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Child Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722182/risk-and-adversity-parenting-quality-and-children-s-social-emotional-adjustment-in-families-experiencing-homelessness
#1
Madelyn H Labella, Angela J Narayan, Christopher M McCormick, Christopher D Desjardins, Ann S Masten
A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage  = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher-child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior...
July 19, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708296/household-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-investments-direct-and-indirect-relations-with-school-readiness-in-ghana
#2
Sharon Wolf, Dana Charles McCoy
This study examines how parent socioeconomic status (SES) directly and indirectly predicts children's school readiness through pathways of parental investment. Data come from direct assessments with preschool children and surveys with their primary caregivers in Ghana at the start of the 2015-2016 school year (N = 2,137; Mage  = 5.2 years). Results revealed SES-related gaps in all parental investment characteristics and child school readiness skills. Preschool involvement served as the primary mediating mechanism in the path from SES to most school readiness skills, though it did not predict executive function...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708241/religious-development-in-african-american-adolescents-growth-patterns-that-offer-protection
#3
Daniel B Lee, Enrique W Neblett
Although religiosity promotes resilient outcomes in African American (AA) adolescents, there is a lack of research that examines the protective role of religious development in the context of stressful life events (SLEs). In 1,595 AA adolescents, a cohort-sequential design was used from ages 12 to 18 to examine subtypes of religiosity, as well as distinct developmental patterns within subtypes. The protective role of religious development was also examined in the context of SLEs. The study findings indicated two subtypes of religiosity-extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity-as well as low and high developmental patterns in the identified subtypes...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708238/family-context-moderates-the-association-of-maternal-postpartum-depression-and-stability-of-infant-temperament
#4
Stephanie H Parade, Laura M Armstrong, Susan Dickstein, Ronald Seifer
Maternal postpartum depression, maternal sensitivity, and family functioning were examined as predictors of the stability of observed infant temperament over the first 30 months of life (N = 147 families). Eight observations at 8, 15, and 30 months postpartum were used to assess infant temperament. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess maternal depression, and observational assessments were used to assess family functioning and maternal sensitivity. Family context moderated the effect of maternal depression on change in infant temperament...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708237/playing-with-ideas-evaluating-the-impact-of-the-ultimate-block-party-a-collective-experiential-intervention-to-enrich-perceptions-of-play
#5
Rachel Grob, Mark Schlesinger, Amy Pace, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
Parental attitudes shape play opportunities afforded to children in home, community, and school settings. This study presents evaluation of an intervention designed to enrich parent's conception of play and its relationship with socially valued skills and capacities. On the basis of data from 291 racially and ethnically diverse parents/caregivers of young children (median age between 3 and 6) attending an event in NYC, we find the intervention helped parents conceptualize play in complex ways and altered perceptions of its impact on children's current-but not future-lives...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691736/civic-science-for-public-use-mind-in-the-making-and-vroom
#6
Ellen Galinsky, Jackie Bezos, Megan McClelland, Stephanie M Carlson, Philip D Zelazo
Mind in the Making and Vroom are partner initiatives that exemplify a unique "civic science" approach to "bringing developmental science into the world." Mind in the Making offers families and professionals working with children 0-8 access to developmental research, by engaging them in an active process of professional development and community outreach. Vroom is an outreach and communication initiative that brings "brain building basics" to communities, inviting parents to participate in the science of early learning through partnerships with trusted entities...
July 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686300/statistical-learning-and-spelling-older-prephonological-spellers-produce-more-wordlike-spellings-than-younger-prephonological-spellers
#7
Rebecca Treiman, Brett Kessler, Kelly Boland, Hayley Clocksin, Zhengdao Chen
The authors analyzed the spellings of 179 U.S. children (age = 3 years, 2 months-5 years, 6 months) who were prephonological spellers, in that they wrote using letters that did not reflect the phonemes in the target items. Supporting the idea that children use their statistical learning skills to learn about the outer form of writing before they begin to spell phonologically, older prephonological spellers showed more knowledge about English letter patterns than did younger prephonological spellers. The written productions of older prephonological spellers were rated by adults as more similar to English words than were the productions of younger prephonological spellers...
