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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789644/heritability-of-climate-relevant-traits-in-a-rainforest-skink
#1
Felipe Martins, Loeske Kruuk, John Llewelyn, Craig Moritz, Ben Phillips
There is justified concern about the impact of global warming on the persistence of tropical ectotherms. There is also growing evidence for strong selection on climate-relevant physiological traits. Understanding the evolutionary potential of populations is especially important for low dispersal organisms in isolated populations, because these populations have little choice but to adapt. Despite this, direct estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for physiological traits in ectotherms-which will determine their evolutionary responses to selection-are sparse, especially for reptiles...
May 22, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789643/changes-in-pituitary-gene-expression-may-underlie-multiple-domesticated-traits-in-chickens
#2
Amir Fallahshahroudi, Pia Løtvedt, Johan Bélteky, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated animals share a unique set of morphological and behavioral traits, jointly referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Striking similarities amongst a range of unrelated domesticated species suggest that similar regulatory mechanisms may underlie the domesticated phenotype. These include color pattern, growth, reproduction, development and stress response. Although previous studies have focused on the brain to find mechanisms underlying domestication, the potential role of the pituitary gland as a target of domestication is highly overlooked...
May 22, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784930/comparative-mrna-and-mirna-expression-in-european-mouflon-ovis-musimon-and-sheep-ovis-aries-provides-novel-insights-into-the-genetic-mechanisms-for-female-reproductive-success
#3
Ji Yang, Xin Li, Yin-Hong Cao, Kisun Pokharel, Xiao-Ju Hu, Ze-Hui Chen, Song-Song Xu, Jaana Peippo, Mervi Honkatukia, Juha Kantanen, Meng-Hua Li
Prolific breeds of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are important genetic resources due to their reproductive performance, which is characterized by multiple lambs per birth and out-of-season breeding. However, the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the important reproductive traits, particularly from the evolutionary genomics perspective, has impeded the efficient advancement of sheep breeding. Here, for the first time, by performing RNA-sequencing we built a de novo transcriptome assembly of ovarian and endometrial tissues in European mouflon (Ovis musimon) and performed an mRNA-miRNA integrated expression profiling analysis of the wild species and a highly prolific domestic sheep breed, the Finnsheep...
May 21, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777168/the-genetic-basis-of-female-pheromone-differences-between-drosophila-melanogaster-and-d-simulans
#4
Jessica A Pardy, Howard D Rundle, Mark A Bernards, Amanda J Moehring
Chemical signals are one means by which many insect species communicate. Differences in the combination of surface chemicals called cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can influence mating behavior and affect reproductive isolation between species. Genes influencing three CHC compounds have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the genetic basis of other CHC compounds, whether these genes affect species differences in CHCs, and the genes' resulting effect on interspecies mating, remains unknown. We used fine-scale deficiency mapping of the third chromosome to identify 43 genomic regions that influence production of CHCs in both D...
May 19, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773897/fine-scale-temperature-associated-genetic-structure-between-inshore-and-offshore-populations-of-sea-scallop-placopecten-magellanicus
#5
Sarah J Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Nicholas W Jeffery, J Ben Lowen, Emma V A Sylvester, Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Lorraine C Hamilton, Ian R Bradbury
In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) has been characterized by a latitudinal genetic cline with a breakpoint between northern and southern genetic clusters occurring at ~45°N along eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. Using 96 diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capable of discriminating between northern and southern clusters, we examined fine-scale genetic structure of scallops among 27 sample locations, spanning the largest geographic range evaluated in this species to date (~37-51°N)...
May 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773896/evolutionary-genetics-of-personality-in-the-trinidadian-guppy-i-maternal-and-additive-genetic-effects-across-ontogeny
#6
Stephen John White, Alastair James Wilson
Among-individual variation in behaviour is a widespread phenomenon, with several frameworks developed to explain its existence. Maternal effects, which can have significant influence over evolutionary processes, are an understudied source of behavioural variation. Maternal effects are not necessarily static, however, since their importance can change over offspring ontogeny, typically declining with age relative to additive genetic effects. Here, using a quantitative genetics approach, we test the prediction that maternal effects will influence age-specific risk-taking behaviour in Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata...
May 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765161/expanding-the-blup-alphabet-for-genomic-prediction-adaptable-to-the-genetic-architectures-of-complex-traits
#7
Jiabo Wang, Zhengkui Zhou, Zhe Zhang, Hui Li, Di Liu, Qin Zhang, Peter J Bradbury, Edward S Buckler, Zhiwu Zhang
Improvement of statistical methods is crucial for realizing the potential of increasingly dense genetic markers. Bayesian methods treat all markers as random effects, exhibit an advantage on dense markers, and offer the flexibility of using different priors. In contrast, genomic best linear unbiased prediction (gBLUP) is superior in computing speed, but only superior in prediction accuracy for extremely complex traits. Currently, the existing variety in the BLUP method is insufficient for adapting to new sequencing technologies and traits with different genetic architectures...
