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Developmental Biology

Gabriel R Cavalheiro, Gabriel E Matos-Rodrigues, Yilin Zhao, Anielle L Gomes, Deepti Anand, Danilo Predes, Silmara de Lima, Jose G Abreu, Deyou Zheng, Salil A Lachke, Ales Cvekl, Rodrigo A P Martins
Myc proto-oncogenes regulate diverse cellular processes during development, but their roles during morphogenesis of specific tissues are not fully understood. We found that c-myc regulates cell proliferation in mouse lens development and previous genome-wide studies suggested functional roles for N-myc in developing lens. Here, we examined the role of N-myc in mouse lens development. Genetic inactivation of N-myc in the surface ectoderm or lens vesicle impaired eye and lens growth, while "late" inactivation in lens fibers had no effect...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
Rocío Simón, Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Sol Fereres, Ana Busturia
The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins control developmental gene silencing and are highly conserved between flies and mammals. PcG proteins function by controlling post-translational modification of histones, such as ubiquitylation, which impacts chromatin compaction and thus gene transcription. Changes in PcG cellular levels have drastic effects on organismal development and are involved in the generation of human pathologies such as cancer. However, the mechanisms controlling their levels of expression and their physiological effects are only partially understood...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
Go Shioi, Hideharu Hoshino, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Kazuki Nakao, Wenxiang Meng, Yasuhide Furuta, Toshihiko Fujimori, Shinichi Aizawa
The behavior of visceral endoderm cells was examined as the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formed from the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) using the mouse lines R26-H2B-EGFP and R26-PHA7-EGFP to visualize cell nuclei and adherens junction, respectively. The analysis using R26-H2B-EGFP demonstrated global cell rearrangement that was not specific to the DVE cells in the monolayer embryonic visceral endoderm sheet; each population of the endoderm cells moved collectively in a swirling movement as a whole. Most of the AVE cells at E6...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
Taylor D Hinnant, Arturo A Alvarez, Elizabeth T Ables
Development of multicellular organisms relies upon the coordinated regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation. Growing evidence suggests that some molecular regulatory pathways associated with the cell cycle machinery also dictate cell fate; however, it remains largely unclear how the cell cycle is remodeled in concert with cell differentiation. During Drosophila oogenesis, mature oocytes are created through a series of precisely controlled division and differentiation steps, originating from a single tissue-specific stem cell...
July 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
Roxana Oriana Florica, Victoria Hipolito, Stephen Bautista, Homa Anvari, Chloe Rapp, Suzan El-Rass, Alimohammad Asgharian, Costin N Antonescu, Marie T Killeen
The axons of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons fail to reach the dorsal cord in the absence of the guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin or its receptor UNC-5 in C. elegans. However, the axonal processes usually exit their cell bodies in the ventral cord in the absence of both molecules. Strains lacking functional versions of UNC-6 or UNC-5 have a low level of DA and DB motor neuron axon outgrowth defects. We found that mutations in the genes for all six of the ENU-3 proteins function to enhance the outgrowth defects of the DA and DB axons in strains lacking either UNC-6 or UNC-5...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
Dan Ly, Erin Resch, George Ordiway, Stephen DiNardo
