-associated processes such as increased proliferation, angiogenesis and migration. Several cellular members of the tumour microenvironment express and/or produce complement proteins locally, including tumour cells. Dysregulation of the complement system has been reported in numerous tumours and increased expression of complement activation fragments in cancer patient specimens correlates with poor patient prognosis...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ioannis A Tsalafoutas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electronic collimation software, which is available in all digital X-ray systems, may comprise an overexposure risk. METHODS: In the context of surveys on Diagnostic Reference Levels carried out in two radiographic facilities, along with data on exposure factors, the radiographic field sizes were also recorded. In one facility (Unit A), a wireless flat panel detector is used with a conventional X-ray unit, while in the other, a fully digital system is installed (Unit B)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Mustafa M Almuqbel, Gareth Leeper, Ross Keenan, David N Plamer, Tracy R Melzer
OBJECTIVES: To highlight specific instances when radial k-space acquisitions in magnetic resonance imaging result in image artifacts and how to ameliorate such artifacts. METHODS: We acquired axial T2  weighted MR images on (1) the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom and (2) a sedated sheep with rectilinear and multi-blade radial k-space filling acquisitions. Images were acquired on four (2 × 1.5T and 2 × 3T) different MRI scanners. For the radial k-space acquisitions, we acquired images with and without motion correction...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
L Alejo, E Corredoira, F Sánchez-Muñoz, C Huerga, Z Aza, R Plaza-Núñez, A Serrada, M Bret-Zurita, M Parrón, C Prieto-Areyano, G Garzón-Moll, R Madero, E Guibelalde
Objective: The new 2013/59 EURATOM Directive (ED) demands dosimetric optimisation procedures without undue delay. The aim of this study was to optimise paediatric conventional radiology exams applying the ED without compromising the clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Automatic dose management software (ADMS) was used to analyse 2678 studies of children from birth to 5 years of age, obtaining local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of entrance surface air kerma. Given local DRL for infants and chest exams exceeded the European Commission (EC) DRL, an optimisation was performed decreasing the kVp and applying the automatic control exposure...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
David K Tso, Ajay K Singh
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of necrotizing fasciitis as seen on radiograph, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, and to recognize the early findings in this potentially fatal disease. CONCLUSION: Although classically a clinical diagnosis, imaging is a powerful adjunct to facilitate early diagnosis in equivocal cases. Compared to plain radiography, US, CT and MR provide higher sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Pei-An Hu, Zheng-Rong Zhou
PURPOSES: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a unique locally aggressive vascular tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and imaging features of KHE, and to compare the differences between solitary and diffusive infiltrative subtype further. METHODS: The clinical and radiological findings of a cohort of 25 cases with histologically proven KHE, between June 2011 and June 2016, were reviewed retrospectively. Seven solitary and 18 diffusive infiltrative subtypes KHE were included...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ruth Ec Evans, Stuart A Taylor, Sandra Beare, Steve Halligan, Alison Morton, Alf Oliver, Andrea Rockall, Anne Miles
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perceived patient burden and acceptability of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) compared to standard staging investigations, and identify predictors of reduced tolerance.  Methods: Patients recruited to multi-centre trials comparing WB-MRI with standard staging scans for lung and colorectal cancer were invited to complete two questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire at recruitment, measuring demographics, comorbidities, and distress; and a follow-up questionnaire after staging, measuring recovery time, comparative acceptability/satisfaction between WB-MRI and CT (colorectal cancer) and PET-CT (lung cancer), and perceived scan burden (scored 1 low to 7 high)...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jun Lv, Wenjian Huang, Jue Zhang, Xiaoying Wang
OBJECTIVE: In free-breathing multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), a series of images typically requires several minutes to collect. During respiration the kidney is routinely displaced and may also undergo deformation. These respiratory motion effects generate artifacts and these are the main sources of error in the quantification of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) derived parameters. This work proposes a fully automated framework that combines a kidney segmentation to improve the registration accuracy Methods: Ten healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this experiment...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Emily Vaughan, Joseph Machta, Martin Walker, Christos Toumpanakis, Martyn Caplin, Shaunak Navalkissoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a repeat peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) course in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients who have progressed following previous PRRT and to identify factors contributing to retreatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 47 consecutive patients who had been treated with PRRT (PRRT1) and following disease progression were retreated with a second course of PRRT (PRRT2). We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment characteristics, time to progression after PRRT1 and PRRT2, overall survival and toxicity...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Lingjian Yang, Catharine Ml West
