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Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014186/would-program-performance-indicators-and-a-nationally-coordinated-response-accelerate-the-elimination-of-tuberculosis-in-canada
#1
Courtney Heffernan, Richard Long
Twenty years ago, a National Consensus Conference on Tuberculosis (TB) recommended that the provinces and territories of Canada jointly declare a commitment to TB elimination with national coordination and assured funding, executed by a committee of federal and provincial/territorial representatives. Canada has committed to the global TB elimination targets set forth by the World Health Organization but lacks a coordinated response. In particular, with the exception of one published and implemented by Indigenous Services Canada, there has been no national monitoring and performance framework...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003511/physical-and-mental-health-inequalities-among-aging-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-canadians-cross-sectional-results-from-the-canadian-longitudinal-study-on-aging-clsa
#2
Arne Stinchcombe, Kimberley Wilson, Katherine Kortes-Miller, Lori Chambers, Bruce Weaver
OBJECTIVE: International estimates suggest the presence of health inequalities among older sexual minorities (i.e., individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and are 65 years old or above). In this study, we investigated the presence of health inequalities among aging lesbian and bisexual females, as well as aging gay and bisexual males in Canada. METHODS: We used baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Tracking and Comprehensive cohorts to cross-sectionally compare self-reported physical and mental health indicators by sex and sexual orientation...
July 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987630/self-reported-work-conditions-in-canada-examining-changes-between-2002-and-2012
#3
Jonathan K Fan, Peter M Smith
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in self-reported work conditions over a 10-year time period in Canada, as measured using two comparable cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2002 and 2012. METHODS: Population-based data were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Work conditions (psychosocial work conditions, work hours, work demands, job satisfaction) were measured using the same modules across survey cycles. Regression models provided estimates for trends in work conditions, adjusting for differences in socio-demographic and survey administration characteristics over time...
July 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981110/cancer-incidence-among-first-nations-adults-in-canada-follow-up-of-the-1991-census-mortality-cohort-1992-2009
#4
Maegan V Mazereeuw, Diana R Withrow, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Loraine D Marrett
OBJECTIVES: Estimate site-specific cancer incidence rates for a wide range of cancers in First Nations adults in Canada, and compare these with rates in non-Aboriginal adults. METHODS: Responses from persons aged 25 and older to the 1991 Long Form Census were linked to national mortality and cancer databases. First Nations- and non-Aboriginal-specific incidence rates were age-standardized to the world standard population. The sex- and site-specific relative risks (RR) of cancer in First Nations compared to those in non-Aboriginal adults were estimated with Poisson regression...
June 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981109/the-effect-of-socio-demographic-factors-on-mental-health-and-addiction-high-cost-use-a-retrospective-population-based-study-in-saskatchewan
#5
Maureen Anderson, Crawford W Revie, Jacqueline M Quail, Walter Wodchis, Claire de Oliveira, Meriç Osman, Marilyn Baetz, J McClure, Henrik Stryhn, David Buckeridge, Cordell Neudorf
OBJECTIVE: A small proportion of the population accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. Mental health and addiction (MHA) patients are consistently high-cost. We aimed to delineate factors amenable to public health action that may reduce high-cost use among a cohort of MHA clients in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. Administrative health data from fiscal years (FY) 2009-2015, linked at the individual level, were analyzed (n = 129,932)...
June 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981108/carbon-pricing-a-win-win-environmental-and-public-health-policy
#6
Anshula Ambasta, Jonathan J Buonocore
Carbon pricing is an important tool for mitigating climate change. Carbon pricing can have significant health co-benefits. Air pollution from fossil fuels leads to detrimental health effects, including premature mortality, heart attacks, hospitalization from cardiorespiratory conditions, stroke, asthma exacerbations, and absenteeism from school and work, and may also be linked to autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Reduction in fossil fuel combustion through a carbon price can lead to improvements in all these areas of health...
June 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981107/towards-equity-focused-intersectoral-practice-equip-in-children-s-environmental-health-and-housing-the-transformational-story-of-rentsafe
#7
Erica Phipps, Jeffrey R Masuda
SETTING: This paper chronicles the transformational process through which a national intersectoral collaboration, the Canadian Partnership for Children's Health and Environment (CPCHE), came to embrace a more upstream, equity-based focus in its mandate to advance children's environmental health. INTERVENTION: After 15 years of working within a conventional, evidence-informed approach to health promotion and policy advocacy, in 2010-2013, CPCHE had the opportunity to collaborate on the development of equity-focused knowledge translation (EqKT)...
