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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825318/cardiac-striatin-interacts-with-caveolin-3-and-calmodulin-in-a-calcium-sensitive-manner-and-regulates-cardiomyocyte-spontaneous-contraction-rate
#1
Moni Nader, Shahd Alotaibi, Ebtehal Alsolme, Bariaa Khalil, Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Rahmah Alsomali, Dana Bakheet, Nduna Dzimiri
Impaired cardiomyocyte contraction rate is detrimental to cardiac function and often lethal. Despite the advancement in the field, there is a paucity of information regarding the coordination of molecules implicated in regulating the heart rate. Striatin (STRN) is a dynamic protein with binding domains to calmodulin (CaM) and caveolin (Cav), both of which are regulators of myocardial function. However, its role in cardiomyocyte contraction is not yet determined. Herein, we show that STRN is expressed in cardiomyocytes and it is more abundant in atrial myocardium than in ventricles...
August 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820947/dysregulated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-in-ethanol-induced-cavernosal-dysfunction
#2
Jaqueline Jóice Muniz, Leticia Nogueira Leite, Riccardo Lacchini, Jose E Tanus-Santos, Carlos Renato Tirapelli
We evaluated the effects of ethanol consumption on the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and metalloproteinases (MMP) pathways in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM). Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% vol./vol.) for six weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that ethanol consumption did not alter mRNA levels of p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK, ERK1/2, MMP-2 or MMP-9 in the rat CSM. Western immunoblotting experiments revealed decreased protein expression of p38MAPK and phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in the CSM from ethanol-treated rats...
August 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817786/propofol-attenuates-bv2-microglia-inflammation-via-nmda-receptor-inhibition
#3
Qichao Wu, Yanjun Zhao, Xiangyuan Chen, Minmin Zhu, Changhong Miao
Activated microglia, involved in the occurrence and improvement of sepsis-associated encephalopathy, can induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes, resulting in inflammation-mediated neuronal cell death. It was reported that propofol could inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes expression in BV2 and primary microglial cells. However, the underlying mechanism is not well known. In the present study, we investigated whether and how propofol inhibited LPS-induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes in BV2 cells...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813612/role-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-alleviating-hepatic-fibrosis-and-nephrotoxicity-induced-by-thioacetamide-in-rats
#4
Samir Ae Bashandy, Abdulaziz Alaamer, Sherif Abdelmawgoud Moussa, Enayat Omara
The present research studied the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 5mg, 7.5mg, 10 mg/Kg IP) on the liver and kidney injuries motivated by thioacetamide (TAA; 100mg/Kg IP).Each treatment was carried out three times weekly for eight weeks .ZnO-NPs relieved the decrease of hepatic or renal reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by TAA. Moreover, ZnO-NPs lowered tissues malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator for lipid peroxidation). TAA treatment led to a significant increase in plasma inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6), liver enzymes (Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and kidney function parameters (Creatinine, urea, uric acid)...
August 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800400/mechanism-of-tfam-mediated-cardiomyocyte-protection
#5
George H Kunkel, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Nicholas Theilen, Rohit Nair, Suresh C Tyagi
Although mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a protective component of mitochondrial DNA and a regulator of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the mechanism remains unclear. In heart failure (HF), TFAM is significantly decreased and cardiomyocyte instability ensues. TFAM inhibits Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT), which reduces ROS production; additionally, TFAM transcriptionally activates SERCA2a to decrease free calcium. Therefore, decreasing TFAM vastly increases protease expression and hypertrophic factors, leading to cardiomyocyte functional decline...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800398/a-13-week-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-and-lifestyle-modification-program-combining-low-glycemic-load-protein-shakes-and-targeted-nutraceuticals-improved-weight-loss-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-over-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-alone
#6
Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, John G Babish, Joseph J Lamb, Sarah Eliason, Holly Brabazon, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Matthew L Tripp
An open label, randomized, exploratory study comprising 44 healthy, overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation including soy, pea and whey proteins, phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil and berberine over 13-weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline, weeks 9 and 13. For DIET and PROG compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793202/differential-inhibition-of-rat-and-mouse-microsome-heme-oxygenase-by-derivatives-of-imidazole-and-benzimidazole
#7
Maaike Hum, Brian E McLaughlin, Xianqi Kong, Jason Z Vlahakis, Dragic Vukomanovic, Walter A Szarek, Kanji Nakatsu
