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Child Development

Deborah Rivas-Drake, Muniba Saleem, David R Schaefer, Michael Medina, Robert Jagers
This study offers new insights into the power of peer networks for shaping intergroup relations in a diverse school. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of sixth-eighth graders (N = 524; MageT1  = 11.87; 48% girls; 9% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 28% African American, 13% Latino, 1% Native American, 31% White, 5% Other, and 11% Multiracial) in the Midwestern United States. Students with more positive intergroup contact attitudes (ICA) were most likely to be friends with similarly minded students...
May 22, 2018: Child Development
Luke McGuire, Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy...
May 20, 2018: Child Development
Britain Mills, Nazly Dyer, Daniel Pacheco, Dawn Brinkley, Margaret T Owen, Margaret O Caughy
This study examined the development of emerging self-regulation (SR) skills across the preschool years and relations to academic achievement in kindergarten and first grade. SR skills of 403 low-income African American and Latino children were measured at 2&1/2, 3&1/2, and 5 years (kindergarten). Reading and math skills were measured at 5 and 6 years (first grade) using the Woodcock-Johnson. Transactional relations between SR skills and achievement outcomes were estimated with latent difference score models...
May 19, 2018: Child Development
Eleanor K Seaton, Karolyn Tyson
This study employed an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design to examine the intersection of race and gender among Black American adolescents, aged 11-19. The quantitative component (n = 344) used survey data to examine gender differences in peer-perpetrated and adult-perpetrated racial discrimination experiences, and no gender differences were evident. Qualitative data (n = 42) probed how males and females interpret discrimination experiences given the intersection of race and gender. Although the majority of participants believed that Black males and females have similar experiences, some believed that Black males face more racial discrimination...
May 19, 2018: Child Development
Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Stephanie Custode, Yana Kuchirko, Kelly Escobar, Tiffany Lo
Everyday activities are replete with contextual cues for infants to exploit in the service of learning words. Nelson's (1985) script theory guided the hypothesis that infants participate in a set of predictable activities over the course of a day that provide them with opportunities to hear unique language functions and forms. Mothers and their firstborn 13-month-old infants (N = 40) were video-recorded during everyday activities at home. Transcriptions and coding of mothers' speech to infants-time-locked to activities of feeding, grooming, booksharing, object play, and transition-revealed that the amount, diversity, pragmatic functions, and semantic content of maternal language systematically differed by activity...
May 15, 2018: Child Development
Kelsey L West
Studies of infant motor development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased in recent years. This article synthesized this literature through meta-analysis to assess (a) whether infant motor ability differs in ASD relative to neurotypical controls; and (b) whether motor ability and communication are related in infants with ASD. Study 1 aggregated data from 1,953 infants with ASD (ages 3.0-42.0 months), and Study 2 included 890 infants with ASD (age 6.0-42.9 months). Study 1 revealed that infant motor ability differed significantly in ASD compared with neurotypical infants-this difference was robust to variation in measurement and design...
May 15, 2018: Child Development
Margaret Echelbarger, Susan A Gelman, Charles W Kalish
Children are sensitive to a number of considerations influencing distributions of resources, including equality, equity, and reciprocity. We tested whether children use a specific type of reciprocity norm-market norms-in which resources are distributed differentially based strictly on amount offered in return. In two studies, 195 children 5-10 years and 60 adults distributed stickers to friends offering same or different amounts of money. Overall, participants distributed more equally when offers were the same and more unequally when offers were different...
May 11, 2018: Child Development
Marije L Verhage, R M Pasco Fearon, Carlo Schuengel, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sheri Madigan, Glenn I Roisman, Mirjam Oosterman, Kazuko Y Behrens, Maria S Wong, Sarah Mangelsdorf, Lynn E Priddis, Karl-Heinz Brisch
Parents' attachment representations and child-parent attachment have been shown to be associated, but these associations vary across populations (Verhage et al., 2016). The current study examined whether ecological factors may explain variability in the strength of intergenerational transmission of attachment, using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Analyses on 4,396 parent-child dyads (58 studies, child age 11-96 months) revealed a combined effect size of r = .29. IPD meta-analyses revealed that effect sizes for the transmission of autonomous-secure representations to secure attachments were weaker under risk conditions and weaker in adolescent parent-child dyads, whereas transmission was stronger for older children...
May 9, 2018: Child Development
Jonathan Redshaw, Thomas Suddendorf, Karri Neldner, Matti Wilks, Keyan Tomaselli, Ilana Mushin, Mark Nielsen
This study examined future-oriented behavior in children (3-6 years; N = 193) from three diverse societies-one industrialized Western city and two small, geographically isolated communities. Children had the opportunity to prepare for two alternative versions of an immediate future event over six trials. Some 3-year-olds from all cultures demonstrated competence, and a majority of the oldest children from each culture prepared for both future possibilities on every trial. Although there were some cultural differences in the youngest age groups that approached ceiling performance, the overall results indicate that children across these communities become able to prepare for alternative futures during early childhood...
May 8, 2018: Child Development
Christina Bergmann, Sho Tsuji, Page E Piccinini, Molly L Lewis, Mika Braginsky, Michael C Frank, Alejandrina Cristia
Previous work suggests that key factors for replicability, a necessary feature for theory building, include statistical power and appropriate research planning. These factors are examined by analyzing a collection of 12 standardized meta-analyses on language development between birth and 5 years. With a median effect size of Cohen's d = .45 and typical sample size of 18 participants, most research is underpowered (range = 6%-99%; median = 44%); and calculating power based on seminal publications is not a suitable strategy...
