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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028441/physiological-and-pharmacological-inductors-of-hsp70-enhance-the-anti-oxidative-defense-mechanisms-of-the-liver-and-pancreas-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Maja Dimitrovska, Mirsada Dervisevik, Natasa Cipanovska, Katerina Gerazova, Suzana Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Biljana Miova
Heat preconditioning (HP) is a powerful adaptive and protective phenomenon and the heat stress proteins (HSPs) it produces are an important determinant for the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin has been reported to modulate heat shock response in different organisms through increased induction of HSPs and is also known to exert anti-oxidative and radical scavenging effects in diabetes. We estimated the effect of physiological [heat stress (HS), 45min / 41±0.5ºC)] and pharmacological (aspirin treatment) induction of HSP70 on several parameters of oxidative state in the pancreas and liver of diabetic rats...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028440/intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-an-angiotensin-at2-receptor-agonist-novokinin-aggravates-some-diabetes-mellitus-induced-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#2
Daniela Pechlivanova, Kiril Petrov, Petar Grozdanov, Zlatina Nenchovska, Jana Tchekalarova, Alexander Stoynev
Cumulative data suggest the significant role of the Renin - Angiotensin System in the development of the pathological consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM). Newly synthesized AT2 receptor agonists gained importance as a target for creating new antihypertensives. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a peptide AT2 agonist Novokinin, infused intracerebroventricularly, on the consequences of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM (T1 DM) in Wistar rats. Food and water consumption, body weight, urine excretion (metabolic cages), motor activity (open field test), anxiety (elevated plus maze), nociception (paw pressure analgesimeter test), spatial memory (T-maze alternation test) and plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone (ELISA) were assessed two weeks after the T1 DM induction...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020462/syk-inhibitor-r406-down-regulates-inflammation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#3
Alaa Alhazmi, Joshua Choi, Marina Ulanova
As Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are characterized by strong inflammation of infected tissues anti-inflammatory therapies in combination with antibiotics have been considered for the treatment of associated diseases. Syk tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of inflammatory responses, and its specific inhibition was explored as a therapeutic option in several inflammatory conditions; however, this has not been studied in bacterial infections. We used a model of in vitro infection of human monocytic cell line THP-1 and lung epithelial cell line H292 with both wild type and flagella-deficient mutant of P...
October 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977777/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-its-role-in-exhaustive-exercise-induced-changes-in-female-rat-ovulatory-cycle
#4
Abeer F Mostafa, Shereen M Samir, Reham M Nagib
INTRODUCTION: Exhaustive exercises can cause delayed menarche or menstrual cycle irregularities in female. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are incorporated into a wide range of benefits in many physiological systems. AIM OF WORK: aimed to assess the role of ω-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the deleterious effects of exhaustive exercise on female reproductive system in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: virgin female rats were randomly divided into four groups (12 rats in each): Control group (C), Omega 3 (ω-3) group treated with DHA, exhaustive exercise group (Ex), and exhaustive exercised rats treated with DHA...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977772/caffeine-alters-emotion-and-emotional-responses-in-low-habitual-caffeine-consumers
#5
Grace E Giles, Alexander M Spring, Heather L Urry, Joseph M Moran, Caroline R Mahoney, Robin B Kanarek
Caffeine reliably increases emotional arousal, but it is unclear if and how it influences other dimensions of emotion such as emotional valence. These experiments documented whether caffeine influences emotion and emotion regulation choice and success. Low to abstinent caffeine consumers (maximum 100 mg/day) completed measures of state anxiety, positive and negative emotion, and salivary cortisol before, 45 minutes, and 75 minutes after consuming 400 mg caffeine or placebo. Participants also completed an emotion regulation choice task in which they chose to employ cognitive reappraisal or distraction in response to high and low intensity negative pictures (Experiment 1) or a cognitive reappraisal task, in which they employed cognitive reappraisal or no emotion regulation strategy in response to negative and neutral pictures (Experiment 2)...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977758/nh4cl-affects-the-expression-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-hepatocytes
#6
Lu Bai, Jingjing Li, Xiaorui Liu, Shasha Li, Fulei Li, Yanling Chen, Zujiang Yu
We intend to explore whether NH4Cl influences the viability and regulates the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in hepatocytes.The Chang liver cell line was used and culture with different concentrations of NH4Cl (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 50mM/l) for 12h, 24h and 48h, respectively. The viability of hepatocytes was detected by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein expression level was analyzed with qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. NH4Cl concentration significantly affects the viability of hepatocytes. With the increase of NH4Cl concentration, the viability of hepatocytes was decreased, accordingly...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977756/hypersensitivity-reactions-to-lmwhs-different-patterns-of-cross-reactivity-in-three-patients-case-series-and-a-literature-review
#7
Danica Juricic Nahal, Ivana Cegec, Viktorija Erdeljic Turk, Ksenija Makar Ausperger, Iva Kraljickovic, Iveta Simic
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are used for a variety of indications. The most common type of hypersensitivity reactions to LMWHs are delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DHR). Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) occur only sporadically. Cross-reactivity of different LMWHs is a common and unpredictable problem. We present two cases of patients who developed DHR to nadroparin and enoxaparin, respectively. The third case presents a patient who developed IHR to nadroparin. Skin tests confirmed the hypersensitivity in all cases...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968507/does-posttreatment-thymoquinone-reverse-high-dose-atorvastatin-induced-hepatic-oxidative-injury-in-rats
#8
Sherif M Sabry Hassan, Ahmer Razzaque, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Vanessa Pazdernik, Shaimaa Nasr Amin
Atorvastatin (ATO) was commonly used to lower blood cholesterol, but it caused harmful effects to organs, including the liver. Thymoquinone (TQ), a prominent constituent of Nigella sativa, has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. The current study investigated the mechanism of ATO-induced hepatotoxicity, whether posttreatment TQ could reverse ATO-induced hepatic injury, and the mechanism of action of TQ as a hepatoprotective agent. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups: control, TQ-treated, ATO-treated, and combined ATO/TQ-treated...
