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Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099870/single-embryo-resolution-quantitative-analysis-of-reporters-permits-multiplex-spatial-cis-regulatory-analysis
#1
Catherine L Guay, Sean T McQuade, Jongmin Nam
Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) control spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in embryos. While measurement of quantitative CRM activities has become efficient, measurement of spatial CRM activities still relies on slow, one-by-one methods. To overcome this bottleneck, we have developed a high-throughput method that can simultaneously measure quantitative and spatial CRM activities. The new method builds profiles of quantitative CRM activities measured at single-embryo resolution in many mosaic embryos and uses these profiles as a 'fingerprint' of spatial patterns...
January 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095300/knockdown-of-cxcl14-disrupts-neurovascular-patterning-during-ocular-development
#2
Ana F Ojeda, Ravi P Munjaal, Peter Y Lwigale
The C-X-C motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) is a recently discovered chemokine that is highly conserved in vertebrates and expressed in various embryonic and adult tissues. CXCL14 signaling has been implicated to function as an antiangiogenic and anticancer agent in adults. However, its function during development is unknown. We previously identified novel expression of CXCL14 mRNA in various ocular tissues during development. Here, we show that CXCL14 protein is expressed in the anterior eye at a critical time during neurovascular development and in the retina during neurogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089848/sparc-preserves-follicular-epithelium-integrity-in-insect-ovaries
#3
Paula Irles, Saray Ramos, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups...
January 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089430/high-variability-of-expression-profiles-of-homeologous-genes-for-wnt-hh-notch-and-hippo-signaling-pathways-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Tatsuo Michiue, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Yuuri Yasuoka, Toshiyasu Goto, Takafumi Ikeda, Kei Nagura, Takuya Nakayama, Masanori Taira, Tsutomu Kinoshita
Cell signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch, and Hippo, are essential for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. In this study, we analyzed 415 genes involved in these pathways in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. Most genes are retained in two subgenomes called L and S (193 homeologous gene pairs and 29 singletons). This conservation rate of homeologs is much higher than that of all genes in the X. laevis genome (86.9% vs 60.2%). Among singletons, 24 genes are retained in the L subgenome, a rate similar to the average for all genes (82...
January 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088316/individual-female-differences-in-chemoattractant-production-change-the-scale-of-sea-urchin-gamete-interactions
#5
Yasmeen H Hussain, Martin Sadilek, Shukri Salad, Richard K Zimmer, Jeffrey A Riffell
Sperm selection by females is an important process influencing fertilization and, particularly in broadcast-spawning organisms, often occurs before sperm reach the egg. Waterborne sperm chemoattractants are one mechanism by which eggs selectively influence conspecific sperm behavior, but it remains an open question whether the eggs from different females produce different amounts of sperm chemoattractant, and how that might influence sperm behavior. Here, we quantify the differences in attractant production between females of the sea urchin species Lytechinus pictus and use computational models and microfluidic sperm chemotaxis assays to determine how differences in chemoattractant production between females affects their ability to attract sperm...
January 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069375/the-thyroid-hormone-nuclear-receptors-and-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-an-intriguing-liaison
#6
REVIEW
Seham Skah, Joel Uchuya-Castillo, Maria Sirakov, Michelina Plateroti
The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, control several developmental and homeostatic processes. From a molecular point of view, most of their actions depend on the activity of the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs), which are T3-modulated transcription factors. Recent studies have not only highlighted that the physiological response induced by T3 within a cell depends on the expression of specific TRs, but also that the functions of TRs are coordinated by and integrated in other signalling pathways. This is particularly the case for the multilevel interactions between TRs and the Wnt signalling pathway...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065742/sustained-centrosome-cortical-contact-ensures-robust-polarization-of-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo
#7
Dominique M Saturno, Dominic T Castanzo, Margaret Williams, Devayu A Parikh, Eva C Jaeger, Rebecca Lyczak
In C. elegans, the anterior-posterior axis is established at the one-cell stage when the embryo polarizes along its long axis. One model suggests that a cue from the centrosome triggers symmetry breaking and is then dispensable for further steps in the process. In the absence of the initial centrosome cue, a redundant mechanism, reliant on the centrosome's microtubules, can polarize the cell. Despite this model, data from multiple sources suggest that direct centrosome-contact with the cortex may play a role in ensuring robust polarization...
