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Developmental Biology

Denise Oh, Douglas W Houston
The localization and organization of mitochondria- and ribonucleoprotein granule-rich germ plasm is essential for many aspects of germ cell development. In Xenopus, germ plasm is maternally inherited and is required for the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Germ plasm is aggregated into larger patches during egg activation and cleavage and is ultimately translocated perinuclearly during gastrulation. Although microtubule dynamics and a kinesin (Kif4a) have been implicated in Xenopus germ plasm localization, little is known about how germ plasm distribution is regulated...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
Kellie S Agrimson, Melissa J Oatley, Debra Mitchell, Jon M Oatley, Michael D Griswold, Cathryn A Hogarth
The onset of spermatogenesis occurs in response to retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A. However, whether RA plays any role during establishment of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) pool is unknown. Because designation of the SSC population and the onset of RA signaling in the testis that induces differentiation have similar timing, this study asked whether RA influenced SSC establishment. Whole mount immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis using the Id4-eGfp transgenic reporter mouse line revealed an enrichment for ID4-EGFP+ cells within the testis following inhibition of RA synthesis by WIN 18,446 treatment...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
Margarita M Dzama, Lira Nigmatullina, Sergi Sayols, Nastasja Kreim, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are transcriptionally heterogeneous. As the mechanisms governing their developmental specification are still poorly understood, whether this heterogeneity reflects an early determination of distinct cellular sub-types with potentially distinct physiological functions remains an open question. We investigate the cellular heterogeneity within the mouse embryonic midgut epithelium at the molecular and functional levels. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that multiple early embryonic epithelial progenitors give rise to Lgr5(+) ISCs...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
Barbara M J O'Brien, Sierra D Palumbos, Michaela Novakovic, Xueying Shang, Lakshmi Sundararajan, David M Miller
The dendritic processes of nociceptive neurons transduce external signals into neurochemical cues that alert the organism to potentially damaging stimuli. The receptive field for each sensory neuron is defined by its dendritic arbor, but the mechanisms that shape dendritic architecture are incompletely understood. Using the model nociceptor, the PVD neuron in C. elegans, we determined that two types of PVD lateral branches project along the dorsal/ventral axis to generate the PVD dendritic arbor: (1) Pioneer dendrites that adhere to the epidermis, and (2) Commissural dendrites that fasciculate with circumferential motor neuron processes...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
Akira Tazaki, Elly M Tanaka, Jifeng Fei
Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
Kim Dale, Elisa Martí
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
Markus Friedrich
Pax6 transcription factors are essential upstream regulators in the developing anterior brain and peripheral visual system of most bilaterian animals. While a single homolog is in charge of these functions in vertebrates, two Pax6 genes are in Drosophila: eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy). At first glance, their co-existence seems sufficiently explained by their differential involvement in the specification of two types of insect visual organs: the lateral compound eyes (ey) and the dorsal ocelli (toy)...
October 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Liv Aleen Remez, Akishi Onishi, Yotam Menuchin-Lasowski, Assaf Biran, Seth Blackshaw, Karl J Wahlin, Donlad J Zack, Ruth Ashery-Padan
In the developing retina, as in other regions of the CNS, neural progenitors give rise to individual cell types during discrete temporal windows. Pax6 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) throughout the course of retinogenesis, and has been shown to be required during early retinogenesis for generation of most early-born cell types. In this study, we examined the function of Pax6 in postnatal mouse retinal development. We found that Pax6 is essential for the generation of late-born interneurons, while inhibiting photoreceptor differentiation...
October 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Amaneet K Lochab, Cassandra G Extavour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Minkyung Kim, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Clare H Lee, Sarah J Barnum, Grant S Mastick
In the spinal cord, motor axons project out the neural tube at specific exit points, then bundle together to project toward target muscles. The molecular signals that guide motor axons to and out of their exit points remain undefined. Since motor axons and their exit points are located near the floor plate, guidance signals produced by the floor plate and adjacent ventral tissues could influence motor axons as they project toward and out of exit points. The secreted Slit proteins are major floor plate repellents, and motor neurons express two Slit receptors, Robo1 and Robo2...
October 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
Alexa Chioran, Sebastian Duncan, Andrew Catalano, Theodore J Brown, Maurice J Ringuette
Collagen IV networks endow basement membranes (BMs) with remarkable tensile strength and function as morphoregulatory substrata for diverse tissue-specific developmental events. A complex repertoire of intracellular and extracellular molecular interactions are required for collagen IV secretion and supramolecular assembly into BMs. These include intracellular chaperones such as Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) and the chaperone-binding trafficking protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (Tango1). Mutations in these proteins lead to compromised collagen IV protomer stability and secretion, leading to defective BM assembly and function...
