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British Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722199/facial-expression-coding-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-reduced-adaptability-but-intact-norm-based-coding
#1
Gillian Rhodes, Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Ainsley Read, Libby Taylor, Louise Ewing
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions. Here, we asked whether the underlying perceptual coding of expression is disrupted. Typical individuals code expression relative to a perceptual (average) norm that is continuously updated by experience. This adaptability of face-coding mechanisms has been linked to performance on various face tasks. We used an adaptation aftereffect paradigm to characterize expression coding in children and adolescents with autism...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657648/perceptual-flexibility-is-coupled-with-reduced-executive-inhibition-in-students-of-the-visual-arts
#2
Rebecca Chamberlain, Lena Swinnen, Sarah Heeren, Johan Wagemans
Artists often report that seeing familiar stimuli in novel and interesting ways plays a role in visual art creation. However, the attentional mechanisms which underpin this ability have yet to be fully investigated. More specifically, it is unclear whether the ability to reinterpret visual stimuli in novel and interesting ways is facilitated by endogenously generated switches of attention, and whether it is linked in turn to executive functions such as inhibition and response switching. To address this issue, the current study explored ambiguous figure reversal and executive function in a sample of undergraduate students studying arts and non-art subjects (N = 141)...
June 28, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632335/to-brexit-or-not-to-brexit-the-roles-of-islamophobia-conspiracist-beliefs-and-integrated-threat-in-voting-intentions-for-the-united-kingdom-european-union-membership-referendum
#3
Viren Swami, David Barron, Laura Weis, Adrian Furnham
We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556198/can-bottom-up-processes-of-attention-be-a-source-of-interference-in%C3%A2-situations-where-top-down-control-of-attention-is-crucial
#4
Dritan Nikolla, Graham Edgar, Dianne Catherwood, Tristan Matthews
In this study, we investigate whether emotionally engaged bottom-up processes of attention can be a source of 'interference' in situations where top-down control of attention is necessary. Participants were asked to monitor and report on a video of a war scenario showing a developing battle in two conditions: emotionally positive and emotionally negative. Half of the participants (n = 15) were exposed to task-irrelevant pictures of positive emotional valence embedded within the scenario; the other half were exposed to task-irrelevant pictures of negative emotional valence...
May 29, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677916/conspiracy-suspicions-as-a-proxy-for-beliefs-in-conspiracy-theories-implications-for-theory-and-measurement
#5
Michael J Wood
Research on the psychology of conspiracy theories has shown recent steps towards a standardization of measures. The present article seeks to continue that trend by presenting the Flexible Inventory of Conspiracy Suspicions (FICS), a questionnaire template that can be adapted to measure suspicions of a conspiracy around nearly any topic of public interest. Compared to conspiracy belief measures that ask about specific theories on a given topic, the FICS is worded in such a way as to provide relatively stable validity across time and cultural context...
August 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369841/attentional-capture-in-driving-displays
#6
Mahé Arexis, François Maquestiaux, Nicholas Gaspelin, Eric Ruthruff, André Didierjean
Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways, but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor-present trials than distractor-absent trials...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443971/facial-first-impressions-from-another-angle-how-social-judgements-are-influenced-by-changeable-and-invariant-facial-properties
#7
Clare A M Sutherland, Andrew W Young, Gillian Rhodes
First impressions made to photographs of faces can depend as much on momentary characteristics of the photographed image (within-person variability) as on consistent properties of the face of the person depicted (between-person variability). Here, we examine two important sources of within-person variability: emotional expression and viewpoint. We find more within-person variability than between-person variability for social impressions of key traits of trustworthiness, dominance, and attractiveness, which index the main dimensions in theoretical models of facial impressions...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426072/altruism-predicts-mating-success-in-humans
#8
Steven Arnocky, Tina Piché, Graham Albert, Danielle Ouellette, Pat Barclay
In order for non-kin altruism to evolve, altruists must receive fitness benefits for their actions that outweigh the costs. Several researchers have suggested that altruism is a costly signal of desirable qualities, such that it could have evolved by sexual selection. In two studies, we show that altruism is broadly linked with mating success. In Study 1, participants who scored higher on a self-report altruism measure reported they were more desirable to the opposite sex, as well as reported having more sex partners, more casual sex partners, and having sex more often within relationships...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381170/dressing-up-posture-the-interactive-effects-of-posture-and-clothing-on-competency-judgements
#9
Daniel J Gurney, Neil Howlett, Karen Pine, Megan Tracey, Rachel Moggridge
Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370950/it-s-immoral-but-i-d-do-it-psychopathy-traits-affect-decision-making-in-sacrificial-dilemmas-and-in-everyday-moral-situations
#10
Carolina Pletti, Lorella Lotto, Giulia Buodo, Michela Sarlo
This research investigated whether emotional hyporeactivity affects moral judgements and choices of action in sacrificial moral dilemmas and in everyday moral conflict situations in which harm to other's welfare is differentially involved. Twenty-six participants with high trait psychopathy (HP) and 25 with low trait psychopathy (LP) were selected based on the primary psychopathy scale of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. HP participants were more likely to sacrifice one person to save others in sacrificial dilemmas and to pursue a personal advantage in everyday moral situations entailing harm to another's good...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328809/sex-differences-in-number-line-estimation-the-role-of-numerical-estimation
