Read by QxMD icon Read

Developmental Biology

Inga A Frøland Steindal, Andrew Beale, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, David Whitmore
Most animals and plants live on the planet exposed to periods of rhythmic light and dark. As such, they have evolved endogenous circadian clocks to regulate their physiology rhythmically, and non-visual light detection mechanisms to set the clock to the environmental light-dark cycle. In the case of fish, circadian pacemakers are not only present in the majority of tissues and cells, but these tissues are themselves directly light-sensitive, expressing a wide range of opsin photopigments. This broad non-visual light sensitivity exists to set the clock, but also impacts a wide range of fundamental cell biological processes, such as DNA repair regulation...
June 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Christopher W Williams, Jyoti Iyer, Yan Liu, Kevin F O'Connell
CDK11, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been implicated in a diverse array of functions including transcription, RNA processing, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle assembly, centriole duplication and apoptosis. Despite its involvement in many essential functions, little is known about the requirements for CDK11 and its partner Cyclin L in a developing multicellular organism. Here we investigate the function of CDK11 and Cyclin L during development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms express two CDK11 proteins encoded by distinct loci: CDK-11...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Matthew J Biehl, Kerim B Kaylan, Robert J Thompson, Rachel V Gonzalez, Karen E Weis, Gregory H Underhill, Lori T Raetzman
The hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is the major regulator of reproductive function within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite an understanding of the function of neuronal subtypes within the AVPV, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating their development. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that Notch signaling is required in progenitor cell maintenance and formation of kisspeptin neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) while simultaneously restraining POMC neuron number...
June 6, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jeffrey O Bush, E R Andersson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Developmental Biology
Lisa M Galli, Frederick Santana, Chantilly Apollon, Linda A Szabo, Keri Ngo, Laura W Burrus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Alicia M McConnell, Jeffrey K Mito, Julien Ablain, Michelle Dang, Luke Formichella, David E Fisher, Leonard I Zon
NRAS mutations are frequently found in many deadly malignancies and are the second most common oncogene driving malignant melanoma. Here, we generate a rapid transient transgenic zebrafish model of NRASQ61R -mutant melanoma. These fish develop extensive melanocytic proliferation in approximately 4 weeks. The majority of these lesions do not engraft upon transplantation and lack overt histologic features of malignancy. Our previous work demonstrated that activation of a neural crest cell transcriptional program is a key initiating event in zebrafish BRAF/p53-driven melanomas using the fluorescent reporter crestin:EGFP...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Misty R Riddle, Werend Boesmans, Olivya Caballero, Youcef Kazwiny, Clifford J Tabin
Through the course of evolution, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been modified to maximize nutrient absorption, forming specialized segments that are morphologically and functionally distinct. Here we show that the GI tract of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, has distinct regions, exhibiting differences in morphology, motility, and absorption. We found that A. mexicanus populations adapted for life in subterranean caves exhibit differences in the GI segments compared to those adapted to surface rivers...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Shaolei Xiong, Jaya Krishnan, Robert Peuß, Nicolas Rohner
Cavefish populations of Astyanax mexicanus have increased body fat compared to surface fish populations of the same species when fed ad libitum in the laboratory. We have previously shown that some cavefish populations display hyperphagia (elevated appetite) to increase food consumption, fat deposition and starvation resistance. However, not all cavefish populations display hyperphagia, yet all previously tested cavefish display elevated body fat levels. Here we have extended this analysis by focusing on visceral fat acquisition in three independently derived cavefish populations...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Josephine L Morris, Stephen J Cross, Yinhui Lu, Karl E Kadler, Yongbo Lu, Sarah L Dallas, Paul Martin
Fibrillar collagen is a major component of many tissues but has been difficult to image in vivo using transgenic approaches because of problems associated with establishing cells and organisms that generate GFP-fusion collagens that can polymerise into functional fibrils. Here we have developed and characterised GFP and mCherry collagen-I fusion zebrafish lines with basal epidermal-specific expression. We use these lines to reveal the dynamic nature of collagen-I fibril deposition beneath the developing embryonic epidermis, as well as the repair of this collagen meshwork following wounding...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Sara Ahmed-de-Prado, Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Antonio Baonza
The regenerative process after tissue damage relies on a variety of cellular responses that includes compensatory cell proliferation and cell fate re-specification. The identification of the signalling networks regulating these cellular events is a central question in regenerative biology. Tissue regeneration models in Drosophila have shown that two of the signals that play a fundamental role during the early stages of regeneration are the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and JAK/STAT signalling pathways. These pathways have been shown to be required for controlling regenerative proliferation, however their contribution to the processes of cellular reprogramming and cell fate re-specification that take place during regeneration are largely unknown...
June 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
Méghane Sittewelle, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many studies in mouse embryos have clearly implicated AKT signaling in the differentiation of several neural crest derivatives, information on AKT functions during the earliest steps of neural crest development had remained relatively scarce until recently...
