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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732172/role-of-endothelin-1-and-its-receptors-eta-and-etb-in-the-survival-of-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Marianne Mikhail, Pierre H Vachon, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Our previous work showed the presence of endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors, ETA and ETB, in human vascular endothelial cells (hVECs). In this study, we wanted to verify whether ET-1 via the activation of its receptors ETA and/or ETB (ETAR and ETBR respectively) play a role in the survival of hVECs. Our results showed that treatment of hVECs with ET-1 prevented apoptosis induced by genistein, an effect that was mimicked by treatment with ETBR specific agonist IRL1620. Furthermore, blockade of ETBR with the selective ETBR antagonist A192621 prevented the anti-apoptotic effect of ET-1 in hVECs...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727938/difference-in-the-response-to-angiotensin-ii-between-left-and-right-ventricular-endocardial-endothelial-cells
#3
Danielle Jacques, Nelly Abdel-Karim Abdel-Malak, Nadia Abou Abdallah, Johny Al-Khoury, Ghassan Bkaily
Previous studies focused on the right ventricular endocardial endothelial cells (EECRs) and showed that angiotensin II (AngII) induced increase in cytosolic and nuclear calcium via AT1 receptor activation. In the present study, we verified whether the response of left EECs (EECLs) to AngII is different than that of EECRs. Our results showed that the EC50 of the AngII-induced increase of cytosolic and nuclear calcium in EECLs was ten times higher (around 2x10-13M) than in EECRs (around 8x10-12M). The densities of both AT1 and AT2 receptors were also higher in EECLs than those previously reported in EECRs...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727929/na-h-exchanger-and-proton-channel-in-heart-failure-associated-with-becker-and-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Ghassan Bkaily, Danielle Jacques
Cardiomyopathy is found in patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies which are linked muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin defects are not limited to DMD but are also present in mild BMD. The hereditary cardiomyopathic hamster of the UM-X7.1 strain is a particular experimental model of heart failure (HF) leading to early death in muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficiency and sarcoglycan mutation) and heart disease (δ-sarcoglycan deficiency and dystrophin mutation) in human DMD...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727928/vascular-senescence-and-ageing-a-role-for-the-meox-proteins-in-promoting-endothelial-dysfunction
#5
Josette Northcott, Michael Paul Czubryt, Jeffrey T Wigle
In the vascular system, ageing is accompanied by the accrual of senescent cells and is associated with an increased risk of vascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a hallmark of vascular disease and is characterized by decreased angiogenic potential, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired vasodilation, increased production of ROS and enhanced inflammation. In ECs, the major producer of nitric oxide is the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme that is encoded by the NOS3 gene...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727921/effect-of-lysophosphatidylglycerol-on-intracellular-free-ca2-concentration-in-a10-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Ying Zhang, Jing-Dian Zhang, Ming-Qin Zhu, Ming Zhang, Yan-Jun Xu, Li Cui, Naranjan S Dhalla
Although plasma levels of lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) are increased in hypertension, its role in the pathogenesis of vascular defects is not clear. In view of the importance of Ca2+-overload in causing vascular smooth muscle (VSM) dysfunction, the action of LPG on [Ca2+]i in cultured A10 VSM cell line was examined by using Fura 2-AM acetoxymethyl ester technique. LPG was found to induce a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in VSM cells. This change was dependent both on the extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ sources as it was reduced by 30% by EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, and 70% by tharpsigargin, a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-pump inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715643/new-insights-into-the-non-hemostatic-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-endothelial-protection
#7
Silvia Agostini, Vincenzo Lionetti
During exposure to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) insult, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) upregulation in endothelial cells progressively impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability while increasing levels of superoxide anion (O2-) and leading to the onset of endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, the overexpression of ET-1 increases the endothelial and circulating levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein with a crucial role in arterial thrombus formation. Nowadays, the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF is emerging; although we not yet know if its increased expression is cause or consequence of endothelial dysfunction...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714336/specific-plasma-oxylipins-increase-the-odds-of-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-events-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#8
Stephanie Caligiuri, Harold M Aukema, Amir Ravandi, Renee Lavallee, Randolph Guzman, Grant N Pierce
Oxylipins and fatty acids may be novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The objective was to determine if plasma oxylipins or fatty acids can influence the odds of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In 98 patients (25 female, 73 male) with peripheral artery disease, the prevalence of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, stable angina and acute coronary syndrome was n= 16, 10, 16, and 24, respectively. Risk factors such as being male, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were not associated with events...
