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F Labbé, M C Fontaine, C Robin, C Dutech
Historical fluctuations in forests' distribution driven by past climate changes and anthropogenic activities can have large impacts on the demographic history of pathogens that have a long co-evolution history with these host trees. Using a population genetic approach, we investigated that hypothesis by reconstructing the demographic history of Armillaria ostoyae, one of the major pathogens of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), in the largest monospecific pine planted forest in Europe (south-western France)...
September 20, 2017: Heredity
P R Berg, B Star, C Pampoulie, I R Bradbury, P Bentzen, J A Hutchings, S Jentoft, K S Jakobsen
Chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions can play a crucial role in maintaining polymorphism underlying complex traits and contribute to the process of speciation. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), inversions of several megabases have been identified that dominate genomic differentiation between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes in the Northeast Atlantic. Here, we show that the same genomic regions display elevated divergence and contribute to ecotype divergence in the Northwest Atlantic as well. The occurrence of these inversions on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean reveals a common evolutionary origin, predating the >100 000-year-old trans-Atlantic separation of Atlantic cod...
September 20, 2017: Heredity
A R I Lindsey, R Stouthamer
Trichogramma wasps can be rendered asexual by infection with the maternally inherited symbiont Wolbachia. Previous studies indicate the Wolbachia strains infecting Trichogramma wasps are host-specific, inferred by failed horizontal transfer of Wolbachia to novel Trichogramma hosts. Additionally, Trichogramma can become dependent upon their Wolbachia infection for the production of female offspring, leaving them irreversibly asexual, further linking host and symbiont. We hypothesized Wolbachia strains infecting irreversibly asexual, resistant to horizontal transfer Trichogramma would show adaptation to a particular host genetic background...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
A Garcia-Elfring, R D H Barrett, M Combs, T J Davies, J Munshi-South, V Millien
Range expansion has genetic consequences expected to result in differentiated wave-front populations with low genetic variation and potentially introgression from a local species. The northern expansion of Peromyscus leucopus in southern Quebec provides an opportunity to test these predictions using population genomic tools. Our results show evidence of recent and post-glacial expansion. Genome-wide variation in P. leucopus indicates two post-glacial lineages are separated by the St. Lawrence River, with a more recent divergence of populations isolated by the Richelieu River...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
J Wang
The genetic relatedness between individuals because of their recent common ancestry is now routinely estimated from marker genotype data in molecular ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation studies. The estimators developed for this purpose assume that marker allele freque218 in a population are known without errors. Unfortunately, however, these frequencies, upon which both the definition and the estimation of relatedness are based, are rarely known in reality. Frequently, the only data available in a relatedness analysis are a sample of multilocus genotypes from which both allele frequencies and relatedness must be deduced...
August 30, 2017: Heredity
G Ding, H Xu, B P Oldroyd, R S Gloag
Although monandry is believed to have facilitated the evolution of eusociality, many highly eusocial insects have since evolved extreme polyandry. The transition to extreme polyandry was likely driven by the benefits of within-colony genetic variance to task specialization and/or disease resistance, but the extent to which it confers secondary benefits, once evolved, is unclear. Here we investigate the consequences of extreme polyandry on the invasive potential of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. In honey bees and other Hymenoptera, small newly founded invasive populations must overcome the genetic constraint of their sex determination system that requires heterozygosity at a sex-determining locus to produce viable females...
August 23, 2017: Heredity
C K Griswold, M W Williamson
In this paper, we present a two-locus model of selection for an autotetraploid population. We also investigate a measure of disequilibrium that occurs between homologous chromosomes in the diploid gametes of autotetraploids, namely chromosomal gametic disequilibrium. We apply the model and measure of disequilibrium to compare how an adaptive epistatic gene combination is inherited and selected for in an autotetraploid versus diploid population. Autotetraploids are expected to have higher genomic mutation and recombination rates relative to diploids, due to a greater ploidy level...
August 23, 2017: Heredity
D Hanson, J Hu, A P Hendry, R D H Barrett
The repeated phenotypic patterns that characterize populations undergoing parallel evolution provide support for a deterministic role of adaptation by natural selection. Determining the level of parallelism also at the genetic level is thus central to our understanding of how natural selection works. Many studies have looked for repeated genomic patterns in natural populations, but work on gene expression is less common. The studies that have examined gene expression have found some support for parallelism, but those studies almost always used samples collected from the wild that potentially confounds the effects of plasticity with heritable differences...
August 23, 2017: Heredity
T Tsykun, C Rellstab, C Dutech, G Sipos, S Prospero
During the last years, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most popular molecular markers for describing neutral genetic variation in populations of a wide range of organisms. However, only a limited number of studies has focused on comparing the performance of these two types of markers for describing the underlying genetic structure of wild populations. Moreover, none of these studies targeted fungi, the group of organisms with one of the most complex reproductive strategies...