May 7, 2018: Child Development
Zachary Yaple, Marie Arsalidou
The n-back task is likely the most popular measure of working memory for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite accumulating neuroimaging studies with the n-back task and children, its neural representation is still unclear. fMRI studies that used the n-back were compiled, and data from children up to 15 years (n = 260) were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Results show concordance in frontoparietal regions recognized for their role in working memory as well as regions not typically highlighted as part of the working memory network, such as the insula...
May 7, 2018: Child Development
Reut Shilo, Anika Weinsdörfer, Hannes Rakoczy, Gil Diesendruck
The present studies investigated the out-group homogeneity effect in 5- and 8-year-old Israeli and German children (n = 150) and adults (n = 96). Participants were asked to infer whether a given property (either biological or psychological) was true of an entire group-either the participants' in-group ("Jews" or "Germans") or their out-group ("Arabs" or "Turks"). To that end, participants had to select either a homogenous or a heterogeneous sample of group members...
May 7, 2018: Child Development
Daniel A Hackman, Jacqueline R O'Brien, Maureen Zalewski
Warm caregiving is associated with concurrent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function, although the persistence of this association over time is less established. Using longitudinal and intervention studies, this meta-analysis examined the enduring association of parental warmth (measured when children were ages < 1 through 15 years) with basal cortisol, reactivity and recovery (measured when children were ages < 1 through 25 years; k = 38; N = 6,608). These studies demonstrate no overall associations between parenting and children's HPA axis; instead there are small associations that vary based on moderators such as socioeconomic status, developmental stage, study design and stressor type, though many moderators are confounded...
May 5, 2018: Child Development
Eva E Chen, Kathleen H Corriveau, Veronica K W Lai, Sze Long Poon, Sarah E Gaither
The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; Mage  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification...
April 30, 2018: Child Development
Douglas E Sperry, Linda L Sperry, Peggy J Miller
Amid growing controversy about the oft-cited "30-million-word gap," this investigation uses language data from five American communities across the socioeconomic spectrum to test, for the first time, Hart and Risley's (1995) claim that poor children hear 30 million fewer words than their middle-class counterparts during the early years of life. The five studies combined ethnographic fieldwork with longitudinal home observations of 42 children (18-48 months) interacting with family members in everyday life contexts...
April 30, 2018: Child Development
M Paula Daneri, Clancy Blair, Laura J Kuhn
This article examined longitudinal relations among socioeconomic risk, maternal language input, child vocabulary, and child executive function (EF) in a large sample (N = 1,009) recruited for a prospective longitudinal study. Two measures of maternal language input derived from a parent-child picture book task, vocabulary diversity (VOCD), and language complexity, showed variation by socioeconomic risk at child ages 15, 24, and 36 months. Maternal VOCD at child age 24 months and maternal language complexity at child age 36 months mediated the relation between socioeconomic risk and 48-month child EF, independent of parenting sensitivity...
April 30, 2018: Child Development
Leah H Somerville, Nadia Haddara, Stephanie F Sasse, Alea C Skwara, Joseph M Moran, Bernd Figner
This study evaluated the aspects of complex decisions influenced by peers, and components of peer involvement influential to adolescents' risky decisions. Participants (N = 140) aged 13-25 completed the Columbia Card Task (CCT), a risky choice task, isolating deliberation-reliant and affect-reliant decisions while alone, while a friend monitors choices, and while a friend is merely present. There is no condition in which a nonfriend peer is present. Results demonstrated the risk-increasing peer effect occurred in the youngest participants in the cold CCT and middle-late adolescents in the hot CCT, whereas other ages and contexts showed a risk-decreasing peer effect...
April 27, 2018: Child Development
Elia Psouni, Andreas Falck, Leni Boström, Martin Persson, Lisa Sidén, Maria Wallin
Effects of joint attention were addressed on 3- to 4-year-olds' performance in a verbal false-Belief Test (FBT), featuring the experimenter as co-watcher rather than narrator. In two experiments, children (N = 183) watched a filmed-FBT jointly with a test leader, disjointed from a test leader, or alone. Children attending jointly with a test leader were more likely to pass the FBT compared with normative data and to spontaneously recall information indicating false-belief understanding, suggesting that joint attention strengthens the plausibility of the FBT and renders plot-critical information more salient...
April 20, 2018: Child Development
Jessica McKenzie
Around the world, adolescents increasingly grow up as members of local and global cultures. Little is known, however, about how precisely adolescents in rapidly globalizing societies blend local and global cultures. Interviews with 40 (16- to 19-year old) Thai adolescents, evenly divided between rural and urban communities, were analyzed alongside participant observation data for the interplay between local and global linguistic and dietary practices. Results revealed that urban adolescents inhabited differentiated selves, alternating between local and global practices based on interactional partner...
April 20, 2018: Child Development
Ryan J Kelly, Mona El-Sheikh
Reciprocal relations between parental problem drinking (PPD) and children's sleep were examined longitudinally, and socioeconomic status was considered as a moderating variable. At Wave 1, 280 children (Mage  = 10.33) and their parent(s) participated, and 275 families returned 1 year later. At both waves, parent(s) reported on PD and children wore actigraphs that measured established sleep parameters. After controlling for autoregressive effects, fathers' PD predicted reduced sleep duration and efficiency in children over time...
April 18, 2018: Child Development
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