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British Journal of Psychology

Kim Peters, S Alexander Haslam
It is acknowledged that identity plays an important role in a person's leadership development. To date, however, there has been little consideration of the possibility - suggested by the social identity perspective - that individuals who identify as followers may be especially likely to emerge as leaders. We test this possibility in a longitudinal sample of recruit commandos in the Royal Marines. Recruits rated their identification with leader and follower roles five times over the course of their 32-week training programme...
May 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Mel Slater
This commentary briefly reviews the history of virtual reality and its use for psychology research, and clarifies the concepts of immersion and the illusion of presence.
May 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Stephan de la Rosa, Martin Breidt
One major challenge of social interaction research is to achieve high experimental control over social interactions to allow for rigorous scientific reasoning. Virtual reality (VR) promises this level of control. Pan and Hamilton guide us with a detailed review on existing and future possibilities and challenges of using VR for social interaction research. Here, we extend the discussion to methodological and practical implications when using VR.
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Thomas E Gladwin, Martin Möbius, Shane McLoughlin, Ian Tyndall
Dot-probe or visual probe tasks (VPTs) are used extensively to measure attentional biases. A novel variant termed the cued VPT (cVPT) was developed to focus on the anticipatory component of attentional bias. This study aimed to establish an anticipatory attentional bias to threat using the cVPT and compare its split-half reliability with a typical dot-probe task. A total of 120 students performed the cVPT task and dot-probe tasks. Essentially, the cVPT uses cues that predict the location of pictorial threatening stimuli, but on trials on which probe stimuli are presented the pictures do not appear...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Stefan Pollmann
When spatial stimulus configurations repeat in visual search, a search facilitation, resulting in shorter search times, can be observed that is due to incidental learning. This contextual cueing effect appears to be rather implicit, uncorrelated with observers' explicit memory of display configurations. Nevertheless, as I review here, this search facilitation due to contextual cueing depends on visuospatial working memory resources, and it disappears when visuospatial working memory is loaded by a concurrent delayed match to sample task...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jillian J M O'Connor, Pat Barclay
Speech contains both explicit social information in semantic content and implicit cues to social behaviour and mate quality in voice pitch. Voice pitch has been demonstrated to have pervasive effects on social perceptions, but few studies have examined these perceptions in the context of meaningful speech. Here, we examined whether male voice pitch interacted with socially relevant cues in speech to influence listeners' perceptions of trustworthiness and attractiveness. We artificially manipulated men's voices to be higher and lower in pitch when speaking words that were either prosocial or antisocial in nature...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Alexander Kulik
Virtual reality (VR) can serve as a viable platform for psychological research. The real world with many uncontrolled variables can be masked to immerse participants in complex interactive environments that are under full experimental control. However, as any other laboratory setting, these simulations are not perceived equally to reality and they also afford different behaviour. We need a better understanding of these differences, which are often related to parameters of the technical setup, to support valid interpretations of experimental results...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Luisa Girelli, Paola Previtali, Lisa S Arduino
Expert readers have been repeatedly reported to misperceive the centre of visual stimuli, shifting systematically to the left the bisection of any lines (pseudoneglect) while showing a cross-over effect while bisecting different types of orthographic strings (Arduino et al., 2010, Neuropsychologia, 48, 2140). This difference has been attributed to asymmetrical allocation of attention that visuo-verbal material receives when lexical access occurs (e.g., Fischer, 2004, Cognitive Brain Research, 4, 163). The aim of this study was to further examine which visual features guide recognition of potentially orthographic materials...
April 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Marleen Stelter, Juliane Degner
People have difficulties in remembering other-race faces; this so-called other-race effect (ORE) has been frequently observed in long-term recognition memory (LTM). Several theories argue that the ORE in LTM is caused by differences in earlier processing stages, such as encoding of ingroup and outgroup faces. We test this hypothesis by exploring whether the ORE can already be observed in visual working memory (VWM)-an intermediate system located between encoding processes and LTM storage. In four independent experiments, we observed decreased performance for outgroup faces compared to ingroup faces using three different VWM tasks: an adaptive N-back task, a self-ordered pointing task, and a change detection task...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean, Gustav Kuhn
When faced with a difficult question, people sometimes work out an answer to a related, easier question without realizing that a substitution has taken place (e.g., Kahneman, 2011, Thinking, fast and slow. New York, Farrar, Strauss, Giroux). In two experiments, we investigated whether this attribute substitution effect can also affect the interpretation of a simple visual event sequence. We used a magic trick called the 'Flushtration Count Illusion', which involves a technique used by magicians to give the illusion of having seen multiple cards with identical backs, when in fact only the back of one card (the bottom card) is repeatedly shown...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Claire M Matthews, Catherine J Mondloch
When viewing unfamiliar faces, photographs of the same person often are perceived as belonging to different people and photographs of different people as belonging to the same person. Identity matching of unfamiliar faces is especially challenging when the photographs are of a person whose ethnicity differs from that of the observer. In contrast, matching is trivial when viewing familiar faces, regardless of race. Viewing multiple images of an own-race target identity improves accuracy on a line-up task when the target is known to be present (Dowsett et al...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Alessandro Monti, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Research on virtual reality (VR) has gained momentum over the last fifteen years or so. In their review, Pan and Hamilton (2018, British Journal of Psychology) show how the different types of VR devices have the potential to probe fundamental psychological constructs, like those underlying social interactions. Expanding on their work, we propose a research agenda to increase the sense of co-presence and make VR more real than reality through bodily illusions, multisensory stimulation, self-conscious emotions, and multisubject social cognition...
