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A T Branco, L Schilling, K Silkaitis, D K Dowling, B Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction-longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon mating in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
D J Kemp, F E Thomson, W Edwards, I Iturbe-Ormaetxe
Theory predicts unified sex ratios for most organisms, yet biases may be engendered by selfish genetic elements such as endosymbionts that kill or feminize individuals with male genotypes. Although rare, feminization is established for Wolbachia-infected Eurema butterflies. This paradigm is presently confined to islands in the southern Japanese archipelago, where feminized phenotypes produce viable all-daughter broods. Here, we characterize sex bias for E. hecabe in continental Australia. Starting with 186 wild-caught females, we reared >6000 F1-F3 progeny in pedigree designs that incorporated selective antibiotic treatments...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
A M E Noreen, M A Niissalo, S K Y Lum, E L Webb
As deforestation and urbanization continue at rapid rates in tropical regions, urban forest patches are essential repositories of biodiversity. However, almost nothing is known about gene flow of forest-dependent tree species in urban landscapes. In this study, we investigated gene flow in the insect-pollinated, wind-dispersed tropical tree Koompassia malaccensis in and among three remnant forest patches in the urbanized landscape of Singapore. We genotyped the vast majority of adults (N=179) and a large number of recruits (N=2103) with 8 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
C Rellstab, M C Fischer, S Zoller, R Graf, A Tedder, K K Shimizu, A Widmer, R Holderegger, F Gugerli
Numerous landscape genomic studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes potentially involved in local adaptation. Rarely, it has been explicitly evaluated whether these environmental associations also hold true beyond the populations studied. We tested whether putatively adaptive SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae), characterized in a previous study investigating local adaptation to a highly heterogeneous environment, show the same environmental associations in an independent, geographically enlarged set of 18 populations...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
C Corbin, E R Heyworth, J Ferrari, G D D Hurst
Heritable microbes represent an important component of the biology, ecology and evolution of many plants, animals and fungi, acting as both parasites and partners. In this review, we examine how heritable symbiont-host interactions may alter host thermal tolerance, and how the dynamics of these interactions may more generally be altered by thermal environment. Obligate symbionts, those required by their host, are considered to represent a thermally sensitive weak point for their host, associated with accumulation of deleterious mutations...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
M R Upadhyay, W Chen, J A Lenstra, C R J Goderie, D E MacHugh, S D E Park, D A Magee, D Matassino, F Ciani, H-J Megens, J A M van Arendonk, M A M Groenen
The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management...
September 28, 2016: Heredity
K K Irwin, S Laurent, S Matuszewski, S Vuilleumier, L Ormond, H Shim, C Bank, J D Jensen
Many features of virus populations make them excellent candidates for population genetic study, including a very high rate of mutation, high levels of nucleotide diversity, exceptionally large census population sizes, and frequent positive selection. However, these attributes also mean that special care must be taken in population genetic inference. For example, highly skewed offspring distributions, frequent and severe population bottleneck events associated with infection and compartmentalization, and strong purifying selection all affect the distribution of genetic variation but are often not taken into account...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
C Lega, D Fulgione, A Genovese, L Rook, M Masseti, M Meiri, A Cinzia Marra, F Carotenuto, P Raia
Southern Italy has a long history of human occupation and passage of different cultures since the Early Holocene. Repeated, ancient introductions of pigs in several geographic areas in Europe make it difficult to understand pig translocation and domestication in Italy. The archeozoological record may provide fundamental information on this, hence shedding light on peopling and on trading among different ancient cultures in the Mediterranean. Yet, because of the scanty nature of the fossil record, ancient remains from human-associated animals are somewhat rare...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
Y Zhou, L Duvaux, G Ren, L Zhang, O Savolainen, J Liu
Genetic variation shared between closely related species may be due to retention of ancestral polymorphisms because of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and/or introgression following secondary contact. It is challenging to distinguish ILS and introgression because they generate similar patterns of shared genetic diversity, but this is nonetheless essential for inferring accurately the history of species with overlapping distributions. To address this issue, we sequenced 33 independent intron loci across the genome of two closely related pine species (Pinus massoniana Lamb...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
X Wang, L Li, Z Yang, X Zheng, S Yu, C Xu, Z Hu
Genomic selection (GS) is more efficient than traditional phenotype-based methods in hybrid breeding. The present study investigated the predictive ability of genomic best linear unbiased prediction models for rice hybrids based on the North Carolina mating design II, in which a total of 115 inbred rice lines were crossed with 5 male sterile lines. Using 8 traits of the 575 (115 × 5) hybrids from two environments, both univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) prediction analyses, including additive and dominance effects, were performed...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
M Pérez-Enciso, G de Los Campos, N Hudson, J Kijas, A Reverter
We propose to estimate the proportion of variance explained by regression on genome-wide markers (or genomic heritability) when wild/domestic status is considered the phenotype of interest. This approach differs from the standard Fst in that it can accommodate genetic similarity between individuals in a general form. We apply this strategy to complete genome data from 47 wild and domestic pigs from Asia and Europe. When we partitioned the total genomic variance into components associated to subsets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) defined in terms of their annotation, we found that potentially deleterious non-synonymous mutations (9566 SNPs) explained as much genetic variance as the whole set of 25 million SNPs...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
K Johannesson, R K Butlin
It is intriguing that conspicuous colour morphs of a prey species may be maintained at low frequencies alongside cryptic morphs. Negative frequency-dependent selection by predators using search images ('apostatic selection') is often suggested without rejecting alternative explanations. Using a maximum likelihood approach we fitted predictions from models of genetic drift, migration, constant selection, heterozygote advantage or negative frequency-dependent selection to time-series data of colour frequencies in isolated populations of a marine snail (Littorina saxatilis), re-established with perturbed colour morph frequencies and followed for >20 generations...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
E Yamamoto, H Matsunaga, A Onogi, A Ohyama, K Miyatake, H Yamaguchi, T Nunome, H Iwata, H Fukuoka
Genomic selection (GS), which uses estimated genetic potential based on genome-wide genotype data for a breeding selection, is now widely accepted as an efficient method to improve genetically complex traits. We assessed the potential of GS for increasing soluble solids content and total fruit weight of tomato. A collection of big-fruited F1 varieties was used to construct the GS models, and the progeny from crosses was used to validate the models. The present study includes two experiments: a prediction of a parental combination that generates superior progeny and the prediction of progeny phenotypes...
