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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Andreea Privistirescu, Alexandra Sima, Oana M Duicu, Romulus Timar, Mariana G Roșca, Adrian Sturza, Danina M Muntean
Endothelial dysfunction and the related increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are important events in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus (DM). Methylene blue (MB) has been systematically investigated for its protective effects against refractary hypotension and mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated that MB improved mitochondrial respiration and partially decreased oxidative stress in diabetic rat hearts. The present study was aimed to investigate whether MB modulates vascular function and ROS production in thoracic aortic rings isolated from rats with streptozotocin-induced DM (after 4 weeks of hyperglicemia)...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Davood Hasanvand, Iraj Amiri, Sara Soleimani Asl, Massoud Saidijam, Nooshin Shabab, Tayebe Artimani
CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) as effective ROS scavengers exhibit potent antioxidant activity. In this study the effect of CNPs investigated was on HO-1, NQO1 and GCLC expression in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats divided into four groups: Controls did not receive any treatment, diabetic rats received STZ (60mg/kg/daily), CNPs group received CNPs 30mg/kg/daily/2 weeks, rats in STZ+CNPs group following STZ injection, received CNPs 30mg/kg/2 weeks. Oxidative stress evaluated by measurement of TAC and TOS levels...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ai-Jie Liu, Chun-Xia Pang, Guo-Qiang Liu, Shi-Duan Wang, Chun-Qin Chu, Lin-Zhang Li, Yan Dong, De-Zhang Zhu
We aimed to investigate whether the cardioprotection of sevoflurane against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The rat in vivo model of myocardial IR injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Sevoflurane significantly ameliorated the reduced cardiac function, increased infarct size and elevated troponin I level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in plasma induced by IR injury. Sevoflurane suppressed the I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Anwesha Laha, Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Suresh C Tyagi
Although homocysteine (Hcy), a part of the epigenome, contributes to cell death by pyroptosis and decreases PPARγ levels, the mechanisms are unclear. Hcy is found in high concentrations in the sera of obese individuals which can elicit an immune response as well by hypermethylating CpG islands of specific gene promoters, a marker of epigenetics. Hcy has also been established to chelate divalent metal ions like Cu+2 and Zn+2, but this role of Hcy has not been established in relationship with obesity. It has been known for a while that PPARγ dysregulation results in various metabolic disorders including glucose and lipid metabolism...
June 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Shereen M Samir, Abeer F Mostafa
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is usually associated with alterations in myometrial contractility with altered oxytocin responsiveness that increase the incidence of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Pancreatic β-cells release abscisic acid (ABA) in response to glucose which in turn potentiates insulin secretion. AIM OF THE STUDY: was to find out the effect of abscisic acid on the uterine contractility in normal and diabetic induced rats and tried to detect its possible underlying signaling pathway...
June 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Zhengfeng Wang, Ruihua Wang, Kai Wang, Xianzhi Liu
Angiogenesis after ischemic stroke have important clinical significance, which stimulates endogenous recovery mechanisms and improves the neurological outcome. Enhancing angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery from ischemic stroke. Recent studies have shown that aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is related to angiogenesis after ischemic stroke. Snhg1, a cancer-related lncRNA, has been reported to be upregulated after stroke. However, little is known about its role in stroke. In this study, we performed in vitro experiments to investigate the effects of Snhg1 on cell survival and angiogenesis and molecular mechanism in ischemic stroke...
June 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Chelsa Killey, Shane Cleary, Julie Orr, Jefferson C Frisbee, Dwayne Jackson, Jasna Twynstra
We used an anaesthetized rat model to directly observe changes in diameter of the vessels suppling the sciatic nerve in response to acetylcholine (10-4M), muscarinic receptor agonist, and atropine (10-5M), a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Topical application of acetylcholine resulted in increases in vessel diameter (baseline: 22.0±2.5um, acetylcholine: 28.8±3.3um), while topical application of atropine resulted in a decrease in diameter (baseline: 26.6±3.2um, atropine: 15.5±3.6um) of the epineurial vessels...
June 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ning Ma, Hong-Mei Liu, Ting Xia, Jian-Dong Liu, Xiao-Ze Wang
Age-related fibrosis is attenuated by aerobic exercise; however, little is known concerning the underlying molecular mechanism. To address this question, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks. After exercise in aged rats, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and heart increased 39.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Exercise upregulated expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in heart of aged rats. Furthermore, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks or treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0...
June 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yaqin Pang, Guangzi Qi, Sili Jiang, Ying Zhou, Wenxue Li
1,2-Dichloroethane (DCE) is a ubiquitous occupational environmental contaminant. Subacute exposure of DCE could cause severe toxic encephalopathy and obvious toxic effects on the liver. However, the toxicity of DCE on liver and the molecular mechanism still remain elusive. In the present study, we established a DCE-exposed animal model by inhalation in SD rats and used HepG2 cells in in vitro tests. Hepatic dysfunction was found in DCE-exposed groups compared with the control group. Moreover, apoptotic cells and the decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were found in liver tissue of rats in three DCE-exposed groups...
