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Developmental Biology

Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
Catherine Rabouille, Jacqueline Deschamps
One hundred years of the Hubrecht Institute were celebrated in May 2016 with the organization of a one-day symposium "From embryos to stem cells" on the Uithof Campus, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Nine distinguished speakers were invited. They all represent a research branch originating from the passion of Institute founder, Ambrosius Hubrecht, for embryology:, regulation of gene expression, genome structure and function, embryonic and adult stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and understanding cancer and other diseases using model organisms...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
Yan Xu, Christopher C Quinn
Axonal branch formation and synaptogenesis are sequential events that are required for the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, little is known about how the transition between these two events is regulated. Here, we report that the lin-4 microRNA can regulate the transition between branch formation and synaptogenesis in the PLM axon of C. elegans. The PLM axon grows a collateral branch during the early L1 stage and undergoes synaptogenesis during the late L1 stage. Loss of the lin-4 microRNA disrupts synaptogenesis during the late L1 stage, suggesting that lin-4 promotes synaptogenesis...
October 13, 2016: Developmental Biology
Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier
Neurons of the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord are central in receiving, processing and relaying sensory perception and participate in the coordination of sensory-motor output. Numerous cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal development in both regions of the nervous system are shared. We discuss here the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord and hindbrain, and emphasize similarities in patterning and neuronal specification. Insight into the developmental mechanisms has provided tools that can help to assign functions to small subpopulations of neurons...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Chun-Hong Wu, Qiong Zong, An-Li Du, Wei Zhang, Han-Chao Yao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Yu-Feng Wang
Dynamitin (Dmn) is a major component of dynactin, a multiprotein complex playing important roles in a variety of intracellular motile events. We previously found that Wolbachia bacterial infection resulted in a reduction of Dmn protein. As Wolbachia may modify sperm in male hosts, we speculate that Dmn may have a function in male fertility. Here we used nosGal4 to drive Dmn knock down in testes of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of Dmn in spermatogenesis. We found that knockdown of Dmn in testes dramatically decreased male fertility, overexpression of Dmn in Wolbachia-infected males significantly rescued male fertility, indicating an important role of Dmn in inducing male fertility defects following Wolbachia infection...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated...
October 8, 2016: Developmental Biology
Sho Ohta, Baolin Wang, Suzanne L Mansour, Gary C Schoenwolf
During development of the inner ear, secreted morphogens act coordinately to establish otocyst dorsoventral polarity. Among these, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) plays a critical role in determining ventral polarity. However, how this extracellular signal is transduced intracellularly to establish ventral polarity is unknown. In this study, we show that cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is a key intracellular factor mediating SHH signaling through regulation of GLI3 processing. Gain-of-function experiments using targeted gene transfection by sonoporation or electroporation revealed that SHH signaling inactivates PKA, maintaining a basal level of PKA activity in the ventral otocyst...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Biology
Atsushi Suzuki, Yoshinobu Uno, Shuji Takahashi, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Shuji Mawaribuchi, Hitoshi Yoshida, Kimiko Takebayashi-Suzuki, Michihiko Ito, Yoichi Matsuda, Daniel Rokhsar, Masanori Taira
Extracellular factors belonging to the TGF-β family play pivotal roles in the formation and patterning of germ layers during early Xenopus embryogenesis. Here, we show that the vg1 (gdf1) and nodal3 genes of Xenopus laevis are present in gene clusters on chromosomes XLA1L and XLA3L, respectively, and that both gene clusters have been completely lost from the syntenic S chromosome regions. The presence of gene clusters and chromosome-specific gene loss were confirmed by cDNA FISH analyses. Sequence and expression analyses revealed that paralogous genes in the vg1 and nodal3 clusters on the L chromosomes were also altered compared to their Xenopus tropicalis orthologs...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Biology
Misty R Riddle, Erik A Spickard, Angela Jevince, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
The differentiated cell identities and structure of fully formed organs are generally stable after their development. In contrast, we report here that development of the C. elegans proximal somatic gonad (hermaphrodite uterus and spermathecae, and male vas deferens) can be redirected into intestine-like organs by brief expression of the ELT-7 GATA transcription factor. This process converts one developing organ into another and can hence be considered "transorganogenesis." We show that, following pulsed ELT-7 expression, cells of the uterus activate and maintain intestine-specific gene expression and are transformed at the ultrastructural level to form an epithelial tube resembling the normal intestine formed during embryogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Biology
Shihai Jia, Hyuk-Jae Edward Kwon, Yu Lan, Jing Zhou, Han Liu, Rulang Jiang
Mutations in MSX1 cause craniofacial developmental defects, including tooth agenesis, in humans and mice. Previous studies suggest that Msx1 activates Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme to drive early tooth organogenesis. Whereas Msx1(-/-) mice exhibit developmental arrest of all tooth germs at the bud stage, mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4 (Bmp4(ncko)(/ncko)), which lack Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme, showed developmental arrest of only mandibular molars...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jinwook Choi, Elhadi Iich, Joo-Hyeon Lee
The remarkable regenerative capacity of the lung suggests that stem cells could be of therapeutic importance in diverse lung diseases; however, the successful exploitation of lung stem cell biology has long been hampered by our inability to maintain and expand adult lung stem cells while retaining their multi-lineage potential in vitro. Recently, advances in our understanding of stem cell niches and the role of key signalling modulators in controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation have fuelled the development of new in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture technologies that sustain the stem cell-driven formation of near-physiological, self-organizing structures called organoids...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Ehsan Pashay Ahi
During the development of the vertebrate feeding apparatus, a variety of complicated cellular and molecular processes participate in the formation and integration of individual skeletal elements. The molecular mechanisms regulating the formation of skeletal primordia and their development into specific morphological structures are tightly controlled by a set of interconnected signalling pathways. Some of these pathways, such as Bmp, Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt, are long known for their pivotal roles in craniofacial skeletogenesis...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Qingxiang Zhou, Linlin Yu, Markus Friedrich, Francesca Pignoni
Drosophila has three types of visual organs, the larval eyes or Bolwig's organs (BO), the ocelli (OC) and the compound eyes (CE). In all, the bHLH protein Atonal (Ato) functions as the proneural factor for photoreceptors and effects the transition from progenitor cells to differentiating neurons. In this work, we investigate the regulation of ato expression in the BO primordium (BOP). Surprisingly, we find that ato transcription in the BOP is entirely independent of the shared regulatory DNA for the developing CE and OC...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
Yifan Zhang, Chang Cui, Zhi-Chun Lai
How organ growth is regulated in multicellular organisms is a long-standing question in developmental biology. It is known that coordination of cell apoptosis and proliferation is critical in cell number and overall organ size control, while how these processes are regulated is still under investigation. In this study, we found that functional loss of a gene in Drosophila, named Drosophila defender against apoptotic cell death 1 (dDad1), leads to a reduction of tissue growth due to increased apoptosis and lack of cell proliferation...