September 14, 2016: Heredity
S B S Gaouar, M Lafri, A Djaout, R El-Bouyahiaoui, A Bouri, A Bouchatal, A Maftah, E Ciani, A B Da Silva
Algeria represents a reservoir of genetic diversity with local sheep breeds adapted to a large range of environments and showing specific features necessary to deal with harsh conditions. This remarkable diversity results from the traditional management of dryland by pastoralists over centuries. Most of these breeds are poorly productive, and the economic pressure leads farmers to realize anarchic cross-breeding (that is, not carried out in the framework of selection plans) with the hope to increase animal's conformation...
September 14, 2016: Heredity
E Bolund, V Lummaa
Studies of evolutionary change require an estimate of fitness, and lifetime reproductive success is widely used for this purpose. However, many species face a trade-off between the number and quality of offspring and in such cases number of grandoffspring may better represent the genetic contribution to future generations. Here, we apply quantitative genetic methods to a genealogical data set on humans from Finland to address how the genetic correlation between number of children and grandchildren is influenced by the severity of the trade-off between offspring quality and quantity, as estimated by different levels of resource access among individuals in the population...
September 14, 2016: Heredity
A Caballero, I Bravo, J Wang
Using computer simulations, we evaluate the effects of genetic purging of inbreeding load in small populations, assuming genetic models of deleterious mutations which account for the typical amount of load empirically observed. Our results show that genetic purging efficiently removes the inbreeding load of both lethal and non-lethal mutations, reducing the amount of inbreeding depression relative to that expected without selection. We find that the minimum effective population size to avoid severe inbreeding depression in the short term is of the order of Ne≈70 for a wide range of species' reproductive rates...
September 14, 2016: Heredity
I Segura-García, J P Gallo, S Chivers, R Díaz-Gamboa, A R Hoelzel
The role of ecological and changing environmental factors in the radiation of species diversity is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Of particular interest is the potential for these factors to determine the boundary between what we would consider differentiation among populations and incipient speciation. Dolphins in the genus Delphinus provide a useful test case, exhibiting morphological variation in beak length, coloration and body size across their wide geographic distribution, and in particular among coastal and more pelagic habitats...
September 7, 2016: Heredity
A Riesgo, R Pérez-Portela, L Pita, G Blasco, P M Erwin, S López-Legentil
Recent episodes of mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea have been reported for the closely related marine sponges Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia variabilis that live in sympatry. In this context, the assessment of the genetic diversity, bottlenecks and connectivity of these sponges has become urgent in order to evaluate the potential effects of mass mortalities on their latitudinal range. Our study aims to establish (1) the genetic structure, connectivity and signs of bottlenecks across the populations of I...
September 7, 2016: Heredity
S Mona
Most species are structured and various population genetics models have been proposed to investigate their history. For mathematical tractability, most of these models make the simplifying assumption of equilibrium. Here we focus on the properties of a nonequilibrium spatial explicit model, range expansions (REs). Despite their abundance, many details of their genetic consequences need yet to be fully investigated. The model we studied is characterized by four main parameters: the effective population size of each deme (N), the migration rate per generation per deme (m), the time of the expansion (Texp) and the effective size of the deme from which the expansion started (Nanc)...
September 7, 2016: Heredity
D Sora, P Kron, B C Husband
Unreduced gametes, sperm or egg cells with the somatic chromosome number, are an important mechanism of polyploid formation and gene flow between heteroploid plants. The meiotic processes leading to unreduced gamete formation are well documented, but the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on the frequency of unreduced gametes remain largely untested. Furthermore, direct estimates of unreduced gametes based on DNA content are technically challenging and, hence, uncommon. Here, we use flow cytometry to measure the contribution of genetic (hybridization) and environmental (nutrient limitation, wounding) changes to unreduced male gamete production in Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis and two hybrid lines...
August 31, 2016: Heredity
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