July 7, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677872/modeling-the-early-language-trajectory-of-language-development-when-the-measures-change-and-its-relation-to-poor-reading-comprehension
#8
Yaacov Petscher, Laura M Justice, Tiffany Hogan
This study examined change in early language comprehension from 15 to 54 months for fifth-grade typical readers (n = 35), poor decoders (n = 11), or poor comprehenders (n = 16) from a nationally representative study of early child-care experiences. Changing measures of language comprehension were captured across early childhood for the 62 children. Multiple-group quasi-simplex and latent growth models were used on rank-transformed outcomes to examine children's relative rank change. Results showed that future poor comprehenders significantly declined in language comprehension over time relative to others who gradually improved...
July 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661004/revisiting-young-children-s-understanding-of-the-psychological-causes-of-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Patricia H Miller, Patricia A Aloise-Young
In 1989, Miller and Aloise challenged the prevailing belief that preschoolers tend to explain others' behavior in terms of external events or a person's physical attributes and have little understanding of psychological causes. That review documented preschoolers' understanding of, and even preference for, psychological causes as part of an emerging renaissance in developmental social-cognitive research. The present, updated review (97 articles, participant ages 3 months to 6 years) suggests the emergence of a transformative new perspective in which social-cognition is balanced between social and cognitive aspects rather than tilted toward cognition...
June 29, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657198/family-science-talk-in-museums-predicting-children-s-engagement-from-variations-in-talk-and-activity
#10
Maureen A Callanan, Claudia L Castañeda, Megan R Luce, Jennifer L Martin
Children's developing reasoning skills are better understood within the context of their social and cultural lives. As part of a research-museum partnership, this article reports a study exploring science-relevant conversations of 82 families, with children between 3 and 11 years, while visiting a children's museum exhibit about mammoth bones, and in a focused one-on-one exploration of a "mystery object." Parents' use of a variety of types of science talk predicted children's conceptual engagement in the exhibit, but interestingly, different types of parent talk predicted children's engagement depending on the order of the two activities...
June 28, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653767/if-you-re-happy-and-you-know-it-positive-moods-reduce-age-related-differences-in-false-memory
#11
Weiwei Zhang, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne
When tested in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, children typically exhibit fewer false memories than do adolescents or adults. Here, participants' moods and the valence of word lists were manipulated to explore the mechanism responsible for this developmental reversal in memory performance. Children (7- to 8-year-olds), adolescents (11- to 12-year-olds), and young adults (18- to 22-year-olds; N = 270) were assigned to one of three induced mood conditions and were presented with emotional word lists...
June 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653405/positive-youth-development-among-diverse-racial-ethnic-children-quality-afterschool-contexts-as-developmental-assets
#12
Emilie Phillips Smith, Dawn P Witherspoon, D Wayne Osgood
Positive youth development (PYD) deserves more empirical attention, particularly among children of diverse racial-ethnic backgrounds. Given the need among families for monitoring and supervision during out-of-school time, community-based afterschool is a potentially promotive ecological setting. This study explores the quality of afterschool experiences upon PYD. This multimethod study includes over 500 elementary school children in Grades 2-5 (Mage  = 8.80, SD = 1.12). The sample comprises of 49% White, 27% African American, 7% Latino, and 17% mixed race/others with 45% free/reduced lunch eligible children...
June 26, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653393/positive-youth-development-and-resilience-growth-patterns-of-social-skills-among-youth-investigated-for-maltreatment
#13
Assaf Oshri, Trasie A Topple, Matthew W Carlson
Maltreated children are a vulnerable population, yet many of these youth follow positive developmental pathways. The primary aim was to identify social skills growth trajectories among at-risk youth to understand processes underlying resilience. Nationally representative, longitudinal data from 1,179 families investigated for child maltreatment (Mage  = 12.75) were obtained from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Four trajectories were identified-stress-resistant, emergent resilience, breakdown, and unresponsive-maladaptive...
