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British Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164607/virtual-morality-in-the-helping-professions-simulated-action-and-resilience
#1
Kathryn B Francis, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Ian S Howard, Sylvia Terbeck
Recent advances in virtual technologies have allowed the investigation of simulated moral actions in aversive moral dilemmas. Previous studies have employed diverse populations to explore these actions, with little research considering the significance of occupation on moral decision-making. For the first time, in this study we have investigated simulated moral actions in virtual reality made by professionally trained paramedics and fire service incident commanders who are frequently faced with and must respond to moral dilemmas...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159908/twenty-years-later-the-cognitive-portrait-of-openness-to-reconciliation-in-rwanda
#2
Serge Caparos, Sara-Valérie Giroux, Eugène Rutembesa, Emmanuel Habimana, Isabelle Blanchette
With this work, we intended to draw a cognitive portrait of openness to reconciliation. No study had yet examined the potential contribution of high-level cognitive functioning, in addition to psychological health, to explaining attitudes towards reconciliation in societies exposed to major trauma such as post-genocide Rwanda. We measured the contribution of general cognitive capacity, analytical thinking, and subjective judgements. Our results show that higher cognitive capacity is not associated with greater openness to reconciliation...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094756/development-of-motor-imagery-ability-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a%C3%A2-goal-directed-pointing-task
#3
Imke L J Adams, Jessica M Lust, Bert Steenbergen
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulties with the predictive control of movements. This was shown in studies that target motor imagery and motor planning, and appears to become particularly evident with increases in task complexity. In this study, we used a complex mental chronometry paradigm to examine the development of motor imagery ability in children with DCD, using a longitudinal design. Thirty children were included in the DCD group (aged 6-11 years) and age- and gender-matched to 30 controls...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044461/the-influence-of-time-units-on-the-flexibility-of-the-spatial-numerical-association-of-response-codes-effect
#4
Tingting Zhao, Xianyou He, Xueru Zhao, Jianrui Huang, Wei Zhang, Shuang Wu, Qi Chen
The Spatial Numerical/Temporal Association of Response Codes (SNARC/STEARC) effects are considered evidence of the association between number or time and space, respectively. As the SNARC effect was proposed by Dehaene, Bossini, and Giraux in 1993, several studies have suggested that different tasks and cultural factors can affect the flexibility of the SNARC effect. This study explored the influence of time units on the flexibility of the SNARC effect via materials with Arabic numbers, which were suffixed with time units and subjected to magnitude comparison tasks...
October 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940474/the-perception-of-naked-only-bodies-and-faceless-heads-relies-on-holistic-processing-evidence-from-the-inversion-effect
#5
Rob Bonemei, Andrea I Costantino, Ilenia Battistel, Davide Rivolta
Faces and bodies are more difficult to perceive when presented inverted than when presented upright (i.e., stimulus inversion effect), an effect that has been attributed to the disruption of holistic processing. The features that can trigger holistic processing in faces and bodies, however, still remain elusive. In this study, using a sequential matching task, we tested whether stimulus inversion affects various categories of visual stimuli: faces, faceless heads, faceless heads in body context, headless bodies naked, whole bodies naked, headless bodies clothed, and whole bodies clothed...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940324/vividness-of-positive-mental-imagery-predicts-positive-emotional-response-to-visually-presented-project-soothe-pictures
#6
Alexander C Wilson, Matthias Schwannauer, Angela McLaughlin, Fiona Ashworth, Stella W Y Chan
Lang's bioinformational theory of mental imagery proposes that mental imagery and external stimuli engage emotional information-processing systems in similar ways. However, the positive and negative systems are thought to be distinct, so this similarity is likely to show a valence-specific effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that an individual's ability to construct vivid positive, but not negative, mental imagery would predict positive emotional responding to positive visual stimuli, independently of depressive symptoms...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929488/should-i-just-listen-to-you-or-change-your-mind-too-target-s-perceived-efficacy-of-agents-interpersonal-affect-improvement-strategies
#7
Belén López-Pérez
People shape and influence others' emotions every day. If these attempts are perceived as successful, they may have a positive effect on people's relationships and well-being. Across two studies, targets' perceived efficacy of regulation strategies to improve their sadness and anxiety/stress has been investigated. In Study 1, participants (n = 120) were provided with two scenarios depicting sadness and anxiety/stress and asked to imagine themselves in these situations. Afterwards, they were provided with different regulation strategies and asked to rate their perceived efficacy to downregulate their sadness and anxiety...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895129/the-role-of-sustained-attention-maternal-sensitivity-and-infant-temperament-in-the-development-of-early-self-regulation
#8
Matilda A Frick, Tommie Forslund, Mari Fransson, Maria Johansson, Gunilla Bohlin, Karin C Brocki
This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10 months (n = 124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18 months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872661/the-kent-face-matching-test
#9
Matthew C Fysh, Markus Bindemann
This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests...
