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British Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221374/how-many-voices-did-you-hear-natural-variability-disrupts-identity-perception-from-unfamiliar-voices
#1
Nadine Lavan, Luke F K Burston, Lúcia Garrido
Our voices sound different depending on the context (laughing vs. talking to a child vs. giving a speech), making within-person variability an inherent feature of human voices. When perceiving speaker identities, listeners therefore need to not only 'tell people apart' (perceiving exemplars from two different speakers as separate identities) but also 'tell people together' (perceiving different exemplars from the same speaker as a single identity). In the current study, we investigated how such natural within-person variability affects voice identity perception...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221342/walking-through-doorways-differentially-affects-recall-and-familiarity
#2
Sabrina V Seel, Alexander Easton, Anthony McGregor, Matthew G Buckley, Madeline J Eacott
Previous research has reported that walking through a doorway to a new location makes memory for objects and events experienced in the previous location less accurate. This effect, termed the location updating effect, has been used to suggest that location changes are used to mark boundaries between events in memory: memories for objects encountered within the current event are more available than those from beyond an event boundary. Within a computer-generated memory task, participants navigated through virtual rooms, walking through doorways, and interacting with objects...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198553/two-types-of-serial-dependence-in-visual-working-memory
#3
Stefan Czoschke, Cora Fischer, Julia Beitner, Jochen Kaiser, Christoph Bledowski
Stimulus representations in working memory depend on memory traces of past stimuli both from previous trials and from the current trial. However, it is unclear whether the same or different mechanisms underlie this serial dependence across and within trials. We directly contrasted estimates of bias for pairs of immediately successive stimuli across and within trials. In each trial, participants memorized two consecutive motion direction stimuli (S1 and S2) and after a short delay were cued to report one of them...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144046/superstition-predicts-perception-of-illusory-control
#4
Oren Griffiths, Noor Shehabi, Robin A Murphy, Mike E Le Pelley
Superstitions are common, yet we have little understanding of the cognitive mechanisms that bring them about. This study used a laboratory-based analogue for superstitious beliefs that involved people monitoring the relationship between undertaking an action (pressing a button) and an outcome occurring (a light illuminating). The task was arranged such that there was no objective contingency between pressing the button and the light illuminating - the light was just as likely to illuminate whether the button was pressed or not...
August 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132805/exceptional-intelligence-and-easygoingness-may-hurt-your-prospects-threshold-effects-for-rated-mate-characteristics
#5
Gilles E Gignac, Clare L Starbuck
Prospective mate characteristics such as kindness, intelligence, easygoingness, and physical attraction are ranked consistently highly by both men and women. However, rank measurement does not allow for determinations of what level of a mate characteristic is rated most desirable. Based on a more informative percentile scale measurement approach, it was reported recently that mean desirability ratings of IQ in a prospective partner peaked at the 90th percentile, with a statistically significant reduction from the 90th to the 99th percentiles...
August 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125352/specifying-the-boundary-conditions-of-the-multimedia-effect-the-influence-of-content-and-its-distribution-between-text-and-pictures
#6
Anne Schüler, Francesca Pazzaglia, Katharina Scheiter
It was investigated whether the beneficial effect of picture presentation might be influenced by the content conveyed through text and pictures and the way information is distributed between them. Ninety-nine students learnt in five between-subjects learning conditions (i.e., text with spatial contents plus pictures, text with visual contents plus pictures, only text with spatial contents, only text with visual contents, only picture) about a tourist centre and a holiday farm. Results showed that pictures (i...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094812/does-your-mindfulness-benefit-others-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-link-between-mindfulness-and-prosocial-behaviour
#7
James N Donald, Baljinder K Sahdra, Brooke Van Zanden, Jasper J Duineveld, Paul W B Atkins, Sarah L Marshall, Joseph Ciarrochi
Mindfulness-based meditation practices have received substantial scientific attention in recent years. Mindfulness has been shown to bring many psychological benefits to the individual, but much less is known about whether these benefits extend to others. This meta-analysis reviewed the link between mindfulness - as both a personality variable and an intervention - and prosocial behaviour. A literature search produced 31 eligible studies (N = 17,241) and 73 effect sizes. Meta-analyses were conducted using mixed-effects structural equation models to examine pooled effects and potential moderators of these effects...
