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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Heba Mamdoh Shoeib, Walaa Arafa Keshk, Abdallah Mahmoud Foda, Saad El-Deen Abd Elfatah Abo El Noeman
Hepatic fibrosis is a worldwide health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no effective therapy for hepatic fibrosis. So that the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible regenerative effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatic damage. Eighty albino rats were included; 40 were used for PRP preparation and 40 were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group); group II (PRP control); group III (TAA- intoxicated in a dose of 200 mg ∕ kg body weight/twice weekly for 7 weeks, intra-peritoneal and group IV (TAA-intoxicated+ PRP treated)...
February 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Brandi Wynne, Hicham Labazi, Victor Lima, Fernando Carneiro, R Clinton Webb, Rita C Tostes, Fernanda Regina Giachini
The endothelium is crucial for the maintenance of vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive substances, including nitric oxide (NO). Systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) is primarily regulated by the resistance vasculature, which has been shown to exhibit increased vascular reactivity, and decreased vasorelaxation during hypertension. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism for mesenteric artery vasorelaxation of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP). We hypothesized that eNOS is up-regulated in SHRSP vessels, increasing NO production to compensate for the endothelial dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sameh Saber, Amr A A Mahmoud, Noha Said Helal, Eman El-Ahwany, Rasha Abdelghany
Therapeutic interventions for liver fibrosis are still limited due to the complicated molecular pathogenesis. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) seems to contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of RAS inhibition on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Mice were treated with silymarin (30 mg kg-1), perindopril (1 mg kg-1), fosinopril (2 mg kg-1), or losartan (10 mg kg-1). The administration RAS inhibitors improved liver histology and decreased protein expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hepatic content of hydroxyproline...
February 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Xavier Charest-Morin, Robert Lodge, François Marceau
To support bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor (B2R) detection and therapeutic stimulation, we developed and characterized fusion proteins consisting of the BK homolog maximakinin (MK), or variants, positioned at the C-terminus of functional proteins (enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), the peroxidase APEX2 or human serum albumin (HSA)). EGFP-MK loses its reactivity with anti-BK antibodies and molecular mass as it progresses in the endosomal tract of cells expressing rat B2Rs (immunoblots, epifluorescence microscopy)...
February 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Morgan Gazzola, Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Clémentine Beucher, Ynuk Bossé
The mechanisms whereby anti-cholinergics improve asthma outcomes, such as lung function, symptoms and rate of exacerbation, can be numerous. The most obvious is by affecting the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The acetylcholine released from the cholinergic nerves is the most important bronchoconstrictor that sets the baseline degree of contractile activation of ASM in healthy individuals. Although the degree of ASM's contractile activation can also be fine-tuned by a plethora of other bronchoconstrictors and bronchodilators in asthma, blocking the ceaseless effect of acetylcholine on ASM by anti-cholinergics reduces, at any given moment, the overall degree of contractile activation...
February 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Nehal Aly Afifi, Marwa Ibrahim, Mona Galal
Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries remains a challenge. The Quercetin (QR) and ellagic acid (EA) had a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current study aimed at evaluating the potential hepatoprotective influence of QR and EA against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver toxicity in rats and the underlying mechanism using silymarin as a reference drug...
February 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Vishal J Patel, Amit Arvind Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Maulik S Patel, Brijesh K Sutariya, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul Jain
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Coagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucagon receptor (GCGR) are under clinical investigation for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of a balanced coagonist in the treatment of NAFLD using mice models. GLP-1R agonist exendin-4, glucagon, and coagonist (Aib2 C24 Chimera2) were administered to C57BL6/J mice, in which NAFLD was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment after in high fat diet (HFD) feeding, and CDAHFD (choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, HFD)...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ahmet Goktan Aksu, Ozgur Gunduz, Ahmet Ulugol
The antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids have been known for centuries. Serotonin and its receptors are also known to play important roles in nociception. However, the contribution of spinal 5-HT5A receptors in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids has not been studied. We conducted this study to clarify spinal mechanisms of the actions of the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids. Hot-plate and tail-flick tests were used to assess the antinociceptive activity in Balb/c mice...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sahar Mohamed El Agaty
This study was designed to investigate whether and how triiodothyronine (T3) affects renal function in an experimental model of chronic kidney disease. Twenty four female rats were divided into: sham operated control group (n=8) , 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx, n=8) and 5/6 nephrectomized group treated with T3 for 2 weeks (T3-Nx, n=8). T3 administration significantly decreased serum levels of urea, creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 compared to Nx group. The levels of malondialdehyde , transforming growth factor beta, fibronectin, and collagen IV as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa B, poly ADP ribose polymerase, caspase-3 and Bax all were significantly decreased , though not normalized, in the remnant kidney of T3-Nx group compared to Nx rats...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Olasupo Stephen Adeniyi, Benjamin O Emikpe, Samuel Olaleye
The roles of gastric acid, mucus and inflammation on the pro ulcer-healing effect of thyroid hormone were investigated. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, thyroidectomised, thyroidectomised with thyroxine treatment (100µg/kg/day) and sham operated animals treated with thyroxine. Thirty-five days after thyroidectomy, sham surgery or thyroxine treatment, ulcer was experimentally induced. Healing was assessed 3, 7 and 10 days post ulceration by measurement of ulcer area, gastric mucus and acid secretion, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an index of inflammation...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Fu Congrui, Li Na, Yuan Yujia, Wang Ri, Chen Jinting, Yang Jing, Guo Zan, Wang Sheng, Zhang Yi, Liu Yixian, Dong Jinghui
Many studies have demonstrated that chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) can reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular hypertensive (RVH) rats in which endothelial dysfunction is determined as a critical factor. However, whether CIHH can regulate vasodilation of the aorta in RVH rats remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CIHH on impaired relaxation of the aorta in the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) RVH rat model. The results showed CIHH improved the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the 2K1C rat aorta...
