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A Pinharanda, S H Martin, S L Barker, J W Davey, C D Jiggins
Gene duplications can facilitate adaptation and may lead to interpopulation divergence, causing reproductive isolation. We used whole-genome resequencing data from 34 butterflies to detect duplications in two Heliconius species, Heliconius cydno and Heliconius melpomene. Taking advantage of three distinctive signals of duplication in short-read sequencing data, we identified 744 duplicated loci in H. cydno and H. melpomene and evaluated the accuracy of our approach using single-molecule sequencing. We have found that duplications overlap genes significantly less than expected at random in H...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
B K Mable, J Hagmann, S-T Kim, A Adam, E Kilbride, D Weigel, M Stift
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
A D Foote, P A Morin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
F Balao, M Tannhäuser, M T Lorenzo, M Hedrén, O Paun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
S T Kujala, T Knürr, K Kärkkäinen, D B Neale, M J Sillanpää, O Savolainen
Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to eliminating some true associations...
November 30, 2016: Heredity
N H Barton
Much of quantitative genetics is based on the 'infinitesimal model', under which selection has a negligible effect on the genetic variance. This is typically justified by assuming a very large number of loci with additive effects. However, it applies even when genes interact, provided that the number of loci is large enough that selection on each of them is weak relative to random drift. In the long term, directional selection will change allele frequencies, but even then, the effects of epistasis on the ultimate change in trait mean due to selection may be modest...
November 30, 2016: Heredity
J Lean, M P Hammer, P J Unmack, M Adams, L B Beheregaray
Poor dispersal species represent conservative benchmarks for biodiversity management because they provide insights into ecological processes influenced by habitat fragmentation that are less evident in more dispersive organisms. Here we used the poorly dispersive and threatened river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) as a surrogate indicator system for assessing the effects of fragmentation in highly modified river basins and for prioritizing basin-wide management strategies. We combined individual, population and landscape-based approaches to analyze genetic variation in samples spanning the distribution of the species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world's most degraded freshwater systems...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
J M Pemberton, P E Ellis, J G Pilkington, C Bérénos
Experimental studies often find that inbreeding depression is more severe in harsh environments, but the few studies of in situ wild populations available to date rarely find strong support for this effect. We investigated evidence for inbreeding depression by environment interactions in nine traits in the individually monitored Soay sheep population of St Kilda, using genomic inbreeding coefficients based on 37 037 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci, and population density as an axis of environmental variation...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
S Bouchet, P Bertin, T Presterl, P Jamin, D Coubriche, B Gouesnard, J Laborde, A Charcosset
Plant architecture, phenology and yield components of cultivated plants have repeatedly been shaped by selection to meet human needs and adaptation to different environments. Here we assessed the genetic architecture of 24 correlated maize traits that interact during plant cycle. Overall, 336 lines were phenotyped in a network of 9 trials and genotyped with 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Phenology was the main factor of differentiation between genetic groups. Then yield components distinguished dents from lower yielding genetic groups...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
S U Franssen, R Kofler, C Schlötterer
The genetic architecture of adaptation in natural populations has not yet been resolved: it is not clear to what extent the spread of beneficial mutations (selective sweeps) or the response of many quantitative trait loci drive adaptation to environmental changes. Although much attention has been given to the genomic footprint of selective sweeps, the importance of selection on quantitative traits is still not well studied, as the associated genomic signature is extremely difficult to detect. We propose 'Evolve and Resequence' as a promising tool, to study polygenic adaptation of quantitative traits in evolving populations...
November 16, 2016: Heredity
J B Saltz
Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly...
November 16, 2016: Heredity
M W Jacobsen, L Smedegaard, S R Sørensen, J M Pujolar, P Munk, B Jónsson, E Magnussen, M M Hansen
Elucidating barriers to gene flow is important for understanding the dynamics of speciation. Here we investigate pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms acting between the two hybridizing species of Atlantic eels: Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata. Temporally varying hybridization was examined by analyzing 85 species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; FST ⩾0.95) in eel larvae sampled in the spawning region in the Sargasso Sea in 2007 (N=92) and 2014 (N=460). We further investigated whether genotypes at these SNPs were nonrandomly distributed in post-F1 hybrids, indicating selection...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
J L Campos, S Qiu, S Guirao-Rico, R Bergero, D Charlesworth
The establishment of a region of suppressed recombination is a critical change during sex chromosome evolution, leading to such properties as Y (and W) chromosome genetic degeneration, accumulation of repetitive sequences and heteromorphism. Although chromosome inversions can cause large regions to have suppressed recombination, and inversions are sometimes involved in sex chromosome evolution, gradual expansion of the non-recombining region could potentially sometimes occur. We here test whether closer linkage has recently evolved between the sex-determining region and several genes that are partially sex-linked in Silene latifolia, using Silene dioica, a closely related dioecious plants whose XY sex chromosome system is inherited from a common ancestor...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
R K Butlin, J F Y Brookfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Heredity
J James, D Castellano, A Eyre-Walker
Selection is expected to be more efficient in species that are more diverse because both the efficiency of natural selection and DNA sequence diversity are expected to depend upon the effective population size. We explore this relationship across a data set of 751 mammal species for which we have mitochondrial polymorphism data. We introduce a method by which we can examine the relationship between our measure of the efficiency of natural selection, the nonsynonymous relative to the synonymous nucleotide site diversity (πN/πS), and synonymous nucleotide diversity (πS), avoiding the statistical non-independence between the two quantities...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
B K Mable, J Hagmann, S-T Kim, A Adam, E Kilbride, D Weigel, M Stift
The genetic breakdown of self-incompatibility (SI) and subsequent mating system shifts to inbreeding has intrigued evolutionary geneticists for decades. Most of our knowledge is derived from interspecific comparisons between inbreeding species and their outcrossing relatives, where inferences may be confounded by secondary mutations that arose after the initial loss of SI. Here, we study an intraspecific breakdown of SI and its consequences in North American Arabidopsis lyrata to test whether: (1) particular S-locus haplotypes are associated with the loss of SI and/or the shift to inbreeding; (2) a population bottleneck may have played a role in driving the transition to inbreeding; and (3) the mutation(s) underlying the loss of SI are likely to have occurred at the S-locus...
November 2, 2016: Heredity
U Knief, B Kempenaers, W Forstmeier
The proportion of an individual's genome that is identical by descent (GWIBD) can be estimated from pedigrees (inbreeding coefficient 'Pedigree F') or molecular markers ('Marker F'), but both estimators come with error. Assuming unrelated pedigree founders, Pedigree F is the expected proportion of GWIBD given a specific inbreeding constellation. Meiotic recombination introduces variation around that expectation (Mendelian noise) and related pedigree founders systematically bias Pedigree F downward. Marker F is an estimate of the actual proportion of GWIBD but it suffers from the sampling error of markers plus the error that occurs when a marker is homozygous without reflecting common ancestry (identical by state)...
November 2, 2016: Heredity
P A Martinez, U P Jacobina, R V Fernandes, C Brito, C Penone, T F Amado, C R Fonseca, C J Bidau
Chromosomal rearrangements have a relevant role in organismic evolution. However, little is known about the mechanisms that lead different phylogenetic clades to have different chromosomal rearrangement rates. Here, we investigate the causes behind the wide karyotypic diversity exhibited by mammals. In particular, we analyzed the role of metabolic, reproductive, biogeographic and genomic characteristics on the rates of macro- and microstructural karyotypic diversification (rKD) using comparative phylogenetic methods...
November 2, 2016: Heredity
A R Hoelzel, A E Moura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Heredity
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