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British Journal of Psychology

Catharine P Cross, Gillian R Brown, Thomas J H Morgan, Kevin N Laland
Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Barlow C Wright
A rich body of research concerns causes of Stroop effects plus applications of Stroop. However, several questions remain. We included assessment of errors with children and adults (N = 316), who sat either a task wherein each block employed only trials of one type (unmixed task) or where every block comprised of a mix of the congruent, neutral, and incongruent trials. Children responded slower than adults and made more errors on each task. Contrary to some previous studies, interference (the difference between neutral and incongruent condition) showed no reaction time (RT) differences by group or task, although there were differences in errors...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Richard J E James, Claire O'Malley, Richard J Tunney
This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Samuel M Y Ho, Dannii Yeung, Christine W Y Mak
Research has shown that children and adolescents with attentional control deficits tend to have high anxiety and exhibit threat-related selective attentional bias. This study aimed to investigate how positive and negative attentional biases would interact with attentional control on dispositional anxiety. One hundred and twenty participants aged 18 years of age or younger participated in a visual dot-probe task to measure their attentional bias and completed psychological questionnaires to measure their trait anxiety, and attentional control...
September 27, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Abby R Knoll, Hajime Otani, Reid L Skeel, K Roger Van Horn
The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Nicola J Hancock, Neil R de Joux, Stephen C Wingreen, Simon Kemp, Jared Thomas, William S Helton
This study explores the impact of post-earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self-reports of task-focus, and cerebral activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre-designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy-one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task-irrelevant images inserted in the sequence...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Norman P Li, Satoshi Kanazawa
We propose the savanna theory of happiness, which suggests that it is not only the current consequences of a given situation but also its ancestral consequences that affect individuals' life satisfaction and explains why such influences of ancestral consequences might interact with intelligence. We choose two varied factors that characterize basic differences between ancestral and modern life - population density and frequency of socialization with friends - as empirical test cases. As predicted by the theory, population density is negatively, and frequency of socialization with friends is positively, associated with life satisfaction...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Yuh-Shan Ho, James Hartley
Who today are the most highly cited psychologists listed in the Web of Science? This paper reports answers to this question by using the Science Citation Index Expanded to find out. This index covers over 280,350 documents in the Psychology category of the Web of Science from 1900 to 2013 and lists the most highly cited papers published between 1927 and 2012. For example, in 2013, an article published by Jacob Cohen in 1992 obtained (1) the highest ranking with 1,068 citations, (2) the highest for total citations per year, and (3) was ranked 3rd for the total number of citations since publication by 2013...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Chris N H Street, Alan Kingstone
There is a bias towards believing information is true rather than false. The Spinozan account claims there is an early, automatic bias towards believing. Only afterwards can people engage in an effortful re-evaluation and disbelieve the information. Supporting this account, there is a greater bias towards believing information is true when under cognitive load. However, developing on the Adaptive Lie Detector (ALIED) theory, the informed Cartesian can equally explain this data. The account claims the bias under load is not evidence of automatic belief; rather, people are undecided, but if forced to guess they can rely on context information to make an informed judgement...
August 11, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Carlos Hernández Blasi, David F Bjorklund, Marcos Ruiz Soler
In this study, we analysed the reaction times of 137 college students when making decisions on pairs of hypothetical children verbalizing different types of vignettes and/or exhibiting different physical appearance (photographs of faces). Vignettes depicted immature and mature versions of both supernatural (e.g., 'The sun's not out today because it's mad' vs. 'The sun's not out today because the clouds are blocking it') and natural ('I can remember all 20 cards!' vs. 'I can remember 6 or 7 cards') explanations to ordinary phenomena...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Karen M Douglas, Ana C Leite
Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread and has important consequences for political, health, and environmental behaviour. Little is known, however, about how conspiracy theorizing affects people's everyday working lives. In the present research, we predicted that belief in conspiracy theories about the workplace would be associated with increased turnover intentions. We further hypothesized that belief in these organizational conspiracy theories would predict decreased organizational commitment and job satisfaction...
