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Child Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929496/a-methylome-wide-association-study-of-trajectories-of-oppositional-defiant-behaviors-and-biological-overlap-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Edward D Barker, Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil, Richard Rowe, Sara R Jaffee, Barbara Maughan, Thomas G O'Connor, Argyris Stringaris, Alan J Meehan, Wendy McArdle, Caroline L Relton, Tom R Gaunt
In 671 mother-child (49% male) pairs from an epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated (a) prospective associations between DNA methylation (at birth) and trajectories (ages 7-13) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the ODD subdimensions of irritable and headstrong; (b) common biological pathways, indexed by DNA methylation, between ODD trajectories and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (c) genetic influence on DNA methylation; and (d) prenatal risk exposure associations. Methylome-wide significant associations were identified for the ODD and headstrong, but not for irritable...
September 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929483/peer-effects-on-aggressive-behavior-in-norwegian-child-care-centers
#2
Luisa A Ribeiro, Henrik D Zachrisson
This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys...
September 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925063/the-decline-in-adult-activities-among-u-s-adolescents-1976-2016
#3
Jean M Twenge, Heejung Park
The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976-2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13-19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theory...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925044/self-concept-predicts-academic-achievement-across-levels-of-the-achievement-distribution-domain-specificity-for-math-and-reading
#4
Maria Ines Susperreguy, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Kathryn Duckworth, Meichu Chen
This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922474/how-unequal-is-the-united-states-adolescents-images-of-social-stratification
#5
Constance A Flanagan, Mariah Kornbluh
This study highlights the use of pictorial images to understand adolescents' views on social stratification. A continuum of five visual images of social stratification were presented to a diverse sample of five hundred ninety-eight 8th-12th graders (14-18 years old). Adolescents selected which image best represented the United States (today, in 20 years, how it ought to be). Images ranged from inequitable to egalitarian. Results supported reference group and possible selves theories. Adolescents in higher status families chose a more egalitarian image for how the United States is today and how it ought to be...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922473/children-s-theories-of-the-self
#6
Christina Starmans
This article provides a theoretical review of the developmental origins of children's "folk theories" about the nature of the self, linking theoretical developments in philosophy with empirical discoveries from developmental psychology. The article first reviews children's views about the material nature of the self, outlining evidence that children naturally think about the self as distinct from the body. It then discusses children's understanding of the persistence of the self over time and, finally, explores children's views about conflict within the self...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922470/optimism-as-a-candidate-health-asset-exploring-its-links-with-adolescent-quality-of-life-in-sweden
#7
Katrin Häggström Westberg, Marie Wilhsson, Petra Svedberg, Jens M Nygren, Antony Morgan, Maria Nyholm
This study aims to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescents (n = 948), between 11 and 16 years old from a medium-sized rural town in Sweden, answered questionnaires measuring optimism, pessimism, and HRQOL. The findings indicate a significant decrease in optimism and a significant increase in pessimism between early and midadolescence. The study has allowed us to present associational evidence of the links between optimism and HRQOL...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#8
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905371/the-origins-of-children-s-growth-and-fixed-mindsets-new-research-and-a-new-proposal
#9
Kyla Haimovitz, Carol S Dweck
Children's mindsets about intelligence (as a quality they can grow vs. a trait they cannot change) robustly influence their motivation and achievement. How do adults foster "growth mindsets" in children? One might assume that adults act in ways that communicate their own mindsets to children. However, new research shows that many parents and teachers with growth mindsets are not passing them on. This article presents a new perspective on why this is the case, and reviews research on adult practices that do instill growth mindsets, concluding that a sustained focus on the process of learning is critical...
September 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905363/how-children-construct-views-of-themselves-a-social-developmental-perspective
#10
Eddie Brummelman, Sander Thomaes
As they grow up, children construct views of themselves and their place in the world, known as their self-concept. This topic has often been addressed by social psychologists (studying how the self-concept is influenced by social contexts) and developmental psychologists (studying how the self-concept changes over time). Yet, relatively little is known about the origins of the self-concept. This article calls for research that bridges social and developmental psychology to illuminate this important issue. Adopting such a social-developmental approach, the current special section shows that children construct their self-concept based on the social relationships they have, the feedback they receive, the social comparisons they make, and the cultural values they endorse...
