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Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229250/genome-wide-transcriptomics-analysis-identifies-sox7-and-sox18-as-specifically-regulated-by-gata4-in-cardiomyogenesis
#1
Boni A Afouda, Adam T Lynch, Eduardo de Paiva Alves, Stefan Hoppler
The transcription factors GATA4, GATA5 and GATA6 are important regulators of heart muscle differentiation (cardiomyogenesis), which function in a partially redundant manner. We identified genes specifically regulated by individual cardiogenic GATA factors in a genome-wide transcriptomics analysis. The genes regulated by gata4 are particularly interesting because GATA4 is able to induce differentiation of beating cardiomyocytes in Xenopus and in mammalian systems. Among the specifically gata4-regulated transcripts we identified two SoxF family members, sox7 and sox18...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197505/a-safer-urea-based-in-situ-hybridization-method-improves-detection-of-gene-expression-in-diverse-animal-species
#2
Chiara Sinigaglia, Daniel Thiel, Andreas Hejnol, Evelyn Houliston, Lucas Leclère
In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224892/how-glucose-glutamine-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-shape-blood-and-lymph-vessel-development
#3
REVIEW
Laure-Anne Teuwen, Vincent Geldhof, Peter Carmeliet
Recently, endothelial cell metabolism has emerged as an essential driver and regulator of both blood and lymph vessel development. Evidence rapidly builds that metabolism is not only necessary for endothelial cell function, but moreover controls several aspects of the (lymph)-angiogenic process. So far, the best-characterized metabolic pathways to have an impact on angiogenesis are glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glutamine metabolism. Glycolysis regulates tip cell behavior by providing ATP, fatty acid oxidation controls stalk cell proliferation by producing nucleotide biomass, and glutamine metabolism is critical for tip and stalk cell dynamics by supporting Krebs cycle anaplerosis, protein production and redox homeostasis, and links to asparagine metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224891/the-bmp-signaling-pathway-regulates-development-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#4
Vladimir Soukup, Zbynek Kozmik
Establishment of asymmetry along the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrates requires interplay between Nodal and Bmp signaling pathways. In the basal chordate amphioxus, the left-sided activity of the Nodal signaling has been attributed to the asymmetric morphogenesis of paraxial structures and pharyngeal organs, however the role of Bmp signaling in LR asymmetry establishment has not been addressed to date. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is necessary for the development of LR asymmetric morphogenesis of amphioxus larvae through regulation of Nodal signaling...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223862/wave-regulates-cadherin-junction-assembly-and-turnover-during-epithelial-polarization
#5
Shashikala Sasidharan, Sofya Borinskaya, Falshruti Patel, Yelena Bernadskaya, Sailaja Mandalapu, Maria Agapito, Martha Soto
Actin is an integral component of epithelial apical junctions, yet the interactions of branched actin regulators with apical junction components are still not clear. Biochemical data have shown that α-catenin inhibits Arp2/3-dependent branched actin. These results suggested that branched actin is only needed at earliest stages of apical junction development. We use live imaging in developing C. elegans embryos to test models for how WAVE-induced branched actin collaborates with other apical junction proteins during the essential process of junction formation and maturation...
December 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#6
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208373/roles-of-maternal-wnt8a-transcripts-in-axis-formation-in-zebrafish
#7
Hiromu Hino, Akiko Nakanishi, Ryoko Seki, Tsubasa Aoki, Etsuro Yamaha, Atsuo Kawahara, Takashi Shimizu, Masahiko Hibi
In early zebrafish development, the program for dorsal axis formation begins soon after fertilization. Previous studies suggested that dorsal determinants (DDs) localize to the vegetal pole, and are transported to the dorsal blastomeres in a microtubule-dependent manner. The DDs activate the canonical Wnt pathway and induce dorsal-specific genes that are required for dorsal axis formation. Among wnt-family genes, only the wnt8a mRNA is reported to localize to the vegetal pole in oocytes and to induce the dorsal axis, suggesting that Wnt8a is a candidate DD...
December 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198563/transient-transcriptional-silencing-alters-the-cell-cycle-to-promote-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-in-drosophila
#8
Pooja Flora, Sean Schowalter, SiuWah Wong-Deyrup, Matthew DeGennaro, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Prashanth Rangan
Transcriptional silencing is a conserved process used by embryonic germ cells to repress somatic fate and maintain totipotency and immortality. In Drosophila, this transcriptional silencing is mediated by polar granule component (pgc). Here, we show that in the adult ovary, pgc is required for timely germline stem cell (GSC) differentiation. Pgc is expressed transiently in the immediate GSC daughter (pre-cystoblast), where it mediates a pulse of transcriptional silencing. This transcriptional silencing mediated by pgc indirectly promotes the accumulation of Cyclin B (CycB) and cell cycle progression into late-G2 phase, when the differentiation factor bag of marbles (bam) is expressed...