October 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
Bony De Kumar, Hugo J Parker, Ariel Paulson, Mark E Parrish, Julia Zeitlinger, Robb Krumlauf
Hoxa1 has important functional roles in neural crest specification, hindbrain patterning and heart and ear development, yet the enhancers and genes that are targeted by Hoxa1 are largely unknown. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of Hoxa1 target genes using genome-wide Hoxa1 binding data in mouse ES cells differentiated with retinoic acid (RA) into neural fates in combination with differential gene expression analysis in Hoxa1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse and zebrafish embryos. Our analyses reveal that Hoxa1-bound regions show epigenetic marks of enhancers, occupancy of Hox cofactors and differential expression of nearby genes, suggesting that these regions are enriched for enhancers...
October 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
Kaitlyn E Ryan, Patrick S Kim, Jonathan T Fleming, Emily Brignola, Frances Y Cheng, Ying Litingtung, Chin Chiang
Cerebellar growth and foliation require the Hedgehog-driven proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the external granule layer (EGL). However, that increased or extended GCP proliferation generally does not elicit ectopic folds suggests that additional determinants control cortical expansion and foliation during cerebellar development. Here, we find that genetic loss of the serine-threonine kinase Liver Kinase B1 (Lkb1) in GCPs increased cerebellar cortical size and foliation independent of changes in proliferation or Hedgehog signaling...
September 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
Marika Sjöqvist, Emma R Andersson
Breaking symmetry in populations of uniform cells, to induce adoption of an alternative cell fate, is an essential developmental mechanism. Similarly, domain and boundary establishment are crucial steps to forming organs during development. Notch signaling is a pathway ideally suited to mediating precise patterning cues, as both receptors and ligands are membrane-bound and can thus act as a precise switch to toggle cell fates on or off. Fine-tuning of signaling by positive or negative feedback mechanisms dictate whether signaling results in lateral induction or lateral inhibition, respectively, allowing Notch to either induce entire regions of cell specification, or dictate binary fate choices...
September 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
Yong Zhang, Hong Liu, Wei Li, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, David Zhang, Yuhong Li, Shiyang Zhang, Junpin Liu, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In mice, mutations in IFT proteins have been shown to cause several ciliopathies including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease, and hearing loss. However, little is known about its role in the formation of the sperm tail, which has the longest flagella of mammalian cells. IFT27 is a component of IFT-B complex and binds to IFT25 directly. In mice, IFT27 is highly expressed in the testis...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
Takumi Suzuki, Makoto Sato
Diversification of neuronal types is key to establishing functional variations in neural circuits. The first critical step to generate neuronal diversity is to organize the compartmental domains of developing brains into spatially distinct neural progenitor pools. Neural progenitors in each pool then generate a unique set of diverse neurons through specific spatiotemporal specification processes. In this review article, we focus on an additional mechanism, 'inter-progenitor pool wiring', that further expands the diversity of neural circuits...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
Nick Riddiford, Gerhard Schlosser
The transcription factor Six1 and its cofactor Eya1 are important regulators of neurogenesis in cranial placodes, activating genes promoting both a progenitor state, such as hes8, and neuronal differentiation, such as neurog1. Here, we use gain and loss of function studies in Xenopus laevis to elucidate how these genes function during placodal neurogenesis. We first establish that hes8 is activated by Notch signaling and represses neurog1 and neuronal differentiation, indicating that it mediates lateral inhibition...
September 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
Asghar Talebian, Rachel Britton, Simon Ammanuel, Asim Bepari, Francis Sprouse, Shari G Birnbaum, Gábor Szabó, Nobuaki Tamamaki, Jay Gibson, Mark Henkemeyer
While several studies indicate the importance of ephrin-B/EphB bidirectional signaling in excitatory neurons, potential roles for these molecules in inhibitory neurons are largely unknown. We identify here an autonomous receptor-like role for ephrin-B reverse signaling in the tangential migration of interneurons into the neocortex using ephrin-B (EfnB1/B2/B3) conditional triple mutant (TM(lz)) mice and a forebrain inhibitory neuron specific Cre driver. Inhibitory neuron deletion of the three EfnB genes leads to reduced interneuron migration, abnormal cortical excitability, and lethal audiogenic seizures...
September 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
Allan M Carrillo-Baltodano, Néva P Meyer
In the deuterostomes and ecdysozoans that have been studied (e.g. chordates and insects), neural fate specification relies on signaling from surrounding cells. However, very little is known about mechanisms of neural specification in the third major bilaterian clade, spiralians. Using blastomere isolation in the annelid Capitella teleta, a spiralian, we studied to what extent extrinsic versus intrinsic signals are involved in early neural specification of the brain and ventral nerve cord. For the first time in any bilaterian, we found that brain neural ectoderm is autonomously specified...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
Hongwei Sun, Xiaohu Wang, Kuisheng Liu, Mengmeng Guo, Yan Zhang, Qi-Long Ying, Shoudong Ye
β-catenin-mediated signaling has been extensively studied in regard to its role in the regulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the results are controversial and the mechanism by which β-catenin regulates the hESC fate remains unclear. Here, we report that β-catenin and γ-catenin are functionally redundant in mediating hESC adhesion and are required for embryoid body formation, but both genes are dispensable for hESC maintenance, as the undifferentiated state of β-catenin and γ-catenin double deficient hESCs can be maintained...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
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