July 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704619/advanced-glycation-end-products-affect-cholesterol-homeostasis-by-impairing-abca1-expression-on-macrophages
#9
Olivier Kamtchueng Simo, Souade Ikhlef, Hicham Berrougui, Abdelouahed Khalil
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which is intimately linked to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and the prevention of atherosclerosis. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on RCT as well as on other factors that may affect this anti-atherogenic property of HDLs. The transfer of macrophage-derived cholesterol to the plasma and liver and then to the feces for elimination was significantly lower in aged mice than in young mice...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704617/resveratrol-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertrophy-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-the-transactivation-of-growth-factor-receptors
#10
Ekhtear Hossain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
We previously showed that the augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate Ang II-evoked VSMC hypertrophy, however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study is therefore undertaken to examine if RV could prevent Ang II-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704616/inhibition-of-platelet-aggregation-ex-vivo-is-repressed-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#11
Emilie Carrier, Martin Houde, Michel Grandbois, Ghassan Bkaily, Timothy D Warner, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste
In the present study, we assessed if the endogenous platelet inhibitory mechanisms are altered in the early to moderate stages of the atherosclerotic process. Apolipoprotein E deficient mice (ApoE-/-), a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and their wild-type (WT) counterparts were used to assess agonist-stimulated synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2), inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo and intra-platelet cAMP levels. Basal U46619 and ADP -induced platelet aggregation in vitro were increased in ApoE-/- mice at 18-20 weeks in comparison to 8 10 weeks of age...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704614/carbon-dioxide-water-bath-treatment-augments-peripheral-blood-flow-through-the-development-of-angiogenesis
#12
Yan-Jun Xu, Vijayan Elimban, Naranjan S Dhalla
In this study, we investigated the effects of CO2 water-bath therapy on blood flow and angiogenesis in the ischemic hind limb as well as some plasma angiogenic factors in peripheral ischemic model. The hind limb ischemia was induced by occluding the femoral artery for 2 weeks in rats and treated with or without CO2 water-bath therapy at 37°C for 4 weeks (20 min treatment everyday for 5 days per week). The peak blood flow as well as minimal and mean blood flow in the ischemic skeletal muscle were markedly increased by the CO2 water-bath therapy...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704613/-e-2-benzylidene-4-phenyl-1-3-diselenole-an-antioxidant-compound-protects-rats-against-thioacetamide-induced-acute-hepatotoxicity
#13
Angélica S Reis, Mikaela Pinz, Cristiani F Bortolatto, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Lucielli Savegnago, Silvane Souza Roman, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
The aim of this study was to investigate whether (E)-2-benzylidene-4-phenyl-1,3-diselenole (BPD) protects against hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide (TAA). On the first day of treatment, the animals received BPD (10 or 50 mg/kg). On the second day, the rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of TAA (400 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after TAA administration, biochemical determinations and liver histological analysis were carried out. BPD (50 mg/kg) reduced plasma aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased by TAA exposure...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686848/transcriptional-regulation-of-endmt-in-cardiac-fibrosis-role-of-mrtf-a-and-atf3
#14
Vibhuti Sharma, Nilambra Dogra, Uma Saikia, Madhu Khullar
The etiology of cardiac fibrogenesis is quite diverse but a common feature is the presence of activated fibroblasts. Experimental evidence suggests that a subset of cardiac fibroblasts is derived via transition of vascular endothelial cells into fibroblasts by endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT). During EndMT, endothelial cells lose their endothelial characteristics and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. Molecular mechanisms and the transcriptional mediators controlling EndMT in heart during development or disease remain relatively undefined...