Metalloporphyrin, heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors have made an important contribution to elucidating the role of HO in physiological processes. Nevertheless, their off-target effects have drawn substantial criticism, which prompted us to develop non-porphyrin, azole-based inhibitors of HO. These second-generation HO inhibitors were evaluated using spleen and brain microsomes from rats as native sources of HO-1 and HO-2, respectively. Recently, the use of azole-based inhibitors of HO has been extended to other mammalian species and, as a consequence, it will be important to characterize the inhibitors in these species...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793197/glycosylation-with-o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-o-glcnac-induces-vascular-dysfunction-via-production-of-superoxide-anion-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
Leonardo Souza-Silva, Rhéure Alves-Lopes, Jéssica Silva Miguez, Vanessa Dela Justina, Karla Bianca Neves, Fabíola Leslie Mestriner, Rita C Tostes, Fernanda Regina Giachini, Victor V Lima
Overproduction of superoxide anion (•O2-) and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modification in the vascular system are contributors to endothelial dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that increased levels of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins contribute to •O2- production via activation of NADPH oxidase, resulting in impaired vasodilation. Rat aortic segments and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) were incubated with vehicle (methanol) or PUGNAc (100 µM). PUGNAc produced a time-dependent increase in O-GlcNAc levels in VSMC and decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by apocynin and Tiron, suggesting that •O2- contributes to endothelial dysfunction under augmented O-GlcNAc levels...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787583/protective-effects-of-pioglitazone-on-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-induced-by-high-glucose-via-an-inhibition-of-ikk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-mediated-by-ppar%C3%AE-in-vitro
#9
Chunxiang Chen, Shaorong Peng, Fanghui Chen, Lili Liu, Zhouxie Li, Guohua Zeng, Qiren Huang
Pioglitazone (PIO), a synthetic ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), is clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little is known on its endothelial protective effects and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we sought to investigate PIO's endothelial protective effects and its likely mechanisms. 95% confluent high glucose concentration (HG, 33 mM)-injured WT-HUVECs and PPARγLow-HUVECs were first pretreated with 10 μM of GW9662 for 30 minutes, and then treated with various concentrations of PIO (5, 10, 20 μM) for 24 hours...
August 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787581/respiratory-muscle-training-decreases-dna-damage-on-diaphragm-in-rats-with-heart-failure
#10
Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Giuseppe Potrick Stefani, Camila Durante, Chalyne Taise Chechi, Vítor Scotta Hentschke, Douglas Dalcin Rossato, Anelise Sonza, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden, Pedro Dal Lago
Respiratory muscle training (RMT) promotes beneficial effects on respiratory mechanics, on heart and lung morphological changes, and on hemodynamic variables in rats with heart failure (HF). However, the relation between RMT effects and diaphragm oxidative stress remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the RMT effects on diaphragm DNA damage in HF rats. Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: sedentary sham (Sed-Sham, n=8), trained sham (RMT-Sham, n=8), sedentary HF (Sed-HF, n=8) and trained HF (RMT-HF, n=8)...
August 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787580/local-antinociceptive-action-of-fluoxetine-in-the-rat-formalin-assay-role-of-l-arginine-nitric-oxide-cgmp-katp-channel-pathway
#11
Behnam Ghorbanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Bahareh Naghizadeh, Soheila Alboghobeish
The present study was conducted to evaluate the local antinociceptive actions of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and the possible involvement of the L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway in this effect using formalin test in rats. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, animals were pre-treated with L-NAME, aminoguanidine, methylene blue, glibenclamide, L-arginine, sodium nitroprusside, or diazoxide. Local ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of fluoxetine (10-300 μg/paw) dose-dependently suppressed flinching number during both early and late phases of the test, and this was comparable to morphine also given peripherally...
August 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777914/resveratrol-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-and-insulin-resistance-by-concomitant-inhibiting-proteolytic-cleavage-of-srebps-ffas-oxidation-and-intestinal-tgs-absorption
#12
Eman F Khaleel, Ghada Ahmed Abdel-Aleem, Dalia Gamal Eldin Mostafa
Resveratrol (RES) has the ability to ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the mechanism remains unclear. Hence, using high-fat diet (HFD) obese rat model, we investigated the effect of low dose of RES (20 mg/kg) on hepatic Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs)-lipogenesis pathway, enzymes involved in β-oxidation and activity of pancreatic lipase. 4 groups of rats (n=8) of either control (12 % of calories as fat) or HFD (40 % of calories as fat), both were administered with either normal saline as vehicle or RES as a concomitant treatment for 8 weeks on a daily basis, orally...
August 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772090/nmda-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampal-area-are-involved-in-tramadol-state-dependent-memory-of-passive-avoidance-learning-in-mice
#13
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Hamed Mofidi, Mohammad-Sadegh Attarian-Khosroshahi
The neurobiological mechanisms of tramadol abuse underlying the cognitive function are still imprecise. Considering these, the aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of intra-CA1 injections of NMDA, an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) agonist and DL-AP5, a competitive NMDAR antagonist, on tramadol state-dependent memory. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retrieval in adult male NMRI mice. Post-training i.p. administration of an atypical MOR agonist, tramadol (2...
