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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327581/the-early-life-environment-of-a-pig-shapes-the-phenotypes-of-its-social-partners-in-adulthood
#1
L Canario, N Lundeheim, P Bijma
Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in natural and domestic populations, and may affect phenotypes of individuals. Recent research has demonstrated that the social effect of an individual on the phenotype of its social partners may have a genetic component, known as an indirect genetic effect (IGE). Little is known, however, of nongenetic factors underlying such social effects. Early-life environments often have large effects on phenotypes of the individuals themselves later in life. Offspring development in many mammalian species, for example, depends on interactions with the mother and siblings...
March 22, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327580/circular-mating-as-an-option-for-the-genetic-management-of-captive-populations-response-to-caballero-et-al
#2
K Theodorou, D Couvet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327579/the-risk-of-forcing-inbreeding-in-conservation-programmes-a-reply-to-theodorou-and-couvet
#3
A Caballero, I Bravo, J Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327578/partial-support-for-the-central-marginal-hypothesis-within-a-population-reduced-genetic-diversity-but-not-increased-differentiation-at-the-range-edge-of-an-island-endemic-bird
#4
K M Langin, T S Sillett, W C Funk, S A Morrison, C K Ghalambor
Large-scale population comparisons have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of geographic range limits and species boundaries, as well as the conservation value of populations at range margins. The central-marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a decline in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation toward the periphery of species' ranges due to spatial variation in genetic drift and gene flow. Empirical studies on a diverse array of taxa have demonstrated support for the CMH. However, nearly all such studies come from widely distributed species, and have not considered if the same processes can be scaled down to single populations...
March 22, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295035/contrasting-patterns-of-population-structure-and-gene-flow-facilitate-exploration-of-connectivity-in-two-widely-distributed-temperate-octocorals
#5
L P Holland, T L Jenkins, J R Stevens
Connectivity is an important component of metapopulation dynamics in marine systems and can influence population persistence, migration rates and conservation decisions associated with Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). In this study, we compared the genetic diversity, gene flow and population structure of two octocoral species, Eunicella verrucosa and Alcyonium digitatum, in the northeast Atlantic (ranging from the northwest of Ireland and the southern North Sea, to southern Portugal), using two panels of 13 and 8 microsatellite loci, respectively...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295034/fine-scale-genetic-structure-due-to-adaptive-divergence-among-microhabitats
#6
D N Wagner, T Z Baris, D I Dayan, X Du, M F Oleksiak, D L Crawford
It has been suggested that adaptive evolution on ecological timescales shapes communities. However, adaptation among environments relies on isolation or large selection coefficients that exceed migration effects. This reliance is tempered if adaptation is polygenic-does not depend on one allele completely replacing another but instead requires small allele frequency changes at many loci. Thus, whether individuals can evolve adaptation to fine-scale habitat variation (for example, microhabitats) is not resolved...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295033/myosin-xi-is-associated-with-fitness-and-adaptation-to-aridity-in-wild-pearl-millet
#7
I S Ousseini, Y Bakasso, N A Kane, M Couderc, L Zekraoui, C Mariac, D Manicacci, B Rhoné, A Barnaud, C Berthouly-Salazar, A Assoumane, D Moussa, T Moussa, Y Vigouroux
Phenotypic changes in plants can be observed along many environmental gradients and are determined by both environmental and genetic factors. The identification of alleles associated with phenotypic variations is a rapidly developing area of research. We studied the genetic basis of phenotypic variations in 11 populations of wild pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on two North-South aridity gradients, one in Niger and one in Mali. Most of the 11 phenotypic traits assessed in a common garden experiment varied between the populations studied...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295032/air-borne-genotype-by-genotype-indirect-genetic-effects-are-substantial-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#8
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295031/x-linkage-is-not-a-general-inhibitor-of-tissue-specific-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
E Argyridou, A K Huylmans, A Königer, J Parsch
As a consequence of its difference in copy number between males and females, the X chromosome is subject to unique evolutionary forces and gene regulatory mechanisms. Previous studies of Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the expression of X-linked, testis-specific reporter genes is suppressed in the male germline. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon is restricted to testis-expressed genes or if it is a more general property of genes with tissue-specific expression, which are also underrepresented on the X chromosome...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295030/plarmeb-integration-of-least-angle-regression-with-empirical-bayes-for-multilocus-genome-wide-association-studies
#10
J Zhang, J-Y Feng, Y-L Ni, Y-J Wen, Y Niu, C L Tamba, C Yue, Q Song, Y-M Zhang
