Read by QxMD icon Read

Developmental Biology

Antoine Borensztejn, Alexandra Mascaro, Kristi A Wharton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Developmental Biology
Silvia Huerta López, Marina Avetisyan, Christina M Wright, Karim Mesbah, Robert G Kelly, Anne M Moon, Robert O Heuckeroth
Transcription factors that coordinate migration, differentiation or proliferation of enteric nervous system (ENS) precursors are not well defined. To identify novel transcriptional regulators of ENS development, we performed microarray analysis at embryonic day (E) 17.5 and identified many genes that were enriched in the ENS compared to other bowel cells. We decided to investigate the T-box transcription factor Tbx3, which is prominently expressed in developing and mature ENS. Haploinsufficiency for TBX3 causes ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) in humans, a multi-organ system disorder...
October 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Matthew Harder, Wendy Reeves, Chase Byers, Mercedes Santiago, Michael Veeman
The gene regulatory networks underlying Ciona notochord fate specification and differentiation have been extensively investigated, but the regulatory basis for regionalized expression within the notochord is not understood. Here we identify three notochord-expressed genes, C11.331, C12.115 and C8.891, with strongly enriched expression in the secondary notochord cells at the posterior tip of the tail. C11.331 and C12.115 share a distinctive expression pattern that is highly enriched in the secondary notochord lineage but also graded within that lineage with the strongest expression at the posterior tip...
October 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Eric S Cole, Oleksandr Dmytrenko, Carl J Chmelik, Mark Li, Trenton A Christensen, Elaine P Macon, Hannah J Nilsson, Ruth J Blower, Thomas G Reuter, John P Beckman, Bailey C Remmers, Claire L Smith, Eileen O'Toole, Courtney Ozzello, Garry Morgan, Thomas Giddings
During sexual reproduction or conjugation, ciliates form a specialized cell adhesion zone for the purpose of exchanging gametic pronuclei. Hundreds of individual membrane fusion events transform the adhesion zone into a perforated membrane curtain, the mating junction. Pronuclei from each mating partner are propelled through this fenestrated membrane junction by a web of short, cris-crossing microtubules. Pronuclear passage results in the formation of two breaches in the membrane junction. Following pronuclear exchange and karyogamy (fertilization), cells seal these twin membrane breaches thereby re-establishing cellular independence...
September 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
Junko Yaguchi, Atsuko Yamazaki, Shunsuke Yaguchi
Precise body axis formation is an essential step in the development of multicellular organisms, for most of which the molecular gradient and/or specifically biased localization of cell-fate determinants in eggs play important roles. In sea urchins, however, any biased proteins and mRNAs have not yet been identified in the egg except for vegetal cortex molecules, suggesting that sea urchin development is mostly regulated by uniformly distributed maternal molecules with contributions to axis formation that are not well characterized...
September 25, 2018: Developmental Biology
Simpla Mahato, Jing Nie, David C Plachetzki, Andrew C Zelhof
A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is how developmental processes are modified to produce morphological innovations while abiding by functional constraints. Here we address this question by investigating the cellular mechanism responsible for the transition between fused and open rhabdoms in ommatidia of apposition compound eyes; a critical step required for the development of visual systems based on neural superposition. Utilizing Drosophila and Tribolium as representatives of fused and open rhabdom morphology in holometabolous insects respectively, we identified three changes required for this innovation to occur...
September 19, 2018: Developmental Biology
Wenyang Hou, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska
TMED2, a member of the transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) family, is required for transport of cargo proteins between the ER and Golgi. TMED2 is also important for normal morphogenesis of mouse embryos and their associated placenta, and in fact Tmed2 homozygous mutant embryos arrest at mid-gestation due to a failure of placental labyrinth layer formation. Differentiation of the placental labyrinth layer depends on chorioallantoic attachment (contact between the chorion and allantois), and branching morphogenesis (mingling of cells from these two tissues)...