May 16, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752470/nrdna-mtdna-copy-number-ratios-as-a-comparative-metric-for-evolutionary-and-conservation-genetics
#8
William Paul Goodall-Copestake
Identifying genetic cues of functional relevance is key to understanding the drivers of evolution and increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. This study introduces nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number ratios as a metric with which to screen for this functional genetic variation prior to more extensive omics analyses. To illustrate the metric, quantitative PCR was used to estimate nrDNA (18S) to mtDNA (16S) copy number ratios in muscle tissue from samples of two zooplankton species: Salpa thompsoni caught near Elephant Island (Southern Ocean) and S...
May 12, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743566/going-going-gone-predicting-the-fate-of-genomic-insertions-in-plant-rna-viruses
#9
Anouk Willemsen, José L Carrasco, Santiago F Elena, Mark P Zwart
Horizontal gene transfer is common among viruses, while they also have highly compact genomes and tend to lose artificial genomic insertions rapidly. Understanding the stability of genomic insertions in viral genomes is therefore relevant for explaining and predicting their evolutionary patterns. Here, we revisit a large body of experimental research on a plant RNA virus, tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV), to identify the patterns underlying the stability of a range of homologous and heterologous insertions in the viral genome...
May 10, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728676/genetics-of-distyly-and-homostyly-in-a-self-compatible-primula
#10
Shuai Yuan, Spencer C H Barrett, Cehong Li, Xiaojie Li, Kongping Xie, Dianxiang Zhang
The transition from outcrossing to selfing through the breakdown of distyly to homostyly has occurred repeatedly among families of flowering plants. Homostyles can originate by major gene changes at the S-locus linkage group, or by unlinked polygenic modifiers. Here, we investigate the inheritance of distyly and homostyly in Primula oreodoxa, a subalpine herb endemic to Sichuan, China. Controlled self- and cross-pollinations confirmed that P. oreodoxa unlike most heterostylous species is fully self-compatible...
May 4, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725078/occurrence-of-subdioecy-and-scarcity-of-gender-specific-markers-reveal-an-ongoing-transition-to-dioecy-in-himalayan-seabuckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-ssp-turkestanica
#11
Yash Mangla, Kamal Das, Sapinder Bali, Heena Ambreen, Soom Nath Raina, Rajesh Tandon, Shailendra Goel
Dioecy and the dynamics of its evolution are intensely investigated aspects of plant reproduction. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is an alpine shrub growing wild in certain parts of western Himalaya. The previous studies have reported heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the species and yet marker-based studies indicate high similarity between the male and female genomes. Lack of information on sexual system in the species has further complicated the situation. A systematic study was thus undertaken to understand the sexual system in seabuckthorn and to discern the extent of similarity/dissimilarity between the male and female genomes by generating a large number of markers using amplified fragment length polymorphism and representational difference analysis...
May 4, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720718/incorporating-non-equilibrium-dynamics-into-demographic-history-inferences-of-a-migratory-marine-species
#12
E L Carroll, R Alderman, J L Bannister, M Bérubé, P B Best, L Boren, C S Baker, R Constantine, K Findlay, R Harcourt, L Lemaire, P J Palsbøll, N J Patenaude, V J Rowntree, J Seger, D Steel, L O Valenzuela, M Watson, O E Gaggiotti
Understanding how dispersal and gene flow link geographically separated the populations over evolutionary history is challenging, particularly in migratory marine species. In southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalaena australis), patterns of genetic diversity are likely influenced by the glacial climate cycle and recent history of whaling. Here we use a dataset of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (n = 1327) and nuclear markers (17 microsatellite loci, n = 222) from major wintering grounds to investigate circumpolar population structure, historical demography and effective population size...
May 3, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713090/candidate-genes-associated-with-color-morphs-of-female-limited-polymorphisms-of-the-damselfly-ischnura-senegalensis
#13
Michihiko Takahashi, Yuma Takahashi, Masakado Kawata
Many Odonata species exhibit female-limited polymorphisms, where one morph is similar to the conspecific male in body color and other traits (andromorph), whereas one or more other morphs differ from the male (gynomorphs). Here we investigated the differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) among males and two female morph groups (gynomorphs and andromorphs) using RNA-seq to identify candidate transcripts encoding female-limited polymorphisms in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis. Seven DETs that had significantly different expression levels between males and gynomorphs, but not between males and andromorphs, were identified...
