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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of cysteine which is known to increase the level of GSH in brain. Several neurodegenerative changes linked to oxidative stress take place in aging brain. This study is aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of NAC supplementation on age- dependent neurodegeneration in the rat brain. Wistar rats: young (4 months) and old (24 months) age were supplemented with NAC (100 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 14 days. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, GSH and total thiol (T-SH), prooxidants such as protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the brain homogenates...
August 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sara Anne Ruggiero, Jason Huber, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy Andrew Simpson
During physiological stress (e.g. exercise, hypoxia) blood flow is shunted to specific anatomical regions to protect critical organs, yet, splenic blood flow in these circumstances remains to be investigated. Despite being classically viewed as a non-critical organ, recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests the spleen plays a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. We hypothesized that splenic blood flow is prioritized in the development of heart failure (i.e. chronic state of reduced cardiac output)...
August 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Jing Zhi Guan, Wei-Ping Guan, Toyoki Maeda
Systemic peroxidation status has been reported as a pathogenic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemically elevated oxidation levels are associated with serum lipid peroxidation and somatic telomere length (TL) shortening. We investigated whether vitamin E (VE) administration suppresses peroxidation and improves clinical symptoms in 34 MS patients. We analyzed serum lipid peroxidation and degree of TL in circulating leukocytes of MS patients before and after VE treatment. The oxidation level was enhanced and TL was shortened in MS...
August 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Carl Kpadonou, Daniel Gams Massi, Modeste Ouedraogo, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Moustapha Ndiaye, Abdoulaye Samb
Calcium and magnesium are divalent multipotent ions playing a major role in metabolism, excitability and neuroglial plasticity. Because of these multiple properties, their deficits induce complex brain processes leading to acute or even lasting disorders in excitability and neural networks. These ions are usually prescribed in clinical contexts of neuronal hyperexcitability such as preeclampsia and chronic stress. Our aim was to evaluate whether magnesium at 20 mg / kg and calcium at 100 mg / kg could improve the memory prognosis in the kainic model of mesial temporal epilepsy in mice...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Alan Hall Jobe
Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) are standard of care for women at risk of preterm delivery between 24 -34 weeks gestation. Their use decreases preterm morbidities and mortality. However, ACS treatments mimic a stress response by increasing fetal steroid levels at early gestational ages when the fetus is normally protected from high glucocorticoid levels. Within the context of concept of the developmental origins of adult health and disease, ACS are effective stressors in fetal animal models that alter developmental programs and outcome in adult animals...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Kaikun Liu, Yumin Li, Bo Yu, Furong Wang, Taiyu Mi, Yongxun Zhao
The present study was designed to investigate the significance of non-structural maintenance of chromosomes (non-SMC) chromosome-associated polypeptide G (NCAPG), a subunit of condensin complex I, in the development of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NCAPG protein expression in human HCC and para-cancerous hepatic tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry, and NCAPG mRNA expression in HCC cell lines were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to silence NCAPG in HCC cells...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Natalia Kurhaluk, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Olga V Zaitseva, Alina Sliuta, Svitlana Kyriienko, Pawel J Winklewski
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in an in vivo experimental mice model causes oxidative damage in the liver, muscle and kidney. We aimed to determine specific mechanisms underlying melatonin's antioxidant protective role. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate in the control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute LPS administration (once 150 μg) and LPS plus melatonin groups. LPS stimulated lipid peroxidation processes (dienes and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant enzyme concentrations (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were assessed in all investigated tissues...
August 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Manal Moustafa Mahmoud, Asmaa Shamseldeen, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Amal Elham Fares, Ashraf Shamaa, Doaa Mostafa Gharib
Volume overload, the common phenomenon in patients with chronic kidney disease is associated with cardiovascular risk factors.Howeverits contribution to development of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in those patients is not fully studied.Thus, the presentworkaimed to study the effect of highsalt-induced volumeoverloadin a rat model of chronic kidney disease on cardiac functions and geometry. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided to a sham operation anduninephrectomy, thenwere subjected to either a normal-salt (0...
August 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Missaoui Samira, Tlili Mounira, Kacem Kamel, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Khemais Ben Rhouma, Mohsen Sakly, Olfa Tebourbi
This study aimed to examine the effects of vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) on liver in nondiabetic and sterptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Groups1, 2 and 3 are nondiabetic and are respectively, control and given (ip) 5 or 10 mg/kg of VOSO4 for 30 days. Groups 4, 5 and 6 are diabetic animals and are respectively, control and treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg of VOSO4. Results showed that VOSO4 reduced weight gain in nondiabetic rats, whereas it increased body weight in diabetic groups...
August 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Grant N Pierce
No abstract necessary.
August 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Noha Abbas, Amal Salem
Many adipocytokines correlate with obesity and insulin resistance(IR). we examined the effects of metformin, sitagliptin, and liraglutide in diabetic rats. Group 1: control normal (CN) received oral saline daily. Group 2: The diabetic non treated (DNT) injected STZ to get diabetic then after 72 hours the rats received oral saline daily. Group 3: injected STZ then after 72 hours treated with metformin (200 mg/kg) orally. Group 4: injected STZ then after 72 hours received sitagliptin 6 mg/kg orally twice daily...
