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Child Development

Jing Chen, Laura M Justice, Anna Rhoad-Drogalis, Tzu-Jung Lin, Brook Sawyer
This study takes an ecological approach to examine how children with developmental language disorder (DLD) interact with their classmates within early childhood special education (ECSE) inclusive classrooms. Participants were 124 children with DLD, 56 children with other disabilities, and 247 typically developing children (Mage  = 52.42 months, SD = 6.27) from 56 ECSE inclusive classrooms. Results of social network analysis showed that children with DLD had significantly smaller peer social networks and were more likely to be isolated...
November 12, 2018: Child Development
Maddalena Boccia, Francesca Vecchione, Antonella Di Vita, Simonetta D'Amico, Cecilia Guariglia, Laura Piccardi
Notwithstanding its well-established role on high-demanding spatial navigation tasks during adulthood, the effect of field dependence-independence during the acquisition of spatial navigation skills is almost unknown. This study assessed for the first time the effect of field dependence-independence on topographical learning (TL) across the life span: 195 individuals, including 54 healthy young-adults (age-range = 20-30), 46 teenagers (age-range = 11-14), and 95 children (age-range = 6-9) participated in this study...
November 9, 2018: Child Development
Rachael D Robnett, Jennifer E John
The current research examined adolescents' attitudes about sexism in fields related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The ethnically diverse sample (61% East Asian) was composed of 629 adolescents (Mage  = 16.09) who attended a public school in the United States. Participants responded to closed- and open-ended questions about the prevalence and severity of sexism in STEM. We used latent profile analysis to classify participants into latent classes according to their responses. Of note, one latent class included participants who perceived sexism in STEM as a fairly common and very serious problem...
November 9, 2018: Child Development
Masahiro Hirai, Yukako Muramatsu, Miho Nakamura
This study examined developmental changes in Level-2 visual perspective taking (VPT2) in 90 children aged 4-12 years and tested the role of their ability to mentally simulate changes to their bodily locations (self-motion imagery; SMI). Performance of a mental toy rotation task and a self-motion (SM) task (changing location of children) was superior to that of VPT2 and SMI tasks. Task performance of SMI was better than that of VPT2 before 10;0 (years;months). Furthermore, egocentric responses in VPT2 and SMI tasks were significantly more frequent than those in the mental rotation and SM tasks before 10;3...
November 8, 2018: Child Development
Leslie Echols, Sandra Graham
Social network analysis was used to examine the role of having a mutual biracial friend on cross-race friendship nominations among monoracial sixth-grade students (Mage  = 10.56 years) in two racially diverse middle schools (n = 385; n = 351). Monoracial youth were most likely to choose same-race peers as friends but more likely to choose biracial than different-race peers as friends, suggesting that racial homophily may operate in an incremental way to influence friendships. Monoracial different-race youth were also more likely to be friends if they had a mutual biracial friend...
November 5, 2018: Child Development
Stella Tsotsi, Birit F P Broekman, Lynette P Shek, Kok Hian Tan, Yap Seng Chong, Helen Chen, Michael J Meaney, Anne E Rifkin-Graboi
This study investigated whether child exuberance, an aspect of temperament related to emotion regulation, moderates the well-documented association between high parenting stress and increased risk for internalizing and externalizing problems during the preschool years. At 42 months of age child exuberance was observed in 256 children (47% girls) and maternal self-reports on parenting stress were obtained. At 48 months internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed through reports from both parents...
November 2, 2018: Child Development
Andrea P Cortes Hidalgo, Alexander Neumann, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Henning Tiemeier
The evidence for negative influences of maternal stress during pregnancy on child cognition remains inconclusive. This study tested the association between maternal prenatal stress and child intelligence in 4,251 mother-child dyads from a multiethnic population-based cohort in the Netherlands. A latent factor of prenatal stress was constructed, and child IQ was tested at age 6 years. In Dutch and Caribbean participants, prenatal stress was not associated with child IQ after adjustment for maternal IQ and socioeconomic status...
October 30, 2018: Child Development
Kristin J Perry, Jamie M Ostrov
This study examined the relations between male and female play partners (PP) and relational (RA) and physical (PA) aggression in an early childhood short-term longitudinal study (N = 164, Mage  = 47.11 months, SD = 7.37 months). A cross-lagged path analysis was used to examine these relations from Time 1 (T1) to Time 2 (T2), 4 months after T1, and a multiple group analysis was tested across gender. Results showed that T1 male PP predicted an increase in PA, T1 RA predicted an increase in female PP, and T1 PA predicted a decrease in female PP...
October 30, 2018: Child Development
Michael T Rizzo, Laura Elenbaas, Kimberly E Vanderbilt
This study investigated children's ability to distinguish between resource inequalities with individual versus structural origins. Children (3- to 8-years-old; N = 93) were presented with resource inequalities based on either recipients' merit (individual factor) or gender (structural factor). Children were assessed on their expectations for others' allocations, own allocations, reasoning, and evaluations of others' allocations. Children perpetuated merit-based inequalities and either rectified or allocated equally in response to gender-based inequalities...
October 29, 2018: Child Development
Cortney Simmons, Adam Fine, Alissa Knowles, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are a risk factor for severe and persistent patterns of juvenile delinquency. Given the influence of CU trait assessments in justice-system settings, it is important to determine whether the predictive utility of CU traits is conditional on the absence of protective psychosocial factors. Employing a sample of justice-involved male youth (N = 1,216, Mage  = 15.29), this study examined whether psychosocial maturity (PSM) outweighs or attenuates the effect of CU traits on delinquency...
