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Child Development

Telli Davoodi, Gaye Soley, Paul L Harris, Peter R Blake
Children display an "essentialist" bias in their everyday thinking about social categories. However, the degree and form of this bias varies with age and with the nature of the categories, as well as across cultures. This project investigated the development of the essentialist bias across five social categories (i.e., gender, nationality, religious affiliation, socioeconomic status (rich/poor), and sports-team supporter) in two countries. Children between 5 and 10 years of age in Turkey (Study 1, N = 74) and the United States (Study 2, N = 73), as well as adults in both countries (Study 3, N = 223), participated...
January 15, 2019: Child Development
Josephine Ross, Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J Cunningham
This article tests the hypothesis that self-development plays a role in the offset of childhood amnesia; assessing the importance of both the capacity to anchor a memory to the self-concept, and the strength of the self-concept as an anchor. This research demonstrates for the first time that the volume of 3- to 6-year old's specific autobiographical memories is predicted by both the volume of their self-knowledge, and their capacity for self-source monitoring within self-referencing paradigms (N = 186). Moreover, there is a bidirectional relation between self and memory, such that autobiographical memory mediates the link between self-source monitoring and self-knowledge...
January 15, 2019: Child Development
Sebastian S Horn, Rui Mata, Thorsten Pachur
Value-based decisions often involve comparisons between benefits and costs that must be retrieved from memory. To investigate the development of value-based decisions, 9- to 10-year olds (N = 30), 11- to 12-year olds (N = 30), and young adults (N = 30) first learned to associate gain and loss magnitudes with symbols. In a subsequent decision task, participants rapidly evaluated objects that consisted of combinations of these symbols. All age groups achieved high decision performance and were sensitive to gain-loss magnitudes, suggesting that required core cognitive abilities are developed early...
January 15, 2019: Child Development
Janani Prabhakar, Simona Ghetti
Preschoolers have limited capacity to use past experiences to prepare for the future. Two experiments sought to further understand these limitations. Experiment 1 (N = 42) showed that 3- to 4-year olds' difficulty performing anticipated future actions was constrained by their memory for relevant past actions, especially those including temporal information. Experiment 2 (N = 94) sought to determine whether preschoolers fail to see that past experiences can inform future-oriented actions. When the connection between the past and future was experimentally heightened, future thinking accuracy improved, but only if preschoolers remembered past experiences...
January 12, 2019: Child Development
Emma Armstrong-Carter, Susannah Ivory, Lynda C Lin, Keely A Muscatell, Eva H Telzer
Family assistance (helping the family) is associated with both positive and negative psychological and biological outcomes during adolescence. However, the association between family assistance and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remains unstudied. Thus, we assess how helping the family relates to adolescents' diurnal cortisol, an index of HPA activity, and psychological outcomes. Three hundred and seventy ethnically diverse adolescents (ages 11-18) reported daily helping behaviors and psychological experiences for 14 days and provided four saliva samples per day for 4 days...
January 10, 2019: Child Development
Ashley M Groh, Angela J Narayan
This meta-analytic review (k = 5-10; N = 258-895) examined links between attachment insecurity and physiological activity at baseline and in response to interpersonal stress elicited by separation-reunion procedures in the early life course (1-5 years). Insecurity was trivially, nonsignificantly associated with baseline physiological activity (heart rate [HR]: g = -.06; respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: g = -.06; cortisol: g = .01) and nonsignificantly associated with physiological reactivity to separation from parents (HR: g = -...
January 10, 2019: Child Development
Tianbi Li, Jean Decety, Xiaoyi Hu, Jiao Li, Jinling Lin, Li Yi
We examined explicit and implicit processes in response to third-party moral transgressions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty 4- to 7-year-old children with ASD and 19 typically developing controls evaluated dynamic visual stimuli depicting intentional or accidental harm to persons or damage to objects. Moral evaluations, eye fixations, and pupil dilations toward the stimuli were collected. Results indicate a preserved capacity to understand the mental states of perpetrators and an implicit moral sensitivity to the third-party harms in children with ASD...
January 8, 2019: Child Development
Ayla Barutchu, Joanne M Fifer, Mohit N Shivdasani, Sheila G Crewther, Antonio G Paolini
This study assessed the developmental profile of unisensory and multisensory processes, and their contribution to children's intellectual abilities (8- and 11-year olds, N = 38, compared to adults, N = 19) using a simple audiovisual detection task and three incidental associative learning tasks with different sensory signals: visual-verbal with pseudowords, novel audiovisual, and visual-visual. The level of immaturity throughout childhood was dependent on both, the sensory signal type and the task. Associative learning was significantly enhanced with verbal sounds, compared to novel audiovisual and unisensory visual learning...
January 8, 2019: Child Development
Meagan R Talbott, Gregory S Young, Jeff Munson, Annette Estes, Laurie A Vismara, Sally J Rogers
In typical development, gestures precede and predict language development. This study examines the developmental sequence of expressive communication and relations between specific gestural and language milestones in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who demonstrate marked difficulty with gesture production and language. Communication skills across five stages (gestures, word approximations, first words, gesture-word combinations, and two-word combinations) were assessed monthly by blind raters for toddlers with ASD participating in an randomized control trial of parent-mediated treatment (N = 42, 12-30 months)...
December 31, 2018: Child Development
Johan L Kleberg, Teresa Del Bianco, Terje Falck-Ytter
The influence of arousal on visual attention was examined in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 42) in the context of a visual search task. Phasic increases in arousal were induced with brief sounds and measured with pupil dilation. Evidence was found for an inverted U-shaped relation between pupil dilation amplitude and visual orienting, with highest likelihood of a target fixation at intermediate levels of arousal. Effects were similar for facial stimuli and simple objects. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of the relation between arousal and attention in infancy...
