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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Damodara Gowda, Hitha Harshitha, Amrit M Mirajkar
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin level and antioxidative status and metabolic dysregulation in young adult obese population. This cross-sectional study included three hundred subjects of either sex, grouped as obese and non-obese subjects. The Body Mass Index (BMI), serum ferritin, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), Total cholesterol (TC), High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vitamin-C level was estimated...
October 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yan Ye, Liang Hui, Koffi L Lakpa, Yuqian Xing, Hannah Wollenzien, Xuesong Chen, Julia Zhao, Jonathan D Geiger
Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been used as vehicles for drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulations in nanoneuromedicine. SiNPs may cause adverse effects in brain including neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and enhancing levels of amyloid beta protein (Aβ); all pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the extent to which SiNPs influence Aβ generation and the underlying mechanisms by which this occurs deserves investigation. Our studies were focused on the effects of SiNPs on endolysosomes which uptake, traffic, and mediate the actions of SiNPs...
October 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Tan Deng, Jing Liu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yaxin Wang, Guannan Zhu, Jiajia Wang
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calycosin on hepatic stellate cell function and to explore whether the drug exert its effect through the estrogen receptor. Hepatic stellate cells proliferation and migration were measured by MTT assay and transwell chamber assay, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of α-SMA, Col-Ⅰand ERβ were detected by real time PCR and Western blotting. The co-localization and expression of α-SMA and ERβ protein were detected by immunofluorescence...
October 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Wu Lv, Jialin Zhang, Ao Jiao, Bowen Wang, Baomin Chen, Jie Lin
It has been proved that human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the main constituent of islet amyloid deposition, is one of the important factors which can induce type 2 diabetes or graft failure after islet transplantation. As there is no research on whether resveratrol degrading the amyloid deposition by its special chemical structure or enhancing autophagy had been published, we decided to detect the function of resveratrol in degrading the amyloid deposition in pancreatic beta cells. We established stable hIAPP-INS1 cell line via transfecting INS1 cells by lentivirus that overexpresses hIAPP...
October 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Mohamed El-Dosoky, Mohamed Elshafey, Mohamed El-Mesery, Amr N Ali, Khaled M Abbas, Osama A Abulseoud
OBJECTIVES: To examine the possible neuroprotective and antiepileptic effects of metformin in a rat model of PTZ-induced epilepsy and its possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: forty male albino rats were allocated into 4 equal groups; 1) normal control (NC) group, 2) Metf group: metformin (200 mg/kg i.p. daily) for 2 weeks, 3) PTZ-group: received PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p. every other day) for 2 weeks and 4) Metf group: received PTZ and metformin (200 mg/kg i.p. daily) for 2 weeks...
October 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Brandon Yh Chan, Andrej Roczkowsky, Nils Moser, Mathieu Poirier, Bryan G Hughes, Ramses Ilarraza, Richard Schulz
Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are commonly prescribed antineoplastic agents which cause irreversible cardiac injury. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is initiated by increased oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Oxidative stress enhances intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) by direct activation of its full length isoform and/or de novo expression of an N-terminal truncated (NTT-MMP-2) isoform. As MMP-2 is localized to the sarcomere we tested whether doxorubicin activates intracellular MMP-2 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and if it thereby proteolyzes two of its identified sarcomeric targets, α-actinin and troponin I...
October 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Delfin Rodriguez Leyva, Ayelen Rodriguez-Portelles, Wendy Weighell, Randolph Guzman, Thane G Maddaford, Grant N Pierce
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and higher susceptibility for cardiac arrhythmias may be involved. The objectives of this double blinded, randomized controlled FLAX-PAD trial were to determine whether daily consumption of a diet supplemented with 30g of milled flaxseed (or placebo) over one year by PAD patients has effects on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and exercise capacity. Cardiac arrhythmias were assessed on a cardiac stress test and at rest...
October 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Guangtao Xia, Sensen Wu, Xia Wang, Min Fu
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by hepatic inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of antagomir-155 on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced AIH, and its possible mechanisms. According to the results, the expression of miR-155 was raised in liver tissues after 48 h exposure to ConA. Treatment with antagomir-155 attenuated ConA-induced liver injury in mice by reducing serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Mireille Guillot, Martin Offringa, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Bernard Thébaud
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Currently, there is no specific treatment available. Preclinical studies support cell-therapy as a promising therapy for BPD in preterm infants. A successful translation to a safe and effective clinical intervention depends on multiple factors including the perspective of neonatal health care providers. A 2 hour workshop with 40 Canadian neonatologists was held to enhance the design of a phase II trial of stem cells for babies at risk for BPD, with a focus on the population to target and the outcomes to measure in such a trial...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Seidali Hosseini, Mahboube Eslami Moghadam, Maryam Saeidifar, Ali Akbar Saboury
The aim of this study is to examine the interaction of [Pd(2,2'-bipyridine) (morpholinedithiocarbamate)]NO3 and [Pt (2,2'-bipyridine)(morpholinedithiocarbamate)]NO3 with human serum albumin under physiological conditions by using fluorescence, absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching at different temperatures demonstrated that the quenching mechanism was static quenching. From the CD results, thermal stability study, it was found that the interaction of the complexes with HSA caused a conformational change of the protein reversibly...
