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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198816/low-genetic-diversity-and-strong-population-structure-shaped-by-anthropogenic-habitat-fragmentation-in-a-critically-endangered-primate-trachypithecus-leucocephalus
#1
W Wang, Y Qiao, S Li, W Pan, M Yao
Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198815/enhancing-genomic-prediction-with-genome-wide-association-studies-in-multiparental-maize-populations
#2
Y Bian, J B Holland
Genome-wide association mapping using dense marker sets has identified some nucleotide variants affecting complex traits that have been validated with fine-mapping and functional analysis. However, many sequence variants associated with complex traits in maize have small effects and low repeatability. In contrast to genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic prediction (GP) is typically based on models incorporating information from all available markers, rather than modeling effects of individual loci. We considered methods to integrate results of GWASs into GP models in the context of multiple interconnected families...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198814/inference-of-multiple-wave-population-admixture-by-modeling-decay-of-linkage-disequilibrium-with-polynomial-functions
#3
Y Zhou, K Yuan, Y Yu, X Ni, P Xie, E P Xing, S Xu
To infer the histories of population admixture, one important challenge with methods based on the admixture linkage disequilibrium (ALD) is to remove the effect of source LD (SLD), which is directly inherited from source populations. In previous methods, only the decay curve of weighted LD between pairs of sites whose genetic distance were larger than a certain starting distance was fitted by single or multiple exponential functions, for the inference of recent single- or multiple-wave admixture. However, the effect of SLD has not been well defined and no tool has been developed to estimate the effect of SLD on weighted LD decay...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177325/one-species-for-one-island-unexpected-diversity-and-weak-connectivity-in-a-widely-distributed-tropical-hydrozoan
#4
B Postaire, P Gélin, J H Bruggemann, H Magalon
Isolation by distance (IBD) is one of the main modes of differentiation in marine species, above all in species presenting low dispersal capacities. This study reports the genetic structuring in the tropical hydrozoan Lytocarpia brevirostris α (sensu Postaire et al, 2016b), a brooding species, from 13 populations in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and one from New Caledonia (Tropical Southwestern Pacific). At the local scale, populations rely on asexual propagation at short distance, which was not found at larger scales; identical genotypes were restricted to single populations...
February 8, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177324/comparing-direct-and-indirect-selfing-rate-estimates-when-are-population-structure-estimates-reliable
#5
A Bürkli, N Sieber, K Seppälä, J Jokela
The rate of self-fertilization (that is, selfing) is a key evolutionary parameter in hermaphroditic species, yet obtaining accurate estimates of selfing rates in natural populations can be technically challenging. Most published estimates are derived from population-level heterozygote deficiency (that is, FIS) or identity disequilibria (for example, the software RMES (robust multilocus estimate of selfing)). These indirect methods can be applied to population genetic survey data, whereas direct methods using progeny arrays require much larger data sets that are often difficult to collect in natural populations or even require captive breeding...
February 8, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121310/unexpected-pattern-of-pearl-millet-genetic-diversity-among-ethno-linguistic-groups-in-the-lake-chad-basin
#6
A K Naino Jika, Y Dussert, C Raimond, E Garine, A Luxereau, N Takvorian, R S Djermakoye, T Adam, T Robert
Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121309/ultrabithorax-and-abdominal-a-specify-the-abdominal-appendage-in-a-dosage-dependent-manner-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
X L Tong, M Y Fu, P Chen, L Chen, Z H Xiang, C Lu, F Y Dai
In insects, there is a considerable diversity in leg distribution on the body, including number, segmental arrangement, morphological identity and consequent function, but the genetic basis for these differences is not well understood. Here by positional cloning, we showed that a ~355 kb region, including Bombyx mori Ultrabithorax (BmUbx) and abdominal-A (Bmabd-A), was responsible for the silkworm mutant Kh-extra-crescents-like (E(Kh)-l) that displayed additional thoracic limb-like legs on the first abdominal segment (A1) and occasionally on the second abdominal segment (A2)...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121308/early-genetic-consequences-of-defaunation-in-a-large-seeded-vertebrate-dispersed-palm-syagrus-romanzoffiana
#8
M I Giombini, S P Bravo, Y V Sica, D S Tosto
Plant populations are seriously threatened by anthropogenic habitat disturbance. In particular, defaunation may disrupt plant-disperser mutualisms, thus reducing levels of seed-mediated gene flow and genetic variation in animal-dispersed plants. This may ultimately limit their adaptive potential and ability to cope with environmental change. Tropical forest remnants are typically deprived of medium to large vertebrates upon which many large-seeded plants rely for accomplishing effective seed dispersal. Our main goal was to examine the potential early genetic consequences of the loss of large vertebrates for large-seeded vertebrate-dispersed plants...