November 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197504/gata6-restricts-isl1-to-the-posterior-of-nascent-hindlimb-buds-through-isl1-cis-regulatory-modules
#9
Naoyuki Tahara, Ryutaro Akiyama, Joshua W M Theisen, Hiroko Kawakami, Julia Wong, Daniel J Garry, Yasuhiko Kawakami
Isl1 is required for two processes during hindlimb development: initiation of the processes directing hindlimb development in the lateral plate mesoderm and configuring posterior hindlimb field in the nascent hindlimb buds. During these processes, Isl1 expression is restricted to the posterior mesenchyme of hindlimb buds. How this dynamic change in Isl1 expression is regulated remains unknown. We found that two evolutionarily conserved sequences, located 3' to the Isl1 gene, regulate LacZ transgene expression in the hindlimb-forming region in mouse embryos...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183737/cross-platform-single-cell-analysis-of-kidney-development-shows-stromal-cells-express-gdnf
#10
Bliss Magella, Mike Adam, Andrew S Potter, Meenakshi Venkatasubramanian, Kashish Chetal, Stuart B Hay, Nathan Salomonis, S Steven Potter
The developing kidney provides a useful model for study of the principles of organogenesis. In this report we use three independent platforms, Drop-Seq, Chromium 10x Genomics and Fluidigm C1, to carry out single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) analysis of the E14.5 mouse kidney. Using the software AltAnalyze, in conjunction with the unsupervised approach ICGS, we were unable to identify and confirm the presence of 16 distinct cell populations during this stage of active nephrogenesis. Using a novel integrative supervised computational strategy, we were able to successfully harmonize and compare the cell profiles across all three technological platforms...
November 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180104/the-nkd-ef-hand-domain-modulates-divergent-wnt-signaling-outputs-in-zebrafish
#11
Autumn N Marsden, Sarah W Derry, Igor Schneider, C Anthony Scott, Trudi A Westfall, Lindy K Brastrom, Madeline Shea, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Wnt proteins regulate diverse biological responses by initiating two general outcomes: β-catenin-dependent transcription and β-catenin-independent activation of signaling cascades, the latter including modulation of calcium and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics (Planar Cell Polarity, PCP). It has been difficult to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wnt signals are directed to effect one or the other outcome due to shared signaling proteins between the β-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways, such as the Dishevelled binding protein Naked...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166577/cell-cycle-related-kinase-regulates-mammalian-eye-development-through-positive-and-negative-regulation-of-the-hedgehog-pathway
#12
Floria I Lupu, Jacob B Burnett, Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
Cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK) is a conserved regulator of ciliogenesis whose loss in mice leads to a wide range of developmental defects, including exencephaly, preaxial polydactyly, skeletal abnormalities, and microphthalmia. Here, we investigate the role of CCRK in mouse eye development. Ccrk mutants show dramatic patterning defects, with an expansion of the optic stalk domain into the optic cup, as well as an expansion of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into neural retina (NR) territory. In addition, Ccrk mutants display a shortened optic stalk...
November 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157563/nr2f1a-balances-atrial-chamber-and-atrioventricular-canal-size-via-bmp-signaling-independent-and-dependent-mechanisms
#13
Tiffany B Duong, Padmapriyadarshini Ravisankar, Yuntao Charlie Song, Jacob T Gafranek, Ariel B Rydeen, Tracy E Dohn, Lindsey A Barske, J Gage Crump, Joshua S Waxman
Determination of appropriate chamber size is critical for normal vertebrate heart development. Although Nr2f transcription factors promote atrial maintenance and differentiation, how they determine atrial size remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish Nr2f1a is expressed in differentiating atrial cardiomyocytes. Zebrafish nr2f1a mutants have smaller atria due to a specific reduction in atrial cardiomyocyte (AC) number, suggesting it has similar requirements to Nr2f2 in mammals. Furthermore, the smaller atria in nr2f1a mutants are derived from distinct mechanisms that perturb AC differentiation at the chamber poles...
November 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157562/erk-regulates-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-fission-deficient-drosophila-follicle-cells-during-differentiation
#14
Darshika Tomer, Rohan Chippalkatti, Kasturi Mitra, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondrial morphology regulatory proteins interact with signaling pathways involved in differentiation. In Drosophila oogenesis, EGFR signaling regulates mitochondrial fragmentation in posterior follicle cells (PFCs). EGFR driven oocyte patterning and Notch signaling mediated differentiation are abrogated when PFCs are deficient for the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. It is not known whether fused mitochondrial morphology in drp1 mutant PFCs exerts its effects on these signaling pathways through change in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity...
