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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423286/protective-effects-of-tempol-in-an-experimental-ovarian-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-model-in-female-wistar-albino-rats
#1
Neslihan Pınar, Oya Soylu Karapınar, Oğuzhan Özcan, Esin Atik Doğan, Suphi Bayraktar
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of tempol on ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Forty female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I: sham, Group II: ischemia (I), Group III: ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), Group IV: ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) + Tempol 30 mg/kg i.p, Group V: ischemia-reperfusion + Tempol 50 mg/kg i.p. Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) was significantly higher in the ischemia group and the I/R group compared with the sham group. Catalase levels were significantly lower in the I/R group than in the I/R + Tempol 30 mg/kg i...
April 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407473/trimodal-rescue-of-hind-limb-ischemia-with-growth-factors-cells-and-nanocarriers-fundamentals-to-clinical-trials
#2
Rajesh Laksmanan, Gopi Ukani, Muhammad Tipu Rishi, Nilanjana Maulik
Peripheral Artery Disease is a severe medical condition commonly characterized by critical or acute limb ischemia. Gradual accumulation of thrombotic plaques in peripheral arteries of the lower limb may lead to intermittent claudication or ischemia in muscle tissue. Ischemic muscle tissue with lesions may become infected, resulting in a non-healing wound. Stable progression of the non-healing wound associated with severe ischemia might lead to functional deterioration of the limb, which, depending on the severity, can result in amputation...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388365/protective-effects-of-telmisartan-and-tempol-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-neuro-inflammation-and-amyloidogenesis-possible-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Waleed Abd-Elsalam Khallaf, Basim Messiha, Amira Abo-Youssef, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan, compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and two telmisartan treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted followed by a biochemical study via assessment of brain levels of beta amyloid (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as amyloidogenesis and neuroplasticity markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end products (NOx), neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) as inflammatory markers, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH) and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers...
April 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384415/down-regulation-of-cytochrome-p450-2c8-by-3-methylcholanthrene-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-lines
#4
Rucha Utgikar, David S Riddick
The marked induction of cytochromes P450 such as CYP1A1 caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) is often accompanied by suppression of other hepatic P450s. The molecular mechanisms, functional consequences, and human relevance of P450 down-regulation by PAHs are poorly understood. MC suppresses mRNA levels for CYP2C8, an important human P450, in cultured human hepatocytes. To avoid hepatocyte lot-to-lot variability, we assessed <i>CYP2C8</i> regulation by MC in HepaRG cells, a terminally differentiated human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line that maintains high P450 expression...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384414/alteration-of-high-density-lipoproteins-functionality-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#5
Pamela Camponova, Aurélie Le Page, Hicham Berrougui, Julie Lamoureux, Graham Pawelec, Jacek Witkowski, Tamas Fulop, Abdelouahed Khalil
The aims of the present study were to determine whether High-Density Lipoproteins functionality (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate the role and effect of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the regulation of the anti-atherogenic activity of HDL. Eighty-seven elderly subjects were recruited, of whom 27 were healthy, 27 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 33 had mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD). Our results showed that total cholesterol levels are negatively correlated with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = -0...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384411/kallikrein-kinin-system-as-the-dominant-mechanism-to-counteract%C3%A2-hyperactive-renin-angiotensin-system
#6
Domenico Regoli, Fernand Gobeil
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) generates, maintains and makes worse hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through its biologically active component Angiotensin II (Ang II), that causes vasoconstriction, sodium retention and structural alterations of the heart and the arteries. A few endogenous vasodilators, kinins, natriuretic peptides and possibly angiotensin (1-7), exert opposite actions and may provide useful therapeutic agents. As endothelial autacoids, the kinins are potent vasodilators, active natriuretics and protectors of the endothelium...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384410/lingonberry-anthocyanins-protect-cardiac-cells-from-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#7
Cara K Isaak, Jay C Petkau, Heather Joy Blewett, Karmin O, Yaw L Siow
