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Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433664/ovaries-of-the-white-worm-enchytraeus-albidus-annelida-clitellata-are-composed-of-16-celled-meroistic-germ-line-cysts
#1
Anna Z Urbisz, Łukasz Chajec, Agnieszka Brąszewska-Zalewska, Janusz Kubrakiewicz, Piotr Świątek
The paired ovaries of E. albidus are like a bunch of grapes and are composed of clearly separated units, syncytial germ cysts (clusters), which are surrounded by a thin layer of somatic cells. Each cyst maintains the connection with the ovary by an extended stalk that is composed of somatic cells. The spatial architecture of the germ-line cysts found in E. albidus is the same as in other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date. As a rule, germ cells are located at the cyst periphery and each has only one ring canal that connects it to the common and centrally located cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427856/frizzled-3-acts-upstream-of-alcam-during-embryonic-eye-development
#2
Franziska A Seigfried, Wiebke Cizelsky, Astrid S Pfister, Petra Dietmann, Paul Walther, Michael Kühl, Susanne J Kühl
Formation of a functional eye during vertebrate embryogenesis requires different processes such as cell migration, cell-cell interactions as well as intracellular signalling processes. It was previously shown that the non-canonical Wnt receptor Frizzled 3 (Fzd3) is required for proper eye formation, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of Fzd3 induces severe malformations of the developing eye and that this defect is phenocopied by loss of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam)...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427716/xenopus-egg-extract-a-powerful-tool-to-study-genome-maintenance-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Wouter S Hoogenboom, Daisy Klein Douwel, Puck Knipscheer
DNA repair pathways are crucial to maintain the integrity of our genome and prevent genetic diseases such as cancer. There are many different types of DNA damage and specific DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to deal with these lesions. In addition to these repair pathways there is an extensive signaling network that regulates processes important for repair, such as cell cycle control and transcription. Despite extensive research, DNA damage repair and signaling are not fully understood. In vitro systems such as the Xenopus egg extract system, have played, and still play, an important role in deciphering the molecular details of these processes...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412462/spop-regulates-gli3-activity-and-shh-signaling-in-dorsoventral-patterning-of-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#4
Hongchen Cai, Aimin Liu
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates the patterning of ventral spinal cord through the effector Gli family of transcription factors. Previous in vitro studies showed that an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Speckle-type POZ protein (Spop) targets Gli2 and Gli3 for ubiquitination and degradation, but the role of Spop in Shh signaling and mammalian spinal cord patterning remains unknown. Here, we show that loss of Spop does not alter spinal cord patterning, but it suppresses the loss of floor plate and V3 interneuron phenotype of Gli2 mutants, suggesting a negative role of Spop in Gli3 activator activity, Shh signaling and the specification of ventral cell fates in the spinal cord...
April 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408205/temporal-spatial-and-phenotypical-changes-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expressing-fibroblasts-during-late-lung-development
#5
Mehari Endale, Shawn Ahlfeld, Erik Bao, Xiaoting Chen, Jenna Green, Zach Bess, Matthew T Weirauch, Yan Xu, Anne Karina Perl
Many studies have investigated the source and role of epithelial progenitors during lung development; such information is limited for fibroblast populations and their complex role in the developing lung. In this study, we characterized the spatial location, mRNA expression and Immunophenotyping of PDGFRα(+) fibroblasts during sacculation and alveolarization. Confocal microscopy identified spatial association of PDGFRα expressing fibroblasts with proximal epithelial cells of the branching bronchioles and the dilating acinar tubules at E16...