September 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Felipe Monteleone Vieceli, Shashank Gandhi, Kunio Inoue, Marianne E Bronner
The cardiac neural crest originates in the caudal hindbrain, migrates to the heart, and contributes to septation of the cardiac outflow tract and ventricles, an ability unique to this neural crest subpopulation. Here we have used a FoxD3 neural crest enhancer to isolate a pure population of cardiac neural crest cells for transcriptome analysis. This has led to the identification of transcription factors, signaling receptors/ligands, and cell adhesion molecules upregulated in the early migrating cardiac neural crest...
September 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
Marwa M Hussein, Doaa M Mokhtar
Many studies have been carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution of telocytes (TCs) in many organs. However, their morphological development is still unclear. This study was performed to demonstrate the morphological development of TCs in rabbits' lung from fetal to postnatal life using light-, electron- microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometrical and statistical analysis. During the fetal life, these cells formed an extensive network of telopodes (Tps) which were in close contact with developing alveoli, bronchioles, stem cells and many other interstitial components...
September 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
James W Ferguson, Mahima Devarajan, Radhika P Atit
Development of the skull bones requires the coordination of two stem progenitor populations, the cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) and head paraxial mesoderm (PM), to ensure cell fate selection and morphogenesis. The epigenetic methyltransferase, Ezh2, plays a role in skull bone formation, but the spatiotemporal function of Ezh2 between the CNCC- and PM-derived bone formation in vivo remains undefined. Here, using a temporally-inducible conditional deletion of Ezh2 in both the CNCC- and PM- derived cranial mesenchyme between E8...
September 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Yan Ling Chong, Yiliu Zhang, Feng Zhou, Sudipto Roy
Multiciliated cells (MCCs) differentiate arrays of motile cilia that beat to drive fluid flow over epithelia. Recent studies have established two Geminin family coiled-coil containing nuclear regulatory proteins, Gmnc and Multicilin (Mci), in the specification and differentiation of the MCCs. Both Gmnc and Mci are devoid of a DNA binding domain: they regulate transcription by associating with E2f family transcription factors, notably E2f4 and E2f5. Here, we have studied the relative contribution of these two E2f factors in MCC development using the zebrafish embryo, which differentiates MCCs within kidney tubules and the nose...
September 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
Alba Almazán, Alfonso Ferrández-Roldán, Ricard Albalat, Cristian Cañestro
Locomotion by tail beating powered by a system of bilateral paraxial muscle and notochord is likely one of the key evolutionary innovations that facilitated the origin and radiation of chordates. The innovation of paraxial muscle was accompanied by gene duplications in stem chordates that gave rise to muscular actins from cytoplasmic ancestral forms, which acquired contractile capability thanks to the recruitment of the myosin motor-machinery. To better understand the role of actin diversification during the evolution of chordates, in this work we have characterized the complete actin catalogue of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica, an urochordate that maintains a chordate body plan throughout its life, including the notochord in a muscled tail that confers an active free-living pelagic style...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Yana Mikhaleva, Ragnhild Skinnes, Sara Sumic, Eric M Thompson, Daniel Chourrout
The mechanisms driving innovations that distinguish large taxons are poorly known and essentially accessible via a candidate gene approach. A spectacular acquisition by tunicate larvaceans is the house, a complex extracellular filtration device. Its components are secreted by the oikoplastic epithelium which covers the animal trunk. Here we describe the development of this epithelium in larvae through the formation of specific cellular territories known to produce distinct sets of house proteins (Oikosins)...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Lucia Manni, Chiara Anselmi, Francesca Cima, Fabio Gasparini, Ayelet Voskoboynik, Margherita Martini, Anna Peronato, Paolo Burighel, Giovanna Zaniolo, Loriano Ballarin
