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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Xueyan Yang, Meihui Yin, Lan Yu, Meili Lu, Hongxin Wang, Futian Tang, Yingjie Zhang
We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, inhibits atherosclerosis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, the early feature of atherosclerosis, and explore its mechanisms. The results showed that simvastatin decreased cholesterol content and DiI-oxLDL (1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate - oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake, reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the medium, down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (a fatty acid receptor), and reduced the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages treated with oxLDL...
August 16, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Baoling Zhu, Kai Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Yuhui Qiao, Zijian Li
Cardiac remodeling is the pathological basis of various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we found gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated pathological cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling model was established by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) for 14 days. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and echocardiography were obtained on 7th and 14th days during ISO administration. Myocardial cross-sectional area and the ratio of heart mass to tibia length (HM/TL) were detected to assess cardiac hypertrophy...
August 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sakara Tunsophon, Krongkarn Chootip
The present study investigated the comparative effects of piperine (PIP) - the active ingredient of black and long peppers - and simvastatin (SIM) on hepatic steatosis in hyperlipidemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a cholesterol mixture daily by intragastric gavage for 8 weeks. Piperine was given by oral gavage 8 h after cholesterol feeding. The animals were divided into 4 groups: control, high fat (HF), high fat plus 40 mg PIP/kg, and high fat plus 2 mg SIM/kg. At the end of the treatment, liver cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobaribituric reacting substances, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were measured...
August 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
J Tosic Dragovic, J Popovic, P Djuric, A Jankovic, A Bulatovic, M Barovic, V Pravica, J Marinkovic, N Dimkovic
Uremia-related inflammation is prone to be a key factor to explain high cardiovascular morbidity in hemodialysis patients. Genetic susceptibility may be of importance, including IL-10, IL-6, and TNF. The aim was to analyze IL-10, IL-6, and TNF gene polymorphisms in a group of hemodialysis patients and to correlate the findings with cardiovascular morbidity. This study included 169 patients on regular hemodialysis at Zvezdara University Medical Center. Gene polymorphisms for IL-10, IL-6 and TNF were determined using PCR...
August 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Suzana Branković, Bojana Miladinović, Mirjana Radenković, Marija Gočmanac Ignjatović, Milica Kostić, Katarina Šavikin, Dušanka Kitić
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of black currant (Ribes nigrum L. 'Ben Sarek') juice on the blood pressure and frequency of cardiac contractions, as well as vasomotor responses of rat aortic rings. Arterial blood pressure was measured directly from the carotid artery in the anaesthetized rabbits. The aortic rings were pre-contracted with KCl (80 mmol·L(-1)), after which black currant juice was added. An intravenous injection of black currant juice (0.33-166.5 mg·kg(-1)) induced a significant and dose-dependent decrease of rabbit arterial blood pressure and heart rate...
August 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Michael A Gilinsky, Thomas P Johnston, Natalia A Zhukova, Nina I Dubrovina, Tatyana V Latysheva, Sergey E Naumenko, Roman A Sukhovershin
An experimental mouse model of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis was utilized to study the generation of methylarginines in vivo, as well as any potential behavioral changes in mice associated with the production of excess methylarginines. Following 14 weeks of poloxamer 407 treatment, mice developed atherosclerosis and the plasma concentrations of monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine were found to be significantly greater than corresponding concentrations in control mice. This finding may have contributed to the development of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in poloxamer-treated mice by interfering with nitric oxide availability and, hence, normal function of vascular endothelium...
July 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Dragan Djuric, Naranjan Dhalla, Vladimir Jakovljevic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ekaterina V Lopatina, Anna V Kipenko, Natalia A Pasatetskaya, Valentina A Penniyaynen, Boris V Krylov
Endogenous digitalis-like factors were found in the mammalian and human blood. It was the starting point for the elucidation of the new non-pumping function of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. It was previously well known that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is a pharmacological target receptor for cardiac glycosides (J.C. Skou. 1957. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 23: 394-401). We have investigated the trophotropic effects of such agents as ouabain, epinephrine, norepinephrine, atenolol, and comenic acid using the organotypic tissue culture combined with the reconstruction of optical cross sections and confocal microscopy...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Krishna K Singh, Laura-Eve Mantella, Yi Pan, Adrian Quan, Sandra Sabongui, Paul Sandhu, Hwee Teoh, Mohammed Al-Omran, Subodh Verma
Hyperglycemia-related endothelial dysfunction is believed to be the crux of diabetes-associated micro- and macro-vascular complications. We conducted a systematic transcriptional survey to screen for human endothelial long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by elevated glucose levels. lncRNAs and protein-coding transcripts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured under high (25 mmol/L) or normal (5 mmol/L) glucose conditions for 24 h were profiled with the Arraystar Human LncRNA Expression Microarray V3...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Nashwa Barakat, Amira Awadalla, Mahmoud M Gabr, Sherry Khater, Ahmed M Harraz, Ahmed A Shokeir
The present study investigated the effects of combination of ischemic preconditioning (Ipre) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in rats. 90 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 equal groups; sham operated, control (45 min left renal ischemia), Ipre group as control group with 3 cycles of Ipre just before renal ischemia, ADMSCs-treated group (as control with ADMSCs 10(6) cells in 0.1 mL via penile vein 60 min before ischemia time), and Ipre + ADMSCs group as ADMCs group with 3 cycles of Ipre...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Li-Min Meng, Hui-Jie Ma, Hui Guo, Qian-Qian Kong, Yi Zhang