December 31, 2018: Child Development
Eric D Wilkey, Courtney Pollack, Gavin R Price
Deficits in numerical magnitude perception characterize the mathematics learning disability developmental dyscalculia (DD), but recent studies suggest the relation stems from inhibitory control demands from incongruent visual cues in the nonsymbolic number comparison task. This study investigated the relation among magnitude perception during differing congruency conditions, executive function, and mathematics achievement measured longitudinally in children (n = 448) from ages 4 to 13. This relation was investigated across achievement groups and as it related to mathematics across the full range of achievement...
December 31, 2018: Child Development
Chelsea A K Duran, Elizabeth Cottone, Erik A Ruzek, Andrew J Mashburn, David W Grissmer
Economic hardship can affect children's development through child-caregiver interactions, which may mediate cascading effects of other family stress processes. This study examined, simultaneously, the relations of financial strain, caregiver general stress, and child-caregiver conflict-each measured at two time points-with child self-regulatory outcomes in a high-poverty sample (age 5-7 years; n = 343). Increase in child-caregiver conflict mediated negative relations between other processes and development of executive function...
December 26, 2018: Child Development
Arber Tasimi, Marcia K Johnson
This study assessed children's preference, giving, and memory to investigate the impact of social information over time. We compared 5- and 6-year-olds' (N = 144) immediate or delayed responses to an individual who does or does not share their toy preference (similar vs. dissimilar) or an individual who treats others kindly or poorly (nice vs. mean). Immediately, children all preferred the similar or nice characters but gave more stickers to the similar character. This strong initial effect of similarity was not evident after 1 week; children's preference, giving, and memory reflected a greater long-term impact of niceness than similarity...
December 20, 2018: Child Development
Sarah H Eason, Geetha B Ramani
This study examined parent-child math talk within three contexts (formal learning; guided play; unguided play) in order to identify characteristics of activities supporting high-quality math engagement. Seventy-two dyads of parents and 4- and 5-year-olds were observed using a set of toy foods; instructions and materials varied across conditions. Parents and children engaged in the most math talk in formal learning; guided play also yielded more math talk than unguided play. Parents rated the formal learning and guided play activities as equally supportive of math learning, but rated the guided play activity as more enjoyable than the formal learning activity...
December 19, 2018: Child Development
Perla B Gámez, Holly L Griskell, Yaxal N Sobrevilla, Melissa Vazquez
This study examined dual language learners' (DLLs n = 24) and English-only (EO n = 20) children's expressive and receptive language in kindergarten (Mage  = 5.7 years) as well as the relation to peers' language use. Expressive language skills (vocabulary diversity, syntactic complexity) were measured in the fall, winter, and spring (2014-2015 year). Receptive language skills (vocabulary, sentence comprehension) were measured in the fall and spring. Findings revealed increases in children's expressive and receptive language, except in terms of syntactic complexity...
December 19, 2018: Child Development
Joseph M Burling, Hanako Yoshida
Manual skills slowly develop throughout infancy and have been shown to create clear views of objects that provide better support for visually sustained attention, recognition, memory, and learning. These clear views may coincide with the development of manual skills, or that social scaffolding supports clear viewing experiences like those generated by toddlers during active object exploration. This study used a head-mounted eye tracker to record 5- to 24-month-olds' object views during repeated mother-infant play sessions (Ns = 18)...
December 19, 2018: Child Development
Izabela Zych, Maria M Ttofi, Vicente J Llorent, David P Farrington, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel P Eisner
Trajectories of stability and change in bullying roles were examined through a longitudinal prospective study of 916 school students followed up biannually from age 11 to 17. Perpetrators and victims had relatively stable trajectories with most of the children remaining in the same role over time or becoming uninvolved. Bully/victim was the most unstable role with frequent transitions to perpetrators or victims. Developmental change in bullying roles was found with a decrease in physical forms over time in bullies and victims but with persistently high perpetration and victimization in bully/victims...
December 19, 2018: Child Development
Line C Gjerde, Espen M Eilertsen, Thalia C Eley, Tom A McAdams, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Espen Røysamb, Eivind Ystrom
Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Child internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 1.5, 3, and 5, and modeled using multilevel analyses with repeated measures nested within siblings, nested within mothers...
December 11, 2018: Child Development
Dawn Watling, Nikoleta Damaskinou
This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate the relations between hemispheric laterality for emotion processing and the development of facial emotion recognition (FER) skills, both of which show similar developmental trajectories. Five to 12-year-old children (N = 160) completed an emotion discrimination task, emotion matching task, identity matching task, and behavioral lateralization for emotion processing task at baseline and 1 year later. Lateralization at baseline predicted later emotion discrimination, whereas change in strength of lateralization across the year predicted emotion matching ability...
December 6, 2018: Child Development
Patrick T Davies, Jesse L Coe, Rochelle F Hentges, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael T Ripple
This study examined temperament dimensions of emotion as precursors of children's social information processing (SIP) of stressful peer events. Two hundred and forty-three preschool children (M = 4.60 years) and their primary caregivers participated in two measurement occasions spaced 2 years apart. Observations of temperamental anger, fearful distress, positive affect, and effortful control were assessed in multiple laboratory tasks across two visits at Wave 1. SIP assessments from vignettes of peer challenges were repeated across two waves and included: eye tracking measures of attention to peer emotion displays, hostile attribution bias, hostile solutions, and subjective distress...
December 5, 2018: Child Development
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