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British Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407210/the-association-of-sleep-disturbances-with-endocrine-and-perceived-stress-reactivity-measures-in-male-employees
#1
Marta Jackowska, Reinhard Fuchs, Sandra Klaperski
Evidence on the relationship between stress reactivity and sleep is conflicting. This study examined the association between disturbed sleep and perceived and endocrine stress reactivity independently of age, body mass index (BMI), and chronic stress. One hundred and twenty middle-aged men were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale were used to assess sleep and perceived stress reactivity, respectively. Endocrine stress reactivity was examined by assessing salivary cortisol levels...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369811/do-children-with-grapheme-colour-synaesthesia-show-cognitive-benefits
#2
Julia Simner, Angela E Bain
Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is characterized by conscious and consistent associations between letters and colours, or between numbers and colours (e.g., synaesthetes might see A as red, 7 as green). Our study explored the development of this condition in a group of randomly sampled child synaesthetes. Two previous studies (Simner & Bain, 2013, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 603; Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro, & Foulkes, 2009, Brain, 132, 57) had screened over 600 primary school children to find the first randomly sampled cohort of child synaesthetes...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326547/behavioural-responses-to-facial-and-postural-expressions-of-emotion-an-interpersonal-circumplex-approach
#3
Marije Aan Het Rot, Violeta Enea, Ion Dafinoiu, Sorina Iancu, Steluţa A Taftă, Mariana Bărbuşelu
While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural expressions of emotion. We presented 101 Romanian students with facial and postural stimuli involving individuals ('targets') expressing happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. Using an interpersonal grid, participants simultaneously indicated how communal (i...
March 21, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295187/working-memory-moderates-the-effect-of-the-integrative-process-of-implicit-and-explicit-autonomous-motivation-on-academic-achievement
#4
Alexandre Gareau, Patrick Gaudreau
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276063/perceived-warmth-and-competence-of-others-shape-voluntary-deceptive-behaviour-in-a-morally-relevant-setting
#5
Ruben T Azevedo, Maria Serena Panasiti, Rosita Maglio, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
The temptation to deceive others compares to a moral dilemma: it involves a conflict between the temptation to obtain some benefit and the desire to conform to personal and social moral norms or avoid aversive social consequences. Thus, people might feel different levels of emotional and moral conflict depending on the target of the deception. Here we explored, in a morally relevant setting, how social judgements based on two fundamental dimensions of human social cognition - 'warmth' and 'competence' - impact on the decision to deceive others...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266717/theory-of-mind-and-wisdom-the-development-of-different-forms-of-perspective-taking-in-late-adulthood
#6
Hannes Rakoczy, Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240363/research-on-face-recognition-the-aberdeen-influence
#7
Graham M Davies, Andrew W Young
The review of 'Recognizing faces' by Hadyn Ellis, published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1975, marked the genesis of a distinct field of research. This seminal review sprang from a broader programme of research on face recognition conducted at the University of Aberdeen, whose influence continues to be felt in what has become an internationally important research area. We discuss the background to the Aberdeen research, summarize some of its achievements, and offer reasons why it proved so successful...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240359/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-link-between-rational-number-processing-and-algebra-ability
#8
Michelle Hurst, Sara Cordes
Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233898/body-image-disturbance-and-skin-bleaching
#9
Christopher A D Charles, Shua-Kym McLean
This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1...
February 24, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230235/seeing-overweight-adults-as-babies-physical-cues-and-implications-for-stigmatization
#10
Anton J M Dijker, Rutger DeLuster, Nicolas Peeters, Nanne K de Vries
Human babies not only are reliable triggers of tender feelings and protective tendencies, they also happen to be exceptionally fat compared to the newborns of most other species. These two facts are used to formulate a hypothesis predicting that overweight males, due to their great physical resemblance to babies, not only are perceived as cute, but also are associated with negatively evaluated traits (e.g., immaturity, lack of willpower) that are saliently inconsistent with traits required for adults. In this study, a great many physical features of adult males varying widely in weight were measured and correlated with subjective judgements...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161891/genius-begins-at-home-shared-social-identity-enhances-the-recognition-of-creative-performance
#11
Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Michelle K Ryan, Kathryn Millard
The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists' performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2...