August 4, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Viren Swami
Although relatively little is known about ethnic differences in men's drive for muscularity, recent theoretical developments suggest that ethnic minority men may desire greater muscularity to contest their positions of relative subordinate masculinity. This study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 185 White, 180 Black British, and 182 South Asian British men. Participants completed self-report measures of drive for muscularity, need for power, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic group affiliation...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Frouke Hermens, Robin Walker
Research has shown that social and symbolic cues presented in isolation and at fixation have strong effects on observers, but it is unclear how cues compare when they are presented away from fixation and embedded in natural scenes. We here compare the effects of two types of social cue (gaze and pointing gestures) and one type of symbolic cue (arrow signs) on eye movements of observers under two viewing conditions (free viewing vs. a memory task). The results suggest that social cues are looked at more quickly, for longer and more frequently than the symbolic arrow cues...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Andreas Obersteiner, Jo Van Hoof, Lieven Verschaffel, Wim Van Dooren
Many learners have difficulties with rational number tasks because they persistently rely on their natural number knowledge, which is not always applicable. Studies show that such a natural number bias can mislead not only children but also educated adults. It is still unclear whether and under what conditions mathematical expertise enables people to be completely unaffected by such a bias on tasks in which people with less expertise are clearly biased. We compared the performance of eighth-grade students and expert mathematicians on the same set of algebraic expression problems that addressed the effect of arithmetic operations (multiplication and division)...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Krystian Barzykowski, Søren Risløv Staugaard
Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Aleksandra Cichocka, Marta Marchlewska, Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Mateusz Olechowski
This research examined the role of different forms of positive regard for the ingroup in predicting beliefs in intergroup conspiracies. Collective narcissism reflects a belief in ingroup greatness contingent on others' recognition. We hypothesized that collective narcissism should be especially likely to foster outgroup conspiracy beliefs. Non-narcissistic ingroup positivity, on the other hand, should predict a weaker tendency to believe in conspiracy theories. In Study 1, the endorsement of conspiratorial explanations of outgroup actions was positively predicted by collective narcissism but negatively by non-narcissistic ingroup positivity...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Frances Caulfield, Louise Ewing, Samantha Bank, Gillian Rhodes
By adulthood, people judge trustworthiness from appearances rapidly and reliably. However, we know little about these judgments in children. This novel study investigates the developmental trajectory of explicit trust judgments from faces, and the contribution made by emotion cues across age groups. Five-, 7-, 10-year-olds, and adults rated the trustworthiness of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces with neutral expressions. The same participants also rated faces displaying overt happy and angry expressions, allowing us to investigate whether emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments similarly in children and adults...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
John Maltby, Liz Day, Ruth M Hatcher, Sarah Tazzyman, Heather D Flowe, Emma J Palmer, Caren A Frosch, Michelle O'Reilly, Ceri Jones, Chloe Buckley, Melanie Knieps, Katie Cutts
Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Nicolas Masson, Mauro Pesenti, Valérie Dormal
Previous studies have shown that left neglect patients are impaired when they have to orient their attention leftward relative to a standard in numerical comparison tasks. This finding has been accounted for by the idea that numerical magnitudes are represented along a spatial continuum oriented from left to right with small magnitudes on the left and large magnitudes on the right. Similarly, it has been proposed that duration could be represented along a mental time line that shares the properties of the number continuum...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Gaëtan Cousin, Catherine Crane
Past research has shown that mindfulness-based interventions increase positive affect in non-clinical populations. However, the mechanisms underlying this increase are poorly understood. On the basis of previous empirical and theoretical accounts, we hypothesized that a decreased use of disengagement coping strategies in daily life would explain the benefits of a mindfulness-based intervention in terms of increased positive affect. We analysed the data of 75 healthy adult participants (58 women; 17 men) of different ages (M = 49 years old; SD = 13; age range 19-81) who had been randomly allocated to 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) or to a waitlist control group...
August 2016: British Journal of Psychology
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