September 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
Atsushi Suzuki, Hitoshi Yoshida, Simon J van Heeringen, Kimiko Takebayashi-Suzuki, Gert Jan C Veenstra, Masanori Taira
Inductive interactions mediated by the TGF-β and FGF-MAPK pathways are essential for specification of the germ layers and embryonic body axes during early vertebrate embryogenesis. TGF-β and FGF ligands signal through receptor Ser/Thr and Tyr kinases, respectively, and these signaling pathways cross-talk to regulate transcription and cell behavior. The allotetraploid Xenopus laevis and its ancestral diploid Xenopus tropicalis are versatile model organisms with which to study the inductive interactions and mechanisms of these signal transduction pathways...
September 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
Sonya Galant, Giacomo Furlan, Marion Coolen, Lara Dirian, Isabelle Foucher, Laure Bally-Cuif
Neurogenesis in the post-embryonic vertebrate brain varies in extent and efficiency between species and brain territories. Distinct neurogenesis modes may account for this diversity, and several neural progenitor subtypes, radial glial cells (RG) and neuroepithelial progenitors (NE), have been identified in the adult zebrafish brain. The neurogenic sequences issued from these progenitors, and their contribution to brain construction, remain incompletely understood. Here we use genetic tracing techniques based on conditional Cre recombination and Tet-On neuronal birthdating to unravel the neurogenic sequence operating from NE progenitors in the zebrafish post-embryonic optic tectum...
September 27, 2016: Developmental Biology
Chih-Wei Hsu, Leeyean Wong, Tara L Rasmussen, Sowmya Kalaga, Melissa L McElwee, Lance C Keith, Ritu Bohat, John R Seavitt, Arthur L Beaudet, Mary E Dickinson
In this work, we report the use of iodine-contrast microCT to perform high-throughput 3D morphological analysis of mouse embryos and neonates between embryonic day 8.5 to postnatal day 3, with high spatial resolution up to 3µm/voxel. We show that mouse embryos at early stages can be imaged either within extra embryonic tissues such as the yolk sac or the decidua without physically disturbing the embryos. This method enables a full, undisturbed analysis of embryo turning, allantois development, vitelline vessels remodeling, yolk sac and early placenta development, which provides increased insights into early embryonic lethality in mutant lines...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Swati Mishra, Youngshik Choe, Samuel J Pleasure, Julie A Siegenthaler
Growth and maturation of the cerebrovasculature is a vital event in neocortical development however mechanisms that control cerebrovascular development remain poorly understood. Mutations in or deletions that include the FOXC1 gene are associated with congenital cerebrovascular anomalies and increased stroke risk in patients. Foxc1 mutant mice display severe cerebrovascular hemorrhage at late gestational ages. While these data demonstrate Foxc1 is required for cerebrovascular development, its broad expression in the brain vasculature combined with Foxc1 mutant's complex developmental defects have made it difficult to pinpoint its function(s)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Michael Czerwinski, Anirudh Natarajan, Lindsey Barske, Loren L Looger, Blanche Capel
Temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) is the process by which the environmental temperature experienced during embryogenesis influences the sex of an organism, as in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. In accord with current paradigms of vertebrate sex determination, temperature is believed to exert its effects on sexual development in T. scripta entirely within the middle third of development, when the gonad is forming. However, whether temperature regulates the transcriptome in T...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Marina Venero Galanternik, Mark E Lush, Tatjana Piotrowski
Collective cell migration is an essential process during embryonic development and diseases such as cancer, and still much remains to be learned about how cell intrinsic and environmental cues are coordinated to guide cells to their targets. The migration-dependent development of the zebrafish sensory lateral line proves to be an excellent model to study how proteoglycans control collective cell migration in a vertebrate. Proteoglycans are extracellular matrix glycoproteins essential for the control of several signaling pathways including Wnt/β-catenin, Fgf, BMP and Hh...
September 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
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