May 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Mariana Rinaldi, Aline C B R Johann, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Fabio Rocha, Sergio Aparecido Ignacio, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Luciana Reis Azevedo Alanis, Yusuf Althobaiti, Silvana da Silva Sapelli, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy
To evaluated the apoptosis in parotid glands of rats treated with Midazolam associated or not with Pilocarpine, Sixty Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups: control group received saline solution for 30 days (S30) and 60 days (S60) and the other groups received Pilocarpine for 60 days (P60); Midazolam for 30 days (M30); Midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of saline (M30 + S30) and finally Midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of Midazolam and Pilocarpine (M30 + MP30). Histological sections were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yan-Jun Xu, Vijayan Elimban, Sukhwinder K Bhullar, Naranjan S Dhalla
The effects of CO2 water-bath therapy in the hind limb of diabetic animals with or without peripheral ischemia were examined. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the animals were divided into three groups. After 4 weeks, peripheral ischemia was induced by ligation of the femoral artery for 2 weeks in two groups (Diabetic Ischemic) of diabetic rats, whereas the femoral artery was not occluded in the third group (Diabetic). All these animals were subjected to water-bath therapy (with or without CO2 mixing; 20 min per day for 5 days per week) for a period of 4 weeks...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Zita Bognar, Katalin Fekete, Rita Bognar, Aliz Szabo, Reka Anna Vass, Balazs Sumegi
Previously, we found that desethylamiodarone (DEA) may have therapeutic potentiality in bladder cancer. In this study, we determined its effects on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Cell viability was evaluated by Muse™ Cell Count & Viability Assay, cell apoptosis was detected by Muse™ Annexin V & Dead Cell Assay. Cell cycle was flow cytometrically determined by Muse™ Cell Cycle Kit and the morphological changes of the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope after Hoechst 33258 staining...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Youcheng Yang, Kan Huang, Yijie Huang, Lin Peng
This study assessed the safety and feasibility of 24-hour hospitalization after thyroid surgery. A randomized controlled trial study was performed for 432 patients scheduled for thyroidectomy in Guangdong General Hospital (GGH) between year 2014 and 2016. 216 cases (group A) were 24-hour hospital stay and 216 (group B) were inpatient. Preoperative patient characteristics and operative characteristics as well surgical complications were evaluated. 214 (99 %) of Group A were discharged after a 24-hour postoperative observation except one patient hospitalized two days for persistent nausea after surgery, and one patient, hospitalized two days for fear of the complication after the operation...
May 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Taylor Johnson, Dinender Kumar Singla
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in the United States and worldwide. Cancer occurs through the uncontrolled development of new abnormal cell growth. Clinicians and researchers strive to improve diagnostics and treatments in pursuit of remedying breast cancer, while limiting or removing any potential side effects that may arise. Unfortunately, traditional treatments, such as anthracyclines (i.e. Doxorubicin) can damage the cardiovascular system. Recent strategies have utilized antibody-based compounds as singular treatments, or in conjunction with other treatments, with the aim to minimize side effects...
May 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Thanaporn Sriwantana, Pornpun Vivithanaporn, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Krit Rattanawonsakul, Sirada Srihirun, Nathawut Sibmooh
Iron chelation can improve endothelial function. However, effect on endothelial function of deferiprone has not been reported. We hypothesized deferiprone could promote nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. We studied effects of deferiprone on blood nitrite and blood pressure after single oral dose (25 mg/kg) in healthy subjects and hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia patients. Further, effects of deferiprone on NO production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) were investigated in vitro...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Roland Veress, Dóra Baranyai, Bence Hegyi, Kornél Kistamás, Csaba Dienes, János Magyar, Tamás Bányász, Péter P Nánási, Norbert Szentandrássy, Balázs Horváth
The role of TRPM4 channels has been frequently tested using their inhibitor 9-phenanthrol in various cardiac preparations, however, the selectivity of the compound is uncertain. Therefore, in the present study the concentration-dependent effects of 9-phenanthrol on major ionic currents were studied in canine isolated ventricular cells using whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique and 10 mM BAPTA-containing pipette solution in order to prevent the Ca2+-dependent activation of TRPM4 channels. Transient outward, rapid delayed rectifier and inward rectifier K+ currents were suppressed by 10 and 30 µM 9-phenanthrol with the blocking potency for IK1<IKr<Ito1 and partial reversibility...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Melissa Desnoyers, Kim Gilbert, Ness Madingou, Marc-André Gagné, Caroline Daneault, Christine des Rosiers, Guy Rousseau
The present study was designed to ascertain the effects of 3 diets with different omega-3/6 fatty acid ratios on infarct size and the modifications that these diets induce in the lipid composition of cardiac tissue. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed omega-3/6 fatty acid diets with 1:1, 1:5 or 1:20 ratios for at least 10 days, followed by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 40 min and 24 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was significantly smaller in the 1:1 group compared to the other groups. Significantly higher concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were found in the 1:1 and other groups...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yanlian Xiong, Yanlei Xiong, Yueming Wang, Yajin Zhao, Yaojin Li, Yang Ren, Ruofeng Wang, Mingzi Zhao, Yitong Hao, Haibei Liu, Xiang Wang
The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity...
May 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Peter Nanasi, Istvan Komaromi, Janos Almassy
Clinical treatment of heart failure is still not fully solved. A novel class of agents, the myosin motor activators, acts directly on cardiac myosin resulting in an increased force generation and prolongation of contraction. Omecamtiv mecarbil, the lead molecule of this group, is now in human 3 phase displaying promising clinical performance. However, omecamtiv mecarbil is not selective to myosin, since it readily binds to and activates cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR-2), an effect that may cause complications is case of overdose...
May 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ray Otto Prather, John Seligson, Marcus Ni, Eduardo Divo, Alain Kassab, William DeCampli
The hybrid Norwood operation is performed to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Distal arch obstruction may compromise flow to the brain. In a variant of this procedure, a synthetic graft (RBTS) is placed between the pulmonary trunk and innominate artery to improve upper torso blood flow. Thrombi originating in the graft may embolize to the brain. In this study we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and particle tracking to investigate the patterns of particle embolization as a function of the anatomic position of the RBTS...
May 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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