June 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981106/the-effect-of-body-weight-on-employment-among-canadian-women-evidence-from-canadian-data
#8
Nazmi Sari, Beliz Acan Osman
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the impact of obesity on labour market participation among Canadian women by using various Canadian population health surveys. METHODS: We estimate the impact of obesity on labour market participation using probit and bivariate probit regression models. To correct for a potential endogenous relationship between obesity and labour market participation, we also use instrumental variables in the bivariate probit regression context. RESULTS: The results suggest that the probability of employment has negative association with the body weight of women...
June 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981105/contested-roles-of-canada-s-chief-medical-officers-of-health
#9
Patrick Fafard, Brittany McNena, Agatha Suszek, Steven J Hoffman
The roles and responsibilities of Canada's Chief Medical Officers of Health (CMOHs) are contested. On the one hand, they are senior public servants who confidentially advise government on public health matters and manage the implementation of government priorities. On the other hand, CMOHs are perceived as independent communicators and advocates for public health. This article analyzes public health legislation across Canada that governs the CMOH role. Our legal analysis reveals that the presence and degree of advisory, communication, and management roles for the CMOH vary considerably across the country...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981103/awareness-of-interest-in-and-willingness-to-pay-for-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-canadian-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Jeffrey Morgan, Olivier Ferlatte, Travis Salway, James Wilton, Mark Hull
OBJECTIVES: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective, HIV prevention strategy increasingly being accessed by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). GBMSM face structural and individual-level barriers accessing PrEP, including awareness and cost. This paper assesses socio-demographic factors associated with awareness, interest, and willingness to pay for PrEP in a sample of Canadian GBMSM. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2015 Sex Now survey, a cross-sectional, online survey of GBMSM...
June 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981102/population-level-trends-in-the-distribution-of-body-mass-index-in-canada-2000-2014
#11
Alexandre Lebel, S V Subramanian, Denis Hamel, Pierre Gagnon, Fahad Razak
OBJECTIVE: Research studying population-level body mass index (BMI) trends document increases in mean or prevalence of overweight/obese but less consideration has been given to describing the changing distribution of BMI. The objective of this research was to perform a detailed analysis of changes in the BMI distribution in Canada. METHODS: Using data from the CCHS (2000-2014), we analyzed distributional parameters of BMI for 492,886 adults aged 25-64 years. We further stratified these analyses for women and men, education level, and region of residence...
June 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981101/severe-obesity-in-children-17-to-24-months-of-age-a-cross-sectional-study-of-target-kids-and-better-outcomes-registry-network-born-ontario
#12
Meloja Satkunam, Laura N Anderson, Sarah Carsley, Jonathon L Maguire, Patricia C Parkin, Ann E Sprague, Geoff D C Ball, Catherine S Birken
OBJECTIVES: International data suggest the prevalence of severe obesity in young children may be increasing, yet no Canadian data are available. The objectives of this study were to examine definitions of severe obesity and to evaluate associated risk factors among young children in Ontario. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children 17 to 24 months of age using two Ontario data sources: TARGet Kids! (n = 3713) and BORN Ontario (n = 768)...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981100/food-sources-among-young-people-in-five-major-canadian-cities
#13
Danielle Wiggers, Lana Vanderlee, Christine M White, Jessica L Reid, Leia Minaker, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To examine food sources among young people in five major Canadian cities. METHODS: As part of the 2016 Canada Food Study, respondents aged 16-30 were recruited from five Canadian cities (Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, Edmonton, and Vancouver) using in-person intercept sampling and completed an online survey (n = 2840 retained for analysis). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize food preparation and purchase locations. A linear regression model was fitted to examine correlates of the proportion of meals that were ready-to-eat or prepared outside the home...