October 27, 2018: Child Development
Marc Jambon, Judith G Smetana
This study examined discrepancies between 4- and 7-year-olds' (n = 135; Mage  = 5.65) self-reported affect following hypothetical moral versus social-conventional transgressions and their associations with teacher-rated physical and relational aggression concurrently and 9-months later. Negative emotion ratings in response to prototypical moral transgressions were not associated with children's aggression. When transgressions were described as no longer prohibited by rules and authority figures, children reporting more negative affect in response to moral as compared to conventional violations were less physically aggressive at Wave 1 and showed relative and mean-level declines in physical aggression over time...
October 27, 2018: Child Development
Drew H Bailey, Lynn S Fuchs, Jennifer K Gilbert, David C Geary, Douglas Fuchs
We present first-grade, second-grade, and third-grade impacts for a first-grade intervention targeting the conceptual and procedural bases that support arithmetic. At-risk students (average age at pretest = 6.5) were randomly assigned to three conditions: a control group (n = 224) and two variants of the intervention (same conceptual instruction but different forms of practice: speeded [n = 211] vs. nonspeeded [n = 204]). Impacts on all first-grade content outcomes were significant and positive, but no follow-up impacts were significant...
October 25, 2018: Child Development
Ashley K Smith Watts, Naomi P Friedman, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Laura K Hink, JoAnn L Robinson, Soo H Rhee
Developing self-restraint, or the inhibition of behavior in response to a prohibition, is an important process during toddlerhood. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of individual differences in the development of self-restraint during toddlerhood by examining stable elements and growth of temperament (i.e., attentional control, behavioral inhibition, negative emotionality), general intelligence, and self-restraint. Participants were 412 same-sex twin pairs (approximately 90% European American) from predominately middle-class households in Colorado...
October 22, 2018: Child Development
Rachael E Wagner, Yi Zhang, Teddi Gray, Anna Abbacchi, Deporres Cormier, Alexandre Todorov, John N Constantino
Deficits in reciprocal social behavior are a characterizing feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism-related variation in reciprocal social behavior (AVR) in the general population is continuously distributed and highly heritable-a function of additive genetic influences that overlap substantially with those which engender clinical autistic syndromes. This is the first long-term prospective study of the stability of AVR from childhood through early adulthood, conducted via serial ratings using the Social Responsiveness Scale, in a cohort-sequential study involving children with ASD, other psychiatric conditions, and their siblings (N = 602, ages = 2...
October 22, 2018: Child Development
Barbara Maughan, Edward D Barker
Is earlier intervention always superior? Using two complementary forms of meta-analysis, Gardner and colleagues find no support for the "earlier is better" hypothesis in outcomes of parenting programs for child behavior problems across the 2-11 year age range. This commentary explores possible methodological and substantive reasons for the pattern of their findings. We need additional careful analyses of this kind, assessing age variations in intervention effects across broader age ranges, and in other developmental domains, for strong tests of the "earlier is better" hypothesis...
October 20, 2018: Child Development
Yao Lu, Qian He, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
Although many immigrant children to the United States arrive with their parents, a notable proportion are first separated and later reunited with their parents. How do the experiences of separation and reunification shape the well-being of immigrant children? Data were from a national survey of legal adult immigrants and their families, the New Immigrant Survey from 2003 to 2004 (for academic achievement, age 6-12, N = 876; for psychosocial well-being, age 6-17, N = 1,084). Results indicated that immigrant children who were once separated from their parents exhibited poorer literacy and higher risk of emotional and behavioral problems than those who migrated with parents...
October 19, 2018: Child Development
Marjorie Taylor, Candice M Mottweiler, Naomi R Aguiar, Emilee R Naylor, Jacob G Levernier
The invention of imaginary worlds ("paracosms") is a creative activity of middle childhood that has previously been investigated primarily with retrospective adult reports and biographical accounts. In descriptions collected from 8- to 12-year-old children, the prevalence was 16.9% in Study 1 (n = 77) and 17.4% in Study 2 (n = 92). Children with and without paracosms did not differ in verbal comprehension, divergent thinking (Studies 1 and 2) or working memory (Study 2). However, children with paracosms had more difficulty with inhibitory control (Study 2) and had higher creativity scores on a story-telling task (Studies 1 and 2)...
October 15, 2018: Child Development
Telli Davoodi, Laura J Nelson, Peter R Blake
Children are capable of viewing object ownership as categorical and exclusive, but ownership claims can also vary by degree. This study investigated how children use these different conceptions of ownership in a giving and a taking task. In two studies, 4- to 7-year olds (N = 105) could give and take craft objects that they or another child had found (weaker claim) and made (stronger claim). In Study 1, no additional ownership information was given, and in Study 2 categorical ownership was stated ("these belong to you")...
October 15, 2018: Child Development
Samuel H Forbes, Kim Plunkett
When and how do infants learn color words? It is generally supposed that color words are learned late and with a great deal of difficulty. By examining infant language surveys in British English and 11 other languages, this study shows that color word learning occurs earlier than has been previously suggested and that the order of acquisition of color words is similar in related languages. This study also demonstrates that frequency and syllabic complexity can be used to predict variability in infant color word learning across languages...
October 13, 2018: Child Development
Alazne Aizpitarte, Olivia E Atherton, Lucy R Zheng, Itziar Alonso-Arbiol, Richard W Robins
Relational aggression-a psychological form of aggression-has numerous negative consequences for physical and emotional health. However, little is known about the risk factors that lead youth to engage in relational aggression. Using multimethod data from a longitudinal research of 674 Mexican-origin youth, this study examined the influence of parents, siblings, and peers on the development of relational aggression. Increases in relational aggression from age 10 to 16 were associated with: (a) low levels of parental monitoring and (b) increased association with deviant peers and siblings...
October 13, 2018: Child Development
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