August 16, 2017: Heredity
C R Feldman, A M Durso, C T Hanifin, M E Pfrender, P K Ducey, A N Stokes, K E Barnett, E D Brodie, E D Brodie
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2015.73.
August 9, 2017: Heredity
E Rochat, S Manel, M Deschamps-Cottin, I Widmer, S Joost
In a simulation study of genotypes conducted over 100 generations for more than 1600 butterfly's individuals, we evaluate how the increase of anthropogenic fragmentation and reduction of habitat size along urbanisation gradients (from 7 to 59% of impervious land cover) influences genetic diversity and population persistence in butterfly species. We show that in areas characterised by a high urbanisation rate (>56% impervious land cover), a large decrease of both genetic diversity (loss of 60-80% of initial observed heterozygosity) and population size (loss of 70-90% of individuals) is observed over time...
August 9, 2017: Heredity
W Y Wong, K Y Ma, L M Tsang, K H Chu
The high biodiversity and strong population structure of freshwater fauna has often been attributed to historical geological and climatic alterations. The impact of these historical changes on obligate freshwater species on a small geographical scale has not been well understood due to the lack of fine-scale comparative phylogeographic studies. Strong population structure has been reported in a goby and a caridean shrimp in Hong Kong, a small but highly developed city in South China, but the common drivers of population differentiation in freshwater fauna in this region remain unclear...
August 9, 2017: Heredity
N J Kenny, K W Chan, W Nong, Z Qu, I Maeso, H Y Yip, T F Chan, H S Kwan, P W H Holland, K H Chu, J H L Hui
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2015.89.
August 9, 2017: Heredity
M T Brock, R L Winkelman, M J Rubin, C E Edwards, B E Ewers, C Weinig
Allocation of finite resources to separate reproductive functions is predicted to vary across environments and affect fitness. Biomass is the most commonly measured allocation currency; however, in comparison with nutrients it may be less limited and express different environmental and evolutionary responses. Here, we measured carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and biomass allocation among floral whorls in recombinant inbred lines of Brassica rapa in multiple environments to characterize the genetic architecture of floral allocation, including its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity and to choice of currency...
August 2, 2017: Heredity
X Puig, J Ginebra, J Graffelman
The X chromosome is a relatively large chromosome, harboring a lot of genetic information. Much of the statistical analysis of X-chromosomal information is complicated by the fact that males only have one copy. Recently, frequentist statistical tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium have been proposed specifically for dealing with markers on the X chromosome. Bayesian test procedures for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the autosomes have been described, but Bayesian work on the X chromosome in this context is lacking...
October 2017: Heredity
R T Resende, M D V Resende, F F Silva, C F Azevedo, E K Takahashi, O B Silva-Junior, D Grattapaglia
We report a genomic selection (GS) study of growth and wood quality traits in an outbred F2 hybrid Eucalyptus population (n=768) using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Going beyond previous reports in forest trees, models were developed for different selection targets, namely, families, individuals within families and individuals across the entire population using a genomic model including dominance. To provide a more breeder-intelligible assessment of the performance of GS we calculated the expected response as the percentage gain over the population average expected genetic value (EGV) for different proportions of genomically selected individuals, using a rigorous cross-validation (CV) scheme that removed relatedness between training and validation sets...
October 2017: Heredity
A T Thomaz, L R Malabarba, L L Knowles
Past shifts in connectivity in riverine environments (for example, sea-level changes) and the properties of current drainages can act as drivers of genetic structure and demographic processes in riverine population of fishes. However, it is unclear whether the same river properties that structure variation on recent timescales will also leave similar genomic signatures that reflect paleodrainage properties. By characterizing genetic structure in a freshwater fish species (Hollandichthys multifasciatus) from a system of basins along the Atlantic coast of Brazil we test for the effects of paleodrainages caused by sea-level changes during the Pleistocene...
October 2017: Heredity
A Dávila-Lara, M Affenzeller, A Tribsch, V Díaz, H P Comes
The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation...
October 2017: Heredity
R Utsunomia, P C Scacchetti, M Hermida, R Fernández-Cebrián, X Taboada, C Fernández, M Bekaert, N J Mendes, D Robledo, J E Mank, J B Taggart, C Oliveira, F Foresti, P Martínez
Fish species exhibit substantial variation in the degree of genetic differentiation between sex chromosome pairs, and therefore offer the opportunity to study the full range of sex chromosome evolution. We used restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to study the sex chromosomes of Characidium gomesi, a species with conspicuous heteromorphic ZW/ZZ sex chromosomes. We screened 9863 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), corresponding to ~1 marker/100 kb distributed across the genome for sex-linked variation...
October 2017: Heredity
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