May 1, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713089/genomic-selection-using-principal-component-regression
#14
Caroline Du, Julong Wei, Shibo Wang, Zhenyu Jia
Many statistical methods are available for genomic selection (GS) through which genetic values of quantitative traits are predicted for plants and animals using whole-genome SNP data. A large number of predictors with much fewer subjects become a major computational challenge in GS. Principal components regression (PCR) and its derivative, i.e., partial least squares regression (PLSR), provide a solution through dimensionality reduction. In this study, we show that PCR can perform better than PLSR in cross validation...
May 1, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713088/genomic-and-geographic-footprints-of-differential-introgression-between-two-divergent-fish-species-solea-spp
#15
Ahmed Souissi, François Bonhomme, Manuel Manchado, Lilia Bahri-Sfar, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
Investigating gene flow between closely related species and its variation across the genome is important to understand how reproductive barriers shape genome divergence before speciation is complete. An efficient way to characterize differential gene flow is to study how the genetic interactions that take place in hybrid zones selectively filter gene exchange between species, leading to heterogeneous genome divergence. In the present study, genome-wide divergence and introgression patterns were investigated between two sole species, Solea senegalensis and Solea aegyptiaca, using restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) to analyze samples taken from a transect spanning the hybrid zone...
May 1, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632325/speciation-in-the-presence-of-gene-flow-population-genomics-of-closely-related-and-diverging-eucalyptus-species
#16
Susan Rutherford, Maurizio Rossetto, Jason G Bragg, Hannah McPherson, Doug Benson, Stephen P Bonser, Peter G Wilson
Speciation is a complex process that is fundamental to the origins of biological diversity. While there has been considerable progress in our understanding of speciation, there are still many unanswered questions, especially regarding barriers to gene flow in diverging populations. Eucalyptus is an appropriate system for investigating speciation mechanisms since it comprises species that are rapidly evolving across heterogeneous environments. We examined patterns of genetic variation within and among six closely related Eucalyptus species in subgenus Eucalyptus section Eucalyptus in south-eastern Australia (commonly known as the "green ashes")...
April 10, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626207/genetic-basis-to-hybrid-inviability-is-more-complex-than-hybrid-male-sterility-in-caenorhabditis-nematodes
#17
Joanna D Bundus, Donglin Wang, Asher D Cutter
Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving a single X-autosome incompatibility...
April 7, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588510/modelling-the-co-evolution-of-indirect-genetic-effects-and-inherited-variability
#18
Jovana Marjanovic, Han A Mulder, Lars Rönnegård, Piter Bijma
When individuals interact, their phenotypes may be affected not only by their own genes but also by genes in their social partners. This phenomenon is known as Indirect Genetic Effects (IGEs). In aquaculture species and some plants, however, competition not only affects trait levels of individuals, but also inflates variability of trait values among individuals. In the field of quantitative genetics, the variability of trait values has been studied as a quantitative trait in itself, and is often referred to as inherited variability...
March 28, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588509/the-road-to-evolutionary-success-insights-from-the-demographic-history-of-an-amazonian-palm
#19
Warita A Melo, Cintia G Freitas, Christine D Bacon, Rosane G Collevatti
Evolutionary success, as demonstrated by high abundance and a wide geographical range, is related to genetic variation and historical demography. Here we assess how climatic change during the Quaternary influenced the demography and distribution of the Neotropical swamp palm Mauritia flexuosa. Using microsatellite loci and coalescent analyses we examined how demographical dynamics affected genetic diversity, effective population size and connectivity through time and space. Mauritia flexuosa presents significant genetic differentiation between the Amazonian and Cerrado biomes and among different river basins...
March 28, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588508/the-effects-of-recent-changes-in-breeding-preferences-on-maintaining-traditional-dutch-chicken-genomic-diversity
#20
Chiara Bortoluzzi, Richard P M A Crooijmans, Mirte Bosse, Sipke Joost Hiemstra, Martien A M Groenen, Hendrik-Jan Megens
Traditional Dutch chicken breeds are marginalised breeds of ornamental and cultural-historical importance. In the last decades, miniaturising of existing breeds (so called neo-bantam) has become popular and resulted in alternatives to original large breeds. However, while backcrossing is increasing the neo-bantams homozygosity, genetic exchange between breeders may increase their genetic diversity. We use the 60 K SNP array to characterise the genetic diversity, demographic history, and level of inbreeding of Dutch heritage breeds, and particularly of neo-bantams...
March 28, 2018: Heredity
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