Lingonberry grown in Northern Manitoba, Canada contains exceptionally high levels of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Previous studies from our lab have shown that lingonberry anthocyanins can protect H9c2 cells from ischemia-reperfusion injury and anthocyanin-rich diets have been shown to be associated with decreased cardiovascular disease and mortality. Oxidative stress can impair function and trigger apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study investigated the protective effects of physiologically relevant doses of lingonberry extracts and pure anthocyanins against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350969/mechanisms-of-spontaneous-pacing-sa-nodal-cells-neonatal-cardiomyocytes-and-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#8
Martin Morad, Xiaohua Zhang
The sino-atrial node is the primary site from which the mammalian heart is paced, but the mechanisms underlying the pacemaking still remain clouded. It is generally believed that the hyperpolarization-activated current I<sub><i>f</i></sub>, encoded by Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) genes, contributes significantly to pacing, which in tandem with inward current generated by efflux of Ca<sup>2+</sup> via the Na<sup>+</sup>-Ca<sup>2+</sup> exchanger (NCX), resulting from the released Ca<sup>2+</sup>, mediates the diastolic depolarization...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350968/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-cardiac-applications-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
Adrien Moreau, Mohamed Boutjdir, Mohamed Chahine
Chronic diseases are the primary cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 67% of deaths. One of the major challenges in developing new treatments is the lack of understanding of the exact underlying biological and molecular mechanisms. Chronic cardiovascular diseases are the single most common cause of death worldwide, and sudden deaths due to cardiac arrhythmias account for approximately 50% of all such cases. Traditional genetic screening for genes involved in cardiac disorders is laborious and frequently fails to detect the mutation that explains or causes the disorder...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350967/molecular-hydrogen-potentiates-beneficial-anti-infarct-effect-of-hypoxic-postconditioning-in-isolated-rat-hearts-novel-cardioprotective-intervention
#10
Marek Zálešák, Branislav Kura, Ján Graban, Veronika Ledvényiová-Farkašová, Jan Slezak, Tatiana Ravingerova
Generation of free radicals through incomplete reduction of oxygen during ischemia/ reperfusion is well-described. On the other hand, molecular hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) reduces oxidative stress due to its ability to react with strong oxidants and easily penetrate cells by diffusion, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions. This study was designed to explore cardioprotective potential of hypoxic postconditioning (HpostC) against ischemia/reperfusion (30-min global I/120-min R) in isolated rat hearts using oxygen-free Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB)...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334550/geraniol-promotes-functional-recovery-and-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Yan Lv, Liang Zhang, Na Li, Naiken Mai, Yu Zhang, Shuyi Pan
Geraniol, a plant derived monoterpene, has been extensively studied and showed a wide variety of beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of geraniol on functional recovery and neuropathic pain in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats received a clip-compression SCI and were treated with geraniol 6 hours following SCI. Treatment of SCI rats with geraniol markedly improved locomotor function, and reduced sensitivity to the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329449/behavioural-and-neurochemical-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-associated-with-omega-3-in-tardive-dyskinesia-induced-by-chronic-haloperidol-in-rats
#12
Dayane Pessoa Araújo, Thaisa Camboim, Ana Silva, Caio Fonseca, Rebeca Sousa, Mabson Barbosa, Lucidio Oliveira, José Cavalcanti, Eudes Lucena, Fausto Guzen
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega 3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with of LA (100mg/Kg) and ω-3 (1g/Kg) in the treatment of TD-induced by chronic use haloperidol (HAL) (1mg/Kg) in rats...
March 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317386/hepatoprotective-effect-of-blocking-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-male-albino-rats-exposed-to-acute-and-repeated-restraint-stress
#13
Shaimaa Nasr Amin, Ahmed Amro El-Aidi, Maha Zickri, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Sherif Sabry Hassan
Stress affects multiple organs in the body in addition to the brain including the liver. We aimed to assess the effects of blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors by memantine on the liver in acute and repeated restraint stress. Forty two male albino rats divided into seven groups; control, Acute restraint stress (ARS), ARS+memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint +memantine and positive control groups. We measured serum iron, zinc, alanine transferase and Aspartame transferase, hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, metallothionein content, zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like Protein 14 mRNA expression, hepcidin expression...