April 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390800/ca-2-release-via-two-pore-channel-type-2-tpc2-is-required-for-slow-muscle-cell-myofibrillogenesis-and-myotomal-patterning-in-intact-zebrafish-embryos
#6
Jeffrey J Kelu, Sarah E Webb, John Parrington, Antony Galione, Andrew L Miller
We recently demonstrated a critical role for two-pore channel type 2 (TPC2)-mediated Ca(2+) release during the differentiation of slow (skeletal) muscle cells (SMC) in intact zebrafish embryos, via the introduction of a translational-blocking morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO). Here, we extend our study and demonstrate that knockdown of TPC2 with a non-overlapping splice-blocking MO, knockout of TPC2 (via the generation of a tpcn2(dhkz1a) mutant line of zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing), or the pharmacological inhibition of TPC2 action with bafilomycin A1 or trans-ned-19, also lead to a significant attenuation of SMC differentiation, characterized by a disruption of SMC myofibrillogenesis and gross morphological changes in the trunk musculature...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390801/the-gap-junction-protein-innexin3-is-required-for-eye-disc-growth-in-drosophila
#7
Mélisande Richard, Reinhard Bauer, Gaia Tavosanis, Michael Hoch
The Drosophila compound eye develops from a bilayered epithelial sac composed of an upper peripodial epithelium layer and a lower disc proper, the latter giving rise to the eye itself. During larval stages, complex signalling events between the layers contribute to the control of cell proliferation and differentiation in the disc. Previous work in our lab established the gap junction protein Innexin2 (Inx2) as crucial for early larval eye disc growth. By analysing the contribution of other Innexins to eye size control, we have identified Innexin3 (Inx3) as an important growth regulator...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389228/brachyury-drives-formation-of-a-distinct-vascular-branchpoint-critical-for-fetal-placental-arterial-union-in-the-mouse-gastrula
#8
Adriana M Rodriguez, Dexter X Jin, Adam D Wolfe, Maria M Mikedis, Lauren Wierenga, Maleka P Hashmi, Christoph Viebahn, Karen M Downs
How the fetal-placental arterial connection is made and positioned relative to the embryonic body axis, thereby ensuring efficient and directed blood flow to and from the mother during gestation, is not known. Here we use a combination of genetics, timed pharmacological inhibition in living mouse embryos, and three-dimensional modeling to link two novel architectural features that, at present, have no status in embryological atlases. The allantoic core domain (ACD) is the extraembryonic extension of the primitive streak into the allantois, or pre-umbilical tissue; the vessel of confluence (VOC), situated adjacent to the ACD, is an extraembryonic vessel that marks the site of fetal-placental arterial union...
April 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377034/membrane-bound-organelles-versus-membrane-less-compartments-and-their-control-of-anabolic-pathways-in-drosophila
#9
REVIEW
Angelica Aguilera-Gomez, Catherine Rabouille
Classically, we think of cell compartmentalization as being achieved by membrane-bound organelles. It has nevertheless emerged that membrane-less assemblies also largely contribute to this compartmentalization. Here, we compare the characteristics of both types of compartmentalization in term of maintenance of functional identities. Furthermore, membrane less-compartments are critical for sustaining developmental and cell biological events as they control major metabolic pathways. We describe two examples related to this issue in Drosophila, the role of P-bodies in the translational control of gurken in the Drosophila oocyte, and the formation of Sec bodies upon amino-acid starvation in Drosophila cells...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372944/histone-demethylases-kdm6ba-and-kdm6bb-redundantly-promote-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-during-zebrafish-heart-ventricle-maturation
#10
Alexander A Akerberg, Astra Henner, Scott Stewart, Kryn Stankunas
Trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3) by the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) contributes to localized and inherited transcriptional repression. Kdm6b (Jmjd3) is a H3K27me3 demethylase that can relieve repression-associated H3K27me3 marks, thereby supporting activation of previously silenced genes. Kdm6b is proposed to contribute to early developmental cell fate specification, cardiovascular differentiation, and/or later steps of organogenesis, including endochondral bone formation and lung development...
March 31, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365243/cns-angiogenesis-and-barriergenesis-occur-simultaneously
#11
Robyn A Umans, Hannah E Henson, Fangzhou Mu, Chaithanyarani Parupalli, Bensheng Ju, Jennifer L Peters, Kevin A Lanham, Jessica S Plavicki, Michael R Taylor
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role in the central nervous system (CNS). A comprehensive understanding of BBB development has been hampered by difficulties in observing the differentiation of brain endothelial cells (BECs) in real-time. Here, we generated two transgenic zebrafish line, Tg(glut1b:mCherry) and Tg(plvap:EGFP), to serve as in vivo reporters of BBB development. We showed that barriergenesis (i.e. the induction of BEC differentiation) occurs immediately as endothelial tips cells migrate into the brain parenchyma...