May 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fabio Da Silva, Filippo Massa, Fariba Jian Motamedi, Valerie Vidal, Ana Sofia Rocha, Elodie P Gregoire, Chen-Leng Cai, Kay Dietrich Wagner, Andreas Schedl
Coronary artery anomalies are common congenital disorders with serious consequences in adult life. Coronary circulation begins when the coronary stems form connections between the aorta and the developing vascular plexus. We recently identified the WNT signaling modulator R-spondin 3 (Rspo3), as a crucial regulator of coronary stem proliferation. Using expression analysis and tissue-specific deletion we now demonstrate that Rspo3 is primarily produced by cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we have employed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate novel Lgr4-null alleles that showed a significant decrease in coronary stem proliferation and thus phenocopied the coronary artery defects seen in Rspo3 mutants...
May 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jeffry M Cesario, André Landin Malt, Jong Uk Chung, Michael P Khairallah, Krishnakali Dasgupta, Kesava Asam, Lindsay J Deacon, Veronica Choi, Asma A Almaidhan, Nadine A Darwiche, Jimin Kim, Randy L Johnson, Juhee Jeong
The calvaria (upper part of the skull) is made of plates of bone and fibrous joints (sutures and fontanelles), and the proper balance and organization of these components are crucial to normal development of the calvaria. In a mouse embryo, the calvaria develops from a layer of head mesenchyme that surrounds the brain from shortly after mid-gestation. The mesenchyme just above the eye (supra-orbital mesenchyme, SOM) generates ossification centers for the bones, which then grow toward the apex gradually. In contrast, the mesenchyme apical to SOM (early migrating mesenchyme, EMM), including the area at the vertex, does not generate an ossification center...
May 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Patrick Pla, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest...
May 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Dorit Hockman, Igor Adameyko, Marketa Kaucka, Perrine Barraud, Tomoki Otani, Adam Hunt, Anna C Hartwig, Elisabeth Sock, Dominic Waithe, Marina C M Franck, Patrik Ernfors, Sean Ehinger, Marthe J Howard, Naoko Brown, Jeffrey Reese, Clare V H Baker
Carotid body glomus cells mediate essential reflex responses to arterial blood hypoxia. They are dopaminergic and secrete growth factors that support dopaminergic neurons, making the carotid body a potential source of patient-specific cells for Parkinson's disease therapy. Like adrenal chromaffin cells, which are also hypoxia-sensitive, glomus cells are neural crest-derived and require the transcription factors Ascl1 and Phox2b; otherwise, their development is little understood at the molecular level. Here, analysis in chicken and mouse reveals further striking molecular parallels, though also some differences, between glomus and adrenal chromaffin cell development...
May 25, 2018: Developmental Biology
W Ted Allison
Normally folded prion protein is abundant in the CNS and remarkably conserved, suggesting that it has important functions, yet these functions have remained elusive. Now the work of Parrie et al. has codified a requirement for prion protein in adult neurogenesis. Their insightful use of prion protein knockout and over-expressing mice, combined with the well-characterized olfactory system site of neurogenesis, demonstrated that prion protein promotes proliferation and survival of adult neurons. The work provides a unique independent confirmation of prion protein playing a role in neuroprotection, especially extending the conclusion beyond models using acute injury...
May 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jacqueline S R Chin, Claude E Gassant, Paloma M Amaral, Evan Lloyd, Bethany A Stahl, James B Jaggard, Alex C Keene, Erik R Duboue
Responding appropriately to stress is essential for survival, yet in pathological states, these responses can develop into debilitating conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety. While genetic models have provided insight into the neurochemical and neuroanatomical pathways that underlie stress, little is known about how evolutionary processes and naturally occurring variation contribute to the diverse responses to stressful stimuli observed in the animal kingdom. The Mexican cavefish is a powerful system to address how altered genetic and neuronal systems can give rise to aberrant behaviors...
May 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
Cassidy S Bernstein, Mitchell T Anderson, Chintan Gohel, Kayleigh Slater, Jeffrey M Gross, Seema Agarwala
Defects in choroid fissure (CF) formation and closure lead to coloboma, a major cause of childhood blindness. Despite genetic advances, the cellular defects underlying coloboma remain poorly elucidated due to our limited understanding of normal CF morphogenesis. We address this deficit by conducting high-resolution spatio-temporal analyses of CF formation and closure in the chick, mouse and fish. We show that a small ventral midline invagination initiates CF formation in the medial-proximal optic cup, subsequently extending it dorsally toward the lens, and proximally into the optic stalk...
May 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
Guillermo A Vega-Lopez, Santiago Cerrizuela, Celeste Tribulo, Manuel J Aybar
The neural crest (NC) is a transient, multipotent and migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. These cells, which originate from the ectoderm in a region lateral to the neural plate in the neural fold, give rise to neurons, glia, melanocytes, chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, odontoblasts and neuroendocrine cells, among others. Neurocristopathies (NCP) are a class of pathologies occurring in vertebrates, especially in humans that result from the abnormal specification, migration, differentiation or death of neural crest cells during embryonic development...
May 23, 2018: Developmental Biology
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Ryo Nakamura, Yuta Takase, Etsuo A Susaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
Although the basic schema of the body plan is similar among different species of amniotes (mammals, birds, and reptiles), the lung is an exception. Here, anatomy and physiology are considerably different, particularly between mammals and birds. In mammals, inhaled and exhaled airs mix in the airways, whereas in birds the inspired air flows unidirectionally without mixing with the expired air. This bird-specific respiration system is enabled by the complex tubular structures called parabronchi where gas exchange takes place, and also by the bellow-like air sacs appended to the main part of the lung...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"