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British Journal of Psychology

Jasmine J Hooper, Clare A M Sutherland, Louise Ewing, Robyn Langdon, Nathan Caruana, Emily Connaughton, Nikolas Williams, Jayden Greenwell-Barnden, Gillian Rhodes
Facial impressions of trustworthiness guide social decisions in the general population, as shown by financial lending in economic Trust Games. As an exception, autistic boys fail to use facial impressions to guide trust decisions, despite forming typical facial trustworthiness impressions (Autism, 19, 2015a, 1002). Here, we tested whether this dissociation between forming and using facial impressions of trustworthiness extends to neurotypical men with high levels of autistic traits. Forty-six Caucasian men completed a multi-turn Trust Game, a facial trustworthiness impressions task, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, and two Theory of Mind tasks...
November 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Gregory K Tortoriello, William Hart
The extant literature on interpersonal criticism suggests that relative to destructive criticism, constructive criticism significantly minimizes the injurious psychological aftermath people experience after failure. However, we propose the possibility that for some people, these psychological benefits of constructive criticism are less apparent. Specifically, we hypothesized that for people high in trait interpersonal vulnerability, a construct marked by maladaptive cognitive-emotional responses in interpersonal contexts and/or by dysfunctional relational concerns, effects of constructive (vs...
October 30, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Candice C Morey
Consistent, robust boosts to visual working memory capacity are observed when colour-location arrays contain duplicate colours. The prevailing explanation suggests that duplicated colours are encoded as one perceptual group. If so, then we should observe not only higher working memory capacity overall for displays containing duplicates, but specifically an improved ability to remember unique colours from displays including duplicates compared with displays comprising all uniquely coloured items. Furthermore, less effort should be required to retain displays as colour redundancy increases...
October 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Gordon Dodwell, Hermann J Müller, Thomas Töllner
While a substantial body of research has investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance, few have monitored exercise-concurrent cognitive processes via electroencephalography and fewer still using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. As such, little is known regarding how the temporal dynamics of cognitive processing are influenced during aerobic activity. Here, we aimed to elucidate the influence of aerobic exercise on the temporal dynamics of concurrent visual working memory (VWM) performance...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
How does visual working memory (WM) store the binding between different features of a visual object (like colour, orientation, and location), and does memorizing these bindings require additional resources beyond memorizing individual features? These questions have traditionally been addressed by comparing performance across different types of change detection task. More recently, experimental tasks such as analogue (cued) recall, combined with analysis methods including Bayesian hypothesis testing and formal model comparison, have shed new light on the properties of WM...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jenny Bowler, Patrick Bourke
It has been demonstrated that the use of social networking sites late at night can lead to sleep-related problems that extend into the next day. A common explanation is that the light emitted from screens is disrupting the users' circadian rhythms. An alternative explanation is that the social cognition inherent in the use of social networking sites is responsible. Here, the two factors were looked at together. Participants used Facebook on iPad tablets before sleep. This was done on different nights with two lighting conditions and with two levels of content...
October 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Duncan A Carmichael, Rebecca Smees, Richard C Shillcock, Julia Simner
Synaesthesia has long been considered a benign alternative form of perception most often associated with positive rather than negative outcomes. The condition has been associated with a variety of cognitive and perceptual advantages, including benefits in memory, processing speed, and creativity. It is not currently recognized in the DSM-IV. Recently, however, several studies have raised the question of a possible link between synaesthesia and clinical conditions. Here, we present the first large-scale screening of the general population in which we (1) objectively identified grapheme-colour synaesthetes and (2) elicited information from our participants about a range of clinical conditions...
October 3, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jennifer K South Palomares, Andrew W Young
Romantic relationship researchers often use self-report measures of partner preferences based on verbal questionnaires. These questionnaires show that partner preferences involve an evaluation in terms of underlying factors of vitality-attractiveness, status-resources, and warmth-trustworthiness. However, when people first encounter a potential partner, they can usually derive a wealth of impressions from their face, and little is known about the relationship between verbal self-reports and impressions derived from faces...