March 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363737/coordinated-development-of-the-limb-musculoskeletal-system-tendon-and-muscle-patterning-and-integration-with-the-skeleton
#12
REVIEW
Alice H Huang
Functional movement and stability of the limb depends on an organized and fully integrated musculoskeletal system composed of skeleton, muscle, and tendon. Much of our current understanding of musculoskeletal development is based on studies that focused on the development and differentiation of individual tissues. Likewise, research on patterning events have been largely limited to the primary skeletal elements and the mechanisms that regulate soft tissue patterning, the development of the connections between tissues, and their interdependent development are only beginning to be elucidated...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363736/systems-biology-of-facial-development-contributions-of-ectoderm-and-mesenchyme
#13
Joan E Hooper, Weiguo Feng, Hong Li, Sonia Leach, Tzulip Phang, Charlotte Siska, Kenneth L Jones, Richard A Spritz, Lawrence E Hunter, Trevor Williams
The rapid increase in gene-centric biological knowledge coupled with analytic approaches for genomewide data integration provides an opportunity to develop systems-level understanding of facial development. Experimental analyses have demonstrated the importance of signaling between the surface ectoderm and the underlying mesenchyme in coordinating facial patterning. However, current transcriptome data from the developing vertebrate face is dominated by the mesenchymal component, and the contributions of the ectoderm are not easily identified...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359807/the-heterochronic-gene-lin28-regulates-amphibian-metamorphosis-through-disturbance-of-thyroid-hormone-function
#14
Fernando Faunes, Daniel G Gundermann, Rosana Muñoz, Renzo Bruno, Juan Larraín
Metamorphosis is a classic example of developmental transition, which involves important morphological and physiological changes that prepare the organism for the adult life. It has been very well established that amphibian metamorphosis is mainly controlled by Thyroid Hormone (TH). Here, we show that the heterochronic gene Lin28 is downregulated during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Lin28 overexpression before activation of TH signaling delays metamorphosis and inhibits the expression of TH target genes. The delay in metamorphosis is rescued by incubation with exogenous TH, indicating that Lin28 works upstream or parallel to TH...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359809/wnt8a-expands-the-pool-of-embryonic-kidney-progenitors-in-zebrafish
#15
Richard W Naylor, Hwa In Han, Neil A Hukriede, Alan J Davidson
During zebrafish embryogenesis the pronephric kidney arises from a small population of posterior mesoderm cells that then undergo expansion during early stages of renal organogenesis. While wnt8 is required for posterior mesoderm formation during gastrulation, it is also transiently expressed in the post-gastrula embryo in the intermediate mesoderm, the precursor to the pronephros and some blood/vascular lineages. Here, we show that knockdown of wnt8a, using a low dose of morpholino that does not disrupt early mesoderm patterning, reduces the number of kidney and blood cells...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359808/asymmetrically-reduced-expression-of-hand1-homeologs-involving-a-single-nucleotide-substitution-in-a-cis-regulatory-element
#16
Haruki Ochi, Nanoka Suzuki, Akane Kawaguchi, Hajime Ogino
During vertebrate evolution, whole genome duplications resulted in a number of duplicated genes, some of which eventually changed their expression patterns and/or levels via alteration of cis-regulatory sequences. However, the initial process involved in such cis-regulatory changes remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated this process by analyzing the duplicated hand1 genes of Xenopus laevis (hand1.L and hand1.S), which were generated by allotetraploidization 17-18 million years ago, and compared these with their single ortholog in the ancestral-type diploid species X...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351648/hormonal-control-of-the-floral-transition-can-one-catch-them-all
#17
REVIEW
Lucio Conti
The transition to flowering marks a key adaptive developmental switch in plants which impacts on their survival and fitness. Different signaling pathways control the floral transition, conveying both endogenous and environmental cues. These cues are often relayed and/or modulated by different hormones, which might confer additional developmental flexibility to the floral process in the face of varying conditions. Among the different hormonal pathways, the phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) plays a dominant role...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347645/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-phototransduction-cascade-activation-steps
#18
Trevor D Lamb, David M Hunt
We examine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the activation steps of vertebrate phototransduction, for both agnathan and jawed vertebrate taxa. We expand the number of taxa analysed and we update the alignment and tree building methodology from a previous analysis. For each of the four primary components (the G-protein transducin alpha subunit, GαT, the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6, and the alpha and beta subunits of the cGMP-gated ion channel, CNGC), the phylogenies appear consistent with expansion from an ancestral proto-vertebrate cascade during two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by divergence of the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages...
March 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347644/genomic-determinants-of-epidermal-appendage-patterning-and-structure-in-domestic-birds
#19
REVIEW
Elena F Boer, Hannah F Van Hollebeke, Michael D Shapiro
Variation in regional identity, patterning, and structure of epidermal appendages contributes to skin diversity among many vertebrate groups, and is perhaps most striking in birds. In pioneering work on epidermal appendage patterning, John Saunders and his contemporaries took advantage of epidermal appendage diversity within and among domestic chicken breeds to establish the importance of mesoderm-ectoderm signaling in determining skin patterning. Diversity in chickens and other domestic birds, including pigeons, is driving a new wave of research to dissect the molecular genetic basis of epidermal appendage patterning...
March 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341548/cos2-kif7-and-osm-3-kif17-regulate-onset-of-outer-segment-development-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors-through-distinct-mechanisms
#20
Tylor R Lewis, Sean R Kundinger, Amira L Pavlovich, Jonathan R Bostrom, Brian A Link, Joseph C Besharse
Zebrafish morphants of osm-3/kif17, a kinesin-2 family member and intraflagellar transport motor, have photoreceptor outer segments that are dramatically reduced in number and size. However, two genetic mutant lines, osm-3/kif17(sa0119) and osm-3/kif17(sa18340), reportedly lack any observable morphological outer segment defects. In this work, we use TALENs to generate an independent allele, osm-3/kif17(mw405), and show that both osm-3/kif17(sa0119) and osm-3/kif17(mw405) have an outer segment developmental delay in both size and density that is fully recovered by 6 days post-fertilization...
March 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
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