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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Branislav Kura, Ashim K Bagchi, Pawan K Singal, Miroslav Barancik, Tyler W LeBaron, Katarina Valachova, Ladislav Soltes, Jan Slezak
Uncontrolled production of oxygen and nitrogen radicals results in oxidative (OS) and nitrosative (NS) stresses that impair cellular functions and have been regarded as causative common denominators of many pathological processes. In this review, we report on the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) in scavenging radicals in an artificial system of ●OH formation. As a proof of principle, we also demonstrate that in rat hearts in vivo, administration of H2 led to a significant increase in SOD as well as pAKT, a cell survival signaling molecule...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Kürşad Aytekin, Selma Şengiz Erhan, Züleyha Erişgin, Cem Zeki Esenyel, Selçuk Takır
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is found in both the plasma and synovial fluid of patients with gonarthrosis. In the present study, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) (1 mM, 30 μL), a H2 S donor, might affect gonarthrosis in rats. Gonarthrosis was induced surgically in the left knees of rats and left for 6 weeks for the development of disease. Then, intra-articular injections of NaSH or methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg, 30 μL) were administered to rats. Half of each group was sacrificed at the end of the first day and the other half was sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks to evaluate early and later effects of injections on gonarthrosis...
December 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Jacquie Baker, Kurt Kimpinski
BACKGROUND: In evaluating autonomic dysfunction, the autonomic reflex screen (ARS) is an established set of standardized tests to evaluate the presence and severity of autonomic dysfunction. Our laboratory previously reported normative data on 121 healthy individuals; however, the sample size in older individuals was reduced compared to other age groups. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to provide updated normative values representative of young, middle aged and older individuals from Southwestern Ontario...
December 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
János Almássy, Péter P Nánási
The big conductance Ca2+ dependent K+ channel also known as BK, MaxiK, Slo1 or KCa1.1 is a ligand- and voltage gated K+ channel. Although, structure-function studies of the past decades, involving mutagenesis and electrophysiological measurements revealed fine details of the mechanism of BK channel gating, the exact molecular details remained unknown until the quaternary structure of the protein has been solved at a resolution of 3.5 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. In this short review, we are going to summarize these results and interpret the gating model of the BK channel in the light of the recent structural results...
December 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Mark A Underwood, Stephen Wedgwood, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Robin H Steinhorn
In the premature infant, poor growth in utero (fetal growth restriction) and in the first weeks of life (postnatal growth restriction) are associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension. In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic data supporting these associations, present a novel rodent model of postnatal growth restriction and review five promising mechanisms by which poor nutrition may affect the developing lung. These observations support the hypothesis that nutritional and/or pharmacologic interventions early in life may be able to decrease risk of the pulmonary complications of extreme prematurity...
December 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Anthony Cannavicci, Qiuwang Zhang, Si-Cheng Dai, Marie E Faughnan, Michael Kutryk
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare vascular disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Patients with HHT can develop vascular dysplasias called telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Our objective was to profile and characterize microRNAs (miRs), short-noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, in HHT patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs, comprised mostly of lymphocytes and monocytes, have been reported to be dysfunctional in HHT...
December 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Hongling Li, Jin Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differential diagnosis of malignant liver tumors. METHODS: 60 patients pathologically diagnosed with liver cancer from May 2016 to May 2017 were selected as the objects. All patients received ultrasonic diagnosis followed by the observation on dynamic contrast enhancement of the image and the analysis on perfusion characteristics and difference in contrast-enhanced ultrasound results in patients with different types of liver cancer...
December 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Firouzeh Gholampour, Jamshid Roozbeh, Sahar Janfeshan, Zeinab Karimi
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of renal ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) involves both inflammatory processes and oxidative stress in the kidney. This study determined whether remote ischemic per-conditioning (RIPerC) is mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal I/R injury was induced by occluding renal arteries for 45 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. RIPerC included four cycles of 2 minutes ischemia of left femoral artery followed by 3 minutes reperfusion performed at the start of renal ischemia...
December 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Peiliang Dong, Xiaomeng Ji, Wei Han, Hua Han
Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress causes the death of neuronal cells, which is involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxymatrine (OMT) inhibits oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of OMT on Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. In the Morris water maze test, OMT significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the number of platform crossings. In vitro, OMT markedly increased cell viability and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, OMT decreased the lactate dehydrogenase leakage, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner...
November 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Marie-Eve Brien, Bernadette Baker, Cyntia Duval, Virginie Gaudreault, Rebecca Lee Jones, Sylvie Girard
Inflammation is known to be associated with placental dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Infections are well known to be a cause of inflammation but they are frequently undetectable in pregnancy complications. More recently, the focus has been extended to inflammation of non-infectious origin, namely caused by endogenous mediators known as "damage-associated molecular patterns - DAMPs" or alarmins. In this manuscript we review the mechanism by which inflammation; sterile or infectious can alter the placenta and its function...
November 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Raghu Sundaresan Nagalingam, Danah S Al-Hattab, Michael Paul Czubryt
Fibroblasts have long been recognized as important stromal cells, playing key roles in synthesizing and maintaining the extracellular matrix, but historically were treated as a relatively uniform cell type. Studies in recent years have revealed a surprising level of heterogeneity of fibroblasts across tissues, and even within organs such as the skin and heart. This heterogeneity may have functional consequences, including during stress and disease. While the field has moved forward quickly to begin to address the scientific import of this heterogeneity, the descriptive language used for these cells has not kept pace, particularly when considering the phenotype changes that occur as fibroblasts convert to myofibroblasts in response to injury...