February 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Oluwaseun Aremu Adeyanju, Olaniyi Soetan, Ayodele Soladoye, Lawrence A Aderemi Olatunji
Estrogen deficiency has been associated with increased cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and recent clinical trials of standard formulations of hormonal therapies have not demonstrated consistent beneficial effects. Estrogen-progestin therapy has been used as exogenous estrogen to normalise depressed estrogen level during menopause. Ovariectomized rodents mimic estrogen-deficient state in that they develop cardiometabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance (IR).We therefore hypothesized that hormonal therapy with combined oral contraceptive steroids, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EEL) improves IR, obesity and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) through reduction in circulating mineralocorticoid level in ovariectomized rats...
February 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Youming Ding, Xiaoyan Chen, Bin Wang, Yu Bin, Jianhui Ge, Xiaokang Shi
Proteasomal system is a promising target for cancer treatment. Quercetin (Que), a flavonoid compound with antitumor ability, displays the inhibitory effect on proteasome activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are ill-defined. The present study found that Que treatment significantly reduced the chymotrypsin-like protease activity of proteasome whereas the trypsin- and caspase-like protease activities remained unchanged in HepG2 cancer cells, along with activation of p38 MAPK and JNK and reduction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation...
February 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yulong Hu, Zheng Wang, Nannan Ge, Ting Huang, Mingchao Zhang, Hegui Wang
Previous studies have found decreased functional capacity of the sodium pump (Na+-K+-ATPase) alpha and beta subunits and recovery of Na+-K+-ATPase activity significantly decreased myocyte apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the potential role of the Na+-K+-ATPase α-2 subunit (ATP1A2) in cardiomyocyte anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury has not been elucidated. Rat myocardial cells were subjected to siRNA transfection followed by A/R injury. Apoptosis and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins CHOP, GRP78, and Caspase-12 were detected in four groups of cells: ATP1A2 siRNA + A/R; control siRNA + A/R; control; and A/R injury model...
February 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Lucas Rodolfo de Oliveira Rosa, Anderson Kiyoshi Kaga, Pedro Octavio Barbanera, Priscila Manfio Queiroz, Nágilla Orleanne Lima do Carmo, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes
Diabetes is one of the leading diseases worldwide and, thus, finding new therapeutic alternatives is essential. The development of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is a notable diabetic complication. Therefore, antioxidant therapy became a leading topic in the world of diabetes research. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant N-Acetyl-cysteine (NAC) administration on serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress parameters in hepatic tissue of the diabetic rats. 32 animals were divided in 4 groups (n=8), G1: Normal rats, G2: Normal rats + NAC, G3: Diabetic rats, and G4: Diabetic rats + NAC...
January 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sally A Abuelezz
An experimental model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma was used to assess the effects of nebivolol, the third-generation selective β1-adrenergic receptor blocker, on airway reactivity, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. The asthma induction protocol was done by OVA sensitization and challenge. Guinea pigs were classified into control, asthmatic, or asthmatic receiving nebivolol either 7.5 or 15 mg·kg-1·day-1 orally. At the end of the study respiratory, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of nebivolol were assessed...
January 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Angelo Carpinelli, Helenir Medri de Souza
Metformin (MET) is widely used in the correction of insulin (INS) resistance and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on INS resistance and metabolic disorders associated with cancer cachexia is not established. We investigated the MET effects, isolated or associated with INS, on INS resistance and metabolic changes induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats with advanced cachexia. MET (500, oral) and MET + INS (NPH, 1.0, sc) were administered during 12 days, starting on the day of tumor cell inoculation...
January 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Salwa Mohammad, Basma Kamal Ramadan, Mona Schaalan
Azathioprine (AZA) is an effective anticancer drug, but some cases of testicular toxicity have been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the protective effects of taurine (TAU), a reported antioxidant and antiinflammtory peptide, against AZA-induced testicular dysfunction in male rats and ascertain the contributing mechanisms. Forty adult male rats were allocated into four equal groups; (i) normal control rats, (ii) TAU group (100 mg/kg b.w/ day for ten weeks, (iii) AZA group (10 mg/day for four weeks); (iv) TAU/AZA group...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Tuğçe Demirtaş Şahin, Yusufhan Yazir, Tijen Utkan, Gulcin Gacar, Selenay Furat Rençber, Semil Selcen Gocmez
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported to be associated with inflammation. This study investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept on penile neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions, testosterone concentrations, neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxations of corpus cavernosum (CC), and circulating and cavernosal levels of inflammatory markers in aged rats. Animals were separated into control, aged, and etanercept-treated aged groups...
December 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ateeque Siddique, Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Ryan Buyting, Hamood Al-Kindi, Hossny Alaws, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
The cellular mechanisms that induce calcific aortic stenosis are yet to be unravelled. Wnt signaling is increasingly being considered as a major player in the disease process. However, the presence of Wnt Frizzled receptors (Fzd) and co-receptors LRP5 and 6 in normal and diseased human aortic valves remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to determine Fzd receptor expression in normal and calcified human aortic valve tissue, as well as human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) isolated from calcified and normal human aortic valves...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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