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Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju

Milica S Jovetić, Azra S Redžepović, Nebojša M Nedić, Denis Vojt, Slađana Z Đurđić, Ilija D Brčeski, Dušanka M Milojković-Opsenica
To contribute to the development of urban beekeeping, we designed this study to obtain more information about the contamination of urban bee products with toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. The samples of honey (N=23), pollen (N=13), and floral nectar (N=6) were collected from the experimental stationary apiary of the Belgrade University Faculty of Agriculture located in centre of Zemun (a municipality of the Belgrade metropolitan area) in 2015 and 2016. Metals (Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Hg) were determined with inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS)...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Renata Ecimović Nemarnik, Jelena Macan
Occupational diseases (ODs) often have a chronic, progressive course, resulting in reduced work capacity and quality of life, prolonged sick leaves, unemployment, early retirements, and disability claims. The aim of this retrospective study was to see how diagnosed ODs affected the employment of 95 Croatian workers between 2005 and 2014. To do that, we reviewed archived data and made a telephone survey. The lowest age at which an OD was diagnosed was 20 years in women and 22 in men, while the shortest duration of work before OD diagnosis was one year for both genders...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Susana Viegas, de Ana Cebola Oliveira, Elisabete Carolino, Mário Pádua
Healthcare workers who prepare or administer cytotoxic agents run the risk of exposure, and the risks for health are real even at doses lower than those applied in cancer patients, because, in theory, no dose is safe. The most common and problematic route of exposure is through the skin, especially as work surfaces can remain contaminated even after cleaning. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the importance of having an effective surface decontamination protocol by determining surface contamination with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel as the most common cytotoxic drugs in an oncology day service...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Carla Viegas, Ana Monteiro, Elisabete Carolino, Susana Viegas
In bakeries, a number of operations such as mixing are associated with exposure to air-suspended flour dust and related bioburden. The aim of this study was to find the best active sampling approach to the assessment of occupational exposure to bioburden in Portuguese bakeries based on the data obtained with the use of specific impaction and impinger devices. We used impaction to collect fungal particles from 100 L air samples onto malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.05 %). For growing fungi we also used dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media and for mesophilic bacteria we used tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with nystatin (0...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Aleksandar Perić, Cveta Špadijer Mirković, Danilo Vojvodić
Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) is a small protein mainly produced by non-ciliated Clara cells in the respiratory epithelium. It has an anti-inflammatory role in chronic upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammations. Decreased levels of CC16 are found in the nasal secretions and plasma of patients with chronic eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps, as well as in people exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Intranasal corticosteroid administration suppresses chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa driven by eosinophils and stimulates local CC16 production...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Stefano Dugheri, Alessandro Bonari, Ilenia Pompilio, Pierpaolo Boccalon, Nicola Mucci, Giulio Arcangeli
Cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs (ADs) pose occupational risk and therefore require safe handling practices. We created, optimised, and validated an innovative monitoring protocol for simultaneously assessing 21 ADs in the healthcare environment, and also proposed surface exposure levels (SELs) to facilitate the interpretation of monitoring results, as there are currently no occupational exposure limits for ADs. The environmental AD monitoring data were collected in nine Italian hospitals between 2008 and 2017 and include 74,565 measurements in 4,814 wipe samples...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Martina Bevardi, Marinko Petrović, Ksenija Markov, Jasna Bošnir
Mycotoxin patulin is one of the quality indicators for apple juice. Like other mycotoxins, it raises consumer health concerns. The issue of low quality is particularly relevant for apples provided by small producers, whose quality control may not be standardised. As sulphur dioxide (SO2) is common in fruit preservation against fungi, the aim of this study was to determine how efficient it is in degrading patulin in apple juices stored in real-life conditions. This included refrigerated (4 °C) and non-refrigerated warehouses/environments (30 °C) over 8, 10, 12, and 20 weeks of storage...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Sakine Ebrahimi
A 37-year-old male was referred to us about one hour after deliberate ingestion of two 3-gram aluminium phosphide (ALP) tablets. Three hours after admission, his blood pressure dropped to 85/55 mmHg, his heart rate increased to 120 bpm, O2 saturation dropped to 82 %, and the electrocardiogram showed junctional rhythm. We started whole blood exchange, and gross haematuria and jaundice ensued. However, his blood pressure increased, arrhythmia resolved itself, and he was extubated two days after the transfusion was completed...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Marija Kovač, Drago Šubarić, Mateja Bulaić, Tihomir Kovač, Bojan Šarkanj
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi in crops worldwide. In (micro)organisms such as plants, fungi, bacteria, or animals they may be further metabolised and modified, but this is also true for food processing, which may lead to a wide range of masked mycotoxin forms. These often remain undetected by analytical methods and are the culprits for underestimates in risk assessments. Furthermore, once ingested, modified mycotoxins can convert back to their parent forms. This concern has raised the need for analytical methods that can detect and quantify modified mycotoxins as essential for accurate risk assessment...
