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Child Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349769/examining-character-structure-and-function-across-childhood-and-adolescence
#1
Jennifer Shubert, Laura Wray-Lake, Amy K Syvertsen, Aaron Metzger
Character strengths are an integral component of positive youth development that can promote flourishing. Developmental principles posit constructs become increasingly complex with age, yet this process has not been examined with character. Using a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 2,467 youth ages 9-19, bifactor models were estimated across elementary, middle, and high school-age groups to examine age differences in character structure and function. With successive age, a greater number of specific character strength factors were identified, suggesting character structure becomes more differentiated across adolescence...
January 19, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344932/mothers-early-mind-mindedness-predicts-educational-attainment-in-socially-and-economically-disadvantaged-british-children
#2
Elizabeth Meins, Charles Fernyhough, Luna C M Centifanti
Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind-related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low-SES group, appropriate mind-related comments directly predicted age-11 reading performance, with age-4 verbal ability mediating the relation between appropriate mind-related comments and age-7 reading...
January 18, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341120/trajectories-of-infants-biobehavioral-development-timing-and-rate-of-a-not-b-performance-gains-and-eeg-maturation
#3
Leigha A MacNeill, Nilam Ram, Martha Ann Bell, Nathan A Fox, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A-not-B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A-not-B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A-not-B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipital power...
January 17, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336025/how-children-invented-humanity
#4
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336023/bridging-evolutionary-biology-and-developmental-psychology-toward-an-enduring-theoretical-infrastructure
#5
REVIEW
Willem E Frankenhuis, Leonid Tiokhin
Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336021/evolutionary-developmental-psychology-2017-redux
#6
Cristine H Legare, Jennifer M Clegg, Nicole J Wen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336015/a-metatheory-for-cognitive-development-or-piaget-is-dead-revisited
#7
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. I describe briefly the emergence of evolutionary developmental psychology and examines areas in which proximal and distal biological causation have been particularly influential...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336026/youth-s-conceptions-of-adolescence-predict-longitudinal-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-activation-and-risk-taking-during-adolescence
#8
Yang Qu, Eva M Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H Telzer
The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage  = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336018/the-legacy-of-early-abuse-and-neglect-for-social-and-academic-competence-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#9
K Lee Raby, Glenn I Roisman, Madelyn H Labella, Jodi Martin, R Chris Fraley, Jeffry A Simpson
This study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 267) to investigate whether abuse and neglect experiences during the first 5 years of life have fading or enduring consequences for social and academic competence over the next 3 decades of life. Experiencing early abuse and neglect was consistently associated with more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through adulthood (32-34 years). The predictive significance of early abuse and neglect was not attributable to the stability of developmental competence over time, nor to abuse and neglect occurring later in childhood...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333602/children-s-perceptions-of-economic-groups-in-a-context-of-limited-access-to-opportunities
#10
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children (N = 267, ages 8-14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318589/bilingualism-narrows-socioeconomic-disparities-in-executive-functions-and-self-regulatory-behaviors-during-early-childhood-evidence-from-the-early-childhood-longitudinal-study
#11
Andree Hartanto, Wei X Toh, Hwajin Yang
Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self-regulatory behaviors in classroom...
January 10, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315501/gaze-following-is-not-dependent-on-ostensive-cues-a-critical-test-of-natural-pedagogy
#12
Gustaf Gredebäck, Kim Astor, Christine Fawcett
The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al...
January 8, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313947/personality-traits-are-associated-with-cortical-development-across-adolescence-a-longitudinal-structural-mri-study
#13
Lia Ferschmann, Anders M Fjell, Margarete E Vollrath, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B Walhovd, Christian K Tamnes
How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8-19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross-sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age-expected cortical thinning over time...
January 4, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292501/development-of-social-working-memory-in-preschoolers-and-its-relation-to-theory-of-mind
#14
Jie He, Dong Guo, Shuyi Zhai, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
Social working memory (WM) has distinct neural substrates from canonical cognitive WM (e.g., color). However, no study, to the best of our knowledge, has yet explored how social WM develops. The current study explored the development of social WM capacity and its relation to theory of mind (ToM). Experiment 1 had sixty-four 3- to 6-year-olds memorize 1-5 biological motion stimuli, the processing of which is considered a hallmark of social cognition. The social WM capacity steadily increased between 3- and 6-year-olds, with the increase between 4 and 5 years being sharp...
January 1, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285759/the-trouble-with-quantifiers-exploring-children-s-deficits-in-scalar-implicature
#15
Alexandra C Horowitz, Rose M Schneider, Michael C Frank
Adults routinely use the context of utterances to infer a meaning beyond the literal semantics of their words (e.g., inferring from "She ate some of the cookies" that she ate some, but not all). Contrasting children's (N = 209) comprehension of scalar implicatures using quantifiers with contextually derived ad hoc implicatures revealed that 4- to 5-year-olds reliably computed ad hoc, but not scalar, implicatures (Experiment 1). Unexpectedly, performance with "some" and "none" was correlated (Experiments 1 and 2)...
December 29, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266223/differential-associations-of-distinct-forms-of-childhood-adversity-with-neurobehavioral-measures-of-reward-processing-a-developmental-pathway-to-depression
#16
Meg J Dennison, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Jessica L Jenness, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Childhood adversity is associated with altered reward processing, but little is known about whether this varies across distinct types of adversity. In a sample of 94 children (6-19 years), we investigated whether experiences of material deprivation, emotional deprivation, and trauma have differential associations with reward-related behavior and white matter microstructure in tracts involved in reward processing. Material deprivation (food insecurity), but not emotional deprivation or trauma, was associated with poor reward performance...
December 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266222/distinguishing-polemic-from-commentary-in-science-some-guidelines-illustrated-with-the-case-of-sage-and-burgio-2017
#17
David Robert Grimes, Dorothy V M Bishop
Exposure to nonionizing radiation used in wireless communication remains a contentious topic in the public mind-while the overwhelming scientific evidence to date suggests that microwave and radio frequencies used in modern communications are safe, public apprehension remains considerable. A recent article in Child Development has caused concern by alleging a causative connection between nonionizing radiation and a host of conditions, including autism and cancer. This commentary outlines why these claims are devoid of merit, and why they should not have been given a scientific veneer of legitimacy...
December 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266194/marital-conflict-predicts-mother-to-infant-adrenocortical-transmission
#18
Leah C Hibel, Evelyn Mercado
Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge...
December 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266177/attachment-security-priming-decreases-children-s-physiological-response-to-threat
#19
Brandi Stupica, Bonnie E Brett, Susan S Woodhouse, Jude Cassidy
Ninety 6- and 7-year-olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self-reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was also assessed. Secure priming and attachment security each decreased electrodermal reactivity, increased vagal augmentation, and decreased fearful facial expressions compared to control conditions...
December 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266173/interactive-contributions-of-attribution-biases-and-emotional-intensity-to-child-friend-interaction-quality-during-preadolescence
#20
Xi Chen, Nancy L McElwain, Jennifer E Lansford
Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child-reported attribution biases and teacher-reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child-friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Study children's hostile attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more negative child-friend interaction. In contrast, benign attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more positive child-friend interaction...
December 20, 2017: Child Development
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