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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#1
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098849/no-evidence-for-mhc-class-ii-based-non-random-mating-at-the-gametic-haplotype-in-atlantic-salmon
#2
M Promerová, G Alavioon, S Tusso, R Burri, S Immler
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a likely target of mate choice because of their role in inbreeding avoidance and potential benefits for offspring immunocompetence. Evidence for female choice for complementary MHC alleles among competing males exists both for the pre- and the postmating stages. However, it remains unclear whether the latter may involve non-random fusion of gametes depending on gametic haplotypes resulting in transmission ratio distortion or non-random sequence divergence among fused gametes...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#3
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074844/no-signs-of-inbreeding-despite-long-term-isolation-and-habitat-fragmentation-in-the-critically-endangered-montseny-brook-newt-calotriton-arnoldi
#4
E Valbuena-Ureña, A Soler-Membrives, S Steinfartz, P Orozco-terWengel, S Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian (8 km(2)) and is considered critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#5
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051059/sexual-selection-for-genetic-compatibility-the-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-on-cryptic-female-choice-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#6
C Gessner, S Nakagawa, M Zavodna, N J Gemmell
Cryptic female choice (CFC), a form of sexual selection during or post mating, describes processes of differential sperm utilization by females to bias fertilization outcomes towards certain males. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) the ovarian fluid surrounding the ova of a given female differently enhances the sperm velocity of males. Sperm velocity is a key ejaculate trait that determines fertilization success in externally fertilizing fishes, thus the differential effect on sperm velocity might bias male fertilization outcomes and represent a mechanism of CFC...
January 4, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051058/purifying-selection-and-genetic-drift-shaped-pleistocene-evolution-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-in-an-endangered-australian-freshwater-fish
#7
A Pavlova, H M Gan, Y P Lee, C M Austin, D M Gilligan, M Lintermans, P Sunnucks
Genetic variation in mitochondrial genes could underlie metabolic adaptations because mitochondrially encoded proteins are directly involved in a pathway supplying energy to metabolism. Macquarie perch from river basins exposed to different climates differ in size and growth rate, suggesting potential presence of adaptive metabolic differences. We used complete mitochondrial genome sequences to build a phylogeny, estimate lineage divergence times and identify signatures of purifying and positive selection acting on mitochondrial genes for 25 Macquarie perch from three basins: Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Hawkesbury-Nepean Basin (HNB) and Shoalhaven Basin (SB)...
January 4, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029151/temporal-stability-in-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-a-marine-foundation-species-zostera-marina
#8
L K Reynolds, J J Stachowicz, A R Hughes, S J Kamel, B S Ort, R K Grosberg
Genetic diversity and population structure reflect complex interactions among a diverse set of processes that may vary temporally, limiting their potential to predict ecological and evolutionary outcomes. Yet, the stability of these patterns is rarely tested. We resampled eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows from published studies to determine variability in genetic diversity and structure within and between meadows over 5-12 years. The meadows sampled (San Francisco, Tomales and Bodega Bays in California and the Virginia coastal bays) represent a range of life histories (annual vs perennial), age (well-established vs restored) and environments (rural vs urbanized)...
December 28, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029150/incorporating-single-step-strategy-into-random-regression-model-to-enhance-genomic-prediction-of-longitudinal-trait
#9
H Kang, L Zhou, R Mrode, Q Zhang, J-F Liu
In prediction of genomic values, single-step method has been demonstrated to outperform multi-step methods. In statistical analyses of longitudinal traits, random regression test-day model (RR-TDM) has clear advantages over other models. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the performance of the model integrating both single-step and RR-TDM prediction methods, called single-step random regression test-day model (SS RR-TDM), in comparison with the pedigree-based RR-TDM and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model...
December 28, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000659/highly-conserved-z-and-molecularly-diverged-w-chromosomes-in-the-fish-genus-triportheus-characiformes-triportheidae
#10
C F Yano, L A C Bertollo, T Ezaz, V Trifonov, A Sember, T Liehr, M B Cioffi
The main objectives of this study were to test: (1) whether the W-chromosome differentiation matches to species' evolutionary divergence (phylogenetic concordance) and (2) whether sex chromosomes share a common ancestor within a congeneric group. The monophyletic genus Triportheus (Characiformes, Triportheidae) was the model group for this study. All species in this genus so far analyzed have ZW sex chromosome system, where the Z is always the largest chromosome of the karyotype, whereas the W chromosome is highly variable ranging from almost homomorphic to highly heteromorphic...