August 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Vinoth Rajendran, Chanchal Singh, Prahlad C Ghosh
Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum is increasing at an alarming rate of clinically used antimalarial drugs. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient drug delivery system to improve the efficacy of existing antimalarial agents and circumvent drug resistance. Here, we report the antibacterial drug Doxycycline (Doxy) in liposomal formulations exhibits enhanced antiplasmodial activity against blood stage forms of P. falciparum (3D7) in culture and established P. berghei NK-65 infection in murine model...
August 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Chandra S Boosani, Palanikumar Gunasekar, Megan Block, Wanlin Jiang, Zefu Zhang, Mohamed Radwan, Devendra K Agrawal
Increased expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) associates with the progression of many human diseases. Since DNMT1 induces cell proliferation, drugs that inhibit DNMT1 have been used to treat proliferative diseases. Since these drugs are non-specific inhibitors of DNMT1, subsidiary events or the compensatory mechanisms that are activated in the absence of DNMT1 limit their therapeutic application. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms that occur during angioplasty-induced restenosis and found that DNMT1 inhibition in both in-vitro and in-vivo approaches resulted in the induction of DNMT3a expression...
August 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Lorien E Urban, Denis Audet, Eyal S Ron, Alessandro Sannino, Yishai Zohar, Christian Demitri, Eliana Panteca, Ivo Surano, Hassan M Heshmati
Overweight and obesity are major health concerns worldwide, and are major predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes. This single centre, Phase I, randomised, open-label, single-dose, four-arm crossover, device-drug interaction study on 24 healthy volunteers with a body mass index of 25-40 kg/m<sup>2</sup> tested the effect of a novel, non-systemic, orally administered hydrogel (GS100) on the pharmacokinetics of the oral antidiabetic drug, metformin. When administered in both the fed and fasted states, the effect of GS100 on metformin pharmacokinetic characteristics was found to be similar to that of food...
August 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Li Cai, Wei-Na Chen, Rong Li, Ming-Ming Liu, Chao Lei, Chun-Mei Li, Yuan-Ye Qiu
Since the excessive apoptosis of articular chondrocytes contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) loss and cartilage damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inhibiting chondrocytes apoptosis might be a promising strategy for RA. Aquaporin1 (AQP1) is over-expressed in RA cartilage and synovial tissues, and play a vital pathogenic role in RA development. Particularly, we previously reported that acetazolamide (AZ) as an AQP1 inhibitor suppressed secondary inflammation and promoted ECM production in cartilage of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats...
August 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Tamara R Nikolic Turnic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Dragan Djuric, Nevena Jeremic, Jovana Jeremic, Isidora Milosavljevic, Ivan M Srejovic, Dragica Selakovic, Vladimir I Zivkovic
The aim of this study was to assess impact of atorvastain and simvastatin on myocardial contractility during the different degree of Hhcy in rats. Study was conducted on adult male Wistar albino rats (n=96; 4 weeks old; 100±15g body mass) in which HHcy was achieved by dietary manipulation. Animals were exposed to pharmacology treatment with atorvastatin in dose of 3 mg/kg/day i.p or simvastatin in dose of 5 mg/kg/day i.p in same time every day, according to equivalent therapeutic doses of these statins (10mg atorvastatin=20mg simvastatin)...
August 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Nicolas Fougeront, Bernard Fleiter
According to the "pain adaptation model", temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-related pain induces a paradoxical activity of masticatory muscles: an agonistic hypoactivity during jaw closing and an antagonistic activity during jaw opening (agonist/antagonist co-activation). However, this model suffers several weaknesses, notably it does not explain all types of neck muscle activities in neck pain (NP) which is a very prevalent TMD co-morbid condition. In NP, neck muscle antagonistic activity is increased, and agonistic activity is decreased as postulated by the pain adaptation model...
August 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Tuğçe Demirtaş Şahin, Yusufhan Yazir, Tijen Utkan, Gulcin Gacar, Zehra Seda Halbutoğulları, Semil Selcen Gocmez
Psychological stress may lead to erectile dysfunction (ED), and inflammation has been evaluated as a major contributing factor. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein, on cavernosal function in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rat model of depression. Animals were divided into 4 groups: animals not exposed to UCMS, animals not exposed to UCMS and treated with ETN, animals exposed to UCMS, and animals treated with ETN while exposed to UCMS...
July 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ana Lúcia Hoefel, Bruno Dutra Arbo, Claudia Vieira-Marques, Ana Lucia Cecconello, Aline Gonçalves Cozer, Maria Flávia Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Kucharski
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone that presents several effects on metabolism, however, most of the studies have been performed in male animals, while few authors have investigated possible sex differences regarding the metabolic effects of DHEA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of DHEA in metabolic parameters of male and ovariectomized female Wistar rats. Sex differences were found in the metabolism of distinct substrates and in relation to the effect of DHEA...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Islam Ibrahim Hegab, Rania Nagi Abd-Ellatif, Mona Tayssir Sadek
The protective effect of N- acetylcysteine (NAC) and genistein (GEN) on an experimental model of indomethacin (IND) - induced gastric injury was investigated. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups: control (I), IND (II), NAC pretreated (III), GEN Pretreated (IV), NAC+GEN pretreated (V). Rats were orally administered NAC (500 mg/kg), GEN (10 mg/kg) or both once daily for 7 days before the induction of the gastric injury by IND (50 mg/kg). Stomach was removed for biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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