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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520469/carotid-versus-coronary-atherosclerosis-burdens-in-acute-compared-with-chronic-symptomatic-coronary-artery-disease
#1
Stéphanie LeBlanc, Karine Bibeau, Olivier F Bertrand, Valérie Lévesque, Béatrice Deschênes St-Pierre, Philippe Pibarot, Jean-Pierre Després, Eric Larose
Prediction of coronary events remains elusive. Carotid atherosclerosis may be a surrogate for coronary risk, as carotid and coronary diseases occur simultaneously - albeit at times with a weak association - depending on clinical presentation. We investigated carotid and coronary atherosclerosis in men with new-onset unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. long-standing severe chronic stable angina (CSA). Bilateral carotid artery and 3-vessel coronary artery atherosclerosis burdens were measured within 1 month, respectively, by 3D-volumetric carotid magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography-derived modified CASS-50 score...
May 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511554/resveratrol-promotes-recovery-of-immune-function-of-immunosuppressive-mice-by-activating-jnk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-splenic-lymphocytes
#2
Xin Lai, Mei Cao, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Xiaoxia Liang, Changliang He, Lizi Yin, Guizhou Yue, Gang Ye, Zhongqiong Yin
Resveratrol, a natural compound found in over 70 plants, is known to possess immunoregulatory effects and anti-inflammatory activity. It has been shown that resveratrol has regulatory effects on different signaling pathways in different diseases. However, few reports have evaluated the effects of resveratrol on reinforcing immunity recovery via activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway. The present study aimed to assess immune-enhancing activity and underlying mechanism of resveratrol in immunosuppressive mice...
May 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511026/hdac2-is-required-by-the-physiological-concentration-of-glucocorticoid-to-inhibit-inflammation-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#3
Haining Zhang, Yanhua He, Guiping Zhang, Xiaobin Li, Suikai Yan, Ning Hou, Qing Xiao, Yue Huang, Miaoshan Luo, Genshui Zhang, Quan Yi, Minsheng Chen, Jiandong Luo
We previously suggested that endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) may inhibit myocardial inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) <i>in vivo</i>. However, the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms were poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of physiological concentration of GCs in inflammation induced by LPS in cardiac fibroblasts and explored the possible mechanisms. The results showed that hydrocortisone at the dose of 127ng/ml (equivalent to endogenous basal level of glucocorticoids) inhibited LPS (100ng/ml)-induced productions of TNF-α and IL-1β in cardiac fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505464/treatment-of-the-cardiac-hypertrophic-response-and-heart-failure-with-ginseng-ginsenosides-and-ginseng-related-products
#4
Morris Karmazyn, Tracey Gan
Heart failure is a major medical as well as economic burden throughout the world. Although various treatment options are available to treat heart failure, death rates in both men and women remain high. Potential adjunctive therapies may lie with use of herbal medications many of which possess potent pharmacological properties. Among the most widely studied is ginseng, a member of the genus Panax which is grown in many parts of the world and which has been used as a medical treatment for a variety of conditions for thousands of years, particularly in Asian societies...
May 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489953/vascular-function-and-arginine-and-dimethylarginines-in-gentamicin-induced-renal-failure-a-possible-effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-inducer-hemin
#5
Esra Aycan Ustyol, Merve Kabasakal, Seldag Bekpinar, Ilkay Alp Yıldırım, Ozge Tepe, Murat Giris, Yasemin Ozluk, Yesim Unlucerci, B Sonmez Uydes Dogan, Mujdat Uysal
Increased oxidative stress and disturbance in nitric oxide bioavailability lead to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complication in renal disease. Gentamicin (GM), a commonly used antibiotic exhibits a toxic effect on renal proximal tubules. Prevention of its nephrotoxicity is important. Therefore, we investigated whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction influenced kidney and vascular function in GM-administered rats. GM (100 mg/kg/day; ip) was given to rats alone or together with hemin (20 mg/kg/alternate days; ip...
May 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472590/evidence-of-necroptosis-in-hearts-subjected-to-various-forms-of-ischemic-insults
#6
Adriana Adameova, Jaroslav Hrdlicka, Adrian Szobi, Veronika Ledvényiová-Farkašová, Katarina Kopaskova, Martina Murarikova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Táňa Ravingerová, Naranjan S Dhalla
Long-lasting ischemia can result in cell loss; however, repeated episodes of brief ischemia increase the resistance of the heart against deleterious effects of subsequent prolonged ischemic insult and promote cell survival. Traditionally, it is believed that the supply of blood to the ischemic heart is associated with release of cytokines, activation of inflammatory response and induction of necrotic cell death. In the past few years, this paradigm of passive necrosis as an uncontrolled cell death has been re-examined and the existence of a strictly regulated form of necrotic cell death, necroptosis, has been documented...