September 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Vedran Mužinić, Davor Želježić
Humans have used insecticides since ancient times. The spectrum and potency of available insecticidal substances has greatly expanded since the industrial revolution, resulting in widespread use and unforeseen levels of synthetic chemicals in the environment. Concerns about the toxic effects of these new chemicals on non-target species became public soon after their appearance, which eventually led to the restrictions of use. At the same time, new, more environmentally-friendly insecticides have been developed, based on naturally occurring chemicals, such as pyrethroids (derivatives of pyrethrin), neonicotinoids (derivatives of nicotine), and insecticides based on the neem tree vegetable oil (Azadirachta indica), predominantly azadirachtin...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Tanja Živković Semren, Suzana Žunec, Alica Pizent
This review article provides a summary of the studies relying on oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in particular) to investigate the effects of atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure in experimental animals and humans published since 2010. In general, experimental animals showed that atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure mostly affected their antioxidant defences and, to a lesser extent, lipid peroxidation, but the effects varied by the species, sex, age, herbicide concentration, and duration of exposure...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Nataša Brajenović, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Andreja Jurič
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants, harmful to human health, which enter the human body mainly through food and bind to body fat. For these reasons their use in most countries is prohibited. Human milk has an advantage over other types of human samples in measuring human exposure to PCBs, as it is obtained with non-invasive sampling methods. In Europe, including Croatia, PCB levels have been monitored for many years. This review summarises PCB trends in human milk across Europe. The trend is generally downward, with higher levels prevailing in urban areas near industrial plants...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Jafar Ahmadi, Siyavash Joukar, Hussein Anani, Somayyeh Karami-Mohajeri
Aluminium phosphide (AlP), a very toxic pesticide also known as the rice tablet, releases phosphine gas upon contact with water, moisture, or gastric acid. Its mortality rate in humans is 70-100 % due to cardiogenic shock and refractory hypotension. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple ketonic carbohydrate, mainly used for sunless skin tanning. It also plays a beneficial role in the treatment of hypotension and cardiogenic shock by restoring blood volume and cellular respiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the its effect on the haemodynamics and electrocardiogram (ECG) in male rats poisoned with AlP...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Slavica Vučinić, Vesna Kilibarda, Snežana Đorđević, Dragana Đorđević, Nataša Perković-Vukčević, Gordana Vuković-Ercegović, Biljana Antonijević, Marijana Ćurčić, Evica Antonijević, Gordana Brajković
A rising number of patients are being treated for overdosing with new psychoactive substances (NPS) available at the illegal drug market in Serbia. The aim of this study was to report clinical and analytical experience of the National Poison Control Centre of Serbia (NPCC) with synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) and point to the NPS available at the illegal drug market in our country. From January 2013 to December 2016, 58 patients (aged between 14 and 25) were treated for the effects of synthetic cannabinoids at the NPCC...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Raluca Ecaterina Haliga, Bianca Codrina Morarasu, Manuela Ursaru, Viorica Irimioaia, Laurentiu Sorodoc
Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can be deadlier than any other type of chemical poisoning. So far, only a few cases have been described that include extensive neurological complications. We present an outstanding case of severe oral OP poisoning with intermediate syndrome developed on the fourth day after hospital admission. The clinical picture involved weakness of the proximal upper and lower limb muscles and several muscles supplied by motor cranial nerves, but, what is peculiar, the distal upper and lower limb muscles were also affected (forearms, hands, legs, and feet)...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Ivan Pavičić, Davor Želježić
Pesticides are a highly diverse group of compounds and the most important chemical stressors in the environment. Mechanisms that could explain pesticide toxicity are constantly being studied and their interactions at the cellular level are often observed in well-controlled in vitro studies. Several pesticide groups have been found to impair the redox balance in the cell, but the mechanisms leading to oxidative stress for certain pesticides are only partly understood. As our scientific project "Organic pollutants in environment - markers and biomarkers of toxicity (OPENTOX)" is dedicated to studying toxic effects of selected insecticides and herbicides, this review is focused on reporting the knowledge regarding oxidative stress-related phenomena at the cellular level...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Mirta Milić, Suzana Žunec, Vedran Micek, Vilena Kašuba, Anja Mikolić, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Tanja Živković Semren, Ivan Pavičić, Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Alica Pizent, Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Rafael Valencia-Quintana, Juana Sánchez-Alarcón, Davor Želježić
In this 28 day-study, we evaluated the effects of herbicide glyphosate administered by gavage to Wistar rats at daily doses equivalent to 0.1 of the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), 0.5 of the consumer acceptable daily intake (ADI), 1.75 (corresponding to the chronic population-adjusted dose, cPAD), and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) (corresponding to 100 times the AOEL). At the end of each treatment, the body and liver weights were measured and compared with their baseline values. DNA damage in leukocytes and liver tissue was estimated with the alkaline comet assay...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Anja Mikolić, Irena Brčić Karačonji
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used worldwide due to its selective toxicity for insects. Its residues may enter the food chain, which is why it is important to investigate the potential adverse effects of imidacloprid exposure. This review summarises current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity and disruptive endocrine effects of imidacloprid in laboratory animals. Investigations, conducted mostly on laboratory rats, have shown adverse effects of imidacloprid on the reproductive ability in both parental and offspring generation as well as on the development of the offspring...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Hrvoje Lalić
Abstrat A 50-year-old female patient suffering from a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) took legal action against the Croatian Pension Insurance Institute (CPII) in an attempt to overturn their assessment that she was no longer capable of working as a seamstress but still capable of doing administrative jobs. Her claim was that she was not capable of doing any job at all. She was first diagnosed EBA in 2000, and the disease progressed slowly with intermittent remissions. In 2012, skin erosions appeared on her feet, followed by the loss of all toenails and lesions and infiltrations on the tongue and oral mucosa...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
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