January 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065741/essential-roles-for-cdx-in-murine-primitive-hematopoiesis
#8
Travis Brooke-Bisschop, Joanne G A Savory, Tanya Foley, Randy Ringuette, David Lohnes
The Cdx transcription factors play essential roles in primitive hematopoiesis in the zebrafish where they exert their effects, in part, through regulation of hox genes. Defects in hematopoiesis have also been reported in Cdx mutant murine embryonic stem cell models, however, to date no mouse model reflecting the zebrafish Cdx mutant hematopoietic phenotype has been described. This is likely due, in part, to functional redundancy among Cdx members and the early lethality of Cdx2 null mutants. To circumvent these limitations, we used Cre-mediated conditional deletion to assess the impact of concomitant loss of Cdx1 and Cdx2 on murine primitive hematopoiesis...
January 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063874/polarity-protein-par3-bazooka-follows-myosin-dependent-junction-repositioning
#9
Mo Weng, Eric Wieschaus
The polarity protein Par3/Bazooka (Baz) has been established as a central component of the apical basal polarity system that determines the position of cell-cell junctions in epithelial cells. Consistent with that view, we show that shortly before gastrulation in Drosophila, Baz protein in the mesoderm is down-regulated from junctional sites in response to Snail (Sna) expression. This down-regulation leads to a specific decrease in adherens junctions without affecting other E-Cadherin pools. However, we further show that, interactions between Baz and junctions are not unidirectional...
January 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041967/cdx-is-crucial-for-the-timing-mechanism-driving-colinear-hox-activation-and-defines-a-trunk-segment-in-the-hox-cluster-topology
#10
Roel Neijts, Shilu Amin, Carina van Rooijen, Jacqueline Deschamps
Cdx and Hox transcription factors are important regulators of axial patterning and are required for tissue generation along the vertebrate body axis. Cdx genes have been demonstrated to act upstream of Hox genes in midgestation embryos. Here, we investigate the role of Cdx transcription factors in the gradual colinear activation of the Hox clusters. We found that Hox temporally colinear expression is severely affected in epiblast stem cells derived from Cdx null embryos. We demonstrate that after initiation of 3' Hox gene transcription, Cdx activity is crucial for H3K27ac deposition and for accessibility of cis-regulatory elements around the central - or 'trunk' - Hox genes...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034699/playing-with-the-cell-cycle-to-build-the-spinal-cord
#11
REVIEW
Angie Molina, Fabienne Pituello
A fundamental issue in nervous system development and homeostasis is to understand the mechanisms governing the balance between the maintenance of proliferating progenitors versus their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. Accumulating data suggest that the cell cycle and core regulators of the cell cycle machinery play a major role in regulating this fine balance. Here, we focus on the interplay between the cell cycle and cellular and molecular events governing spinal cord development. We describe the existing links between the cell cycle and interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)...
December 26, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017643/the-posterior-neural-plate-in-axolotl-gives-rise-to-neural-tube-or-turns-anteriorly-to-form-somites-of-the-tail-and-posterior-trunk
#12
Yuka Taniguchi, Thomas Kurth, Susanne Weiche, Saskia Reichelt, Akira Tazaki, Srikanth Perike, Verena Kappert, Hans-Henning Epperlein
Classical grafting experiments in the Mexican axolotl had shown that the posterior neural plate of the neurula is no specified neuroectoderm but gives rise to somites of the tail and posterior trunk. The bipotentiality of this region with neuromesodermal progenitor cell populations was revealed more recently also in zebrafish, chick, and mouse. We reinvestigated the potency of the posterior plate in axolotl using grafts from transgenic embryos, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. The posterior plate is brachyury-positive except for its more anterior parts which express sox2...
December 22, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012818/tissue-specific-regulation-of-the-chick-sox10e1-enhancer-by-different-sox-family-members
#13
Christina Murko, Marianne E Bronner
The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator of vertebrate neural crest development and serves crucial functions in the differentiation of multiple neural crest lineages. In the chick neural crest, two cis-regulatory elements have been identified that mediate Sox10 expression: Sox10E2, which initiates expression in cranial neural crest; Sox10E1 driving expression in vagal and trunk neural crest. Both also mediate Sox10 expression in the otic placode. Here, we have dissected and analyzed the Sox10E1 enhancer element to identify upstream regulatory inputs...
December 22, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998808/merkel-cells-are-long-lived-cells-whose-production-is-stimulated-by-skin-injury
#14
Margaret C Wright, Gregory J Logan, Alexa M Bolock, Adam C Kubicki, Julie A Hemphill, Timothy A Sanders, Stephen M Maricich
Mechanosensitive Merkel cells are thought to have finite lifespans, but controversy surrounds the frequency of their replacement and which precursor cells maintain the population. We found by embryonic EdU administration that Merkel cells undergo terminal cell division in late embryogenesis and survive long into adulthood. We also found that new Merkel cells are produced infrequently during normal skin homeostasis and that their numbers do not change during natural or induced hair cycles. In contrast, live imaging and EdU experiments showed that mild mechanical injury produced by skin shaving dramatically increases Merkel cell production...
