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P W Hedrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Heredity
Xiaoyun Lei, Dejian Yuan, Zuobin Zhu, Shi Huang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the US. While most sporadic lung cancer cases are related to environmental factors such as smoking, genetic susceptibility may also play an important role and a number of lung cancer associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified although many remain to be found. The collective effects of genome-wide minor alleles of common SNPs, or the minor allele content (MAC) in an individual, have been linked with quantitative variations of complex traits and diseases...
March 10, 2018: Heredity
Jakob B Butler, Jules S Freeman, Brad M Potts, René E Vaillancourt, Dario Grattapaglia, Orzenil B Silva-Junior, Blake A Simmons, Adam L Healey, Jeremy Schmutz, Kerrie W Barry, David J Lee, Robert J Henry, Graham J King, Abdul Baten, Mervyn Shepherd
Terpenes are economically and ecologically important phytochemicals. Their synthesis is controlled by the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family, which is highly diversified throughout the plant kingdom. The plant family Myrtaceae are characterised by especially high terpene concentrations, and considerable variation in terpene profiles. Many Myrtaceae are grown commercially for terpene products including the eucalypts Corymbia and Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus grandis has the largest TPS gene family of plants currently sequenced, which is largely conserved in the closely related E...
March 10, 2018: Heredity
M P Bartkowska, Ay-C Wong, S P Sagar, L Zeng, C G Eckert
By reducing genetically effective population size and gene flow, self-fertilization should lead to strong spatial genetic structure (SGS). Although the short-lived plant Aquilegia canadensis produces large, complex, nectar-rich flowers, 75% of seed, on average, are self-fertilized. Previous experimental results are consistent with the fine-scale SGS expected in selfing populations. In contrast, key floral traits show no evidence of SGS, despite a significant genetic basis to phenotypic variation within populations...
March 1, 2018: Heredity
Naoyuki Nakahama, Kei Uchida, Atushi Ushimaru, Yuji Isagi
Semi-natural grassland areas expanded worldwide several thousand years ago following an increase in anthropogenic activities. However, semi-natural grassland habitat areas have been declining in recent decades due to changes in landuse, which have caused a loss of grassland biodiversity. Reconstructing historical and recent demographic changes in semi-natural grassland species will help clarify the factors affecting their population decline. Here we quantified past and recent demographic histories of Melitaea ambigua (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae), an endangered grassland butterfly species in Japan...
February 26, 2018: Heredity
Watanabe Yoichi, Izumi Kawamata, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Koichi Uehara, Motomi Ito
Ecological speciation is an important factor in the diversification of plants. The distribution of the woody species Rhododendron indicum, which grows along rivers and is able to withstand water flow when rivers flood (i.e. it is a rheophyte), is disjunct, in contrast to the widespread distribution of its relative, Rhododendron kaempferi. This study aimed to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between R. indicum and R. kaempferi and the evolutionary processes that gave rise to them. The sequences of three non-coding chloroplast DNA regions (total length 1977 bp) were obtained from 21 populations covering the ranges of the two species...
February 26, 2018: Heredity
Chikara Hirayama, Keisuke Mase, Tetsuya Iizuka, Yoko Takasu, Eiji Okada, Kimiko Yamamoto
The silkworm cocoon colour has attracted researchers involved in genetics, physiology and ecology for a long time. 'Ryokuken' cocoons are yellowish green in colour due to unusual flavonoids, prolinylflavonols, while 'Sasamayu' cocoons are light green and contain only simple flavonol glucosides. We found a novel gene associated with the cocoon colour change resulting from a change in flavonoid composition and named it Lg (light green cocoon). In the middle silk glands of the +Lg /+Lg larvae, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) was found to accumulate due to a decrease in the activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), an enzyme reducing P5C to proline...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Kaio Olímpio Das Graças Dias, Salvador Alejandro Gezan, Claudia Teixeira Guimarães, Alireza Nazarian, Luciano da Costa E Silva, Sidney Netto Parentoni, Paulo Evaristo de Oliveira Guimarães, Carina de Oliveira Anoni, José Maria Villela Pádua, Marcos de Oliveira Pinto, Roberto Willians Noda, Carlos Alexandre Gomes Ribeiro, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Antonio Augusto Franco Garcia, João Cândido de Souza, Lauro José Moreira Guimarães, Maria Marta Pastina
Breeding for drought tolerance is a challenging task that requires costly, extensive, and precise phenotyping. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to maximize selection efficiency and the genetic gains in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding programs for drought tolerance. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of genomic selection (GS) using additive (A) and additive + dominance (AD) models to predict the performance of untested maize single-cross hybrids for drought tolerance in multi-environment trials. Phenotypic data of five drought tolerance traits were measured in 308 hybrids along eight trials under water-stressed (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions over two years and two locations in Brazil...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Lai Wei, Xuan Zhang, Zhihai Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Zhongwei Lin
The applications of semi-dwarf genes such as sd1 and Rht1 in rice and wheat resulted in the first "green revolution" in the 1960s. However, such semi-dwarf genes that can efficiently reduce plant stature and have few negative yield traits have not yet been identified in maize. In this study, a new allele of Brachytic2 gene (qpa1) encoding P-glycoprotein was rapidly fine-mapped using a modified method. The qpa1, containing a 241-bp deletion in the last exon, had no negative effect on yield, but greatly modified the plant architecture including significantly reduced plant height and ear height, increased stalk diameter and erected leaf...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Geneviève J Parent, Patrick Lenz, André Rainville, Laurence Tremblay, Greg Adams, Andrew McCartney, Éric Bauce, John MacKay
Insect herbivory may drive evolution by selecting for trees with heritable resistance against defoliation. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, SBW) is a highly damaging forest insect pest that can affect population structure of white spruce (Picea glauca) in North America. Resistance against SBW was recently described in white spruce and was linked to three constitutive resistance biomarkers: the phenolic compounds piceol and pungenol, and expression of a beta-glucosidase encoding gene (Pgβglu-1)...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
Kate M Quigley, Patricia A Warner, Line K Bay, Bette L Willis
Determining the extent to which Symbiodinium communities in corals are inherited versus environmentally acquired is fundamental to understanding coral resilience and to predicting coral responses to stressors like warming oceans that disrupt this critical endosymbiosis. We examined the fidelity with which Symbiodinium communities in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix are vertically transmitted and the extent to which communities are genetically regulated, by genotyping the symbiont communities within 60 larvae and their parents (9 maternal and 45 paternal colonies) using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 locus...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
Michelle Strickland, Victor Tudorica, Milan Řezáč, Neil R Thomas, Sara L Goodacre
Spiders produce multiple silks with different physical properties that allow them to occupy a diverse range of ecological niches, including the underwater environment. Despite this functional diversity, past molecular analyses show a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity between C-terminal regions of silk genes that appear to be independent of the physical properties of the resulting silks; instead, this domain is crucial to the formation of silk fibers. Here, we present an analysis of the C-terminal domain of all known types of spider silk and include silk sequences from the spider Argyroneta aquatica, which spins the majority of its silk underwater...