February 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127748/parent-child-value-similarity-in-families-with-young-children-the-predictive-power-of-prosocial-educational-goals
#12
Anna K Döring, Elena Makarova, Walter Herzog, Anat Bardi
Value transmission from one generation to the next is a key issue in every society, but it is not clear which parents are the most successful in transmitting their values to their children. We propose parents' prosocial educational goals as key predictors of parent-child value similarity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the more parents wanted their children to endorse values of self-transcendence (helping, supporting, and caring for others) and the less parents wanted their children to endorse the opposing values of self-enhancement (striving for power and achievement), the higher would be parent-child overall value similarity...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369841/attentional-capture-in-driving-displays
#13
Mahé Arexis, François Maquestiaux, Nicholas Gaspelin, Eric Ruthruff, André Didierjean
Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways, but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor-present trials than distractor-absent trials...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443971/facial-first-impressions-from-another-angle-how-social-judgements-are-influenced-by-changeable-and-invariant-facial-properties
#14
Clare A M Sutherland, Andrew W Young, Gillian Rhodes
First impressions made to photographs of faces can depend as much on momentary characteristics of the photographed image (within-person variability) as on consistent properties of the face of the person depicted (between-person variability). Here, we examine two important sources of within-person variability: emotional expression and viewpoint. We find more within-person variability than between-person variability for social impressions of key traits of trustworthiness, dominance, and attractiveness, which index the main dimensions in theoretical models of facial impressions...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426072/altruism-predicts-mating-success-in-humans
#15
Steven Arnocky, Tina Piché, Graham Albert, Danielle Ouellette, Pat Barclay
In order for non-kin altruism to evolve, altruists must receive fitness benefits for their actions that outweigh the costs. Several researchers have suggested that altruism is a costly signal of desirable qualities, such that it could have evolved by sexual selection. In two studies, we show that altruism is broadly linked with mating success. In Study 1, participants who scored higher on a self-report altruism measure reported they were more desirable to the opposite sex, as well as reported having more sex partners, more casual sex partners, and having sex more often within relationships...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381170/dressing-up-posture-the-interactive-effects-of-posture-and-clothing-on-competency-judgements
#16
Daniel J Gurney, Neil Howlett, Karen Pine, Megan Tracey, Rachel Moggridge
Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370950/it-s-immoral-but-i-d-do-it-psychopathy-traits-affect-decision-making-in-sacrificial-dilemmas-and-in-everyday-moral-situations
#17
Carolina Pletti, Lorella Lotto, Giulia Buodo, Michela Sarlo
This research investigated whether emotional hyporeactivity affects moral judgements and choices of action in sacrificial moral dilemmas and in everyday moral conflict situations in which harm to other's welfare is differentially involved. Twenty-six participants with high trait psychopathy (HP) and 25 with low trait psychopathy (LP) were selected based on the primary psychopathy scale of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. HP participants were more likely to sacrifice one person to save others in sacrificial dilemmas and to pursue a personal advantage in everyday moral situations entailing harm to another's good...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328809/sex-differences-in-number-line-estimation-the-role-of-numerical-estimation
#18
Regina M Reinert, Stefan Huber, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Korbinian Moeller
Sex differences in mathematical performance have frequently been examined over the last decades indicating an advantage for males especially when numerical problems cannot be solved by (classroom-)learnt strategies and/or estimation. Even in basic numerical tasks such as number line estimation, males were found to outperform females - with sex differences argued to emerge from different solution strategies applied by males and females. We evaluated the latter using two versions of the number line estimation task: a bounded and an unbounded task version...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230305/dominance-of-texture-over-shape-in-facial-identity-processing-is-modulated-by-individual-abilities
#19
Marlena L Itz, Jessika Golle, Stefanie Luttmann, Stefan R Schweinberger, Jürgen M Kaufmann
For face recognition, observers utilize both shape and texture information. Here, we investigated the relative diagnosticity of shape and texture for delayed matching of familiar and unfamiliar faces (Experiment 1) and identifying familiar and newly learned faces (Experiment 2). Within each familiarity condition, pairs of 3D-captured faces were morphed selectively in either shape or texture in 20% steps, holding the respective other dimension constant. We also assessed participants' individual face-processing skills via the Bielefelder Famous Faces Test (BFFT), the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221984/life-events-and-functional-somatic-symptoms-a-population-study-in-older-adolescents
#20
Irma J Bonvanie, Karin A M Janssens, Judith G M Rosmalen, Albertine J Oldehinkel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were assessed with the Kendler's Life Stress interview. FSSs at age 19 and age 16 were measured with the Youth and Adult Self-Report. The hypotheses were tested by the use of a latent change model. Life events predicted FSSs, even when adjusted for pre-event levels of FSSs, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and socio-economic status (B = 0...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
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