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Child Development

Tae Kyoung Lee, Alan Meca, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Miguel Á Cano, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Juan A Villamar, Monica Pattarroyo, Karina M Lizzi, José Szapocznik, Seth J Schwartz
Acculturation consists of multiple domains (i.e., cultural practices, identifications, and values). However, less is known about how acculturation processes influence each other across multiple domains of acculturation. This study was designed to investigate transition patterns of acculturative processes within and across domains in a sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents, Mage (SD) = 14.51 years (0.88) at baseline; male = 53%). Adolescents were assessed six times over a 3-year period. Latent profile analyses identified two profiles (high [or increasing] vs...
September 21, 2018: Child Development
Roseriet Beijers, Jude Cassidy, Hellen Lustermans, Carolina de Weerth
Current recommendations encourage parent-infant room sharing for the first 6 months of life. This longitudinal study (N = 193) is the first to examine long-term relations of early room sharing with three domains of child behavior: sleep, behavior problems, and prosocial behavior. Information on room sharing was collected daily for infants' first 6 months. At ages 6, 7, and 8 years, outcomes were assessed with maternal and teacher questionnaires and behavioral observations. Early room sharing was not related to sleep problems or behavior problems...
September 20, 2018: Child Development
Emily Foster-Hanson, Andrei Cimpian, Rachel A Leshin, Marjorie Rhodes
Describing behaviors as reflecting categories (e.g., asking children to "be helpers") has been found to increase pro-social behavior. The present studies (N = 139, ages 4-5) tested whether such effects backfire if children experience setbacks while performing category-relevant actions. In Study 1, children were asked either to "be helpers" or "to help," and then pretended to complete a series of successful scenarios (e.g., pouring milk) and unsuccessful scenarios (e.g., spilling milk while trying to pour)...
September 19, 2018: Child Development
Frances Gardner, Patty Leijten, G J Melendez-Torres, Sabine Landau, Victoria Harris, Joanna Mann, Jennifer Beecham, Judy Hutchings, Stephen Scott
Strong arguments have been made for early intervention for child problems, stating that early is more effective than later, as the brain is more malleable, and costs are lower. However, there is scant evidence from trials to support this hypothesis, which we therefore tested in two well-powered, state-of-the-art meta-analyses with complementary strengths: (a) Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of European trials of Incredible Years parenting intervention (k = 13, n = 1696; age = 2-11); (b) Larger, trial-level robust variance estimation meta-analysis of a wider range of parenting programs (k = 156, n = 13,378, Mage  = 2-10) for reducing disruptive behavior...
September 14, 2018: Child Development
Shazly Savahl, Carme Montserrat, Ferran Casas, Sabirah Adams, Habib Tiliouine, Elizabeth Benninger, Kyle Jackson
The study used data from the second wave of the Children's Worlds Survey to explore the relation between children's experiences of bullying victimization (physical and psychological) and their subjective well-being (SWB) across three age groups (8, 10, and 12) and 15 global geographical regions. The sample consists of 47,029 children randomly selected from 15 countries. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results show appropriate fit structure for the overall model, and that the combined influence of physical and psychological bullying made a significant contribution to SWB across age groups and geographical regions...
September 12, 2018: Child Development
Philip J Schluter, Richard Audas, Jesse Kokaua, Brigid McNeill, Barry Taylor, Barry Milne, Gail Gillon
Literacy success lays the foundation for children's later educational, health, and well-being outcomes. Thus, early identification of literacy need is vital. Using data from New Zealand's national preschool health screening program for fiscal years 2010/2011-2014/2015, demographic and health variables from 255,090 children aged 4 years were related to whether they received a literacy intervention in early primary school. Overall, 20,652 (8.1%) children received an intervention. Time-to-event analysis revealed that all considered variables were significantly related to literacy intervention (all p < ...