January 25, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#9
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098849/no-evidence-for-mhc-class-ii-based-non-random-mating-at-the-gametic-haplotype-in-atlantic-salmon
#10
M Promerová, G Alavioon, S Tusso, R Burri, S Immler
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a likely target of mate choice because of their role in inbreeding avoidance and potential benefits for offspring immunocompetence. Evidence for female choice for complementary MHC alleles among competing males exists both for the pre- and the postmating stages. However, it remains unclear whether the latter may involve non-random fusion of gametes depending on gametic haplotypes resulting in transmission ratio distortion or non-random sequence divergence among fused gametes...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#11
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074844/no-signs-of-inbreeding-despite-long-term-isolation-and-habitat-fragmentation-in-the-critically-endangered-montseny-brook-newt-calotriton-arnoldi
#12
E Valbuena-Ureña, A Soler-Membrives, S Steinfartz, P Orozco-terWengel, S Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian (8 km(2)) and is considered critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#13
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051059/sexual-selection-for-genetic-compatibility-the-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-on-cryptic-female-choice-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#14
C Gessner, S Nakagawa, M Zavodna, N J Gemmell
Cryptic female choice (CFC), a form of sexual selection during or post mating, describes processes of differential sperm utilization by females to bias fertilization outcomes towards certain males. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) the ovarian fluid surrounding the ova of a given female differently enhances the sperm velocity of males. Sperm velocity is a key ejaculate trait that determines fertilization success in externally fertilizing fishes, thus the differential effect on sperm velocity might bias male fertilization outcomes and represent a mechanism of CFC...
January 4, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051058/purifying-selection-and-genetic-drift-shaped-pleistocene-evolution-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-in-an-endangered-australian-freshwater-fish
#15
A Pavlova, H M Gan, Y P Lee, C M Austin, D M Gilligan, M Lintermans, P Sunnucks
Genetic variation in mitochondrial genes could underlie metabolic adaptations because mitochondrially encoded proteins are directly involved in a pathway supplying energy to metabolism. Macquarie perch from river basins exposed to different climates differ in size and growth rate, suggesting potential presence of adaptive metabolic differences. We used complete mitochondrial genome sequences to build a phylogeny, estimate lineage divergence times and identify signatures of purifying and positive selection acting on mitochondrial genes for 25 Macquarie perch from three basins: Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Hawkesbury-Nepean Basin (HNB) and Shoalhaven Basin (SB)...
January 4, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029151/temporal-stability-in-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-a-marine-foundation-species-zostera-marina
#16
L K Reynolds, J J Stachowicz, A R Hughes, S J Kamel, B S Ort, R K Grosberg
Genetic diversity and population structure reflect complex interactions among a diverse set of processes that may vary temporally, limiting their potential to predict ecological and evolutionary outcomes. Yet, the stability of these patterns is rarely tested. We resampled eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows from published studies to determine variability in genetic diversity and structure within and between meadows over 5-12 years. The meadows sampled (San Francisco, Tomales and Bodega Bays in California and the Virginia coastal bays) represent a range of life histories (annual vs perennial), age (well-established vs restored) and environments (rural vs urbanized)...
December 28, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029150/incorporating-single-step-strategy-into-random-regression-model-to-enhance-genomic-prediction-of-longitudinal-trait
#17
H Kang, L Zhou, R Mrode, Q Zhang, J-F Liu
In prediction of genomic values, single-step method has been demonstrated to outperform multi-step methods. In statistical analyses of longitudinal traits, random regression test-day model (RR-TDM) has clear advantages over other models. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the performance of the model integrating both single-step and RR-TDM prediction methods, called single-step random regression test-day model (SS RR-TDM), in comparison with the pedigree-based RR-TDM and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model...
December 28, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000659/highly-conserved-z-and-molecularly-diverged-w-chromosomes-in-the-fish-genus-triportheus-characiformes-triportheidae
#18
C F Yano, L A C Bertollo, T Ezaz, V Trifonov, A Sember, T Liehr, M B Cioffi
The main objectives of this study were to test: (1) whether the W-chromosome differentiation matches to species' evolutionary divergence (phylogenetic concordance) and (2) whether sex chromosomes share a common ancestor within a congeneric group. The monophyletic genus Triportheus (Characiformes, Triportheidae) was the model group for this study. All species in this genus so far analyzed have ZW sex chromosome system, where the Z is always the largest chromosome of the karyotype, whereas the W chromosome is highly variable ranging from almost homomorphic to highly heteromorphic...
December 21, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966535/estimating-parent-specific-qtl-effects-through-cumulating-linked-identity-by-state-snp-effects-in-multiparental-populations
#19
A Maurer, W Sannemann, J Léon, K Pillen
The emergence of multiparental mapping populations enabled plant geneticists to gain deeper insights into the genetic architecture of major agronomic traits and to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the expression of these traits. Although the investigated mapping populations are similar, one open question is whether genotype data should be modelled as identical by state (IBS) or identical by descent (IBD). Whereas IBS simply makes use of raw genotype scores to distinguish alleles, IBD data are derived from parental offspring information...
December 14, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925616/a-response-to-hoelzel-moura
#20
A D Foote, P A Morin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Heredity
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