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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092162/clinical-use-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-prognosis-and-risk-stratification-of-heart-failure-a-literature-review
#1
Amanda M Marsh, Austin Huy Nguyen, Taylor M Parker, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that represents the end stage of heart disease and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As heart failure mortality rates remain elevated, additional biomarkers that facilitate early detection or risk stratification in HF is of particularly great interest. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) cause the activation of intracellular signaling, gene expression, and production of inflammatory cytokines and have been linked to many inflammatory disease states such as diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051329/regulation-of-the-cardioprotective-adiponectin-and-its-receptor-adipor1-by-salt
#2
Nicholas Arnold, Abuzar Mahmood, Maya Ramdas, Paul P Ehlinger, Lakshmi Pulakat
Both circulating adiponectin (APN) and cardiac APN exert cardioprotective effects and improve insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Low circulating APN serves as a biomarker for cardiovascular risk. Ablation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) causes myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Although high salt intake is a contributor to cardiovascular disease, how it modulates the expression of APN or AdipoR1 in cardiomyocytes is not known. We report that APN mRNA expression was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner in mouse cardiomyocyte cell line HL-1 exposed to salt concentrations ranging from 0...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901351/biosynthesis-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-and-gnrh-receptor-gnrhr-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-unit-of-anoestrous-and-cyclic-ewes
#3
M O Ciechanowska, M Łapot, K Mateusiak, E Paruszewska, T Malewski, F Przekop
This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP)...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092445/mir-29b-promotes-skin-wound-healing-and-reduces-excessive-scar-formation-by-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-ctgf-signaling-pathway
#4
Jingdong Guo, Quan Lin, Ying Shao, Li Rong, Duo Zhang
The hypertrophic scar is a medical difficulty of humans, which has caused great pain to patients. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of miR-29b on scar formation. The scalded model was established in mice and miR-29b mimics or a negative control was subcutaneously injected into the injury skin. Then various molecular biological experiments were performed to assess the effect of miR-29b on scar formation. According to our present study, first, the results demonstrated that miR-29b was down-regulated in thermal injury tissue and miR-29b treatment could promote wound healing, inhibit scar formation, and alleviate histopathological morphologic alteration in scald tissues...
November 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092180/n-acetylcysteine-a-possible-protector-against-indomethacin-induced-peptic-ulcer-crosstalk-between-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-antiapoptotic-mechanisms
#5
Nema Ali Soliman, Doaa Hussein Zineldeen, Mohamed Alaa Katary, Darin Abd Ali
This study investigated the gastroprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg). 50 male albino rats were allocated into 5 equal groups: control group received normal saline orally, indomethacin group rats received normal saline orally for 5 days and indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day, ranitidine group received ranitidine (reference drug) orally for 5 days (50 mg/kg) before receiving indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day, and NAC groups received NAC orally at 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, for 5 days before receiving indomethacin (50 mg/kg) on the last day...
November 14, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060522/aspirin-and-or-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-against-corticohippocampal-neurodegeneration-and-downregulate-lipoxin-a4-production-and-formyl-peptide-receptor-like-1-expression-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats
#6
Basma A Abd-Elghafour, Norhan M El-Sayed, Amal A M Ahmed, Sawsan A Zaitone, Yasser M Moustafa
There is evidence for a relationship between inflammation and seizures because epilepsy can be caused by or result in inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aspirin and (or) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on seizure activity and neurodegeneration in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats focusing on their effect on corticohippocampal production of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and expression of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) receptors. Male rats were injected with PTZ (35 mg/kg, i...
November 10, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925481/mitochondrial-ros-uncoupled-from-atp-synthesis-determine-endothelial-activation-for-both-physiological-recruitment-of-patrolling-cells-and-pathological-recruitment-of-inflammatory-cells
#7
Xinyuan Li, Pu Fang, William Y Yang, Kylie Chan, Muriel Lavallee, Keman Xu, Tracy Gao, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are signaling molecules, which drive inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and autoimmune diseases all share a common feature of increased mtROS level. Both mtROS and ATP are produced as a result of electron transport chain activity, but it remains enigmatic whether mtROS could be generated independently from ATP synthesis. A recent study shed light on this important question and found that, during endothelial cell (EC) activation, mtROS could be upregulated in a proton leak-coupled, but ATP synthesis-uncoupled manner...
November 5, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092166/subchronic-metformin-pretreatment-enhances-novel-object-recognition-memory-task-in-forebrain-ischemia-behavioural-molecular-and-electrophysiological-studies
#8
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Alireza Sarkaki, Fariba Khodagholi, Shima Zareh Shahamati, Mahdi Goudarzvand, Yaghoob Farbood, Mohammad Badavi, Leila Khalaj
Metformin exerts its effect via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key sensor for energy homeostasis that regulates different intracellular pathways. Metformin attenuates oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. In our experiment, rats were divided into 8 groups; some were pretreated with metformin (Met, 200 mg/kg) and (or) the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) for 14 days. On day 14, rats underwent transient forebrain global ischemia. Data indicated that pretreatment of ischemic rats with metformin reduced working memory deficits in a novel object recognition test compared to group with ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) (P < 0...