October 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Prakesh S Shah, Michael Dunn, Khalid Aziz, Vibhuti Shah, Akhil Deshpandey, Amit Mukerji, Eugene Ng, Khorshid Mohammad, Cindy Ulrich, Nely Amaral, Brigitte Lemyre, Anne Synnes, Bruno Piedboeuf, Wendy H Yee, Xiang Y Ye, Shoo K Lee
Quality improvement initiatives in neonatology have yielded positive results; however, few programs have demonstrated sustainability. We evaluated an ongoing, national quality improvement initiative (Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality [EPIQ-3]) on outcomes of preterm neonates 220-286 weeks' gestational age (GA). Data from 7459 neonates admitted to 25 Canadian centers between 2013 and 2017 were studied. Trends in mortality and major morbidities were evaluated. The neonates of 220-236 weeks' GA increased from 90 in 2013 to 139 in 2017 without a significant change in any other GA categories...
October 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Naresh Kumar, Ankit Garg, Deepak L Bhatt, Sandra Sabongui, Naveen Gupta, Sundeep Chaudhry, Ross Arena, Subodh Verma
SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to prevent heart failure and reduce cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether or not SGLT2 inhibitors improve indices of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an independent predictor of mortality in patients with CVD, remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of empagliflozin on indices of CRF in patients with T2DM. Twenty patients with T2DM received either empagliflozin 10mg or usual care. Baseline and 3 to 6-month post-treatment measurements of CRF were evaluated using CPET on a cycle ergometer...
September 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Amal R Ebrahim, Mohamed El-Mesery, Amro El-Karef, Laila Ahmed Eissa
The role of vitamin D (Vit D) either alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in thioacetamide (TAA) induced-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats was investigated. Fifty male Sprague-Dawely rats were randomized into: control group and four groups receiving TAA (200 mg/Kg) i.p twice per week for 16 weeks that were further divided into HCC group, 5-FU group (75 mg/kg; ip; once weekly for 3 weeks starting from the 12th week), Vit D group (200 IU/kg/day; daily by oral tube; for 16 weeks) and 5-FU+Vit D group receiving the previously mentioned dosage regimens of 5-FU and Vit D...
September 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Bojan Mladenovic, Nikola Mladenovic, Vesna Brzacki, Nemanja Srdjan Petrovic, Aleksandar Kamenov, Mladjan Golubovic, Vanja Nickovic, Nikola Stojanovic, Dusan Sokolovic
Rat bile duct ligation (BDL) represents a useful method that mimics obstructive extrahepatic cholestasis which is known to be a frequent disorder in humans. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are one of the key molecules regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This work aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial properties of putrescine in rat BDL model by studying several biochemical parameters reflecting liver function and polyamine metabolism. Rats that were subjected to BDL were injected with putrescine (150 mg/kg) for nine days, while in parallel another group with BDL remained untreated...
September 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of cysteine which is known to increase the level of GSH in brain. Several neurodegenerative changes linked to oxidative stress take place in aging brain. This study is aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of NAC supplementation on age- dependent neurodegeneration in the rat brain. Wistar rats: young (4 months) and old (24 months) age were supplemented with NAC (100 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 14 days. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, GSH and total thiol (T-SH), prooxidants such as protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the brain homogenates...
August 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sara Anne Ruggiero, Jason Huber, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy Andrew Simpson
During physiological stress (e.g. exercise, hypoxia) blood flow is shunted to specific anatomical regions to protect critical organs, yet, splenic blood flow in these circumstances remains to be investigated. Despite being classically viewed as a non-critical organ, recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests the spleen plays a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. We hypothesized that splenic blood flow is prioritized in the development of heart failure (i.e. chronic state of reduced cardiac output)...
August 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Jing-Zhi Guan, Wei-Ping Guan, Toyoki Maeda
Systemic peroxidation status has been reported as a pathogenic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemically elevated oxidation levels are associated with serum lipid peroxidation and somatic telomere length (TL) shortening. We investigated whether vitamin E (VE) administration suppresses peroxidation and improves clinical symptoms in 34 MS patients. We analyzed serum lipid peroxidation and degree of TL in circulating leukocytes of MS patients before and after VE treatment. The oxidation level was enhanced and TL was shortened in MS...
August 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Carl Kpadonou, Daniel Gams Massi, Modeste Ouedraogo, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Moustapha Ndiaye, Abdoulaye Samb
Calcium and magnesium are divalent multipotent ions playing a major role in metabolism, excitability and neuroglial plasticity. Because of these multiple properties, their deficiency induces complex brain processes leading to acute or even lasting disorders in excitability and neural networks. These ions are usually prescribed in clinical contexts of neuronal hyperexcitability such as preeclampsia and chronic stress. Our aim was to evaluate whether magnesium at 20 mg/kg and calcium at 100 mg/kg could improve the memory prognosis in the kainic model of mesial temporal epilepsy in mice...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Alan Hall Jobe
Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) are standard of care for women at risk of preterm delivery between 24 -34 weeks gestation. Their use decreases preterm morbidities and mortality. However, ACS treatments mimic a stress response by increasing fetal steroid levels at early gestational ages when the fetus is normally protected from high glucocorticoid levels. Within the context of concept of the developmental origins of adult health and disease, ACS are effective stressors in fetal animal models that alter developmental programs and outcome in adult animals...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Kaikun Liu, Yumin Li, Bo Yu, Furong Wang, Taiyu Mi, Yongxun Zhao
The present study was designed to investigate the significance of non-structural maintenance of chromosomes (non-SMC) chromosome-associated polypeptide G (NCAPG), a subunit of condensin complex I, in the development of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NCAPG protein expression in human HCC and para-cancerous hepatic tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry, and NCAPG mRNA expression in HCC cell lines were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to silence NCAPG in HCC cells...
August 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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