September 30, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Nadine Lavan, Luke F K Burston, Lúcia Garrido
Our voices sound different depending on the context (laughing vs. talking to a child vs. giving a speech), making within-person variability an inherent feature of human voices. When perceiving speaker identities, listeners therefore need to not only 'tell people apart' (perceiving exemplars from two different speakers as separate identities) but also 'tell people together' (perceiving different exemplars from the same speaker as a single identity). In the current study, we investigated how such natural within-person variability affects voice identity perception...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Sabrina V Seel, Alexander Easton, Anthony McGregor, Matthew G Buckley, Madeline J Eacott
Previous research has reported that walking through a doorway to a new location makes memory for objects and events experienced in the previous location less accurate. This effect, termed the location updating effect, has been used to suggest that location changes are used to mark boundaries between events in memory: memories for objects encountered within the current event are more available than those from beyond an event boundary. Within a computer-generated memory task, participants navigated through virtual rooms, walking through doorways, and interacting with objects...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Efsun Annac, Xuelian Zang, Hermann J Müller, Thomas Geyer
Repeatedly encountering a visual search display with the target located at a fixed position relative to the distractors facilitates target detection, relative to novel displays - which is attributed to search guidance by (acquired) long-term memory (LTM) of the distractor 'context' of the target. Previous research has shown that this 'contextual cueing' effect is severely impeded during learning when participants have to perform a demanding spatial working memory (WM) task concurrently with the search task, though it does become manifest when the WM task is removed...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Stefan Czoschke, Cora Fischer, Julia Beitner, Jochen Kaiser, Christoph Bledowski
Stimulus representations in working memory depend on memory traces of past stimuli both from previous trials and from the current trial. However, it is unclear whether the same or different mechanisms underlie this serial dependence across and within trials. We directly contrasted estimates of bias for pairs of immediately successive stimuli across and within trials. In each trial, participants memorized two consecutive motion direction stimuli (S1 and S2) and after a short delay were cued to report one of them...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Oren Griffiths, Noor Shehabi, Robin A Murphy, Mike E Le Pelley
Superstitions are common, yet we have little understanding of the cognitive mechanisms that bring them about. This study used a laboratory-based analogue for superstitious beliefs that involved people monitoring the relationship between undertaking an action (pressing a button) and an outcome occurring (a light illuminating). The task was arranged such that there was no objective contingency between pressing the button and the light illuminating - the light was just as likely to illuminate whether the button was pressed or not...
August 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Gilles E Gignac, Clare L Starbuck
Prospective mate characteristics such as kindness, intelligence, easygoingness, and physical attraction are ranked consistently highly by both men and women. However, rank measurement does not allow for determinations of what level of a mate characteristic is rated most desirable. Based on a more informative percentile scale measurement approach, it was reported recently that mean desirability ratings of IQ in a prospective partner peaked at the 90th percentile, with a statistically significant reduction from the 90th to the 99th percentiles...
August 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Anne Schüler, Francesca Pazzaglia, Katharina Scheiter
It was investigated whether the beneficial effect of picture presentation might be influenced by the content conveyed through text and pictures and the way information is distributed between them. Ninety-nine students learnt in five between-subjects learning conditions (i.e., text with spatial contents plus pictures, text with visual contents plus pictures, only text with spatial contents, only text with visual contents, only picture) about a tourist centre and a holiday farm. Results showed that pictures (i...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Kinga Morsanyi, Bianca M C W van Bers, Teresa McCormack, Jemma McGourty
Mathematics difficulties are common in both children and adults, and they can have a great impact on people's lives. A specific learning disorder in mathematics (SLDM or developmental dyscalculia) is a special case of persistent mathematics difficulties, where the problems with maths cannot be attributed to environmental factors, intellectual disability, or mental, neurological or physical disorders. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence rate of SLDM, any gender differences in SLDM, and the most common comorbid conditions...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jeanne Bovet, Eva Raiber, Weiwei Ren, Charlotte Wang, Paul Seabright
Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences that enable them to select mates and children-in-law to maximize their inclusive fitness. The theory of parent-offspring conflict predicts that preferences for potential mates may differ between parents and offspring: individuals are expected to value biological quality more in their own mates than in their offspring's mates and to value investment potential more in their offspring's mates than in their own mates. We tested this hypothesis in China using a naturalistic 'marriage market' where parents actively search for marital partners for their offspring...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Rebecca Chamberlain, Nicola Brunswick, Joseph Siev, I C McManus
Conflicting empirical and theoretical accounts suggest that dyslexia is associated with either average, enhanced, or impoverished high-level visuospatial processing relative to controls. Such heterogeneous results could be due to the presence of wider variability in dyslexic samples, which is unlikely to be identified at the single study level, due to lack of power. To address this, this study reports a meta-analysis of means and variances in high-level visuospatial ability in 909 non-dyslexic and 956 dyslexic individuals...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Mila Mileva, A Mike Burton
Unfamiliar face matching is a surprisingly difficult task, yet we often rely on people's matching decisions in applied settings (e.g., border control). Most attempts to improve accuracy (including training and image manipulation) have had very limited success. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that using smiling rather than neutral pairs of images brings about significant improvements in face matching accuracy. This is true for both match and mismatch trials, implying that the information provided through a smile helps us detect images of the same identity as well as distinguishing between images of different identities...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Pedro Macizo, Alejandro Álvarez
In this study, we evaluated whether the naming of Arabic digits required access to semantic information. Participants named pictures and Arabic digits blocked by category or intermixed with exemplars of other categories while behavioural and electrophysiological measures were gathered. Pictures were named slower and Arabic digits faster in the blocked context relative to the mixed context. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of pictures and Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when the blocked context was compared with the mixed context...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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