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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Ankit Kumar Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Kangmin Kim, Vivek K Bajpai
Bacillus strains were isolated from termitarium soil and screened for their antifungal activity through the production of diffusible and volatile metabolites. Further, the bacterial strains that showed antifungal activity were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on the basis of their plant-growth-promoting attributes. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus strains TSH42 and TSH77 significantly reduced the growth of pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani, controlled the symptoms of rhizome rot in turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Roberto Arredondo Valdés, Juan C Delgado Ortiz, Mariana Beltrán Beache, Julia Anguiano Cabello, Ernesto Cerna Chávez, Yolanda Rodríguez Pagaza, Yisa M Ochoa Fuentes
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Monitoring of health and detection of diseases in trees is critical for sustainable agriculture. HLB symptoms are virtually the same wherever the disease occurs. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp., vectored by the psyllids Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae. Electron microscopy was the first technique used for HLB detection. Nowadays, scientists are working on the development of new techniques for a rapid HLB detection, as there is no sensor commercially accessible for real-time assessment of health conditions in trees...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Courtney Dean, Yeyuan Xiao, Deborah J Roberts
Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
ShanShan Song, Yuanyuan Xue, Enfu Liu, Keping Wang, Yuanxing Zhang, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Sigma factors are important regulators that bacteria employ to cope with environmental changes. Studies on the functions of sigma factors have uncovered their roles in many important cellular activities, such as growth, stress tolerance, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. However, comparative analyses of sigma factors that examine their common and unique features or elucidate their cross-regulatory relationships have rarely been conducted for Edwardsiella tarda. Here, we characterized and compared motility and resistance to oxidative stress of E...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Chenfeng Yi, Fenglian Wang, Shijun Dong, Hao Li
Traditionally, trehalose is considered as a protectant to improve the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, to clarify the changes and roles of trehalose during the bioethanol fermentation, trehalose content and expression of related genes at lag, exponential, and stationary phases (i.e., 2, 8, and 16 h of batch fermentation process) were determined. Although yeast cells at exponential and stationary phase had higher trehalose content than cells at lag phase (P < 0.01), there was no significant difference in trehalose content between exponential and stationary phases (P > 0...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nazanin Seyed Khoei, Marco Andreolli, Silvia Lampis, Giovanni Vallini, Raymond J Turner
In natural environments, bacteria often exist in close association with surfaces and interfaces by establishing biofilms. Here, we report on the ability of Burkholderia fungorum strains DBT1 and 95 to survive in high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and we compare their growth as a biofilm vs. planktonic cells. The 2 compounds tested were dibenzothiophene (DBT) and a mixture of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene (5:2:1) as representative compounds of thiophenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zafer Dallal Bashi, Sanjaya Gyawali, Diana Bekkaoui, Cathy Coutu, Leora Lee, Jenny Poon, S Roger Rimmer, George G Khachatourians, Dwayne D Hegedus
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a central role in transferring signals and regulating gene expression in response to extracellular stimuli. An ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall integrity MAPK was identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Disruption of the S. sclerotiorum Smk3 gene severely reduced virulence on intact host plant leaves but not on leaves stripped of cuticle wax. This was attributed to alterations in hyphal apical dominance leading to the inability to aggregate and form infection cushions...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Tingting Peng, Siyi Pan, Lew P Christopher, Richard Sparling, David B Levin
A strictly anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain YS13, was isolated from a geothermal hot spring. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA genes and cpn60 UT genes suggested strain YS13 as a species of Thermoanaerobacter. Using cellobiose or xylose as carbon source, YS13 was able to grow over a wide range of temperatures (45-70 °C), and pHs (pH 5.0-9.0), with optimum growth at 65 °C and pH 7.0. Metabolic profiling on cellobiose, glucose, or xylose in 1191 medium showed that H2, CO2, ethanol, acetate, and lactate were the major metabolites...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
O D Amund
Strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are considered probiotic because of their associated potential health benefits. Probiotics are commonly administered orally via incorporation into food products. Microorganisms for use as probiotics encounter stress conditions, which include acid, bile, osmotic, oxidative, heat and cold stresses. These can occur during processing and storage and during passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and can affect viability. Probiotic bacteria have to remain viable to confer any health benefits...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jessica D Forbes, Gary Van Domselaar, Michael Sargent, Chris Green, Susan Springthorpe, Denis O Krause, Charles N Bernstein