October 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957639/serum-levels-of-chemerin-apelin-vaspin-and-omentin-1-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-egyptian-patients-with-coronary-artery-stenosis
#9
Tarek Kamal Motawi, Soliman Ghareeb Mahdy, Maha M El-Sawalhi, Eman Noaman Ali, Rania Farag Eltelbany
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in diabetic population. Obesity is a serious problem that has been linked with CVD and diabetes via a variety of adipokines. AIMS: To evaluate and correlate circulating chemerin, apelin, vaspin and omentin-1 levels in obese type 2 diabetic Egyptian patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS), and to assess their usefulness as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: Chemerin, apelin, vaspin and omentin-1 levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay in CAD I patients (45 non-obese, non-diabetic with CAS), CAD II patients (45 obese, diabetic with CAS) and 30 controls...
September 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926719/exosomes-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-inhibit-doxorubicin-and-inflammation-induced-pyroptosis-in-muscle-cells
#10
Zahra Tavakoli Dargani, Reetu Singla, Taylor Johnson, Rakesh C Kukreja, Dinender Kumar Singla
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anticancer drug. Unfortunately, it causes cardio and muscle toxicity due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation; however, it remains unknown whether Dox induces "pyroptosis"- an inflammation mediated cell death. We investigated whether Dox induces pyroptosis in mouse soleus muscle (Sol 8) cells in vitro and to show the protective effect of embryonic stem cells-exosomes (ES-exos) on pyroptosis. Doxorubicin and inflammation induced in vitro model was generated. Pyroptosis was confirmed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting of putative markers caspase-1, IL1β and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18...
September 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915358/remote-myocardial-injury-the-protective-role-of-fluoxetine
#11
Muhittin Onur Yaman, Ibrahim Guner, Hayriye Erman, Olgu Enis Tok, Mukaddes Pala, Mukaddes Esrefoglu, Remisa Gelisgen, Hafize Uzun, Ugur Aksu, Nermin Yelmen, Emine Gulderen Sahin
Aortic cross-clamping induced ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an important factor in development of postoperative acute cardiac injury following abdominal aortic surgery. We investigated the possible antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of fluoxetine (FLX), which used widely as a preoperative anxiolytic, on cardiac injury induced by IR of infrarenal abdominal aorta. FLX was administered to IR (60-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion) performed rats for 3 days, once daily at 20 mg/kg, i.p. dosage. Results were compared to control and non-FLX treated IR performed rats...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910549/upregulation-of-%C3%AE-enolase-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-phenylephrine-induced-hypertrophy
#12
Si Gao, Xueping Liu, Lihua Wei, Jing Lu, Peiqing Liu
Cardiac hypertrophy often refers to the abnormal growth of heart muscle through a variety of factors. The mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy have been extensively investigated using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with phenylephrine. α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme with "multifunctional jobs" beyond its catalytic activity. Its possible contribution to cardiac dysfunction remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the change of α-enolase during cardiac hypertrophy and explore its role in this pathological process...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898588/micrornas-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes-new-research-progress-and-future-direction
#13
Chenggui Miao, Guoxue Zhang, Zhongwen Xie, Jun Chang
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short non-coding RNA that can influence messenger RNA (mRNA) processing at the post-transcriptional level. A large number of miRNAs have been found in virtually all species so far, and these small molecules play an important role in many different physiological processes and various pathologic conditions, such as cell metabolism, cancer, autoimmune disease, and diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) arises from a dysregulated response to the elevated glucose level in the circulation...