Hypoxia is a generic micro-environmental factor of solid tumours. High levels of hypoxia lead to resistance to radiotherapy, which can be targeted by adding hypoxia-modifying therapy to improve clinical outcomes. Not all patients benefit from hypoxia-modifying therapy, and there is a need for biomarkers to enable progression to biologically personalised radiotherapy. Gene expression signatures are a relatively new category of biomarkers that can reflect tumour hypoxia. This article reviews the published hypoxia gene signatures, summarising their development and validation...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Veronica S Hughes, Jennifer M Wiggins, Dietmar W Siemann
In 2012 cancer affected 14.1 million people worldwide and was responsible for 8.2 million deaths. The disease predominantly affects aged populations and is one of the leading causes of death in most western countries. In tumors, the aggressive growth of the neoplastic cell population and associated over-expression of pro-angiogenic factors leads to the development of disorganized blood vessel networks that are structurally and functionally different from normal vasculature. A disorganized labyrinth of vessels that are immature, tortuous and hyperpermeable typifies tumor vasculature...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Anna M Kirby
The American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has recently updated their guidelines on the role of accelerated partial breast irradiation in the management of breast cancer. This commentary discusses the new recommendations and how we might advise patients in the light of existing data.
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Carl Roobottom
The 2016 NICE guidelines mark a radical change in the diagnosis of patients with stable chest pain. Quantitative assessments of the disease probability are no longer considered necessary to determine the need and type of diagnostic testing. Instead, the recommendation is for no diagnostic test if the chest pain is judged to be "non-anginal" and computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with "typical" or "atypical" chest pain. The new emphasis on anatomical, rather than functional testing is driven by the accuracy, safety and cost-effectiveness of the different investigations as evaluated by NICE...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Angela Atinga, Andreas Shekkeris, Michael Fertleman, Nicola Batrick, Elika Kashef, Elizabeth Dick
Major Trauma Centres and Emergency Departments are treating an increasing number of geriatric trauma patients in the UK. Elderly patients, generally defined as those over the age of 65 years, are more susceptible to injury from lesser mechanisms of trauma than younger adults. The number of geriatric trauma cases is rising yearly, accounting for > 25% of all major trauma cases nationally. The elderly have different physiological reserves and a different response to trauma, due to premorbid frailty, co-existing conditions and prescribed medication...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Rajsrinivas Parthasarathy, Vipul Gupta, Aditya Gupta
OBJECTIVES: Blister like aneurysm (BLA) is extremely challenging to treat; endoluminal reconstruction has emerged as the most promising treatment method. When to treat after the ictus, the timing of administration of antiplatelet and causal relationship between platelet function testing results and thromboembolism is unclear. We theorized that Prasugrel with a lower incidence of resistance may be a safe suitable alternative to clopidogrel in patients treated with a flow diverter. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from consecutive patients treated for a ruptured blister with a flow diverter was reviewed...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Sunghoon Park, Joon-Kee Yoon, Nam-Su Chung, Sang Hyun Kim, Jinwoo Hwang, Hyun Young Lee, Kyu-Sung Kwack
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) parameters and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) metabolic parameters in patients with vertebral bone metastases. METHODS: Nineteen patients with vertebral bone metastases were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. All patients underwent IVIM DWI and 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hiroto Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hisashi Tanaka, Masahito Mihara, Hideki Mochizuki, Tian Liu, Yi Wang, Noriyuki Tomiyama
OBJECTIVE: To quantify nigral changes with a focus on their spatial variation within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) for diagnosing early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study participants were 18 patients with early-stage PD (PD group) and 18 healthy controls (HC group) who underwent quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and neuromelanin imaging. The QSM and neuromelanin values in each whole SNpc containing the entire nigrosome and dorsolateral SNpc containing nigrosome 1 were calculated...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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