July 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683229/non-invasive-approach-to-mend-the-broken-heart-is-remote-conditioning-a-promising-strategy-for-application-in-humans
#15
Táňa Ravingerová, Veronika Ledvényiová-Farkašová, Lucia Griecsová, Martina Muráriková, Slavka Carnicka, Ľubomír Lonek, Miroslav Ferko, Jan Slezak, Marek Zálešák, Adriana Adameova, Vinoth Km Khandelwal, Antigone Lazou, Frantisek Kolar
Currently, there are no satisfactory interventions to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although ischemic preconditioning (PC) is the most powerful form of intrinsic cardioprotection, its application in humans is limited to planned interventions, due to its short duration and technical requirements. However, many organs/tissues are capable of producing "remote" PC (RPC) when subjected to brief bouts of ischemia-reperfusion. RPC was first described in the heart where brief ischemia in one territory led to protection in other area...
July 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683206/changes-in-the-mitochondrial-properties-may-contribute-to-enhanced-resistance-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-diabetic-rat-heart
#16
Martina Muráriková, Miroslav Ferko, Iveta Waczulíková, Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Jana Murínová, Táňa Ravingerová
As has been well-documented, diabetes mellitus, besides deleterious effects, induces cardiac adaptation that may reduce its susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in mitochondrial properties are involved in the mechanisms of increased resistance of diabetic heart to I/R. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg, i.p.), and on the 8th day, Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to 30-min global ischemia/40-min reperfusion...
July 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679064/implication-of-micrornas-in-the-development-and-potential-treatment-of-radiation-induced-heart-disease
#17
Branislav Kura, Pavel Babal, Jan Slezak
Radiotherapy is the most commonly used methodology to treat oncological disease that is one of the most widespread cause of death worldwide. Oncological patients cured by radiotherapy applied to the mediastinal area have been shown to suffer from cardiovascular disease. The increase in the prevalence of radiation-induced heart disease has emphasized the need to seek new therapeutic targets to mitigate the negative impact of radiation on the heart. In this regard microRNAs (miRNAs) have received considerable interest...
July 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679060/protective-effects-of-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-against-sevoflurane-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-involves-regulation-of-creb-bdnf-trk-b-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signalling-pathways-in-neonatal-mice
#18
Mei-Li Ding, Hui Ma, Yi-Gang Man, Yan-Hong Lv
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol in green tea is an effective antioxidant and possesses neuroprotective effects. For neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are crucially involved. In this study we aimed to assess protective effects of EGCG against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal mice. Distinct groups of C57BL/6 mice were given EGCG (25, 50 or 75 mg/kg b.wt) from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P21 and were subjected to sevoflurane (3 %; 6 h) exposure on P7...
July 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679059/role-and-potential-targeting-of-hepatic-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Kadry Sadek, Tarek Abouzed, Sherif Nasr, Moustafa Shukry
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox element 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a pervasive multifunctional protein required in the DNA base extraction repair (BER) pathway and a noteworthy reducing-oxidizing (redox) factor that upgrades the authoritative of various transcription components to DNA. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) assume a key part in directing the movement of the cell-cycle. The present study evaluates the synergistic efficacy of using licochalcone B (LCB) and fullerene C60 (FnC60) nanoparticles against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in rats...
July 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675794/beneficial-effects-of-the-natural-phenol-rosmarinic-acid-against-alcohol-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#20
Parisa Hasanein, Rosa Seifi
Alcohol is a severe hepatotoxicant that causes a variety of liver disorders. Rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural phenol, shows some biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of RA (10 mg/kg) against ethanol-induced oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals received ethanol (4 g/kg, i.g.) and/or RA (10 mg/kg, i.g.) daily for 4 weeks. At the end, rats were weighed and use for biochemical, molecular and histopathological examinations. Ethanol increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (P < 0...
July 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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