August 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772088/effect-of-zoledronate-a-third-generation-bisphosphonate-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#14
Solmaz Pourgonabadi, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Zahra Tayarani Najaran, Ahmad Ghorbani
Clinical use of zoledronate is accompanied with osteonecrosis of the jaw but the pathogenesis is not well understood. We assumed that zoledronate may have cytotoxicity against stem cells of the oral cavity, and in this way helps to initiate or promoting osteonecrosis. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and gingival fibroblasts (GFs) were isolated from volunteers who were undergoing third molar extraction. The proliferation of DPSCs and GFs was evaluated using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. Effect of zoledronate on apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining and western blotting analysis...
August 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772080/hydroxytyrosol-regulates-the-autophagy-of-vascular-adventitial-fibroblasts-through-sirt1-mediated-signaling-pathway
#15
Weirong Wang, Ting Jing, Xiaofeng Yang, Yanhao He, Bo Wang, Yunfang Xiao, Chenxu Shang, Jiye Zhang, Rong Lin
Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a phenolic compound in olive oil, exerts anti-inflammatory effect in cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies found that autophagy was a therapeutic target of diseases. However, the effect of HT on autophagy in vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAFs) remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of HT on cell autophagy and related signaling pathway, and whether HT regulates the inflammatory response through autophagy in VAFs. Our results showed that HT promoted cell autophagy by increasing the conversion of LC3 and Beclin1 expression and the autophagic flux in VAFs stimulated with TNF-α...
August 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763627/limb-remote-ischemic-per-conditioning-protects-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-opioid-system-in-rats
#16
Li Zhang, Hui Guo, Fang Yuan, Zeng-Chao Hong, Yan-Ming Tian, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Yi Zhang
Remote ischemia per-conditioning (RPerC) has been demonstrated to have cardiac protection, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying cardiac protection of RPerC. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was induced by 30-min occlusion and 3-h reperfusion of left anterior descending coronary artery. RPerC were performed by 5-min occlusion of right femoral artery followed by 5-min reperfusion for three times during cardiac ischemia...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763626/virtual-morris-task-responses-in-individuals-in-an-abstinence-phase-from-alcohol
#17
Mauro Ceccanti, Giovanna Coriale, Derek Hamilton, Valentina Carito, Roberto Coccurello, Bruna Scalese, Stefania Ciafre', Claudia Codazzo, Marisa Patrizia Messina, George Chaldakov, Marco Fiore
The present study was aimed at examining spatial learning and memory in 33 men and 12 women with alcohol use disorder (AUD) undergoing ethanol detoxification by using a virtual Morris task. As controls, we recruited 29 men and 10 women among episodic drinkers without a history of alcohol addiction and/or alcohol related diseases. Elevated latency to the first movement in all trials was observed only in AUD persons, furthermore, control women had higher latencies compared to control men. Increased time spent to reach the hidden platform in the learning phase was found for women of both groups compared to men, in particular during trial 3...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763621/age-related-testosterone-declines-can-be-detected-in-men-s-fingernails
#18
Devorah Matas, Lee Koren
Testosterone plays multiple roles in the regulation of development, physiology, reproduction, and behavior. Age-related testosterone declines are expected in the population. However, measuring circulating testosterone is especially challenging since concentrations are labile, responding to social situations and challenges. Matrices that integrate long-term testosterone levels are therefore valuable as biomarkers of mean, as well as chronic exposures. Here we report on a simple method to extract and measure accumulated testosterone from human fingernails using commercial EIA kits...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759733/protective-effect-of-rimonabant-a-canabinoid-receptor-1-antagonist-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model-by-modulating-the-hepatic-expression-of-activin-a-and-follistatin
#19
Noha Ibrahim Hussien, Hanan I El-Kerdasy, Mohamed El-Tantawy Ibrahim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver morbidity and mortality with no proven effective therapy yet. Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in various liver diseases. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin A. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of rimonabant (a potent cannabinoid receptor1 (CB1) antagonist) on NAFLD induced by choline deficient (CD) diet in rats, as well as to detect whether it can modulate the hepatic expression of activin A and follistatin or not...
July 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759731/antibiotic-drug-piperacillin-induces-neuron-cell-death-through-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-damage
#20
Shan Jiang, Tong Li, Xiao Zhou, Wenjun Qin, Zijun Wang, Yi Liao
Although nerve damage/toxicity has been shown to be one of the side effects in patients given prolonged antibiotic treatment, the mechanisms of the action of antibiotics on neuron cells are not clear. In this work, we investigated the toxicity of piperacillin (an antibiotic that can penetrate blood-brain barrier) on neuron cells and its underlying mechanisms. We show that clinically relevant doses of piperacillin induce apoptosis in SH-SY5Y and human primary neuron cells through activating caspase 3 activity and decreasing Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 levels...
July 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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