May 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467860/mitochondrial-mirnas-in-diabetes-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#7
Rohini Baradan, John M Hollander, Samarjit Das
Over the last two decades mi(cro)RNAs have emerged as one of the key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Most of the studies have highlighted that in the cytoplasm, miRNAs directly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of a mRNA. Conventional RISC (RNA Inducing Silencing Complex) formation results in the post-transcriptional inhibition. This process is known to contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Recent advancements with small RNA detection technologies have enabled us to identify miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment of the cells...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467859/the-novel-combination-of-theophylline-and-bambuterol-as-a-potential-treatment-of-hypoxemia-in-humans
#8
Trond-Eirik Strand, Hasse Khiabani-Zare, Alina Boico, Daniel R Radiloff, Yulin Zhao, Karyn Hamilton, Uwe Christians, Jelena Klawitter, Robert J Noveck, Claude A Piantadosi, Christopher Bell, David C Irwin, Thies Schroeder
Hypoxemia can be life-threatening both, acutely and chronically. Because hypoxemia causes vascular dysregulation that further restricts oxygen availability to tissue, it can be pharmacologically addressed. We hypothesized that theophylline can be safely combined with the β2 adrenergic vasodilator bambuterol to improve oxygen availability in hypoxemic patients. Ergogenicity and hemodynamic effects of bambuterol and theophylline were measured in rats under hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia (12% O2). Feasibility in humans was assessed using randomized, double-blind testing of the influence of combined slow-release theophylline (300 mg) and bambuterol (20mg) on adverse events (AEs), plasma K+, pulse, blood pressure, and drug interaction...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463656/implementation-of-the-mouse-frailty-index
#9
Alice Kane, Omar Ayaz, Anjali Ghimire, Hirad Feridooni, Susan Howlett
Frailty is considered a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes for people of the same age. Those who are frail have higher mortality, worse health outcomes and use more health care services than those who are non-frail. Despite this, little is known about the biology of frailty, the effect of frailty on pharmacological or surgical outcomes and potential interventions to attenuate frailty. In humans, frailty can be quantified using a frailty index (FI) based on the principle of deficit accumulation...
May 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460186/camp-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-egr-1-expression-via-pka-dependent-signaling-pathway-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Estelle Rolande Simo-Cheyou, Viktoria Youreva, Ashok K Srivastava
cAMP has been shown to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and exerts a vasculoprotective effect. An upregulation of the early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) expression has been linked with the development of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. We have recently demonstrated that angiotensin-II (Ang-II) stimulates Egr-1 expression via Ca2+/ERK-mediated cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) activation. However, whether Ang-II-induced signaling leading to Egr-1 expression is modulated by cAMP remains unexplored...
May 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460180/role-of-folate-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#11
Victoria Sid, Yaw L Siow, Karmin O
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of chronic liver conditions that are characterized by steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and liver injury. The global prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing in proportion to the rising incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Since NAFLD is a multifaceted disorder with many underlying metabolic abnormalities, currently, there is no pharmacological agent that is therapeutically approved for the treatment of this disease. Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in nucleic acid biosynthesis, methylation reactions and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism...
May 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459158/functional-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-rat-left-atria-effect-of-foot-shock-stress
#12
Andre Luiz de Moura, Stephen Hyslop, Dora Maria Grassi-Kassisse, Regina Celia Spadari
Altered sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of catecholamines and a reduction in the β1/β2-adrenoceptor ratio have previously been reported in right atria of stressed rats, human failing heart and aging. In this report, we investigated whether left atrial inotropism was affected by foot-shock stress. Male rats were submitted to three foot-shock sessions and the left atrial inotropic response, adenylyl cyclase activity and β-adrenoceptor expression were investigated. Left atria of stressed rats were supersensitive to isoprenaline when compared to control rats and this effect was abolished by ICI118,551, a selective β2-receptor antagonist...
April 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459156/antioxidant-tempol-supresses-heart-cytosolic-phospholipase-a-sub-2-sub-%C3%AE-stimulated-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#13
Petra Micova, Martina Klevstig, Kristyna Holzerova, Marek Vecka, Jitka Zurmanova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Olga Novakova, Jiri Novotny, Marketa Hlavackova
Adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation implicated in the improved cardiac tolerance against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Phospholipases A<sub>2</sub> (PLA<sub>2</sub>s) play an important role in cardiomyocyte phospholipid metabolism influencing membrane homeostasis. Here we aimed to determine the effect of CIH (7000 m, 8h/day, 5 weeks) on the expression of cytosolic PLA<sub>2</sub> (cPLA<sub>2</sub>α), its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA<sub>2</sub>α), calcium-independent (iPLA<sub>2</sub>) and secretory (sPLA<sub>2</sub>IIA) at protein and mRNA levels as well fatty acids (FA) profile in left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats...