December 18, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989519/the-function-of-appendage-patterning-genes-in-mandible-development-of-the-sexually-dimorphic-stag-beetle
#15
Hiroki Gotoh, Robert A Zinna, Yuki Ishikawa, Hitoshi Miyakawa, Asano Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Sugime, Douglas J Emlen, Laura C Lavine, Toru Miura
One of the defining features of the evolutionary success of insects is the morphological diversification of their appendages, especially mouthparts. Although most insects share a common mouthpart ground plan, there is remarkable diversity in the relative size and shapes of these appendages among different insect lineages. One of the most prominent examples of mouthpart modification can be found in the enlargement of mandibles in stag beetles (Coleoptera, Insecta). In order to understand the proximate mechanisms of mouthpart modification, we investigated the function of appendage-patterning genes in mandibular enlargement during extreme growth of the sexually dimorphic mandibles of the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988227/methods-for-the-analysis-of-early-oogenesis-in-zebrafish
#16
Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
Oocyte differentiation is a highly dynamic and intricate developmental process whose mechanistic understanding advances female reproduction, fertility, and ovarian cancer biology. Despite the many attributes of the zebrafish model, it has yet to be fully exploited for the investigation of early oocyte differentiation and ovarian development. This is partly because the properties of the adult zebrafish ovary make it technically challenging to access early stage oocytes. As a result, characterization of these stages has been lacking and tools for their analysis have been insufficient...
December 14, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965055/in-toto-imaging-of-the-migrating-zebrafish-lateral-line-primordium-at-single-cell-resolution
#17
Damian Dalle Nogare, Masataka Nikaido, Katherine Somers, Jeffery Head, Tatjana Piotrowski, Ajay B Chitnis
The zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line primordium (PLLp) has emerged as an important model system for studying many aspects of development, including cell migration, cell type specification and tissue morphogenesis. Despite this, basic aspects of PLLp biology remain incompletely understood. The PLLp is a group of approximately 140 cells which pioneers the formation of the Posterior Lateral Line (LL) system by migrating along the length of the embryo, periodically depositing clusters of epithelial cells, which will go on to form the mature sense organs of the lateral line, called neuromasts...
December 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965054/arid3a-is-required-for-mammalian-placenta-development
#18
Catherine Rhee, Melissa Edwards, Christine Dang, June Harris, Mark Brown, Jonghwan Kim, Haley O Tucker
Previous studies in the mouse indicated that ARID3A plays a critical role in the first cell fate decision required for generation of trophectoderm (TE). Here, we demonstrate that ARID3A is widely expressed during mouse and human placentation and essential for early embryonic viability. ARID3A localizes to trophoblast giant cells and other trophoblast-derived cell subtypes in the junctional and labyrinth zones of the placenta. Conventional Arid3a knockout embryos suffer restricted intrauterine growth with severe defects in placental structural organization...
December 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965056/porcupine-dependent-wnt-signaling-controls-stromal-proliferation-and-endometrial-gland-maintenance-through-the-action-of-distinct-wnts
#19
Omar Farah, Steffen Biechele, Janet Rossant, Daniel Dufort
Wnt signaling has been shown to be important in orchestrating proper development of the female reproductive tract. In the uterus, six members of the Wnt family are expressed in the neonatal endometrium and deletion of individual Wnt genes often leads to similar phenotypes, suggesting an interaction of these genes in uterine development and function. Furthermore, Wnts may have complementary functions, which could mask the identification of their individual functional role in single gene deletions. To circumvent this issue, we have generated a deletion of the Porcupine homolog within the female reproductive tract using progesterone receptor-Cre mice (Pgr(Cre/+)); preventing Wnt secretion from the producing cells...
December 10, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965053/the-spinal-cord-shows-the-way-how-axons-navigate-intermediate-targets
#20
REVIEW
Gemma de Ramon Francàs, Nikole R Zuñiga, Esther T Stoeckli
Functional neural circuits depend on the establishment of specific connections between neurons and their target cells. To this end, many axons have to travel long distances to reach their target cells during development. Studies addressing the molecular mechanisms of axon guidance have to overcome the complexity of subpopulation-specific requirements with respect to pathways, guidance cues, and target recognition. Compared to the brain, the relatively simple structure of the spinal cord provides an advantage for experimental studies of axon guidance mechanisms...
December 10, 2016: Developmental Biology
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