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Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju

Vedran Mužinić, Davor Želježić
Humans have used insecticides since ancient times. The spectrum and potency of available insecticidal substances has greatly expanded since the industrial revolution, resulting in widespread use and unforeseen levels of synthetic chemicals in the environment. Concerns about the toxic effects of these new chemicals on non-target species became public soon after their appearance, which eventually led to the restrictions of use. At the same time, new, more environmentally-friendly insecticides have been developed, based on naturally occurring chemicals, such as pyrethroids (derivatives of pyrethrin), neonicotinoids (derivatives of nicotine), and insecticides based on the neem tree vegetable oil (Azadirachta indica), predominantly azadirachtin...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Tanja Živković Semren, Suzana Žunec, Alica Pizent
This review article provides a summary of the studies relying on oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in particular) to investigate the effects of atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure in experimental animals and humans published since 2010. In general, experimental animals showed that atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure mostly affected their antioxidant defences and, to a lesser extent, lipid peroxidation, but the effects varied by the species, sex, age, herbicide concentration, and duration of exposure...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Nataša Brajenović, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Andreja Jurič
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants, harmful to human health, which enter the human body mainly through food and bind to body fat. For these reasons their use in most countries is prohibited. Human milk has an advantage over other types of human samples in measuring human exposure to PCBs, as it is obtained with non-invasive sampling methods. In Europe, including Croatia, PCB levels have been monitored for many years. This review summarises PCB trends in human milk across Europe. The trend is generally downward, with higher levels prevailing in urban areas near industrial plants...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Jafar Ahmadi, Siyavash Joukar, Hussein Anani, Somayyeh Karami-Mohajeri
Aluminium phosphide (AlP), a very toxic pesticide also known as the rice tablet, releases phosphine gas upon contact with water, moisture, or gastric acid. Its mortality rate in humans is 70-100 % due to cardiogenic shock and refractory hypotension. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple ketonic carbohydrate, mainly used for sunless skin tanning. It also plays a beneficial role in the treatment of hypotension and cardiogenic shock by restoring blood volume and cellular respiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the its effect on the haemodynamics and electrocardiogram (ECG) in male rats poisoned with AlP...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Slavica Vučinić, Vesna Kilibarda, Snežana Đorđević, Dragana Đorđević, Nataša Perković-Vukčević, Gordana Vuković-Ercegović, Biljana Antonijević, Marijana Ćurčić, Evica Antonijević, Gordana Brajković
A rising number of patients are being treated for overdosing with new psychoactive substances (NPS) available at the illegal drug market in Serbia. The aim of this study was to report clinical and analytical experience of the National Poison Control Centre of Serbia (NPCC) with synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) and point to the NPS available at the illegal drug market in our country. From January 2013 to December 2016, 58 patients (aged between 14 and 25) were treated for the effects of synthetic cannabinoids at the NPCC...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Raluca Ecaterina Haliga, Bianca Codrina Morarasu, Manuela Ursaru, Viorica Irimioaia, Laurentiu Sorodoc
Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can be deadlier than any other type of chemical poisoning. So far, only a few cases have been described that include extensive neurological complications. We present an outstanding case of severe oral OP poisoning with intermediate syndrome developed on the fourth day after hospital admission. The clinical picture involved weakness of the proximal upper and lower limb muscles and several muscles supplied by motor cranial nerves, but, what is peculiar, the distal upper and lower limb muscles were also affected (forearms, hands, legs, and feet)...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Ivan Pavičić, Davor Želježić
Pesticides are a highly diverse group of compounds and the most important chemical stressors in the environment. Mechanisms that could explain pesticide toxicity are constantly being studied and their interactions at the cellular level are often observed in well-controlled in vitro studies. Several pesticide groups have been found to impair the redox balance in the cell, but the mechanisms leading to oxidative stress for certain pesticides are only partly understood. As our scientific project "Organic pollutants in environment - markers and biomarkers of toxicity (OPENTOX)" is dedicated to studying toxic effects of selected insecticides and herbicides, this review is focused on reporting the knowledge regarding oxidative stress-related phenomena at the cellular level...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Mirta Milić, Suzana Žunec, Vedran Micek, Vilena Kašuba, Anja Mikolić, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Tanja Živković Semren, Ivan Pavičić, Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Alica Pizent, Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Rafael Valencia-Quintana, Juana Sánchez-Alarcón, Davor Želježić
In this 28 day-study, we evaluated the effects of herbicide glyphosate administered by gavage to Wistar rats at daily doses equivalent to 0.1 of the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), 0.5 of the consumer acceptable daily intake (ADI), 1.75 (corresponding to the chronic population-adjusted dose, cPAD), and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) (corresponding to 100 times the AOEL). At the end of each treatment, the body and liver weights were measured and compared with their baseline values. DNA damage in leukocytes and liver tissue was estimated with the alkaline comet assay...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Anja Mikolić, Irena Brčić Karačonji
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used worldwide due to its selective toxicity for insects. Its residues may enter the food chain, which is why it is important to investigate the potential adverse effects of imidacloprid exposure. This review summarises current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity and disruptive endocrine effects of imidacloprid in laboratory animals. Investigations, conducted mostly on laboratory rats, have shown adverse effects of imidacloprid on the reproductive ability in both parental and offspring generation as well as on the development of the offspring...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Hrvoje Lalić