Naringenin (Nari) has antioxidative and anti-atherosclerosis effects, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can offer cardiac protection. We hypothesized that Nari protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury through activation of KATP. Isolated hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a 30-min global ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion (120 min for the infarct size determination). The hearts were treated with Nari (NARI); Nari plus glibenclamide (GLI), a non-specific ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+GLI); and Nari plus 5-hydroxy decanoic acid (5-HD), a mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+5-HD)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Lei Ji, Yingying Liu, Ying Zhang, Wenguang Chang, Junli Gong, Shengnan Wei, Xudong Li, Ling Qin
Edaravone, a radical scavenger, has been recognized as a potential protective agent for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the effect of edaravone in cardiac complications associated with diabetes. Here, we have demonstrated that edaravone prevents cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rat heart. Mechanistic studies revealed that edaravone treatment improved cardiac function and restored superoxide dismutase levels. In addition, treatment of diabetic animals by edaravone increased protein expressions of sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α), nuclear factor like-2 (NRF-2), and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and reduced protein expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 compared to the control group...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yanhong Chen, Didi Zhu, Jiamin Yuan, Zhonglin Han, Yao Wang, Zhiyong Qian, Xiaofeng Hou, Tingting Wu, Jiangang Zou
The heterodimerized transcription factors CLOCK-BMAL1 regulate the cardiomyocyte circadian rhythms. The L-type calcium currents play important role in the cardiac electrogenesis and arrhythmogenesis. Whether and how the CLOCK-BMAL1 regulate the cardiac L-type calcium channels are yet to be determined. The functions of the L-type calcium channels were evaluated with patch clamping techniques. Recombinant adenoviruses of CLOCK and BMAL1 were used in the expression experiments. We reported that the expressions and functions of CACNA1C (the α-subunit of the L-type calcium channels) showed circadian rhythms, with the peak at zeitgeber time 3 (ZT3)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
T R Anju, P R Akhilraj, C S Paulose
Neonatal hypoglycemia limits glucose supply to cells leading to long-term consequences in brain function. The present study evaluated antioxidant and cell death factors' alterations in cerebral cortex of 1-month-old rats exposed to neonatal hypoglycemia. Gene expression studies by real-time PCR were carried out using gene-specific TaqMan probes. Fluorescent dyes were used for immunohistochemistry and nuclear staining and imaged by confocal microscope. Total antioxidant level and expression of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione peroxide (GPx) - mRNA was significantly reduced along with high peroxide level in the cerebral cortex of 1-month-old rats exposed to neonatal hypoglycemia...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ionut Caravan, Alexandra Sevastre Berghian, Remus Moldovan, Nicoleta Decea, Remus Orasan, Gabriela Adriana Filip
Menopause is accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress and behavioral changes, effects attenuated by antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on behavior and oxidative stress in an experimental model of menopause. Female rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (CON), sham-operated and caffeine-treated (CAF), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized and caffeine-treated (OVX+CAF). Caffeine (6 mg/kg) and vehicle were administered for 21 days (subchronic) and 42 days (chronic), using 2 experimental subsets...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Jingzhi Wan, Lili Deng, Changcheng Zhang, Qin Yuan, Jing Liu, Yaoyan Dun, Zhiyong Zhou, Haixia Zhao, Chaoqi Liu, Ding Yuan, Ting Wang
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Chikusetsu saponin V (CsV), the most abundant member of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ), has attracted increasing attention for its potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Our study intended to investigate the antioxidative effects of CsV in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that CsV attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, inhibited ROS accumulation, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential dose-dependently...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Leonardo Calegari, Bruna B Mozzaquattro, Douglas D Rossato, Edson Quagliotto, Janaina B Ferreira, Alberto Rasia-Filho, Pedro Dal Lago
The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ying-Hua He, Zeng Li, Ming-Ming Ni, Xing-Yan Zhang, Ming-Fang Li, Xiao-Ming Meng, Cheng Huang, Jun Li
Liver fibrosis is a worldwide problem with a significant morbidity and mortality. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (family Periplocaceae) is widely used in West African countries for the treatment of malaria, as well as for some other diseases. However, the role of C. sanguinolenta in hepatic fibrosis is still unknown. It has been reported that Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) had a high expression in liver fibrosis and played a central role in its pathobiology. Interestingly, we found that a cryptolepine derivative (HZ-6h) could inhibit liver fibrosis by reducing MeCP2 expression, as evidenced by the dramatic downregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen alpha-1 (Col1α1) in protein levels in vitro...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Chunbo He, Junbin Gong, Lixia Yang, Hongwei Zhang, Shouliang Dong, Lanxia Zhou
The present study focused on the interactive pain regulation of endokinin A/B (EKA/B, the common C-terminal decapeptide in EKA and EKB) or endokinin C/D (EKC/D, the common C-terminal duodecapeptide in EKC and EKD) on chimeric peptide MCRT (YPFPFRTic-NH2, based on YPFP-NH2 and PFRTic-NH2) at the supraspinal level in mice. Results demonstrated that the co-injection of nanomolar EKA/B and MCRT showed moderate regulation, whereas 30 pmol EKA/B had no effect on MCRT. The combination of EKC/D and MCRT produced enhanced antinociception, which was nearly equal to the sum of the mathematical values of single EKC/D and MCRT...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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