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Heredity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722705/background-controlled-qtl-mapping-in-pure-line-genetic-populations-derived-from-four-way-crosses
#1
S Zhang, L Meng, J Wang, L Zhang
Pure lines derived from multiple parents are becoming more important because of the increased genetic diversity, the possibility to conduct replicated phenotyping trials in multiple environments and potentially high mapping resolution of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, we proposed a new mapping method for QTL detection in pure-line populations derived from four-way crosses, which is able to control the background genetic variation through a two-stage mapping strategy. First, orthogonal variables were created for each marker and used in an inclusive linear model, so as to completely absorb the genetic variation in the mapping population...
July 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657614/genetic-analysis-of-a-hybrid-sterility-gene-that-causes-both-pollen-and-embryo-sac-sterility-in-hybrids-between-oryza-sativa-l-and-oryza-longistaminata
#2
H Chen, Z Zhao, L Liu, W Kong, Y Lin, S You, W Bai, Y Xiao, H Zheng, L Jiang, J Li, J Zhou, D Tao, J Wan
Oryza longistaminata originates from African wild rice and contains valuable traits conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, interspecific crosses between O. longistaminata and Oryza sativa cultivars are hindered by reproductive barriers. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) using indica variety RD23 as the recipient parent and O. longistaminata as the donor parent. Both pollen and embryo sac semi-sterility were observed in F1 hybrids between RD23 and NIL...
June 28, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635968/sex-biased-dispersal-creates-spatial-genetic-structure-in-a-parthenogenetic-ant-with-a-dependent-lineage-reproductive-system
#3
A Kuhn, D Bauman, H Darras, S Aron
Reproduction and dispersal are key aspects of species life history that influence spatial genetic structure in populations. Several ant species in the genus Cataglyphis have evolved a unique breeding system in which new reproductives (that is, queens and males) are produced asexually by parthenogenesis; in contrast, non-reproductives (that is, workers) are produced via sexual reproduction by mates from distinct genetic lineages. We investigated how these two coexisting reproductive methods affect population-level spatial genetic structure using the ant Cataglyphis mauritanica as a model...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#4
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635966/testing-models-of-refugial-isolation-colonization-and-population-connectivity-in-two-species-of-montane-salamanders
#5
S M Rovito, S D Schoville
Pleistocene glaciations have profoundly affected patterns of genetic diversity within many species. Temperate alpine organisms likely experienced dramatic range shifts, given that much of their habitat was glaciated during this time. While the effects of glaciations are relatively well understood, the spatial locations of refugia and processes that gave rise to current patterns of diversity are less well known. We use a microsatellite data set to test hypotheses of population connectivity and refugial isolation in the web-toed salamanders (Hydromantes) of the Sierra Nevada...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635965/identification-genealogical-structure-and-population-genetics-of-s-alleles-in-malus-sieversii-the-wild-ancestor-of-domesticated-apple
#6
X Ma, Z Cai, W Liu, S Ge, L Tang
The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613280/insights-into-the-genetic-architecture-of-morphological-traits-in-two-passerine-bird-species
#7
C N S Silva, S E McFarlane, I J Hagen, L Rönnegård, A M Billing, T Kvalnes, P Kemppainen, B Rønning, T H Ringsby, B-E Sæther, A Qvarnström, H Ellegren, H Jensen, A Husby
Knowledge about the underlying genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is needed to understand and predict evolutionary dynamics. The number of causal loci, magnitude of the effects and location in the genome are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we use genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from two large-scale data sets on house sparrows and collared flycatchers to examine the genetic architecture of different morphological traits (tarsus length, wing length, body mass, bill depth, bill length, total and visible badge size and white wing patches)...
June 14, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590463/prediction-and-association-mapping-of-agronomic-traits-in-maize-using-multiple-omic-data
#8
Y Xu, C Xu, S Xu
Genomic selection holds a great promise to accelerate plant breeding via early selection before phenotypes are measured, and it offers major advantages over marker-assisted selection for highly polygenic traits. In addition to genomic data, metabolome and transcriptome are increasingly receiving attention as new data sources for phenotype prediction. We used data available from maize as a model to compare the predictive abilities of three different omic data sources using eight representative methods for six traits...
June 7, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561806/genetic-based-interactions-among-tree-neighbors-identification-of-the-most-influential-neighbors-and-estimation-of-correlations-among-direct-and-indirect-genetic-effects-for-leaf-disease-and-growth-in-eucalyptus-globulus
#9
J Costa E Silva, B M Potts, A R Gilmour, R J Kerr
An individual's genes may influence the phenotype of neighboring conspecifics. Such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are important as they can affect the apparent total heritable variance in a population, and thus the response to selection. We studied these effects in a large, pedigreed population of Eucalyptus globulus using variance component analyses of Mycosphearella leaf disease, diameter growth at age 2 years, and post-infection diameter growth at ages 4 and 8 years. In a novel approach, we initially modeled IGEs using a factor analytic (FA) structure to identify the most influential neighbor positions, with the FA loadings being position-specific regressions on the IGEs...
May 31, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537571/comparison-of-different-genetic-distances-to-test-isolation-by-distance-between-populations
#10
M Séré, S Thévenon, A M G Belem, T De Meeûs
Studying isolation by distance can provide useful demographic information. To analyze isolation by distance from molecular data, one can use some kind of genetic distance or coalescent simulations. Molecular markers can often display technical caveats, such as PCR-based amplification failures (null alleles, allelic dropouts). These problems can alter population parameter inferences that can be extracted from molecular data. In this simulation study, we analyze the behavior of different genetic distances in Island (null hypothesis) and stepping stone models displaying varying neighborhood sizes...