August 9, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079531/does-cross-frequency-phase-coupling-of-oscillatory-brain-activity-contribute-to-a-better-understanding-of-visual-working-memory
#8
Paul Sauseng, Charline Peylo, Anna Lena Biel, Elisabeth V C Friedrich, Carola Romberg-Taylor
Nesting of fast rhythmical brain activity (gamma) into slower brain waves (theta) has frequently been suggested as a core mechanism of multi-item working memory (WM) retention. It provides a better understanding of WM capacity limitations, and, as we discuss in this review article, it can lead to applications for modulating memory capacity. However, could cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations also constructively contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal signatures of working memory compatible with theoretical approaches that assume flexible capacity limits? Could a theta-gamma code also be considered as a neural mechanism of flexible sharing of cognitive resources between memory representations in multi-item WM? Here, we propose potential variants of theta-gamma coupling that could explain WM retention beyond a fixed memory capacity limit of a few visual items...
August 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073658/differential-effects-of-makeup-on-perceived-age
#9
Richard Russell, Carlota Batres, Sandra Courrèges, Gwenaël Kaminski, Frédérique Soppelsa, Frédérique Morizot, Aurélie Porcheron
Makeup accentuates three youth-related visual features - skin homogeneity, facial contrast, and facial feature size. By manipulating these visual features, makeup should make faces appear younger. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which participants estimated the age of carefully controlled photographs of faces with and without makeup. We found that 40- and especially 50-year-old women did appear significantly younger when wearing makeup. Contrary to our hypothesis, 30-year-old women looked no different in age with or without makeup, while 20-year-old women looked older with makeup...
August 3, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069870/what-happens-to-an-individual-visual-working-memory-representation-when-it-is-interrupted
#10
Gi-Yeul Bae, Steven J Luck
This study tested the hypothesis that even the simplest cognitive tasks require the storage of information in working memory (WM), distorting any information that was previously stored in WM. Experiment 1 tested this hypothesis by requiring observers to perform a simple letter discrimination task while they were holding a single orientation in WM. We predicted that performing the task on the interposed letter stimulus would cause the orientation memory to become less precise and more categorical compared to when the letter was absent or when it was present but could be ignored...
August 1, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044503/against-all-odds-is-a-more-differentiated-view-of-personality-development-in-emerging-adulthood-needed-the-case-of-young-apprentices
#11
Jennifer Deventer, Oliver Lüdtke, Gabriel Nagy, Jan Retelsdorf, Jenny Wagner
Personality development in emerging adults who do not attend college after high school has been largely overlooked so far. In this study, we investigated personality development in emerging German adults (NT 1  = 1,886, MageT1  = 18.01 years, 29% female) undergoing vocational education and training (VET). The trainees were assessed at the start of VET, 1.5 years later, and another 1.5 years after that, just before graduation. Longitudinal latent change score analyses were applied. Bivariate analyses investigated life satisfaction and job strain as social and work-related aspects that are potentially reciprocally related to personality development...
July 25, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039605/number-line-estimation-in-highly-math-anxious-individuals
#12
María Isabel Núñez-Peña, Àngels Colomé, David Aguilar-Lleyda
In this study, we aimed to investigate the difficulties highly math-anxious individuals (HMA) may face when having to estimate a number's position in a number line task. Twenty-four HMA and 24 low math-anxiety (LMA) individuals were presented with four lines with endpoints 0-100, 0-1,000, 0-100,000, and 267-367 on a computer monitor on which they had to mark the correct position of target numbers using the mouse. Although no differences were found between groups in the frequency of their best-fit model, which was linear for all lines, the analysis of slopes and intercepts for the linear model showed that the two groups differed in performance on the less familiar lines (267-367 and 0-100,000)...