September 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872657/how-intention-and-monitoring-your-thoughts-influence-characteristics-of-autobiographical-memories
#10
Krystian Barzykowski, Søren Risløv Staugaard
Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'...
September 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326547/behavioural-responses-to-facial-and-postural-expressions-of-emotion-an-interpersonal-circumplex-approach
#11
Marije Aan Het Rot, Violeta Enea, Ion Dafinoiu, Sorina Iancu, Steluţa A Taftă, Mariana Bărbuşelu
While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural expressions of emotion. We presented 101 Romanian students with facial and postural stimuli involving individuals ('targets') expressing happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. Using an interpersonal grid, participants simultaneously indicated how communal (i...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240363/research-on-face-recognition-the-aberdeen-influence
#12
Graham M Davies, Andrew W Young
The review of 'Recognizing faces' by Hadyn Ellis, published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1975, marked the genesis of a distinct field of research. This seminal review sprang from a broader programme of research on face recognition conducted at the University of Aberdeen, whose influence continues to be felt in what has become an internationally important research area. We discuss the background to the Aberdeen research, summarize some of its achievements, and offer reasons why it proved so successful...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233898/body-image-disturbance-and-skin-bleaching
#13
Christopher A D Charles, Shua-Kym McLean
This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230235/seeing-overweight-adults-as-babies-physical-cues-and-implications-for-stigmatization
#14
Anton J M Dijker, Rutger DeLuster, Nicolas Peeters, Nanne K de Vries
Human babies not only are reliable triggers of tender feelings and protective tendencies, they also happen to be exceptionally fat compared to the newborns of most other species. These two facts are used to formulate a hypothesis predicting that overweight males, due to their great physical resemblance to babies, not only are perceived as cute, but also are associated with negatively evaluated traits (e.g., immaturity, lack of willpower) that are saliently inconsistent with traits required for adults. In this study, a great many physical features of adult males varying widely in weight were measured and correlated with subjective judgements...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161891/genius-begins-at-home-shared-social-identity-enhances-the-recognition-of-creative-performance
#15
Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Michelle K Ryan, Kathryn Millard
The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists' performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106261/benchmark-based-strategies-in-whole-number-line-estimation
#16
Dominique Peeters, Lieven Verschaffel, Koen Luwel
In this study, we used verbal protocols to identify whether adults spontaneously apply quartile-based strategies or whether they need additional external support to use these strategies when solving a 0-1,000 number line estimation (NLE) task. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions based on the number of external benchmarks provided on the number line. In the bounded condition only the origin and endpoint were indicated, the mid-point condition included an additional external benchmark at 50%, and in the quartile condition three additional external benchmarks at 25%, 50%, and 75% were specified...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074477/same-but-different-comparative-modes-of-information-processing-are-implicated-in-the-construction-of-perceptions-of-autonomy-support
#17
Rebecca Rachael Lee, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861743/sex-differences-in-confidence-influence-patterns-of-conformity
#18
Catharine P Cross, Gillian R Brown, Thomas J H Morgan, Kevin N Laland
Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805247/beauty-in-the-blink-of-an-eye-the-time-course-of-aesthetic-experiences
#19
San Verhavert, Johan Wagemans, M Dorothee Augustin
Under normal circumstances, perception runs very fast and seemingly automatic. In just a few ms, we go from sensory features to perceiving objects. This fast time course does not only apply to general perceptual aspects but also to what we call higher-level judgements. Inspired by the study on 'very first impressions' by Bar, Neta, and Linz (2006, Emotion, 6, 269) the current research examined the speed and time course of three aspects of the aesthetic experience, namely beauty, specialness, and impressiveness...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677916/conspiracy-suspicions-as-a-proxy-for-beliefs-in-conspiracy-theories-implications-for-theory-and-measurement
#20
Michael J Wood
Research on the psychology of conspiracy theories has shown recent steps towards a standardization of measures. The present article seeks to continue that trend by presenting the Flexible Inventory of Conspiracy Suspicions (FICS), a questionnaire template that can be adapted to measure suspicions of a conspiracy around nearly any topic of public interest. Compared to conspiracy belief measures that ask about specific theories on a given topic, the FICS is worded in such a way as to provide relatively stable validity across time and cultural context...
August 2017: British Journal of Psychology
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