Multilocus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with complex traits. However, implementation of multilocus model in GWAS is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical Bayes to perform multilocus GWAS under polygenic background control. We used an algorithm of model transformation that whitened the covariance matrix of the polygenic matrix K and environmental noise...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295029/is-homoploid-hybrid-speciation-that-rare-an-empiricist-s-view
#11
G Nieto Feliner, I Álvarez, J Fuertes-Aguilar, M Heuertz, I Marques, F Moharrek, R Piñeiro, R Riina, J A Rosselló, P S Soltis, I Villa-Machío
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198816/low-genetic-diversity-and-strong-population-structure-shaped-by-anthropogenic-habitat-fragmentation-in-a-critically-endangered-primate-trachypithecus-leucocephalus
#12
W Wang, Y Qiao, S Li, W Pan, M Yao
Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198815/enhancing-genomic-prediction-with-genome-wide-association-studies-in-multiparental-maize-populations
#13
Y Bian, J B Holland
Genome-wide association mapping using dense marker sets has identified some nucleotide variants affecting complex traits that have been validated with fine-mapping and functional analysis. However, many sequence variants associated with complex traits in maize have small effects and low repeatability. In contrast to genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic prediction (GP) is typically based on models incorporating information from all available markers, rather than modeling effects of individual loci. We considered methods to integrate results of GWASs into GP models in the context of multiple interconnected families...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198814/inference-of-multiple-wave-population-admixture-by-modeling-decay-of-linkage-disequilibrium-with-polynomial-functions
#14
Y Zhou, K Yuan, Y Yu, X Ni, P Xie, E P Xing, S Xu
To infer the histories of population admixture, one important challenge with methods based on the admixture linkage disequilibrium (ALD) is to remove the effect of source LD (SLD), which is directly inherited from source populations. In previous methods, only the decay curve of weighted LD between pairs of sites whose genetic distance were larger than a certain starting distance was fitted by single or multiple exponential functions, for the inference of recent single- or multiple-wave admixture. However, the effect of SLD has not been well defined and no tool has been developed to estimate the effect of SLD on weighted LD decay...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177324/comparing-direct-and-indirect-selfing-rate-estimates-when-are-population-structure-estimates-reliable
#15
A Bürkli, N Sieber, K Seppälä, J Jokela
The rate of self-fertilization (that is, selfing) is a key evolutionary parameter in hermaphroditic species, yet obtaining accurate estimates of selfing rates in natural populations can be technically challenging. Most published estimates are derived from population-level heterozygote deficiency (that is, FIS) or identity disequilibria (for example, the software RMES (robust multilocus estimate of selfing)). These indirect methods can be applied to population genetic survey data, whereas direct methods using progeny arrays require much larger data sets that are often difficult to collect in natural populations or even require captive breeding...
February 8, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121310/unexpected-pattern-of-pearl-millet-genetic-diversity-among-ethno-linguistic-groups-in-the-lake-chad-basin
#16
A K Naino Jika, Y Dussert, C Raimond, E Garine, A Luxereau, N Takvorian, R S Djermakoye, T Adam, T Robert
Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121309/ultrabithorax-and-abdominal-a-specify-the-abdominal-appendage-in-a-dosage-dependent-manner-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
X L Tong, M Y Fu, P Chen, L Chen, Z H Xiang, C Lu, F Y Dai
In insects, there is a considerable diversity in leg distribution on the body, including number, segmental arrangement, morphological identity and consequent function, but the genetic basis for these differences is not well understood. Here by positional cloning, we showed that a ~355 kb region, including Bombyx mori Ultrabithorax (BmUbx) and abdominal-A (Bmabd-A), was responsible for the silkworm mutant Kh-extra-crescents-like (E(Kh)-l) that displayed additional thoracic limb-like legs on the first abdominal segment (A1) and occasionally on the second abdominal segment (A2)...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121308/early-genetic-consequences-of-defaunation-in-a-large-seeded-vertebrate-dispersed-palm-syagrus-romanzoffiana
#18
M I Giombini, S P Bravo, Y V Sica, D S Tosto
Plant populations are seriously threatened by anthropogenic habitat disturbance. In particular, defaunation may disrupt plant-disperser mutualisms, thus reducing levels of seed-mediated gene flow and genetic variation in animal-dispersed plants. This may ultimately limit their adaptive potential and ability to cope with environmental change. Tropical forest remnants are typically deprived of medium to large vertebrates upon which many large-seeded plants rely for accomplishing effective seed dispersal. Our main goal was to examine the potential early genetic consequences of the loss of large vertebrates for large-seeded vertebrate-dispersed plants...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#19
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098849/no-evidence-for-mhc-class-ii-based-non-random-mating-at-the-gametic-haplotype-in-atlantic-salmon
#20
M Promerová, G Alavioon, S Tusso, R Burri, S Immler
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a likely target of mate choice because of their role in inbreeding avoidance and potential benefits for offspring immunocompetence. Evidence for female choice for complementary MHC alleles among competing males exists both for the pre- and the postmating stages. However, it remains unclear whether the latter may involve non-random fusion of gametes depending on gametic haplotypes resulting in transmission ratio distortion or non-random sequence divergence among fused gametes...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
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