September 11, 2018: Child Development
Emily F Coyle, Lynn S Liben
To study effects of the gender-packaging of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) toys, mother-child dyads (31 daughters; 30 sons; M = 5.2 years) were randomly assigned to play with a mechanical toy packaged for girls (GoldieBlox) or boys (BobbyBlox). When familiarizing themselves with the toy to prepare for play, mothers given BobbyBlox built more with toy pieces than did mothers given GoldieBlox. During dyadic play, mothers with sons built more; mothers with daughters read the toy's narrative instructions more...
September 6, 2018: Child Development
Leoandra Onnie Rogers
A robust literature documents the significance of gender in children's development, but gaps remain in understanding how developing gender identities link to gender inequalities. This article uses master narratives to analyze the ways that children's gender narratives reinforce or disrupt gender inequality. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 233 Black, White, mixed- and other-race minority children (7-12 years old; Mage  = 9.92; 61% girls) in racially diverse schools in the Pacific Northwest. Four narrative types were identified: two "master narratives" that reinforced gender inequality and two "alternative narratives" that disrupted it...
September 5, 2018: Child Development
Katherine Kimura, Alison Gopnik
Belief revision can occur at multiple levels of abstraction, including lower-level and higher-order beliefs. It remains unclear, however, how conflicting evidence interacts with prior beliefs to encourage higher-order belief revision. This study explores how 4- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) respond to evidence that directly conflicts with their causal higher-order beliefs. When shown a single event that directly violated a strongly supported prior belief, preschoolers largely maintained their initial higher-order belief...
September 3, 2018: Child Development
Lisa A Newland, Jarod T Giger, Michael J Lawler, Soonhee Roh, Barbara L Brockevelt, Amy Schweinle
This study tests an ecological, relationship-based model of children's subjective well-being with 9- to 14-year-old children (n = 25,906) from 14 countries across Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Children completed the Children's Worlds survey, a self-report measure of contextual and well-being indicators. Multilevel modeling was used to predict children's well-being (life satisfaction and self-image) at two levels, child (age, gender, home context, family relationships, peer relationships, school context, teacher relationships, and neighborhood quality), and country (gross domestic product and income inequality)...
September 1, 2018: Child Development
Lindsay Zajac, Megan K Bookhout, Julie A Hubbard, Elizabeth A Carlson, Mary Dozier
This study examined infant attachment as a predictor of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood (n = 82) while controlling for parental sensitivity in middle childhood. Attachment quality was assessed using the Strange Situation. Although attachment insecurity did not predict SIP, attachment disorganization positively predicted the early SIP steps of hostile attributional bias and aggressive goals. Children with disorganized attachments interpreted ambiguous provocations more negatively (as indicating more hostility, rejection, and disrespect and as resulting in more anger) and endorsed significantly more revenge and dominance goals than children with organized attachments...
August 31, 2018: Child Development
Joseph Price, Ariel Kalil
Children's exposure to book reading is thought to be an influential input into positive cognitive development. Yet there is little empirical research identifying whether it is reading time per se, or other factors associated with families who read, such as parental education or children's reading skill, that improves children's achievement. Using data on 4,239 children ages 0-13 of the female respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study applies two different methodologies to identify the causal impact of mother-child reading time on children's achievement scores by controlling for several confounding child and family characteristics...
August 28, 2018: Child Development
Deborah L Vandell, Kenneth T H Lee, Anamarie A Whitaker, Kim M Pierce
Effects associated with early child care and out-of-school time (OST) during middle childhood were examined in a large sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 958). Both higher quality early child care AND more epochs of organized activities (afterschool programs and extracurricular activities) during middle childhood were linked to higher academic achievement at age 15. Differential associations were found in the behavioral domain. Higher quality early child care was associated with fewer externalizing problems, whereas more hours of early child care was linked to greater impulsivity...
August 28, 2018: Child Development
Habib Tiliouine, Gwyther Rees, Sahil Mokaddem
This article reports on a 2-year follow-up study (443 Algerian children). Using a variety of satisfaction measures, along with detailed questions relating to family, school, local area, material deprivation, and daily activities, we aim to explore changes in the self-reported well-being of children from age 12 to 14. Satisfaction with health and friends remained stable, meanwhile satisfaction with school decreased more for boys than for girls, but satisfaction with family, time use, and material possessions decreased for girls...