June 26, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650107/when-cultural-norms-discourage-talking-to-babies-effectiveness-of-a-parenting-program-in-rural-senegal
#14
Ann Weber, Anne Fernald, Yatma Diop
In some areas of rural Africa, long-standing cultural traditions and beliefs may discourage parents from verbally engaging with their young children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a parenting program designed to encourage verbal engagement between caregivers and infants in Wolof-speaking villages in rural Senegal. Caregivers (n = 443) and their 4- to 31-month-old children were observed at baseline in 2013 and 1 year later at follow-up. Results showed that caregivers in program villages nearly doubled the amount of child-directed speech during a play session compared to baseline, whereas caregivers in matched comparison villages showed no change...
June 26, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643844/longitudinal-relations-among-positivity-perceived-positive-school-climate-and-prosocial-behavior-in-colombian-adolescents
#15
Bernadette P Luengo Kanacri, Nancy Eisenberg, Eriona Thartori, Concetta Pastorelli, Liliana M Uribe Tirado, Maria Gerbino, Gian V Caprara
Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; Mage of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9% male) and their parents (N = 127) provided data in two waves (9 months apart). A model of bidirectional relations between positivity and perceived positive school climate emerged...
June 23, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639708/young-infants-word-comprehension-given-an-unfamiliar-talker-or-altered-pronunciations
#16
Elika Bergelson, Daniel Swingley
To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639698/definitional-elasticity-in-the-measurement-of-intergenerational-continuity-in-substance-use
#17
Thomas A Loughran, Pilar Larroulet, Terence P Thornberry
Increasingly, three generation studies have investigated intergenerational (IG) continuity and discontinuity in substance use and related problem behaviors. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the conceptual definition of continuity or to different types of discontinuity (resilience and escalation) or to measurement sensitivity, which affects not only the magnitudes of observed continuity but also factors that correlate with this linkage. This study uses longitudinal data on 427 parent-child dyads from the Rochester IG Study to study continuity and discontinuity in substance use over ages 14-18...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639692/the-role-of-mothers-child-based-worth-in-their-affective-responses-to-children-s-performance
#18
Florrie Fei-Yin Ng, Eva M Pomerantz, Shui-Fong Lam, Ciping Deng
This research examined whether American and Chinese mothers' tendencies to base their worth on children's performance contributes to their affective responses to children's performance. Study 1 used daily interviews to assess mothers' warmth (vs. hostility) and children's school performance (N = 197; Mage  = 12.81 years). In Study 2, such affect was observed in the laboratory following children's manipulated performance on cognitive problems (N = 128; Mage  = 10.21 years). The more mothers based their worth on children's performance, the more their warmth (vs...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636093/introspection-plays-an-early-role-in-children-s-explicit-theory-of-mind-development
#19
Christopher R Gonzales, William V Fabricius, Anne S Kupfer
This study assessed children's (N = 236) ability to introspect the mental states of seeing and knowing relative to their ability to attribute each state to others. Children could introspect seeing 10 months before they could introspect knowing. Two- and 3-year-olds correctly reported their own seeing states, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds correctly reported their own knowing states. For each mental state, there was a 7-month difference before children could correctly attribute that state to another. These findings indicate that knowing is more difficult to introspect than seeing and that the ability to introspect each mental state emerges prior to the ability to correctly attribute them to others...
June 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635029/coping-with-racism-moderators-of-the-discrimination-adjustment-link-among-mexican-origin-adolescents
#20
Irene J K Park, Lijuan Wang, David R Williams, Margarita Alegría
What strategies help ethnic minority adolescents to cope with racism? The present study addressed this question by testing the role of ethnic identity, social support, and anger expression and suppression as moderators of the discrimination-adjustment link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents (Mage  = 14.1 years), 12-17 years old from the Midwestern U.S. Results from multilevel moderation analyses indicated that ethnic identity, social support, and anger suppression, respectively, significantly attenuated the relations between discrimination and adjustment problems, whereas outward anger expression exacerbated these relations...
June 21, 2017: Child Development
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