#11
Regina M Reinert, Stefan Huber, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Korbinian Moeller
Sex differences in mathematical performance have frequently been examined over the last decades indicating an advantage for males especially when numerical problems cannot be solved by (classroom-)learnt strategies and/or estimation. Even in basic numerical tasks such as number line estimation, males were found to outperform females - with sex differences argued to emerge from different solution strategies applied by males and females. We evaluated the latter using two versions of the number line estimation task: a bounded and an unbounded task version...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230305/dominance-of-texture-over-shape-in-facial-identity-processing-is-modulated-by-individual-abilities
#12
Marlena L Itz, Jessika Golle, Stefanie Luttmann, Stefan R Schweinberger, Jürgen M Kaufmann
For face recognition, observers utilize both shape and texture information. Here, we investigated the relative diagnosticity of shape and texture for delayed matching of familiar and unfamiliar faces (Experiment 1) and identifying familiar and newly learned faces (Experiment 2). Within each familiarity condition, pairs of 3D-captured faces were morphed selectively in either shape or texture in 20% steps, holding the respective other dimension constant. We also assessed participants' individual face-processing skills via the Bielefelder Famous Faces Test (BFFT), the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221984/life-events-and-functional-somatic-symptoms-a-population-study-in-older-adolescents
#13
Irma J Bonvanie, Karin A M Janssens, Judith G M Rosmalen, Albertine J Oldehinkel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were assessed with the Kendler's Life Stress interview. FSSs at age 19 and age 16 were measured with the Youth and Adult Self-Report. The hypotheses were tested by the use of a latent change model. Life events predicted FSSs, even when adjusted for pre-event levels of FSSs, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and socio-economic status (B = 0...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990740/is-it-all-in-the-reward-peers-influence-risk-taking-behaviour-in-young-adulthood
#14
Renate L E P Reniers, Amanda Beavan, Louise Keogan, Andrea Furneaux, Samantha Mayhew, Stephen J Wood
The presence of peers is suggested to increase risk-taking behaviour by heightening response to reward. The current study investigated this using a computerized financial risk-taking task which was performed twice by a group of young adults (n = 201, median age 19.8 years): once alone and once while in the presence of two peers. An overall increase in risk-taking was observed when with peers compared to when alone (CHANGE). CHANGE was positively associated with self-reported levels of reward responsiveness and fun seeking while older age and lack of perseverance were associated with reduced CHANGE...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973222/evaluating-arguments-during-instigations-of-defence-motivation-and-accuracy-motivation
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cheng-Hong Liu
When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968751/the-role-of-visual-and-spatial-working-memory-in-forming-mental-models-derived-from-survey-and-route-descriptions
#16
Chiara Meneghetti, Enia Labate, Francesca Pazzaglia, Colin Hamilton, Valérie Gyselinck
This study examines the involvement of spatial and visual working memory (WM) in the construction of flexible spatial models derived from survey and route descriptions. Sixty young adults listened to environment descriptions, 30 from a survey perspective and the other 30 from a route perspective, while they performed spatial (spatial tapping [ST]) and visual (dynamic visual noise [DVN]) secondary tasks - believed to overload the spatial and visual working memory (WM) components, respectively - or no secondary task (control, C)...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946068/cultural-differences-in-visual-attention-implications-for-distraction-processing
#17
Tarek Amer, K W Joan Ngo, Lynn Hasher
We investigated differences between participants of East Asian and Western descent in attention to and implicit memory for irrelevant words which participants were instructed to ignore while completing a target task (a Stroop Task in Experiment 1 and a 1-back task on pictures in Experiment 2). Implicit memory was measured using two conceptual priming tasks (category generation in Experiment 1 and general knowledge in Experiment 2). Participants of East Asian descent showed reliable implicit memory for previous distractors relative to those of Western descent with no evidence of differences on target task performance...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436017/attachment-styles-and-clinical-correlates-in-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#18
Debra A Russo, Jan Stochl, Joanne Hodgekins, Maria Iglesias-González, Penelope Chipps, Michelle Painter, Peter B Jones, Jesus Perez
Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p < ...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407210/the-association-of-sleep-disturbances-with-endocrine-and-perceived-stress-reactivity-measures-in-male-employees
#19
Marta Jackowska, Reinhard Fuchs, Sandra Klaperski
Evidence on the relationship between stress reactivity and sleep is conflicting. This study examined the association between disturbed sleep and perceived and endocrine stress reactivity independently of age, body mass index (BMI), and chronic stress. One hundred and twenty middle-aged men were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale were used to assess sleep and perceived stress reactivity, respectively. Endocrine stress reactivity was examined by assessing salivary cortisol levels...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369811/do-children-with-grapheme-colour-synaesthesia-show-cognitive-benefits
#20
Julia Simner, Angela E Bain
Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is characterized by conscious and consistent associations between letters and colours, or between numbers and colours (e.g., synaesthetes might see A as red, 7 as green). Our study explored the development of this condition in a group of randomly sampled child synaesthetes. Two previous studies (Simner & Bain, 2013, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 603; Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro, & Foulkes, 2009, Brain, 132, 57) had screened over 600 primary school children to find the first randomly sampled cohort of child synaesthetes...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
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