In the second half of the eighteenth century, Schlosser and Ellis described the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri garnering the interest of scientists around the world. In the 1950's scientists began to study B. schlosseri and soon recognized it as an important model organism for the study of developmental biology and comparative immunology. In this review, we summarize the history of B. schlosseri studies and experiments performed to characterize the colony life cycle and bud development. We describe experiments performed to analyze variations in bud productivity, zooid growth and bilateral asymmetry (i...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Basile Tarchini, Chantal Longo-Guess, Cong Tian, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Kenneth R Johnson
Hundreds of thousands of cis-regulatory DNA sequences are predicted in vertebrate genomes, but unlike genes themselves, few have been characterized at the functional level or even unambiguously paired with a target gene. Here we serendipitously identified and started investigating the first reported long-range regulatory region for the Nr2f1 (Coup-TFI) transcription factor gene. NR2F1 is temporally and spatially regulated during development and required for patterning and regionalization in the nervous system, including sensory hair cell organization in the auditory epithelium of the cochlea...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Małgorzata J Liro, Diane G Morton, Lesilee S Rose
The PAR-1 kinase of C. elegans is localized to the posterior of the one-cell embryo and its mutations affect asymmetric spindle placement and partitioning of cytoplasmic components in the first cell cycle. However, par-1 mutations do not cause failure to restrict the anterior PAR polarity complex to the same extent as mutations in the posteriorly localized PAR-2 protein. Further, it has been difficult to examine the role of PAR-1 in subsequent divisions due to the early defects in par-1 mutant embryos. Here we show that the PIG-1 kinase acts redundantly with PAR-1 to restrict the anterior PAR-3 protein for normal polarity in the one-cell embryo...
September 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
Miyuki Suzuki, Toshinori Hayashi, Takeshi Inoue, Kiyokazu Agata, Miki Hirayama, Miyuzu Suzuki, Shuji Shigenobu, Takashi Takeuchi, Takashi Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi T Suzuki
Newts have remarkable ability to regenerate their organs and have been used in research for centuries. However, the laborious work of breeding has hampered reverse genetics strategies in newt. Here, we present simple and efficient gene knockout using Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) in Pleurodeles waltl, a species suitable for regenerative biology studies using reverse genetics. Most of the founders exhibited severe phenotypes against each target gene (tyrosinase, pax6, tbx5); notably, all tyrosinase Cas9 RNP-injected embryos showed complete albinism...
September 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
Francesca Cima
Oikopleura dioica, the only gonochoric species among appendicularians, has a spematozoon with a mid-piece and a conspicuous acrosome that, during fertilisation, undergoes a reaction forming an acrosomal process. To provide more insight into the spermatogenesis of a holoplanktonic tunicate species that completes its life cycle in three to five days, changes in the testis during individual growth have been examined. Spermatogenesis has been subdivided into seven stages based on ultrastructural features during the formation and organisation of the male gonad and the relationships between its macroscopic anatomy and the events of sperm differentiation...
September 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
William R Jeffery
In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, oral siphon amputation activates adult stem cell niches in the branchial sac to divide and dispatch migratory progenitor cells to a regeneration blastema at the site of injury. This study shows that progenitor cells derived from branchial sac stem cell niches have roles in homeostasis, wound repair, and regeneration of the siphons and neural complex (NC). During homeostasis, progenitor cells targeted the pharyngeal stigmata to replace ciliated cells involved in filter feeding...
September 8, 2018: Developmental Biology
Robert S Fischer, Pui-Ying Lam, Anna Huttenlocher, Clare M Waterman
Single cell branching during development in vertebrates is typified by neuronal branching to form neurites and vascular branches formed by sprouting angiogenesis. Neurons and endothelial tip cells possess subcellular protrusions that share many common features from the morphological to the molecular level. Both systems utilize filopodia as their cellular protrusion organelles and depend on specific integrin-mediated adhesions to the local extracellular matrix for guidance in their pathfinding. We discuss the similar molecular machineries involved in these two types of cell branch formation and use their analogy to propose a new mechanism for angiogenic filopodia function, namely as adhesion assembly sites...
September 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"