April 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459154/improved-cardiovascular-autonomic-modulation-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-an-ang-1-7-producing-fusion-protein
#14
Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Karina Rabello Casali, Ivana C Moraes-Silva, Mariane Bertagnolli, Michael Bader, Robson Santos
Angiotensin-(1-7) counterbalances Angiotensin II cardiovascular effects. However, it has yet to be determined how cardiovascular autonomic modulation may be affected by chronic and acute elevation of Ang-(1-7). Hemodynamics and cardiovascular autonomic profile were evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and transgenic rats (TGR) overexpressing Ang-(1-7) [TGR(A1-7)3292]. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured while cardiovascular autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis. TGR received A-779 or vehicle and SD rats received Ang-(1-7) or vehicle and were monitored for 5 hours after i...
April 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459162/myocardial-connexin-43-is-up-regulated-in-response-to-acute-cardiac-injury-in-rats
#15
Csilla Viczenczova, Branislav Kura, Kiranj K Chaudagar, Barbara Bacova, Tamara Benova, Miroslav Barancik, Vladimir Knezl, Táňa Ravingerová, Narcis Tribulova, Jan Slezak
We aimed to explore whether myocardial intercellular channel protein connexin-43 (Cx43) along with PKCε and MMP-2 might be implicated in responses to acute cardiac injury induced by two distinct sub-lethal interventions in Wistar rats. Animals underwent either single chest irradiation at dose of 25 Gy or subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO, 120 mg/kg) and were compared with untreated controls. Forty-two days post-interventions, the hearts were excised and left ventricles were used for analysis. Findings showed an increase of total as well as phosphorylated forms of myocardial Cx43 regardless the type of interventions...
April 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459157/infliximab-alleviates-the-mortality-mesenteric-hypoperfusion-aortic-dysfunction-and-multiple-organ-damage-in-septic-rats
#16
Erdem Kamil Ozer, Mustafa Tugrul Goktas, Ibrahim Kilinc, Aysun Toker, Hulagu Bariskaner, Ceyhan Ugurluoglu, Alper Bektas Iskit
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pivotal mediator that triggers inflammatory process, oxidative stress and multiple organ injury in sepsis. We investigated the effects of infliximab on survival, mesenteric artery blood flow (MBF), vascular reactivity, oxidative and inflammatory injuries in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis. Wistar rats were divided into Sham, CLP, Sham+infliximab, CLP+infliximab subgroups. 24 hours before the operations rats were injected intraperitoneally with infliximab (7 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline; 1 mL/kg)...
April 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423286/protective-effects-of-tempol-in-an-experimental-ovarian-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-model-in-female-wistar-albino-rats
#17
Neslihan Pınar, Oya Soylu Karapınar, Oğuzhan Özcan, Esin Atik Doğan, Suphi Bayraktar
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of tempol on ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Forty female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I: sham, Group II: ischemia (I), Group III: ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), Group IV: ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) + Tempol 30 mg/kg i.p, Group V: ischemia-reperfusion + Tempol 50 mg/kg i.p. Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) was significantly higher in the ischemia group and the I/R group compared with the sham group. Catalase levels were significantly lower in the I/R group than in the I/R + Tempol 30 mg/kg i...
April 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407473/trimodal-rescue-of-hind-limb-ischemia-with-growth-factors-cells-and-nanocarriers-fundamentals-to-clinical-trials
#18
Rajesh Lakshmanan, Gopi Ukani, Muhammad Tipu Rishi, Nilanjana Maulik
Peripheral artery disease is a severe medical condition commonly characterized by critical or acute limb ischemia. Gradual accumulation of thrombotic plaques in peripheral arteries of the lower limb may lead to intermittent claudication or ischemia in muscle tissue. Ischemic muscle tissue with lesions may become infected, resulting in a non-healing wound. Stable progression of the non-healing wound associated with severe ischemia might lead to functional deterioration of the limb, which, depending on the severity, can result in amputation...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388365/protective-effects-of-telmisartan-and-tempol-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-neuro-inflammation-and-amyloidogenesis-possible-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#19
Waleed Abd-Elsalam Khallaf, Basim Messiha, Amira Abo-Youssef, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan, compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and two telmisartan treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted followed by a biochemical study via assessment of brain levels of beta amyloid (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as amyloidogenesis and neuroplasticity markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end products (NOx), neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) as inflammatory markers, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH) and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers...
April 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384415/downregulation-of-cytochrome-p450-2c8-by-3-methylcholanthrene-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-lines
#20
Rucha Utgikar, David S Riddick
The marked induction of cytochromes P450 such as CYP1A1 caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) is often accompanied by suppression of other hepatic P450s. The molecular mechanisms, functional consequences, and human relevance of P450 downregulation by PAHs are poorly understood. MC suppresses mRNA levels for CYP2C8, an important human P450, in cultured human hepatocytes. To avoid hepatocyte lot-to-lot variability, we assessed CYP2C8 regulation by MC in HepaRG cells, a terminally differentiated human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line that maintains high P450 expression...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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