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown; current research is focused on determining environmental factors. One consideration is drinking water: water systems harbour considerable microbial diversity, with bacterial concentrations estimated at 10(6)-10(8) cells/L. Perhaps differences in microbial ecology of water sources may impact differential incidence rates of IBD. Regions of Manitoba were geographically mapped according to incidence rates of IBD and identified as high (HIA) or low (LIA) incidence areas...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zaher Jabbour, Cássio do Nascimento, Michel El-Hakim, Janet E Henderson, Rubens F de Albuquerque
Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. DNA checkerboard hybridization was used for microbiota analysis with 43 genomic DNA probes prepared from human oral bacterial (38) and candida (5) species, using Socransky's bacterial complexes as a guide...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Rui Huang, Dayong Zhao, Jin Zeng, Feng Shen, Xinyi Cao, Cuiling Jiang, Feng Huang, Jingwei Feng, Zhongbo Yu, Qinglong L Wu
To investigate soil bacterial richness and diversity and to determine the correlations between bacterial communities and soil properties, 8 soil samples were collected from the Huashan watershed in Anhui, China. Subsequently, 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed to examine the soil bacterial community compositions. The operational taxonomic unit richness of the bacterial community ranged from 3664 to 5899, and the diversity indices, including Chao1, Shannon-Wiener, and Faith's phylogenetic diversity ranged from 7751 to 15 204, 7...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Seung-Jin Lee, Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Elias Gebru Awji, Myung Hee Kim, Ji-Yong Park, Joo-Won Suh, Seung-Chun Park
BaeR, a response regulator protein, takes part in multidrug efflux, bacterial virulence activity, and other biological functions. Recently, BaeR was shown to induce inflammatory responses by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study, we investigated additional pathways used by BaeR to induce an inflammatory response. BaeR protein was purified from Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A and subcloned into a pPosKJ expression vector. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with BaeR, and RNA was extracted by TRIzol reagent for RT-PCR...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Shixiu Cui, Tianwen Wang, Hong Hu, Liangwei Liu, Andong Song, Hongge Chen
There exist significant differences between the 2 main types of xylanases, family F10 and G11. A clear understanding of the expression pattern of microbial F10 and G11 under different culture conditions would facilitate better production and industrial application of xylanase. In this study, the fungal xylanase producer Aspergillus niger A09 was systematically investigated in terms of induced expression of xylanase F10 and G11. Results showed that carbon and nitrogen sources could influence xylanase F10 and G11 transcript abundance, with G11 more susceptible to changes in culture media composition...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sirawit Pagdepanichkit, Chanwit Tribuddharat, Rungtip Chuanchuen
One hundred Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates were examined for inhibitory effect of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of 4 resistant-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux systems, including AdeABC, AdeDE, AdeIJK, and AdeFGH, using RT-PCR. Ten A. baumannii isolates expressing AdeABC, AdeIJK, or AdeFGH were randomly selected for determination of transcription level and regulatory mutations. While all the isolates were resistant to multiple drugs, the reserpine and CCCP experiment showed that the multidrug resistance phenotype in most A...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Barcin Ozturk, Necati Gunay, Bulent M Ertugrul, Serhan Sakarya
Bacteria may hide in a hydrated polysaccharide matrix known as a biofilm. The structure of the bacterial biofilm renders phagocytosis difficult and increases antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that repeated doses of antibiotics have an effect on bacteria within the biofilm and that it could inhibit or eradicate biofilm formation. Two clinical biofilm-positive coagulase-negative staphylococcus isolates were evaluated. The effects of antibiotics on preformed and nascent biofilm and on bacterial eradication within the biofilm were determined using different doses of vancomycin, daptomycin, and tigecycline for different durations in an in vitro biofilm model...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yulian Zhan, Shaolun Zheng
Here we report the production of the cyclic macrotetrolide nonactin from the fermentation culture of Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus. Nonactin is a member of a family of naturally occurring cyclic ionophores known as the macrotetrolide antibiotics. Our fermentation procedure of Streptomyces griseus was performed at 30 °C and 200 rev·min(-1) for 5 days on a rotary shaker. Diaion HP-20 and Amberlite XAD-16 were added to the fermentation medium. Isolated yield of nonactin was up to 80 mg·L(-1) using our methodology...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jessica Scoffield, Laura Silo-Suh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
B Thilakan, K Chakraborty, R D Chakraborty
In this study, 234 bacterial strains were isolated from 7 seaweed species in the Gulf of Mannar on the southeast coast of India. The strains having consistent antimicrobial activity were chosen for further studies, and this constituted about 9.8% of the active strains isolated. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequencing with the help of classical biochemical identification indicated the existence of 2 major phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Antimicrobial activity analysis combined with the results of amplifying genes encoding for polyketide synthetase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase showed that seaweed-associated bacteria had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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