The formation of complex tissues from simple epithelial sheets requires the regional subdivision of the developing tissue. This is initially accomplished by a sequence of gene regulatory hierarchies that set up distinct fates within adjacent territories, and rely on cross-regulatory interactions to do so. However, once adjacent territories are established, cells that confront one another across territorial boundaries must actively participate in maintaining separation from each other. Classically, it was assumed that adhesive differences would be a primary means of sorting cells to their respective territories...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Irina Sedykh, Baul Yoon, Laura Roberson, Oleg Moskvin, Colin N Dewey, Yevgenya Grinblat
The vertebrate retina develops in close proximity to the forebrain and neural crest-derived cartilages of the face and jaw. Coloboma, a congenital eye malformation, is associated with aberrant forebrain development (holoprosencephaly) and with craniofacial defects (frontonasal dysplasia) in humans, suggesting a critical role for cross-lineage interactions during retinal morphogenesis. ZIC2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is linked to human holoprosencephaly. We have previously used morpholino assays to show zebrafish zic2 functions in the developing forebrain, retina and craniofacial cartilage...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Maria A Hoelzl, Karin Heby-Henricson, Marco Gerling, José M Dias, Raoul V Kuiper, Cornelius Trünkle, Åsa Bergström, Johan Ericson, Rune Toftgård, Stephan Teglund
Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) is an essential negative regulator of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway and involved in GLI transcription factor regulation. Due to early embryonic lethality of Sufu(-/-) mice, investigations of SUFU's role later in development are limited to conditional, tissue-specific knockout models. In this study we developed a mouse model (Sufu(Ex456(fl)/Ex456(fl))) with hypomorphic features where embryos were viable up to E18.5, although with a spectrum of developmental defects of varying severity, including polydactyly, exencephaly and omphalocele...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
Jia Li, Chengbing Wang, Chuanqing Wu, Ting Cao, Guoqiang Xu, Qing Meng, Baolin Wang
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is thought to occur in primary cilia, but the molecular basis of Gli2 and Gli3 activation by Hh signaling in cilia is unknown. Similarly, how ciliary gene mutations result in reduced Gli3 processing that generates a repressor is also not clear. Here we show that Hh signaling inhibits Gli2 and Gli3 phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) in cilia. The cilia related gene Talpid3 (Ta3) mutation results in the reduced processing and phosphorylation of Gli2 and Gli3. Interestingly, Ta3 interacts and colocalizes with PKA regulatory subunit PKARIIβ at centrioles in the cell...
June 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
Andrew F Smith, James W Posakony, Mark Rebeiz
Comparative sequence analysis methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, represent one of the most effective ways to decode regulatory sequence functions based upon DNA sequence information alone. The laborious task of assembling orthologous sequences to perform these comparisons is a hurdle to these analyses, which is further aggravated by the relative paucity of tools for visualization of sequence comparisons in large genic regions. Here, we describe a second-generation implementation of the GenePalette DNA sequence analysis software to facilitate comparative studies of gene function and regulation...
June 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
Panid Sharifnia, Kyung Won Kim, Zilu Wu, Yishi Jin
The 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of mRNAs mediate post-transcriptional regulation of genes in many biological processes. Cis elements in 3' UTRs can interact with RNA-binding factors in sequence-specific or structure-dependent manners, enabling regulation of mRNA stability, translation, and localization. Caenorhabditis elegans CEBP-1 is a conserved transcription factor of the C/EBP family, and functions in diverse contexts, from neuronal development and axon regeneration to organismal growth. Previous studies revealed that the levels of cebp-1 mRNA in neurons depend on its 3' UTR and are also negatively regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase RPM-1...