February 15, 2018: Heredity
J E Janecka, M J Janecka, K M Helgen, W J Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Heredity
Eugenio López-Cortegano, Diego Bersabé, Jinliang Wang, Aurora García-Dorado
The consequences of inbreeding for fitness are important in evolutionary and conservation biology, but can critically depend on genetic purging. However, estimating purging has proven elusive. Using PURGd software, we assess the performance of the Inbreeding-Purging (IP) model and of ancestral inbreeding (Fa) models to detect purging in simulated pedigreed populations, and to estimate parameters that allow reliably predicting the evolution of fitness under inbreeding. The power to detect purging in a single small population of size N is low for both models during the first few generations of inbreeding (t ≈ N/2), but increases for longer periods of slower inbreeding and is, on average, larger for the IP model...
February 13, 2018: Heredity
Michael G Milgroom, Myron L Smith, Milton T Drott, Donald L Nuss
Balancing selection has been inferred in diverse organisms for nonself recognition genes, including those involved in immunity, mating compatibility, and vegetative incompatibility. Although selective forces maintaining polymorphisms are known for genes involved in immunity and mating, mechanisms of balancing selection for vegetative incompatibility genes in fungi are being debated. We hypothesized that allorecognition and its consequent inhibition of virus transmission contribute to the maintenance of polymorphisms in vegetative incompatibility loci (vic) in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica...
February 10, 2018: Heredity
Fabio Morgante, Wen Huang, Christian Maltecca, Trudy F C Mackay
Predicting complex phenotypes from genomic data is a fundamental aim of animal and plant breeding, where we wish to predict genetic merits of selection candidates; and of human genetics, where we wish to predict disease risk. While genomic prediction models work well with populations of related individuals and high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (e.g., livestock), comparable models perform poorly for populations of unrelated individuals and low LD (e.g., humans). We hypothesized that low prediction accuracies in the latter situation may occur when the genetics architecture of the trait departs from the infinitesimal and additive architecture assumed by most prediction models...
February 10, 2018: Heredity
K Mdladla, E F Dzomba, F C Muchadeyi
In Africa, extensively raised livestock populations in most smallholder farming communities are exposed to harsh and heterogeneous climatic conditions and disease pathogens that they adapt to in order to survive. Majority of these livestock species, including goats, are of non-descript and uncharacterized breeds and their response to natural selection presented by heterogeneous environments is still unresolved. This study investigated genetic diversity and its association with environmental and geographic conditions in 194 South African indigenous goats from different geographic locations genotyped on the Illumina goat SNP50K panel...
February 9, 2018: Heredity
Jianbo Xie, Kecheng Qian, Jingna Si, Liang Xiao, Dong Ci, Deqiang Zhang
Comparative genomics approaches have identified numerous conserved cis-regulatory sequences near genes in plant genomes. Despite the identification of these conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), our knowledge of their functional importance and selection remains limited. Here, we used a combination of DNA methylome analysis, microarray expression analyses, and functional annotation to study these sequences in the model tree Populus trichocarpa. Methylation in CG contexts and non-CG contexts was lower in CNSs, particularly CNSs in the 5'-upstream regions of genes, compared with other sites in the genome...
February 3, 2018: Heredity
Xi-Yin Li, Xiao-Li Liu, Yao-Jun Zhu, Jun Zhang, Miao Ding, Ming-Tao Wang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Most vertebrates reproduce sexually, and plastic sex determination mechanisms including genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) have been extensively revealed. However, why sex determination mechanisms evolve diversely and how they correlate with diverse reproduction strategies remain largely unclear. Here, we utilize the superiority of a hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) that is able to reproduce by unisexual gynogenesis and contains a rare but diverse proportion of males to investigate these puzzles...
February 2, 2018: Heredity
Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin, Walid H Gharib, Pierre Taberlet, Reto Burri, Luca Fumagalli
High rates of gene duplication and the highest levels of functional allelic diversity in vertebrate genomes are the main hallmarks of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a multigene family with a primordial role in pathogen recognition. The usual tight linkage among MHC gene duplicates may provide an opportunity for the evolution of haplotypes that associate functionally divergent alleles and thus grant the transmission of optimal levels of diversity to coming generations. Even though such associations may be a crucial component of disease resistance, this hypothesis has been given little attention in wild populations...
January 24, 2018: Heredity
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