December 21, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966535/estimating-parent-specific-qtl-effects-through-cumulating-linked-identity-by-state-snp-effects-in-multiparental-populations
#11
A Maurer, W Sannemann, J Léon, K Pillen
The emergence of multiparental mapping populations enabled plant geneticists to gain deeper insights into the genetic architecture of major agronomic traits and to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the expression of these traits. Although the investigated mapping populations are similar, one open question is whether genotype data should be modelled as identical by state (IBS) or identical by descent (IBD). Whereas IBS simply makes use of raw genotype scores to distinguish alleles, IBD data are derived from parental offspring information...
December 14, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925616/a-response-to-hoelzel-moura
#12
A D Foote, P A Morin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#13
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925614/genetic-differentiation-and-admixture-between-sibling-allopolyploids-in-the-dactylorhiza-majalis-complex
#14
F Balao, M Tannhäuser, M T Lorenzo, M Hedrén, O Paun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901510/genetic-heterogeneity-underlying-variation-in-a-locally-adaptive-clinal-trait-in-pinus-sylvestris-revealed-by-a-bayesian-multipopulation-analysis
#15
S T Kujala, T Knürr, K Kärkkäinen, D B Neale, M J Sillanpää, O Savolainen
Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to eliminating some true associations...
November 30, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876805/landscape-genetics-informs-mesohabitat-preference-and-conservation-priorities-for-a-surrogate-indicator-species-in-a-highly-fragmented-river-system
#16
J Lean, M P Hammer, P J Unmack, M Adams, L B Beheregaray
Poor dispersal species represent conservative benchmarks for biodiversity management because they provide insights into ecological processes influenced by habitat fragmentation that are less evident in more dispersive organisms. Here we used the poorly dispersive and threatened river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) as a surrogate indicator system for assessing the effects of fragmentation in highly modified river basins and for prioritizing basin-wide management strategies. We combined individual, population and landscape-based approaches to analyze genetic variation in samples spanning the distribution of the species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world's most degraded freshwater systems...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876803/association-mapping-for-phenology-and-plant-architecture-in-maize-shows-higher-power-for-developmental-traits-compared-with-growth-influenced-traits
#17
S Bouchet, P Bertin, T Presterl, P Jamin, D Coubriche, B Gouesnard, J Laborde, A Charcosset
Plant architecture, phenology and yield components of cultivated plants have repeatedly been shaped by selection to meet human needs and adaptation to different environments. Here we assessed the genetic architecture of 24 correlated maize traits that interact during plant cycle. Overall, 336 lines were phenotyped in a network of 9 trials and genotyped with 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Phenology was the main factor of differentiation between genetic groups. Then yield components distinguished dents from lower yielding genetic groups...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848947/genetic-variation-in-social-environment-construction-influences-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
J B Saltz
Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly...
November 16, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827390/assessing-pre-and-post-zygotic-barriers-between-north-atlantic-eels-anguilla-anguilla-and-a-rostrata
#19
M W Jacobsen, L Smedegaard, S R Sørensen, J M Pujolar, P Munk, B Jónsson, E Magnussen, M M Hansen
Elucidating barriers to gene flow is important for understanding the dynamics of speciation. Here we investigate pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms acting between the two hybridizing species of Atlantic eels: Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata. Temporally varying hybridization was examined by analyzing 85 species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; FST ⩾0.95) in eel larvae sampled in the spawning region in the Sargasso Sea in 2007 (N=92) and 2014 (N=460). We further investigated whether genotypes at these SNPs were nonrandomly distributed in post-F1 hybrids, indicating selection...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827389/recombination-changes-at-the-boundaries-of-fully-and-partially-sex-linked-regions-between-closely-related-silene-species-pairs
#20
J L Campos, S Qiu, S Guirao-Rico, R Bergero, D Charlesworth
The establishment of a region of suppressed recombination is a critical change during sex chromosome evolution, leading to such properties as Y (and W) chromosome genetic degeneration, accumulation of repetitive sequences and heteromorphism. Although chromosome inversions can cause large regions to have suppressed recombination, and inversions are sometimes involved in sex chromosome evolution, gradual expansion of the non-recombining region could potentially sometimes occur. We here test whether closer linkage has recently evolved between the sex-determining region and several genes that are partially sex-linked in Silene latifolia, using Silene dioica, a closely related dioecious plants whose XY sex chromosome system is inherited from a common ancestor...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
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