April 1, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Kristi Urry, Nicholas R Burns, Irina Baetu
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is thought to assess implicit learning, which seems to be preserved with age. However, the reaction time (RT) measures employed on implicit-like tasks might be too unreliable to detect individual differences. We investigated whether RT-based measures mask age effects by comparing the performance of 43 younger and 35 older adults on SRTT and an explicit-like Predictive Sequence Learning Task (PSLT). RT-based measures (difference scores and a ratio) were collected for both tasks, and accuracy was additionally measured for PSLT...
March 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
Young adult participants are faster to detect young adult faces in crowds of infant and child faces than vice versa. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for more efficient attentional capture by own-age than other-age faces, but could alternatively reflect faster rejection of other-age than own-age distractors, consistent with the previously reported other-age categorization advantage: faster categorization of other-age than own-age faces. Participants searched for own-age faces in other-age backgrounds or vice versa...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Marie Juanchich, Lukasz Walasek, Miroslav Sirota
A growing body of evidence suggests that social exclusion impairs people's capacity for active deliberation and logical reasoning. Building on this finding and on the postulate from the dual-process theory that analytical thinking is essential in order to make good judgements and decisions, we hypothesized that social exclusion will alter judgement and choice behaviour. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments in which social exclusion was manipulated using the Cyberball paradigm, an online ball-tossing game in which participants either received the ball a fair number of times or were excluded by the other two players...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Géraldine Jeckeln, Carina A Hahn, Eilidh Noyes, Jacqueline G Cavazos, Alice J O'Toole
Face identification is more accurate when people collaborate in social dyads than when they work alone (Dowsett & Burton, 2015, Br. J. Psychol., 106, 433). Identification accuracy is also increased when the responses of two people are averaged for each item to create a 'non-social' dyad (White, Burton, Kemp, & Jenkins, 2013, Appl. Cogn. Psychol., 27, 769; White et al., 2015, Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci., 282, 20151292). Does social collaboration add to the benefits of response averaging for face identification? We compared individuals, social dyads, and non-social dyads on an unfamiliar face identity-matching test...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Xueni Pan, Antonia F de C Hamilton
As virtual reality (VR) technology and systems become more commercially available and accessible, more and more psychologists are starting to integrate VR as part of their methods. This approach offers major advantages in experimental control, reproducibility, and ecological validity, but also has limitations and hidden pitfalls which may distract the novice user. This study aimed to guide the psychologist into the novel world of VR, reviewing available instrumentation and mapping the landscape of possible systems...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Enrico Rubaltelli, Sara Scrimin, Ughetta Moscardino, Giulia Priolo, Giulia Buodo
Terrorist attacks have a destabilizing impact on the general population, causing distress and fear. However, not all individuals are equally susceptible to the effects of terror threat. This study aimed to examine whether exposure to terrorism-related pictures interacted with individual differences in environmental sensitivity and psychophysiological response to stress to explain people's risk perception, operationalized as perceived likelihood of a terrorist attack and willingness to trade off one's privacy to increase national security...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Bianca Thorup, Kate Crookes, Paul P W Chang, Nichola Burton, Stephen Pond, Tze Kwan Li, Janet Hsiao, Gillian Rhodes
People are better at recognizing own-race than other-race faces. This other-race effect has been argued to be the result of perceptual expertise, whereby face-specific perceptual mechanisms are tuned through experience. We designed new tasks to determine whether other-race effects extend to categorizing faces by national origin. We began by selecting sets of face stimuli for these tasks that are typical in appearance for each of six nations (three Caucasian, three Asian) according to people from those nations (Study 1)...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Gilles E Gignac
A positive correlation between self-reported test-taking motivation and intelligence test performance has been reported. Additionally, some financial incentive experimental evidence suggests that intelligence test performance can be improved, based on the provision of financial incentives. However, only a small percentage of the experimental research has been conducted with adults. Furthermore, virtually none of the intelligence experimental research has measured the impact of financial incentives on test-taking motivation...
February 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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