May 24, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489073/genetic-diversity-and-gene-flow-decline-with-elevation-in-montane-mayflies
#11
N R Polato, M M Gray, B A Gill, C G Becker, K L Casner, A S Flecker, B C Kondratieff, A C Encalada, N L Poff, W C Funk, K R Zamudio
Montane environments around the globe are biodiversity 'hotspots' and important reservoirs of genetic diversity. Montane species are also typically more vulnerable to environmental change than their low-elevation counterparts due to restricted ranges and dispersal limitations. Here we focus on two abundant congeneric mayflies (Baetis bicaudatus and B. tricaudatus) from montane streams over an elevation gradient spanning 1400 m. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes, we measured population diversity and vulnerability in these two species by: (i) describing genetic diversity and population structure across elevation gradients to identify mechanisms underlying diversification; (ii) performing spatially explicit landscape analyses to identify environmental drivers of differentiation; and (iii) identifying outlier loci hypothesized to underlie adaptive divergence...
May 10, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467401/genetic-architecture-of-gene-transcription-in-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#12
X He, A L S Houde, T E Pitcher, D D Heath
Gene expression regulation has an important role in short-term acclimation and long-term adaptation to changing environments. However, the genetic architecture of gene expression has received much less attention than that of traditional phenotypic traits. In this study, we used a 5 × 5 full-factorial breeding design within each of two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations to characterize the genetic architecture of gene transcription. The two populations (LaHave and Sebago) are being used for reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada...
May 3, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402327/conserved-g-matrices-of-morphological-and-life-history-traits-among-continental-and-island-blue-tit-populations
#13
B Delahaie, A Charmantier, S Chantepie, D Garant, M Porlier, C Teplitsky
The genetic variance-covariance matrix (G-matrix) summarizes the genetic architecture of multiple traits. It has a central role in the understanding of phenotypic divergence and the quantification of the evolutionary potential of populations. Laboratory experiments have shown that G-matrices can vary rapidly under divergent selective pressures. However, because of the demanding nature of G-matrix estimation and comparison in wild populations, the extent of its spatial variability remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate spatial variation in G-matrices for morphological and life-history traits using long-term data sets from one continental and three island populations of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) that have experienced contrasting population history and selective environment...
August 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353685/strong-population-structure-in-a-species-manipulated-by-humans-since-the-neolithic-the-european-fallow-deer-dama-dama-dama
#14
K H Baker, H W I Gray, V Ramovs, D Mertzanidou, Ç Akın Pekşen, C C Bilgin, N Sykes, A R Hoelzel
Species that have been translocated and otherwise manipulated by humans may show patterns of population structure that reflect those interactions. At the same time, natural processes shape populations, including behavioural characteristics like dispersal potential and breeding system. In Europe, a key factor is the geography and history of climate change through the Pleistocene. During glacial maxima throughout that period, species in Europe with temperate distributions were forced south, becoming distributed among the isolated peninsulas represented by Anatolia, Italy and Iberia...
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327580/circular-mating-as-an-option-for-the-genetic-management-of-captive-populations-response-to-caballero-et-al
#15
K Theodorou, D Couvet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327579/the-risk-of-forcing-inbreeding-in-conservation-programmes-a-reply-to-theodorou-and-couvet
#16
A Caballero, I Bravo, J Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327578/partial-support-for-the-central-marginal-hypothesis-within-a-population-reduced-genetic-diversity-but-not-increased-differentiation-at-the-range-edge-of-an-island-endemic-bird
#17
K M Langin, T S Sillett, W C Funk, S A Morrison, C K Ghalambor
Large-scale population comparisons have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of geographic range limits and species boundaries, as well as the conservation value of populations at range margins. The central-marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a decline in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation toward the periphery of species' ranges due to spatial variation in genetic drift and gene flow. Empirical studies on a diverse array of taxa have demonstrated support for the CMH. However, nearly all such studies come from widely distributed species, and have not considered if the same processes can be scaled down to single populations...
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295035/contrasting-patterns-of-population-structure-and-gene-flow-facilitate-exploration-of-connectivity-in-two-widely-distributed-temperate-octocorals
#18
L P Holland, T L Jenkins, J R Stevens
Connectivity is an important component of metapopulation dynamics in marine systems and can influence population persistence, migration rates and conservation decisions associated with Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). In this study, we compared the genetic diversity, gene flow and population structure of two octocoral species, Eunicella verrucosa and Alcyonium digitatum, in the northeast Atlantic (ranging from the northwest of Ireland and the southern North Sea, to southern Portugal), using two panels of 13 and 8 microsatellite loci, respectively...
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295032/air-borne-genotype-by-genotype-indirect-genetic-effects-are-substantial-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#19
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
July 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295031/x-linkage-is-not-a-general-inhibitor-of-tissue-specific-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
E Argyridou, A K Huylmans, A Königer, J Parsch
As a consequence of its difference in copy number between males and females, the X chromosome is subject to unique evolutionary forces and gene regulatory mechanisms. Previous studies of Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the expression of X-linked, testis-specific reporter genes is suppressed in the male germline. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon is restricted to testis-expressed genes or if it is a more general property of genes with tissue-specific expression, which are also underrepresented on the X chromosome...
July 2017: Heredity
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