Abstrat A 50-year-old female patient suffering from a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) took legal action against the Croatian Pension Insurance Institute (CPII) in an attempt to overturn their assessment that she was no longer capable of working as a seamstress but still capable of doing administrative jobs. Her claim was that she was not capable of doing any job at all. She was first diagnosed EBA in 2000, and the disease progressed slowly with intermittent remissions. In 2012, skin erosions appeared on her feet, followed by the loss of all toenails and lesions and infiltrations on the tongue and oral mucosa...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Adam Perczak, Piotr Goliński, Marcin Bryła, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz
Mycotoxins are produced by some fungal species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium and are common contaminants of a wide range of food commodities. Numerous strategies are used to minimise fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination throughout the food chain. This review addresses the use of lactic acid bacteria, which can inhibit fungal growth and participate in mycotoxin degradation and/or removal from contaminated food. Being beneficial for human and animal health, lactic acid bacteria have established themselves as an excellent solution to the problem of mycotoxin contamination, yet in practice their application in removing mycotoxins remains a challenge to be addressed by future research...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Dolores Peruč, Ivana Gobin, Maja Abram, Dalibor Broznić, Tomislav Svalina, Sanja Štifter, Mladenka Malenica Staver, Brigita Tićac
Mycobacterium avium complex-related diseases are often associated with poorly maintained hot water systems. This calls for the development of new control strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of essential oils (EOs) from the Mediterranean plants, common juniper, immortelle, sage, lavandin, laurel, and white cedar against Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium gordonae in culturing broth and freshwater as their most common habitat. To do that, we developed a new method of water microdilution to determine their minimal effective concentrations (MEC)...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Andreja Jurič, Andrija Fijačko, Lana Bakulić, Tanja Orešić, Ines Gmajnički
The main goal of this study was to determine the reliability of hand-held breath alcohol analysers currently approved for roadside screening of traffic offenders. The first part of the study included a retrospective data analysis of 714 offence records collected in 2011. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) obtained from the offenders 0-303 min after the police had screened them for breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) were back-calculated (cBAC) to assess the accuracy of breathalyser screening. All participants were in the alcohol elimination phase, and our analyses did not reveal any significant differences between cBAC and BrAC...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Kristina Dominko, Domagoj Đikić
Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) is an intracellular thiol molecule and a potent antioxidant that participates in the toxic metabolism phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics. It can bind to a variety of proteins in a process known as glutathionylation. Protein glutathionylation is now recognised as one of important posttranslational regulatory mechanisms in cell and tissue physiology. Direct and indirect regulatory roles in physiological processes include glutathionylation of major transcriptional factors, eicosanoids, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO)...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Bojana Mandić, Stefan Mandić-Rajčević, Ljiljana Marković-Denić, Petar Bulat
The risk of occupational bloodborne infections (HBV, HCV, and HIV) among healthcare workers remains a serious issue in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to bloodborne infections among general hospital workers in Serbia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2013 and included 5,247 healthcare workers from 17 general hospitals. The questionnaire was anonymous, self-completed, and included sociodemographic information with details of blood and bodily fluid exposure over the career and in the previous year (2012)...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Aylin Elkama, Bensu Karahalil
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in neurological impairment and disability. There is evidence that adequate vitamin D levels may lower the risk of MS development. The aetiology of MS is complex and involves both genetic and environmental factors. In fact, not one but several genes are believed to lead to the disease. As for environmental factors, one of the most important risk factors is vitamin D deficiency, which, in turn, is closely related to gene polymorphisms that play a role in vitamin D metabolism and regulation...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Aleksandar R Popović, Dubravka J Relić, Danijela V Vranić, Jelena A Babić-Milijašević, Lato L Pezo, Jasna M Đinović-Stojanović
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe in three canned fish species marketed Serbia to see if they meet recommended daily intake requirements or exceed safety limits. We collected a total of 207 samples of canned tuna, sardine, and mackerel, in oil or tomato sauce and analysed them with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion. The highest levels were obtained for Zn (15.1 mg kg-1) and Cu (1.37 mg kg-1) in sardine in oil and tomato sauce, respectively, and for Fe (18...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Tanja Visković, Davorka Sutlović
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal biological sample and the optimal extraction technique for monitoring methadone concentrations in biological samples. We analysed methadone in serum and whole blood samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Before analysis, we compared five solid-phase extraction (SPE) and two liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods and determined that SPE with Supelco LC-18 in serum yielded the best extraction efficiency. The limit of detection was 10 ng mL-1 and the limit of quantification 25 ng mL-1...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Susana Viegas, Carina Ladeira, Ana Costa-Veiga, Julian Perelman, Goran Gajski
Cancer is one of the diseases of greatest concern in developed countries and much effort has been invested in discovering and developing therapeutics for curing cancer. Despite the improvements in antineoplastic therapeutics in the last decades, cancer is still one of the most harmful diseases worldwide. The global burden of cancer also implies financial costs: these can be direct costs, such as those related to treatment, care, and rehabilitation and indirect, which include the loss of economic output due to missed work (morbidity costs) and premature death (mortality costs)...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
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