September 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898587/the-antioxidant-and-antiapoptotic-effect-of-boric-acid-on-hepatoxicity-in-chronic-alcohol-fed-rats
#14
Ibrahim Sogut, Sıla Ozlem Paltun, Matem Tuncdemir, Melike Ersoz, Canan Hurdag
The harmful use alcohol is a worldwide problem involving all ages. This study aims to investigate chronic alcohol exposure related hepatotoxicity on the rats liver and possible hepatoprotective effects of boric acid. Rats were separated into four different group: control, ethanol, ethanol+boric acid and boric acid. We measured malondialdehyde levels (MDA), total sialic acid (TSA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels which are known to be the markers of alcohol damage and also caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) as the markers of apoptosis were measured...
September 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898586/transcerebral-net-exchange-of-vasoactive-peptides-and-catecholamines-during-lipopolysaccharide-induced-systemic-inflammation-in-healthy-humans
#15
Ronan M G Berg, Sarah Taudorf, Damian Miles Bailey, Rasmus Holmboe Dahl, Carsten Lundby, Kirsten Møller
The systemic inflammatory response triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We therefore examined whether a four-hour intravenous LPS infusion (0.3 ng kg<sup>-1</sup>) induces any changes in the transcerebral net exchange of the vasoactive peptides endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and catecholamines in human volunteers. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique, and paired arterial-to-jugular venous blood samples were obtained for estimating the transcerebral exchange of ET-1, CGRP and catecholamines by the Fick principle in twelve volunteers before and after LPS...
September 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892650/the-contribution-of-muscle-kidney-and-splanchnic-tissues-to-leucine-transamination-in-humans
#16
Giacomo Garibotto, Daniela Verzola, Monica Vettore, Paolo Tessari
The first steps of leucine utilization are reversible deamination to α-ketoisocaproic acid (α-KIC) and irreversible oxidation. Recently the regulatory role of leucine deamination over oxidation was underlined in rodents. Our aim was to measure leucine deamination and reamination in the whole-body, in respect to previously determined rates across organs, in humans. By leucine and KIC isotope kinetics, we determined whole-body leucine deamination and reamination, and we compared these rates to those already reported across the sampled organs...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892643/comparison-of-the-effects-of-i-sub-k-ach-sub-i-sub-kr-sub-and-i-sub-na-sub-block-in-conscious-dogs-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-on-action-potentials-in-remodeled-atrial-trabeculae
#17
Viktor Juhász, Tibor Hornyik, Attila Benák, Norbert Nagy, Zoltan Husti, Robert Pap, László Sághy, László Virág, András Varró, István Baczkó
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional antiarrhythmic agents used for restoration of sinus rhythm have limited efficacy in long-term AF and they may possess ventricular proarrhythmic adverse effects, especially in patients with structural heart disease. The acetylcholin receptor-activated potassium channel (I<sub>K,ACh</sub>) represents an atrial-selective target for future AF management. We investigated the effects of the I<sub>K,ACh</sub> blocker tertiapin-Q (TQ), a derivative of the honeybee toxin tertiapin, on chronic atrial tachypacing induced AF in conscious dogs, without the influence of anesthetics that modulate a number of cardiac ion channels...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892641/independent-assortment-of-gc-gene-polymorphism-rs2282679-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-in-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Nada Sedky, Sally Hassanein, Mohamed Gad
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major public health burden. Emerging research has suggested an association between vitamin D insufficiency and CAD. Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is the primary vitamin D carrier and many of its genetic polymorphisms are able to induce the expression of proteins with different affinities for the vitamin, which in turn, might affect its serum levels and CAD incidence. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 112 male patients, aged between 35 and 50, with verified CAD and 109 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892640/beneficial-effects-of-rosiglitazone-and-losartan-combination-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Hayam Ateyya, Manar Nader, Nagla Ahmad El-Sherbeeny
Diabetes with vascular complication needs strict interventions to retard possible serious complications. This research estimated the possible interaction of rosiglitazone (RGN) with losartan (Los) in diabetic rats. Male Spraque Dawly rats were randomly divided into: non-diabetic rats, diabetic rats, and diabetic rats received RGN, Los or combination of RGN and Los. Measurement of serum glucose, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor and (TNF)-α levels, and aortic lipid peroxide (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were done...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886259/addition-of-dexmedetomidine-to-qx-314-enhances-the-onset-and-duration-of-sciatic-nerve-block-in-rats
#20
Wenling Zhao, Qinqin Yin, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang, Linghui Yang
An experimental set-up was designed to observe whether adding dexmedetomidine to QX-314 would enhance the onset and duration of sensory and motor function in a rat sciatic nerve block model. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks with 0.2 ml of 35 mM QX-314 alone, dexmedetomidine (5.3 μM [1 μg•kg-1], 26.4 μM [5 μg•kg-1], 52.8 μM [10 μg•kg-1]) alone, or a combination of the two. Thermal nociception and motor function were assessed by a blinded investigator, sciatic nerves and perineural tissues were harvested at 14 days after injection...
September 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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