September 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902393/fine-motor-control-underlies-the-association-between-response-inhibition-and-drawing-skill-in-early-development
#11
Andrew Simpson, Reshaa Al Ruwaili, Richard Jolley, Hayley Leonard, Nicolas Geeraert, Kevin J Riggs
Previous research shows that the development of response inhibition and drawing skill are linked. The current research investigated whether this association reflects a more fundamental link between response inhibition and motor control. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds (n = 100) were tested on measures of inhibition, fine motor control, and drawing skill. Data revealed an association between inhibition and fine motor control, which was responsible for most of the association observed with drawing skill...
September 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902386/consequences-of-individual-differences-in-children-s-formal-understanding-of-mathematical-equivalence
#12
Nicole M McNeil, Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Brianna L Devlin, Cristina Carrazza, Mary O McKeever
Experts claim that individual differences in children's formal understanding of mathematical equivalence have consequences for mathematics achievement; however, evidence is lacking. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with a diverse sample of 112 children from a midsized city in the Midwestern United States (Mage [second grade] = 8:1). As hypothesized, understanding of mathematical equivalence in second grade predicted mathematics achievement in third grade, even after controlling for second-grade mathematics achievement, IQ, gender, and socioeconomic status...
September 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898392/black-adolescent-males-intersections-among-their-gender-role-identity-and-racial-identity-and-associations-with-self-concept-global-and-school
#13
Tamara R Buckley
Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school)...
September 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898388/memory-and-executive-functioning-in-12-year-old-children-with-a-history-of-institutional-rearing
#14
Johanna Bick, Charles H Zeanah, Nathan A Fox, Charles A Nelson
We examined visual recognition memory and executive functioning (spatial working memory [SWM], spatial planning, rule learning, and attention shifting) in 12-year-olds (n = 150) who participated in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Similar to prior reports at 8 years of age, institutionally reared children showed significant deficits in visual recognition memory and SWM. Deficits in attention shifting and rule learning were also apparent at this time point...
September 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892127/parental-co-construction-of-5-to-13-year-olds-global-self-esteem-through-reminiscing-about-past-events
#15
Michelle A Harris, M B Donnellan, Jen Guo, Dan P McAdams, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Kali H Trzesniewski
The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security...
September 11, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872676/beliefs-about-stress-attenuate-the-relation-among-adverse-life-events-perceived-distress-and-self-control
#16
Daeun Park, Alisa Yu, Sarah E Metz, Eli Tsukayama, Alia J Crum, Angela L Duckworth
Prior research has shown that adverse events in the lives of adolescents precipitate psychological distress, which in turn impairs self-control. This study (N = 1,343) examined the protective effects of stress mindsets-beliefs about the extent to which stress might be beneficial or strictly detrimental. The results confirmed that increasing the number of adverse life events across the school year predicted rank order increases in perceived distress, which in turn predicted rank order decreases in self-control...
September 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872672/the-longitudinal-effects-of-early-language-intervention-on-children-s-problem-behaviors
#17
Philip R Curtis, Megan Y Roberts, Ryne Estabrook, Ann P Kaiser
Researchers examined whether a parent-implemented language intervention improved problem behaviors 1 year after intervention. Ninety-seven children with language delays (mean age at 12-month follow-up = 48.22 months) were randomized to receive Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) language intervention or business as usual treatment. Twelve months after the intervention ended, children in the EMT intervention condition displayed lower rates of parent-reported externalizing, internalizing, and total problem behaviors...
September 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857139/relations-of-inhibition-and-emotion-related-parenting-to-young-children-s-prosocial-and-vicariously-induced-distress-behavior
#18
Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad, Zoe E Taylor, Jeffrey Liew
Children's prosocial behavior and personal distress are likely affected by children's temperament as well as parenting quality. In this study, we examined bidirectional relations from age 30 to 42 months between children's (N = 218) prosocial or self-focused (presumably distressed) reactions to a relative stranger's distress and both supportive emotion-related maternal reactions to children's emotions and children's shyness/inhibition. When controlling for 30-month prosocial behavior and personal distress behavior, maternal supportive (emotion-focused and problem-focused) reactions were positively related to prosocial behavior and marginally negatively related to children's personal distress behaviors and shyness/inhibition at 42 months...
August 31, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857150/a-model-of-maternal-and-paternal-ethnic-socialization-of-mexican-american-adolescents-self-views
#19
George P Knight, Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Rebecca M B White
Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade...
August 30, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857141/when-parents-praise-inflates-children-s-self-esteem-deflates
#20
Eddie Brummelman, Stefanie A Nelemans, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent-child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7-11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge...
August 30, 2017: Child Development
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