August 20, 2018: Child Development
Avital Kaye-Tzadok, Asher Ben-Arieh, Hanita Kosher
Few studies have examined the links among hope, material resources, and subjective well-being (SWB) of children from their own perspectives. The article examines lack of material resources as a risk factor, hope as a human strength, and a possible moderator regarding children's SWB. The study employed a nationally representative sample of 2,977 Jewish and Arab Israeli children (ages 8-12). As predicted, there was a significant positive relation between hope and SWB, and a negative relation between lack of material resources and SWB...
August 20, 2018: Child Development
Ferran Casas, Mònica González-Carrasco
An increasing number of scientific publications have provided data from different countries suggesting subjective well-being (SWB) continuously decreases during adolescence. A review of these publications reveals authors have used dissimilar scales in diverse countries. Using data from the international Children's Worlds project (N = 48,040), involving 15 countries, a comparative analysis was performed to determine how mean scores evolve with different SWB scales from the age of 8 onwards. The results support the hypothesis that the tendency of SWB to decrease with age starts at around 10 years of age in most countries, while also confirming that different psychometric scales display different levels of sensitivity to diverse sociocultural contexts and more than one should be used in any research on children and adolescents' SWB...
August 14, 2018: Child Development
Glenn I Roisman, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
This paper serves as an Introduction by the co-editors to a Special Section of Child Development entitled "Meta-analysis and Individual Participant Data Synthesis in Child Development." First, the co-editors emphasize that the work contained in the Special Section was selected to highlight the value of meta-analysis not only for synthesizing study-level published and unpublished data but also as regards its ability to support programmatic, replicable, and cumulative developmental science. Second, the co-editors identify some of the cross-cutting themes of the papers featured in the Special Section, including the value of meta-analysis for summarizing and interrogating the full range of developmental science and in potentially transforming conventional wisdom in given domains along with the importance of recent innovations for improving standard meta-analytic practice-particularly in the context of developmental questions...
August 14, 2018: Child Development
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Marilyn Cyr, Megan C Finsaas, Jonathan Orawe, Anna Huang, Nim Tottenham, Daniel N Klein
Seventy-nine 3-year olds and their mothers participated in a laboratory-based task to assess maternal hostility. Mothers also reported their behavioral regulation of their child. Seven years later, functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while viewing emotional faces and completing a reward processing task. Maternal hostility predicted more negative amygdala connectivity during exposure to sad relative to neutral faces with frontal and parietal regions as well as more negative left ventral striatal connectivity during monetary gain relative to loss feedback with the right posterior orbital frontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus...
August 13, 2018: Child Development
Douglas E Sperry, Linda L Sperry, Peggy J Miller
In response to Golinkoff, Hoff, Rowe, Tamis-LeMonda, and Hirsh-Pasek's (2018) commentary, we clarify our goals, outline points of agreement and disagreement between our respective positions, and address the inadvertently harmful consequences of the word gap claim. We maintain that our study constitutes a serious empirical challenge to the word gap. Our findings do not support Hart and Risley's claim under their definition of the verbal environment; when more expansive definitions were applied, the word gap disappeared...
August 13, 2018: Child Development
Joshua Juvrud, Marta Bakker, Katharina Kaduk, Josje M DeValk, Gustaf Gredebäck, Benjamin Kenward
Infants have an early understanding of giving (the transfer of an item by one agent to another), but little is known about individual differences in these abilities or their developmental outcomes. Here, 9-month-olds (N = 59) showing clearer neural processing (Event-related potential, ERP) of a give-me gesture also evidenced a stronger reaction (pupil dilation) to an inappropriate response to a give-me gesture, and at 2 years were more likely to give in response to a give-me gesture. None of the differences in understanding and production of giving-related behaviors were associated with other sociocognitive variables investigated: language, gaze-following, and nongiving helping...
August 13, 2018: Child Development
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