March 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301738/active-immunization-against-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-prevents-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-disease
#14
Hong Ji, Gerald Y Minuk, Zhikang Peng, Yongping Chen, Chenwei Pan, Yuewen Gong
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. To document the effects of active immunization against TGF-β1 on hepatic fibrosis in an animal model of chronic liver disease. BALB/c mice were immunized against three different peptides of TGF-β1 ligated into hepatitis B virus core protein (HBVc). Titers of TGF-β1 antibodies were documented by enzyme linked immunoassays and antibody activity by cell membrane receptor binding and proliferation assays. The most immunogenic recombinant HBVc+TGF-β1 peptide (HBVc+C) then served as a vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301729/atorvastatin-can-ameliorate-left-atrial-stunning-induced-by-radiofrequency-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Ruiqin Xie, Yingtao Yang, Wei Cui, Hongning Yin, Hongmei Zheng, Jidong Zhang, Ling You
The objective of this study was to study the functional changes of left atrium after radiofrequency ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation and the therapeutic effect of Atorvastatin. 58 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were randomly divided into non-Atorvastatin group and Atorvastatin group. Patients in Atorvastatin group were treated with Atorvastatin 20mg po per night in addition to the conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation; patients in non-Atorvastatin group received conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation only...
March 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278384/characterization-of-endogenous-nitric-oxide-role-in-myogenic-vascular-oscillations-during-cooling-evoked-hemodynamic-perturbations-of-rats
#16
Yi-Hsien Lin, Yia-Ping Liu, Yu-Chieh Lin, Po-Lei Lee, Che-Se Tung
Rapid immersion of a rat's limbs into 4°C water, a model of cold stress (CS), can elicit hemodynamic perturbations (CEHP). We have reported that CEHP is highly relevant to the sympathetic activation and nitric oxide production. This study identifies the role of nitric oxide in CEHP. Conscious rats were pretreated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME alone or following the removal of sympathetic influences using hexamethonium or guanethidine, and then they were subjected to a 10-min CS trial. Hemodynamic indices were telemetrically monitored throughout the experiment...
March 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273426/a-primer-on-current-progress-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#17
Danah Al Hattab, Michael Paul Czubryt
Cardiac fibrosis is a significant global health problem that is closely associated with multiple forms of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy and diabetes. Fibrosis increases myocardial wall stiffness due to excessive extracellular matrix deposition, causing impaired systolic and diastolic function and facilitating arrhythmogenesis. As a result, patient morbidity and mortality are often dramatically elevated compared to those with cardiovascular disease but without overt fibrosis, demonstrating that fibrosis itself is both a pathologic response to existing disease and a significant risk factor for exacerbation of the underlying condition...
March 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263083/cannabinoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#18
Yan Lu, Hope D Anderson
Cannabis sativa has long been used for medicinal purposes. To improve safety and efficacy, compounds from C. sativa were purified or synthesized and named under an umbrella group as cannabinoids. Currently, several cannabinoids may be prescribed in Canada for a variety of indications such as nausea and pain. More recently, an increasing number of reports suggest other salutary effects associated with endogenous cannabinoid signaling including cardioprotection. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids is therefore extended; however, evidence is limited and mechanisms remain unclear...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249117/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-activity-of-boswellic-acids-in-rotenone-parkinsonian-rats
#19
Angie Ameen, Amany Elkazaz, Hala M F A Mohammad, Bassant Mohamed Barakat
There is evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to neurodegenerative changes observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Unfortunately, there is a lack of curative treatments for this debilitating movement disorder. Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpene molecules of plant origin and have been utilized for treating many inflammatory conditions. The current study was conducted to explore the role of BAs in protection from rotenone-induced experimental Parkinsonism. Twenty four rats were assigned as vehicle group, rotenone control group: rats received rotenone (1 mg/kg) every 48...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238270/effects-of-trimetazidine-on-interleukin-2-and-interleukin-8-concentrations-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Aleksander Danikiewicz, Janusz Szkodziński, Bartosz Hudzik, Ilona Korzonek-Szlacheta, Mariusz Gasior, Barbara Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska
Trimetazidine (TMZ) exhibits metabolic and cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to access the effects of TMZ on IL-2 and IL-8 serum concentrations in 156 patients with stable coronary artery disease. They underwent treadmill exercise test (TET) before and after 3-month TMZ treatment. IL-2 and IL-8 concentrations were determined before and after each TET. Before treatment, TET didn't influence IL-2 concentrations, whereas IL-8 concentrations increased. TMZ treatment led to a decrease in IL-2 concentrations before TET, as well as it made the observed difference in IL-8 concentrations become statistically insignificant following the second TET...
February 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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