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British Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295187/working-memory-moderates-the-effect-of-the-integrative-process-of-implicit-and-explicit-autonomous-motivation-on-academic-achievement
#1
Alexandre Gareau, Patrick Gaudreau
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276063/perceived-warmth-and-competence-of-others-shape-voluntary-deceptive-behaviour-in-a-morally-relevant-setting
#2
Ruben T Azevedo, Maria Serena Panasiti, Rosita Maglio, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
The temptation to deceive others compares to a moral dilemma: it involves a conflict between the temptation to obtain some benefit and the desire to conform to personal and social moral norms or avoid aversive social consequences. Thus, people might feel different levels of emotional and moral conflict depending on the target of the deception. Here we explored, in a morally relevant setting, how social judgements based on two fundamental dimensions of human social cognition - 'warmth' and 'competence' - impact on the decision to deceive others...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266717/theory-of-mind-and-wisdom-the-development-of-different-forms-of-perspective-taking-in-late-adulthood
#3
Hannes Rakoczy, Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240363/research-on-face-recognition-the-aberdeen-influence
#4
Graham M Davies, Andrew W Young
The review of 'Recognizing faces' by Hadyn Ellis, published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1975, marked the genesis of a distinct field of research. This seminal review sprang from a broader programme of research on face recognition conducted at the University of Aberdeen, whose influence continues to be felt in what has become an internationally important research area. We discuss the background to the Aberdeen research, summarize some of its achievements, and offer reasons why it proved so successful...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240359/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-link-between-rational-number-processing-and-algebra-ability
#5
Michelle Hurst, Sara Cordes
Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233898/body-image-disturbance-and-skin-bleaching
#6
Christopher A D Charles, Shua-Kym McLean
This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1...
February 24, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230235/seeing-overweight-adults-as-babies-physical-cues-and-implications-for-stigmatization
#7
Anton J M Dijker, Rutger DeLuster, Nicolas Peeters, Nanne K de Vries
Human babies not only are reliable triggers of tender feelings and protective tendencies, they also happen to be exceptionally fat compared to the newborns of most other species. These two facts are used to formulate a hypothesis predicting that overweight males, due to their great physical resemblance to babies, not only are perceived as cute, but also are associated with negatively evaluated traits (e.g., immaturity, lack of willpower) that are saliently inconsistent with traits required for adults. In this study, a great many physical features of adult males varying widely in weight were measured and correlated with subjective judgements...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161891/genius-begins-at-home-shared-social-identity-enhances-the-recognition-of-creative-performance
#8
Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Michelle K Ryan, Kathryn Millard
The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists' performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2...
February 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127748/parent-child-value-similarity-in-families-with-young-children-the-predictive-power-of-prosocial-educational-goals
#9
Anna K Döring, Elena Makarova, Walter Herzog, Anat Bardi
Value transmission from one generation to the next is a key issue in every society, but it is not clear which parents are the most successful in transmitting their values to their children. We propose parents' prosocial educational goals as key predictors of parent-child value similarity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the more parents wanted their children to endorse values of self-transcendence (helping, supporting, and caring for others) and the less parents wanted their children to endorse the opposing values of self-enhancement (striving for power and achievement), the higher would be parent-child overall value similarity...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106261/benchmark-based-strategies-in-whole-number-line-estimation
#10
Dominique Peeters, Lieven Verschaffel, Koen Luwel
In this study, we used verbal protocols to identify whether adults spontaneously apply quartile-based strategies or whether they need additional external support to use these strategies when solving a 0-1,000 number line estimation (NLE) task. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions based on the number of external benchmarks provided on the number line. In the bounded condition only the origin and endpoint were indicated, the mid-point condition included an additional external benchmark at 50%, and in the quartile condition three additional external benchmarks at 25%, 50%, and 75% were specified...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105654/development-of-anti-immigrant-attitudes-in-adolescence-the-role-of-parents-peers-intergroup-friendships-and-empathy
#11
Marta Miklikowska
Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074477/same-but-different-comparative-modes-of-information-processing-are-implicated-in-the-construction-of-perceptions-of-autonomy-support
#12
Rebecca Rachael Lee, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort...
January 11, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059463/in-search-of-a-learning-model
#13
Marilyn M Vihman
While the four commentaries reflect a range of different perspectives on my target paper (Vihman, 2017), all basically accept the overall approach, which has been central to my research for 30 years. Each commentary proposes ways of deepening aspects of the ideas expressed or points out limitations and potential areas in which elaboration would be useful. This response takes up each commentary in turn.
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059462/the-infant-s-developmental-path-in-phonological-acquisition
#14
Daniel Swingley
Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059461/sound-categories-or-phonemes
#15
Melissa A Redford
Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059460/memory-for-incidentally-perceived-social-cues-effects-on-person-judgment
#16
Ralph Pawling, Alexander J Kirkham, Steven P Tipper, Harriet Over
Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059459/more-evidence-of-the-linkage-between-face-processing-and-language-processing
#17
REVIEW
Olivier Pascalis, Marjorie Dole, Hélène Lœvenbruck
This review of the literature on the emergence of language describes two opposing views of phonological development, the sound-based versus the whole-word-based accounts. An integrative model is proposed which claims that learning sublexical speech sounds and producing wordlike vocalizations are in fact parallel processes that feed each other during language development. We argue that this model might find unexpected support from the face processing literature.
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059458/editorial-acknowledgement
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059457/the-many-facets-of-speech-production-and-its-complex-effects-on-phonological-processing
#19
Tania S Zamuner, H Henny Yeung, Myriam Ducos
In our commentary, we discuss two additional points about developmental speech production. First, we suggest that more precision is needed to accurately describe 'speech production' processes, and we suggest that hierarchical constructs from the adult literatures on articulatory phonology and speech motor control may be applicable to infants as well. Second, we discuss the implications from data that indicate that the effects of production are subject to task-, attentional-, linguistic-, and experience-related demands...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449816/learning-words-and-learning-sounds-advances-in-language-development
#20
REVIEW
Marilyn M Vihman
Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
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