July 23, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006984/the-cost-of-facing-fear-visual-working-memory-is-impaired-for-faces-expressing-fear
#13
Kim M Curby, Stephen D Smith, Denise Moerel, Amy Dyson
Previous research has identified numerous factors affecting the capacity and accuracy of visual working memory (VWM). One potentially important factor is the emotionality of the stimuli to be encoded and held in VWM. We often must hold in VWM information that is emotionally charged, but much is still unknown about how the emotionality of stimuli impacts VWM performance. In the current research, we performed four studies examining the impact of fearful facial expressions on VWM for faces. Fearful expressions were found to produce a consistent cost to VWM performance...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984408/priming-attachment-security-improves-attitudes-towards-a-range-of-therapies
#14
Abigail Millings, Katherine B Carnelley, Kate Cavanagh, Anna Wilderspin, Hannah Wiseman, Angela C Rowe
We sought to understand how attachment orientation influenced attitudes towards different types of psychological therapies. In two studies, we (1) examined attachment orientation as a predictor of attitudes towards different therapies and (2) tested whether attachment security priming could improve attitudes. Study 1 (n = 339) found associations between attachment orientation and attitudes towards, and likelihood of using different therapies. Positive and negative attitudes about different therapies mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and likelihood of use...
July 8, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974939/the-prevalence-of-specific-learning-disorder-in-mathematics-and-comorbidity-with-other-developmental-disorders-in-primary-school-age-children
#15
Kinga Morsanyi, Bianca M C W van Bers, Teresa McCormack, Jemma McGourty
Mathematics difficulties are common in both children and adults, and they can have a great impact on people's lives. A specific learning disorder in mathematics (SLDM or developmental dyscalculia) is a special case of persistent mathematics difficulties, where the problems with maths cannot be attributed to environmental factors, intellectual disability, or mental, neurological or physical disorders. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence rate of SLDM, any gender differences in SLDM, and the most common comorbid conditions...
July 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943825/parent-offspring-conflict-over-mate-choice-an-experimental-study-in-china
#16
Jeanne Bovet, Eva Raiber, Weiwei Ren, Charlotte Wang, Paul Seabright
Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences that enable them to select mates and children-in-law to maximize their inclusive fitness. The theory of parent-offspring conflict predicts that preferences for potential mates may differ between parents and offspring: individuals are expected to value biological quality more in their own mates than in their offspring's mates and to value investment potential more in their offspring's mates than in their own mates. We tested this hypothesis in China using a naturalistic 'marriage market' where parents actively search for marital partners for their offspring...
June 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943810/visual-working-memory-load-disrupts-the-space-based-attentional-guidance-of-target-selection
#17
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
During visual search, the selection of target objects is guided by stored representations of target-defining features (attentional templates). It is commonly believed that such templates are maintained in visual working memory (WM), but empirical evidence for this assumption remains inconclusive. Here, we tested whether retaining non-spatial object features (shapes) in WM interferes with attentional target selection processes in a concurrent search task that required spatial templates for target locations. Participants memorized one shape (low WM load) or four shapes (high WM load) in a sample display during a retention period...
June 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938776/meta-analytic-findings-reveal-lower-means-but-higher-variances-in-visuospatial-ability-in-dyslexia
#18
Rebecca Chamberlain, Nicola Brunswick, Joseph Siev, I C McManus
Conflicting empirical and theoretical accounts suggest that dyslexia is associated with either average, enhanced, or impoverished high-level visuospatial processing relative to controls. Such heterogeneous results could be due to the presence of wider variability in dyslexic samples, which is unlikely to be identified at the single study level, due to lack of power. To address this, this study reports a meta-analysis of means and variances in high-level visuospatial ability in 909 non-dyslexic and 956 dyslexic individuals...
June 25, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851023/understanding-dual-realities-and-more-in-vr
#19
LETTER
Xueni Pan, Antonia F de C Hamilton
The five commentaries on our paper (Pan & Hamilton, 2018, Br. J. Psychol.) provide a useful summary of the key issues we raise, and also bring to the foreground some new and important questions, touching on a range of issues including presence and the conceptualization of dual realities. We highlight here some important themes and directions for future investigation.
August 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806694/virtual-reality-and-the-new-psychophysics
#20
Beatrice de Gelder, Jari Kätsyri, Aline W de Borst
Virtual reality (VR) promises methodological rigour with the extra benefit of allowing us to study the context-dependent behaviour of individuals in their natural environment. Pan and Hamilton (2018, Br. J. Psychol.) provide a useful overview of methodological recommendations for using VR. Here, we highlight some other aspects of the use of VR. Our first argument is that VR can be useful by virtue of its differences from the normal perceptual environment. That is, by virtue of its relative non-realism and poverty of its perceptual elements, it can actually offer increased clarity with respect to the features of interest for the researcher...
August 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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