May 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981099/industry-and-geographic-patterns-of-use-and-emission-of-carcinogens-in-ontario-canada-2011-2015
#14
Catherine E Slavik, Sheila Kalenge, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to leverage data from two environmental regulatory initiatives, Ontario's Toxics Reduction Act (TRA) and Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), to assess their ability to monitor trends in the use and emission of carcinogens by industry sector in Ontario. METHODS: Data reported to the TRA and NPRI by industrial facilities in Ontario were retrieved from 2011 to 2015. Twenty-six known and suspected carcinogens were identified (IARC) and the trends in the use and emission were evaluated by industry sector...
May 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981098/lived-experience-of-a-record-wildfire-season-in-the-northwest-territories-canada
#15
Warren Dodd, Patrick Scott, Courtney Howard, Craig Scott, Caren Rose, Ashlee Cunsolo, James Orbinski
OBJECTIVES: During the period of June-September 2014, the Northwest Territories (NWT) experienced its worst wildfire season on record, with prolonged smoke events and poor air quality. In the context of climate change, this study sought to qualitatively explore the lived experience of the 2014 wildfire season among four communities in the NWT. METHODS: Our team conducted 30 semi-structured interviews in four communities (Yellowknife, N'Dilo, Detah, and Kakisa). Interviewees were purposively sampled to include a broad cross-section of backgrounds and experiences...
May 25, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981097/ethnic-differences-in-vascular-function-and-factors-contributing-to-blood-pressure
#16
Heather J A Foulds, Shannon S D Bredin, Darren E R Warburton
OBJECTIVE: Indigenous populations experience greater proportions of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, though lower rates of hypertension. This investigation evaluated blood pressure relationships with vascular measures, anthropometry, cultural identity, and smoking status among Canadian Indigenous and European adults. METHODS: In 2013, in Vancouver, Canada, blood pressure, anthropometry, cultural identity, smoking status, pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial compliance, baroreceptor sensitivity, and intima-media thickness (IMT) were directly measured among 58 Indigenous (39 ± 18 years, 31 female) and 58 age- and sex-matched European Canadian (42 ± 18 years) adults...
May 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981104/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-use-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-in-canadian-adults
#17
Mark Atwood, Linda Beausoleil, Marie-Claude Breton, Craig Laferriere, Reiko Sato, Derek Weycker
OBJECTIVES: The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in a sequential schedule (PCV13 → PPV23) among adults aged ≥ 65 years and those aged ≥ 18 years who are immunocompromised. In light of recent PCV13 efficacy data from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), and new sero-epidemiology data on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we examined the economic implications of funding an expanded adult pneumococcal immunization program in Canada...
May 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981096/red-blood-cell-folate-levels-in-canadian-inuit-women-of-childbearing-years-influence-of-food-security-body-mass-index-smoking-education-and-vitamin-use
#18
Kait Duncan, Anders C Erickson, Grace M Egeland, Hope Weiler, Laura T Arbour
BACKGROUND: The benefits of folic acid for prevention of congenital anomalies are well known. For the Inuit of Canada, where vitamin use is low and access to folate-rich foods limited, fortification is likely a major source of intake. We sought to determine whether red blood cell folate (RBCF) levels of Inuit women reached accepted target levels. METHODS: The Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, included evaluation of RBCF levels among 249 randomly selected non-pregnant women of reproductive age...
May 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981095/child-maltreatment-and-adult-multimorbidity-results-from-the-canadian-community-health-survey
#19
Gillian England-Mason, Rebecca Casey, Mark Ferro, Harriet L MacMillan, Lil Tonmyr, Andrea Gonzalez
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between three types of child maltreatment (exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual, and physical abuse) and multimorbidity (chronic physical conditions, pain conditions, and mental disorders) in adults. METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze weighted data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS - MH 2012), a representative population sample (N = 23,846) of respondents ages 18+...
May 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981094/assessing-health-literacy-among-older-adults-living-in-subsidized-housing-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Gina Agarwal, Kendra Habing, Melissa Pirrie, Ric Angeles, Francine Marzanek, Jenna Parascandalo
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess functional health literacy levels among older adults living in subsidized housing in Hamilton, Ontario, and to assess the relationships between health literacy and other important health indicators, such as education level, age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health status. METHODS: Older adults (n = 237) living in subsidized housing buildings in Hamilton, ON, were assessed using the NVS-UK as a measure of functional health literacy in addition to a health indicator questionnaire through structured interview...
May 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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