November 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Cristina López, Miriam Gómez-Roso, José Ángel García-Pedraza, María Luisa Martín, Asunción Morán, Mónica García-Domingo
Although depression and cardiovascular diseases are related, the role of antidepressants, as fluoxetine (increasing serotonin levels), within cardiac regulation remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether fluoxetine modifies the pharmacological profile of serotonergic influence on vagal cardiac outflow. Rats were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/; p.o.) for 14 days or equivalent volumes of drinking water (control group); then, they were pithed and prepared for vagal stimulation. Bradycardic responses were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i...
November 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ryan Nicholas Cook, Hassan Sarker, Carlos Fernandez-Patron
A member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, gelatinase A), has been extensively studied for its role in both normal physiology and pathological processes. Whereas most research efforts in recent years have investigated the pathologies associated with MMP-2 overactivity, the pathological mechanisms elicited by MMP-2 underactivity are less well understood. Here, we distinguish between two states and describe their causes: (i) MMP-2 deficiency (complete loss of MMP-2 activity) and (ii) MMP-2 insufficiency (defined as MMP-2 activity below baseline levels)...
November 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Akash K George, Kruyanshi Master, Avisek Majumder, Rubens Petit Homme, Anwesha Laha, Harpal Singh Sandhu, Suresh C Tyagi, Mahavir Singh
CircRNAs are a new class of covalently closed transcripts that are produced via back-splicing. These molecules have been identified in organisms ranging from worm to plants. Research on circRNAs is an active area because of their diverse roles in health and in diseases. Their circularity makes them resistant to degradation thus they hold great promise as unique biomarkers. We believe that further work on their applications could help in developing them as "first-in-class" diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic targets for eye conditions...
November 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Grant N Pierce, Amir Ravandi
Over the past decade there has been intense investigation in trying to understand the pathological role that oxidized phospholipids play in cardiovascular disease. Phospholipids are targets for oxidation, particularly during conditions of excess free radical generation. Once oxidized, they acquire novel roles uncharacteristic of their precursors. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines have an important role in multiple physiological and pathophysiological conditions including atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, lung disease, inflammation, and chronic alcohol consumption...
November 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yusuf Olgar, Belma Turan
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors showed significant effect in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, MetS with high cardiovascular-risk. Although the increased intracellular Zn2+ level ([Zn2+]i), oxidative stress and alterated cardiac matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in diabetic cardiomyopathy can intersect with different signaling pathways, the exact mechanisms are not known yet. Since either MMPs or SGLT2 have important role in cardiac-fibrosis under hyperglycemia, we aimed to examine the role of SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAP) on cardiac Zn2+-transporters responsible from [Zn2+]i-regulation, comparison to insulin (INS), together with MMP levels and systemic oxidative-stress-status in MetS-rats...
November 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Glen Lester Sequiera, Niketa Sareen, Vikram Sharma, Arun Surendran, Ejlal Abu-El-Rub, Amir Ravandi, Sanjiv Dhingra
Increasing reports of successful and safe application of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell therapy are pouring in through numerous studies. However, poor survival of transplanted cells in the recipient has impaired the benefits of MSCs based therapies. Therefore, cell product preparation procedures pertaining to MSC therapy need to be optimized to improve the survival of transplanted cells. One of the important ex vivo procedures in the preparation of cells for therapy is passaging of MSCs to ensure suitable number of cells for transplantation, which may affect the turn-over of proteins involved in regulation of cell survival/death pathways...
November 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Oluwaseun Aremu Adeyanju, Olugbenga S Michael, Taofeek Oluwamayowa Usman, Rita Tostes, Ayodele Soladoye
Women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than men at a similar age but the reverse is the case after menopause, indicating a possible protective effect of estrogen on cardiometabolic function. Obesity with insulin resistance is closely linked to CVD risks while ovariectomized rodents have been shown to mimic obese-insulin resistant (IR) state. We therefore hypothesized that low-dose spironolactone, would ameliorate obese-IR in estrogen-deprived rats by replenishing estrogen and suppressing elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)...
November 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Akash K George, Suresh C Tyagi
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy), i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes skeletal muscle myopathy. Among many cellular and metabolic alterations caused by HHcy, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress are considered the major ones; however, the precise molecular mechanism(s) in this process is unclear. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to treat HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized as a potent anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic/necrotic/pyroptotic, and anti-inflammatory compound and also has been shown to improve angiogenesis during ischemic injury...
November 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sherif M Sabry Hassan, Ayman Rizk, Charity Thomann, Ahmed Motawie, Shereen Abdel Fattah, Zulfiqar Ahmad
Acute renal failure complicates renal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) due to reactive oxygen species production. Atorvastatin (ATO) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. The current study investigated whether ATO alleviated damages induced by renal I/R injury in non-diabetic versus diabetic rat models. Thirty-six rats (18/group) were divided into non-diabetic and diabetic Groups, A and B, respectively: Group A1 (sham), Group A2 (I/R), Group A3 (ATO + I/R), Group B1 (sham), Group B2 (I/R), and Group B3 (ATO + I/R)...
November 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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