November 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155044/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-unc-130-foxd-integrates-both-bmp-and-notch-signaling-to-regulate-dorsoventral-patterning-of-the-c-elegans-postembryonic-mesoderm
#15
Qinfang Shen, Leila B Toulabi, Herong Shi, Erin E Nicklow, Jun Liu
The proper development of a multicellular organism requires precise spatial and temporal coordination of cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic regulatory mechanisms. Both Notch signaling and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling function to regulate the proper development of the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm. We have identified the C. elegans FOXD transcription factor UNC-130 as a major target functioning downstream of both BMP signaling and Notch signaling to regulate dorsoventral patterning of the postembryonic mesoderm...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155043/stk33-is-required-for-spermatid-differentiation-and-male-fertility-in-mice
#16
Leila R Martins, Raffaela K Bung, Stefan Koch, Karsten Richter, Laura Schwarzmüller, Dorothee Terhardt, Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Christof Niehrs, Arefeh Rouhi, Ingrid Lohmann, Gislene Pereira, Stefan Fröhling, Hanno Glimm, Claudia Scholl
Spermiogenesis is the final phase during sperm cell development in which round spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes to generate spermatozoa. Here we report that the serine/threonine kinase Stk33 is essential for the differentiation of round spermatids into functional sperm cells and male fertility. Constitutive Stk33 deletion in mice results in severely malformed and immotile spermatozoa that are particularly characterized by disordered structural tail elements. Stk33 expression first appears in primary spermatocytes, and targeted deletion of Stk33 in these cells recapitulates the defects observed in constitutive knockout mice, confirming a germ cell-intrinsic function...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137925/polycomb-repression-complex-2-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-and-balanced-retinal-differentiation
#17
Naoko Fujimura, Andrea Kuzelova, Anja Ebert, Hynek Strnad, Jitka Lachova, Ondrej Machon, Meinrad Busslinger, Zbynek Kozmik
Polycomb repressive complexes maintain transcriptional repression of genes encoding crucial developmental regulators through chromatin modification. Here we investigated the role of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in retinal development by inactivating its key components Eed and Ezh2. Conditional deletion of Ezh2 resulted in a partial loss of PRC2 function and accelerated differentiation of Müller glial cells. In contrast, inactivation of Eed led to the ablation of PRC2 function at early postnatal stage...
November 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137924/nasal-and-otic-placode-specific-regulation-of-sox2-involves-both-activation-by-sox-sall4-synergism-and-multiple-repression-mechanisms
#18
Satoko Sugahara, Tooru Fujimoto, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
Transcription factor gene Sox2 is expressed throughout sensory development, but the enhancers that regulate the gene vary depending on the developmental stages and tissues. To gain new insights into the gene regulatory network in sensory placode specification, regulation of the nasal-otic bispecific NOP1 enhancer of Sox2 was investigated in chicken embryos. Deletion and mutational analyses using electroporation showed that transcriptional repression mechanisms in combination with activation mechanisms determine placodal specificity...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133184/jnk-is-antagonized-to-ensure-the-correct-number-of-interommatidial-cells-pattern-the-drosophila-retina
#19
Henry L Bushnell, Christina E Feiler, Kwami F Ketosugbo, Mark B Hellerman, Valerie L Nazzaro, Ruth I Johnson
Apoptosis is crucial during the morphogenesis of most organs and tissues, and is utilized for tissues to achieve their proper size, shape and patterning. Many signaling pathways contribute to the precise regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) activity contributes to the coordinated removal of interommatidial cells via apoptosis in the Drosophila pupal retina. This is consistent with previous findings that JNK activity promotes apoptosis in other epithelia. However, we found that JNK activity is repressed by Cindr (the CIN85 and CD2AP ortholog) in order to promote cell survival...
November 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128264/coupling-astogenic-aging-in-the-colonial-tunicate-botryllus-schlosseri-with-the-stress-protein-mortalin
#20
Oshrat Ben-Hamo, Amalia Rosner, Claudette Rabinowitz, Matan Oren, Baruch Rinkevich
Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial marine invertebrate, exhibits three generations of short-lived astogenic modules that continuously grow and die throughout the colony's entire lifespan, within week-long repeating budding cycles (blastogenesis), each consisting of four stages (A-D). At stage D, aging is followed by the complete absorption of adult modules (zooids) via a massive apoptotic process. Here we studied in Botryllus the protein mortalin (HSP70s member), a molecule largely known for its association with aging and proliferation...
November 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
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