November 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060523/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-pelargonidin-on-tgfbip-induced-responses
#9
Seongdo Jeong, Sae-Kwang Ku, Jong-Sup Bae
Transforming growth factor β induced protein (TGFBIp) is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in several cell types in response to TGF-β. TGFBIp is released by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and functions as a mediator of experimental sepsis. Pelargonidin (PEL) is a well-known red pigment found in plants, and has been reported as having important biological activities that are potentially beneficial for human health. This study was undertaken to investigate whether PEL can modulate TGFBIp-mediated inflammatory responses in HUVECs and in mice...
November 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044452/nitric-oxide-mediates-effects-of-acute-not-chronic-naltrexone-on-lps-induced-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-rats
#10
Bentolhoda Ghiassy, Nastaran Rahimi, Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Ahmad R Dehpour
Recent studies suggest endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, the interaction between the opioid receptor antagonist and NO was investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HE in cirrhotic rats. Male rats were divided in the sham- and bile duct ligation (BDL)-operated groups. Animals were treated with saline; naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i.p.); or L-NAME (3 mg/kg, i.p.), alone or in combination with naltrexone. To induce HE, LPS (1 mg/kg, i...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044451/note-of-appreciation-note-de-reconnaissance
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044450/caffeine-and-theanine-exert-opposite-effects-on-attention-under-emotional-arousal
#12
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor, Robin B Kanarek
Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925473/the-role-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-tumor-heterogeneity-and-resistance-to-therapy
#13
Christina Valbirk Konrad, Reshma Murali, Binitha Anu Varghese, Radhika Nair
Cancer is a heterogenous disease displaying marked inter- and intra-tumoral diversity. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been experimentally demonstrated in a number of cancer types as a subpopulation of tumor cells that drives the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of the entire cancer. Thus, eradication of the CSC population is critical for the complete ablation of a tumor. This is, however, confounded by the inherent resistance of CSCs to standard anticancer therapies, eventually leading to the outgrowth of resistant tumor cells and relapse in patients...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901381/effects-of-fisetin-on-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-experimental-endothelial-dysfunction-and-vascular-dementia
#14
Boyina Hemanth Kumar, Ravula Arun Reddy, Jerald Mahesh Kumar, B Dinesh Kumar, Prakash V Diwan
This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#15
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875075/chamomile-and-oregano-extracts-synergistically-exhibit-antihyperglycemic-antihyperlipidemic-and-renal-protective-effects-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Rajagopalan Prasanna, Elbessoumy A Ashraf, Mahmoud A Essam
The bio-activities of separate Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) are well studied; however, the combined effects of both natural products in animal diabetic models are not well characterized. In this study, alloxan-induced male albino rats were treated with single dose aqueous suspension of chamomile or oregano at dose level of either 150 or 300 mg/kg body mass or as equal parts as combination by stomach tube for 6 weeks. After treatment, blood samples were assessed for diabetic, renal, and lipid profiles...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841941/long-term-treatment-with-royal-jelly-improves-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats
#17
Hamid Reza Zargar, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Mehri Ghafourian, Ardeshir Arzi, Anahita Rezaie, Seyed Ali Javad-Moosavi
This study investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of royal jelly (RJ) powder against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The rats were given RJ orally (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day) for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM) at 7.5 IU/kg. RJ doses were continued for 21 days after BLM exposure. Fibrotic changes in the lungs were studied by cell count and analysis of cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histopathological examination, and assaying oxidative stress biomarkers in lung tissue...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831748/therapeutic-effects-of-antibiotic-drug-mefloquine-against-cervical-cancer-through-impairing-mitochondrial-function-and-inhibiting-mtor-pathway
#18
Hui Li, Shun Jiao, Xin Li, Hasina Banu, Shreejana Hamal, Xianrong Wang
Targeting mitochondria is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy due to the essential roles of mitochondria in cancer cell energy metabolism. In this study, we show that mefloquine, an antibiotic drug, effectively targets cervical cancer cells through impairing mitochondrial function. Mefloquine dose-dependently induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation of multiple cervical cancer cell lines. Mefloquine alone inhibits cervical tumor growth in vivo and its combination with paclitaxel is synergistic in inhibiting tumor growth...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831744/simulated-microgravity-increases-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-a-deficiency-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#19
Yuan-Ming Lu, Bo Jiao, Jun Lee, Lin Zhang, Zhi-Bin Yu
Gravitation is an important factor in maintaining cardiac contractility. Our study investigated whether simulated microgravity increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Using the Langendorff-perfused heart model with 300 beats/min pacing, 4-week tail suspension (SUS) and control (CON) male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 rats/group) were subjected to 60 min of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and infarct size were assessed...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831743/synergistic-interaction-between-diclofenac-and-pyrilamine-on-nociception-inflammation-and-gastric-damage-in-rats
#20
Mario I Ortiz
Experiments using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) alone have produced limited antinociceptive effects in animal models. For this reason, the number of studies involving the administration of NSAIDs along with an adjuvant drug harboring different mechanisms of action has increased enormously. Here, combinations of diclofenac and pyrilamine were used to determine their influence on nociception (formalin test), inflammation (paw inflammation produced by carrageenan), and gastric damage in rodents...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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