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Developmental Biology

Vanessa Lanoue, Helen M Cooper
A neuron's contribution to the information flow within a neural circuit is governed by the structure of its dendritic arbor. The geometry of the dendritic arbor directly determines synaptic density and the size of the receptive field, both of which influence the firing pattern of the neuron. Importantly, the position of individual dendritic branches determines the identity of the neuron's presynaptic partner and thus the nature of the incoming sensory information. To generate the unique stereotypic architecture of a given neuronal subtype, nascent branches must emerge from the dendritic shaft at preprogramed branch points...
December 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Travis H Stracker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2018: Developmental Biology
Runa Hamid, Nikhil Hajirnis, Shikha Kushwaha, Sadaf Saleem, Vimlesh Kumar, Rakesh K Mishra
Insect mushroom bodies (MB) have an ensemble of synaptic connections well-studied for their role in experience-dependent learning and several higher cognitive functions. MB requires neurotransmission for an efficient flow of information across synapses with different flexibility to meet the demand of the dynamically changing environment of an insect. Neurotransmitter transporters coordinate appropriate changes for an efficient neurotransmission at the synapse. Till date, there is no transporter reported for any of the previously known neurotransmitters in the intrinsic neurons of MB...
December 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Dongcheng Zhang, Benjamin N Rollo, Nandor Nagy, Lincon Stamp, Donald F Newgreen
Cells of the vagal neural crest (NC) form most of the enteric nervous system (ENS) by a colonising wave in the embryonic gut, with high cell proliferation and differentiation. Enteric neuropathies have an ENS deficit and cell replacement has been suggested as therapy. This would be performed post-natally, which raises the question of whether the ENS cell population retains its initial ENS-forming potential with age. We tested this on the avian model in organ culture in vitro (3 days) using recipient aneural chick midgut/hindgut combined with ENS-donor quail midgut or hindgut of ages QE5 to QE10...
December 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Charles H Sullivan, Himani D Majumdar, Karen M Neilson, Sally A Moody
The specialized sensory organs of the vertebrate head are derived from thickened patches of cells in the ectoderm called cranial sensory placodes. The developmental program that generates these placodes and the genes that are expressed during the process have been studied extensively in a number of animals, yet very little is known about how these genes regulate one another. We previously found via a microarray screen that Six1, a known transcriptional regulator of cranial placode fate, up-regulates Irx1 in ectodermal explants...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Yuri An, Tamotsu Sekinaka, Yukiko Tando, Daiji Okamura, Keiko Tanaka, Yumi Ito-Matsuoka, Asuka Takehara, Nobuo Yaegashi, Yasuhisa Matsui
Teratomas are tumors consisting of components of the three germ layers that differentiate from pluripotent stem cells derived from germ cells. In the normal mouse testis, teratomas rarely form, but a deficiency in Dead-end1 (Dnd1) in mice with a 129/Sv genetic background greatly enhances teratoma formation. Thus, DND1 is crucial for suppression of teratoma development from germ cells. In the Dnd1 mutant testis, nascent teratoma cells emerge at E15.5. To understand the nature of early teratoma cells, we established cell lines in the presence of serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) from teratoma-forming cells in neonatal Dnd1 mutant testis...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jing Li, Taeyoon Kim, Daniel B Szymanski
Plant growth and development are driven by extended phases of irreversible cell expansion generating cells that increase in volume from 10- to 100-fold. Some specialized cell types define cortical sites that reinitiate polarized growth and generate branched cell morphology. This structural specialization of individual cells has a major importance for plant adaptation to diverse environments and practical importance in agricultural contexts. The patterns of cell shape are defined by highly integrated cytoskeletal and cell wall systems...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Benedikt T Best
The terminal cells of the tracheal epithelium in Drosophila melanogaster are one of the few known cell types that undergo subcellular morphogenesis to achieve a stable, branched shape. During the animal's larval stages, the cells repeatedly sprout new cytoplasmic processes. These grow very long, wrapping around target tissues to which the terminal cells adhere, and are hollowed by a gas-filled subcellular tube for oxygen delivery. Our understanding of this ramification process remains rudimentary. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of studies on terminal cells to date, and attempts to extrapolate how terminal branches might be formed based on the known genetic and molecular components...
December 4, 2018: Developmental Biology
Susannah H Kassmer, Shane Nourizadeh, Anthony W De Tomaso
Regenerative ability is highly variable among the metazoans. While many invertebrate organisms are capable of complete regeneration of entire bodies and organs, whole-organ regeneration is limited to very few species in the vertebrate lineages. Tunicates, which are invertebrate chordates and the closest extant relatives of the vertebrates, show robust regenerative ability. Colonial ascidians of the family of the Styelidae, such as several species of Botrylloides, are able to regenerate entire new bodies from nothing but fragments of vasculature, and they are the only chordates that are capable of whole body regeneration...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Takahito Nishikata, Toshiyuki Goto, Haruka Yagi, Hirokazu Ishii
Eggs have developed their own strategies for early development. Amphibian, teleost fish, and ascidian eggs show cortical rotation and an accompanying structure, a cortical parallel microtubule (MT) array, during the one-cell embryonic stage. Cortical rotation is thought to relocate maternal deposits to a certain compartment of the egg and to polarize the embryo. The common features and differences among chordate eggs as well as localized maternal proteins and mRNAs that are related to the organization of MT structures are described in this review...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Rosalind M F Attenborough, David C Hayward, Ursula Wiedemann, Sylvain Forêt, David J Miller, Eldon E Ball
Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. AmRFamide transcripts first appear in the ectoderm toward the oral end of the planula larva following blastopore closure...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Stefan C Materna, Tanvi Sinha, Ralston M Barnes, Kelly Lammerts van Bueren, Brian L Black
MEF2C is a member of the highly conserved MEF2 family of transcription factors and is a key regulator of cardiovascular development. In mice, Mef2c is expressed in the developing heart and vasculature, including the endothelium. Loss of Mef2c function in germline knockout mice leads to early embryonic demise and profound developmental abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. Previous attempts to uncover the cause of embryonic lethality by specifically disrupting Mef2c function in the heart or vasculature failed to recapitulate the global Mef2c knockout phenotype and instead resulted in relatively minor defects that did not compromise viability or result in significant cardiovascular defects...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Nicholas E Baker, Marianthi Kiparaki, Chaitali Khan
The term cell competition has been used to describe the phenomenon where particular cells can be eliminated during tissue growth only when more competitive cells are available to replace them. Multiple examples implicate differential activity of p53 in cell competition in mammals, but p53 has not been found to have the same role in Drosophila, where the phenomenon of cell competition was first recognized. Recent studies now show that Drosophila cells harboring mutations in Ribosomal protein (Rp) genes, which are eliminated by cell competition with wild type cells, activate a p53 target gene, Xrp1...