June 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
Patrick P van Vliet, Lizhu Lin, Cornelis J Boogerd, James F Martin, Gregor Andelfinger, Paul D Grossfeld, Sylvia M Evans
Correct cardiac development is essential for fetal and adult life. Disruptions in a variety of signaling pathways result in congenital heart defects, including outflow and inflow tract defects. We previously found that WNT11 regulates outflow tract development. However, tissue specific requirements for Wnt11 in this process remain unknown, and whether WNT11 is required for inflow tract development has not been addressed. Here we find that germline Wnt11 null mice also show hypoplasia of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (DMP), which is required for atrioventricular septation...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
Sevan Hopyan
The physical basis of morphogenesis is a fascinating concern that has been a longstanding interest of developmental biologists. In this review, I attempt to incorporate earlier and recent biophysical concepts and data to explain basic features of early limb bud morphogenesis. In particular, I discuss the influence of mesenchymal cohesion and physical properties that might contribute to phase separation of the bud from the lateral plate, the possibility that the early dorsoventral limb bud axis is moulded by the surface ectoderm, and endogenous electric fields that might contribute to oriented cell movements which generate the early limb bud...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
Vladimir A Timoshevskiy, Ralph T Lampman, Jon E Hess, Laurie L Porter, Jeramiah J Smith
In most multicellular organisms, the structure and content of the genome is rigorously maintained over the course of development. However some species have evolved genome biologies that permit, or require, developmentally regulated changes in the physical structure and content of the genome (programmed genome rearrangement: PGR). Relatively few vertebrates are known to undergo PGR, although all agnathans surveyed to date (several hagfish and one lamprey: Petromyzon marinus) show evidence of large scale PGR...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
Nesibe Özsu, Qian Yi Chan, Bin Chen, Mainak Das Gupta, Antónia Monteiro
Eyespot patterns of nymphalid butterflies are an example of a novel trait yet, the developmental origin of eyespots is still not well understood. Several genes have been associated with eyespot development but few have been tested for function. One of these genes is the signaling ligand, wingless, which is expressed in the eyespot centers during early pupation and may function in eyespot signaling and color ring differentiation. Here we tested the function of wingless in wing and eyespot development by down-regulating it in transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies via RNAi driven by an inducible heat-shock promoter...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
Peter A Keyel
DNA degradation is critical to healthy organism development and survival. Two nuclease families that play key roles in development and in disease are the Dnase1 and Dnase2 families. While these two families were initially characterized by biochemical function, it is now clear that multiple enzymes in each family perform similar, non-redundant roles in many different tissues. Most Dnase1 and Dnase2 family members are poorly characterized, yet their elimination can lead to a wide range of diseases, including lethal anemia, parakeratosis, cataracts and systemic lupus erythematosus...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
Michael Stauber, Karsten Boldt, Christoph Wrede, Marina Weidemann, Manuela Kellner, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Mark Philipp Kühnel, Jan Hegermann, Marius Ueffing, Achim Gossler
In humans and mice, motile cilia occur on the surface of the embryonic ventral node, on respiratory and ependymal epithelia and in reproductive organs where they ensure normal left-right asymmetry of the organism, mucociliary clearance of airways, homeostasis of the cerebrospinal fluid and fertility. The genetic programme for the formation of motile cilia, thus critical for normal development and health, is switched on by the key transcription factor FOXJ1. In previous microarray screens for murine FOXJ1 effectors, we identified candidates for novel factors involved in motile ciliogenesis, including both genes that are well conserved throughout metazoa and beyond, like FOXJ1 itself, and genes without overt homologues outside higher vertebrates...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
Meike Hoffmeister, Julia Krieg, Alexander Ehrke, Franziska A Seigfried, Lisa Wischmann, Petra Dietmann, Susanne J Kühl, Stefanie Oess
BACKGROUND: Genetic deletion of Nosip in mice causes holoprosencephaly, however, the function of Nosip in neurogenesis is currently unknown. RESULTS: We combined two vertebrate model organisms, the mouse and the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, to study the function of Nosip in neurogenesis. We found, that size and cortical thickness of the developing brain of Nosip knockout mice were reduced. Accordingly, the formation of postmitotic neurons was greatly diminished, concomitant with a reduced number of apical and basal neural progenitor cells in vivo...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
Alexander Marchak, Paaqua A Grant, Karen M Neilson, Himani Datta Majumdar, Sergey Yaklichkin, Diana Johnson, Sally A Moody
In many animals, maternally synthesized mRNAs are critical for primary germ layer formation. In Xenopus, several maternal mRNAs are enriched in the animal blastomere progenitors of the embryonic ectoderm. We previously identified one of these, WW-domain binding protein 2 N-terminal like (wbp2nl), that others previously characterized as a sperm protein (PAWP) that promotes meiotic resumption. Herein we demonstrate that it has an additional developmental role in regionalizing the embryonic ectoderm. Knock-down of Wbp2nl in the dorsal ectoderm reduced cranial placode and neural crest gene expression domains and expanded neural plate domains; knock-down in ventral ectoderm reduced epidermal gene expression...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
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