December 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Kouhei Oonuma, Takehiro G Kusakabe
The ascidian larva has a pigmented ocellus comprised of a cup-shaped array of approximately 30 photoreceptor cells, a pigment cell, and three lens cells. Morphological, physiological and molecular evidence has suggested evolutionary kinship between the ascidian larval photoreceptors and vertebrate retinal and/or pineal photoreceptors. Rx, an essential factor for vertebrate photoreceptor development, has also been suggested to be involved in the development of the ascidian photoreceptor cells, but a recent revision of the photoreceptor cell lineage raised a crucial discrepancy between the reported expression patterns of Rx and the cell lineage...
November 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Millissia Ben Maamar, Eric Nilsson, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, John R McCarrey, Michael K Skinner
Epigenetic alterations in the germline can be triggered by a number of different environmental factors from diet to toxicants. These environmentally induced germline changes can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. In previous studies, the pesticide DDT was shown to promote the transgenerational inheritance of sperm differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs), also called epimutations, which can in part mediate this epigenetic inheritance. In the current study, the developmental origins of the transgenerational DMRs during gametogenesis have been investigated...
November 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
Johannes G Wittig, Martina Billmeier, Estefanía Lozano-Velasco, Miguel Robles García, Andrea E Münsterberg
BACKGROUND: Studying microRNA networks during heart development is essential to obtain a better understanding of developmental defects and diseases associated with the heart and to identify novel opportunities for therapeutics. Here we highlight the advantages of chicken embryos as a vertebrate model for studying intermediate processes of heart development. Avians develop a four-chambered heart closely resembling human anatomy and they develop ex utero, which makes them easily accessible...
November 26, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ronghua Yang, Jingru Wang, Ziheng Zhou, Shaohai Qi, Shubin Ruan, Zepeng Lin, Qi Xin, Yan Lin, Xiaodong Chen, Julin Xie
Local transplantation of stem cells has therapeutic effects on skin damage but cannot provide satisfactory wound healing. Studies on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of stem cells on skin wound healing will be needed. Hence, in the present study, we explored the role of Caveolin-1 in epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) in the modulation of wound healing. We first isolated EpiSCs from mouse skin tissues and established stable EpiSCs with overexpression of Caveolin-1 using a lentiviral construct. We then evaluated the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation ability using cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and assessed EpiSC pluripotency by examining Nanog mRNA levels in EpiSCs...
November 23, 2018: Developmental Biology
Irina Brokhman, Jie Xu, Brenda L K Coles, Rozita Razavi, Silvia Engert, Heiko Lickert, Robert Babona-Pilipos, Cindi M Morshead, Eric Sibley, Chin Chen, Derek van der Kooy
The enteric nervous system is thought to originate solely from the neural crest. Transgenic lineage tracing revealed a novel population of clonal pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1)-Cre lineage progenitor cells in the tunica muscularis of the gut that produced pancreatic descendants as well as neurons upon differentiation in vitro. Additionally, an in vivo subpopulation of endoderm lineage enteric neurons, but not glial cells, was seen especially in the proximal gut. Analysis of early transgenic embryos revealed Pdx1-Cre progeny (as well as Sox-17-Cre and Foxa2-Cre progeny) migrating from the developing pancreas and duodenum at E11...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
Claudia Racioppi, Ugo Coppola, Lionel Christiaen, Filomena Ristoratore
Through a myriad of pigments stored in different pigment cells, animal pigmentation represents a crucial process to face disparate environmental and ecological challenges. Rab32 and Rab38 proteins are conserved small GTPases that, in vertebrates, are involved in the transport of key melanogenic enzymes, as tyrosinase (tyr) and tyrosinase-related protein (tyrp), to the melanosomes in formation. We provide a survey on Rab32/38 evolution and its regulatory logics during pigment cell formation in Ciona robusta...
November 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fan Zeng, Julia Wunderer, Willi Salvenmoser, Michael W Hess, Peter Ladurner, Ute Rothbächer
Ascidian papillae (palps) constitute a transient sensory adhesive organ that assures larval settlement and the onset of metamorphosis to the filterfeeding adult. Despite the importance of papillae for the ascidian development, their cellular composition is only roughly described. For Ciona intestinalis/robusta, a clear definition of cell numbers and discriminative molecular markers for the different cell types is missing. While some attention was given to neural cell types and their connectivity little is known about the adhesive producing collocytes...
November 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
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