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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Matthew G Bakker, Torey Looft, David P Alt, Kathleen Delate, Cynthia A Cambardella
Understanding how soil microbiomes respond to management is essential to maximizing soil health. We contrasted microbiomes in bulk soil under long-term organic and conventional management in a grain production setting. Management category significantly impacted the relative abundances of 17% of the most abundant taxa. Both conventional and organic management favored particular taxa, but these effects were not reflected in summary richness and diversity indices. Management systems also lead to differences in soil edaphic properties, including pH and nutrient status; this may have been the mechanism by which prokaryote community change was enacted...
July 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Haipeng Cao, Yibin Yang, Liqun Lu, Xianle Yang, Xiaohui Ai
The use of bdellovibrios has been regarded as an alternative to control multidrug-resistant pathogens and fish bacteriosis. However, scarce information is available on the potential of bdellovibrios in the presence of copper sulfate, which is an algicide widely used to treat cyanobacterial blooms in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of copper sulfate at sublethal and lethal levels (0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1) on Bdellovibrio sp. strain BDF-H16 were evaluated. The growth of Bdellovibrio sp. strain BDF-H16 was significantly promoted by both concentrations of copper sulfate, but less so by the lethal concentration...
July 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Emilie Loustau, Jean-Luc Rols, Joséphine Leflaive, Claire-Emmanuelle Marcato-Romain, Elisabeth Girbal-Neuhauser
This paper aims to define a robust procedure to extract Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) from aggregates of three benthic phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale, diatom Nitzschia palea and green alga Uronema confervicolum). This study focuses on the extraction efficiency of polysaccharide and protein EPS by using two physical methods (sonication, cation exchange resin) and three chemical methods (Formamide, EDTA, Tween 20) with minimum cell lysis. Cell lysis was evaluated by monitoring chlorophyll a release...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yibao Chen, Erchao Sun, Jiaoyang Song, Yigang Tong, Bin Wu
Salmonella is a common and widely distributed foodborne pathogen that is frequently implicated in gastrointestinal infections. The emergence and spread of Salmonella strains resistant to multiple antibiotics poses a significant health threat, highlighting the urgent need for early and effective therapeutic strategies. We isolated a total of 32 phages from water samples and anal swabs from pigs. Of these, three phages that produced large, clear plaques were selected for further study using the following methods: electron microscopy, analysis of the life cycle parameters, genetic analysis, inhibition of bacterial growth and activity against biofilms...
July 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Daniela Maizel, Pilar Balverdi, Barry Rosen, Adriana M Sales, Marcela A Ferrero
Arsenic hyper-tolerant bacteria were isolated from arsenic-contaminated well water from the village of Los Pereyra in Tucumán province, Argentina. Microorganisms that biotransform arsenic are a major factor in arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers. Groundwater analyses showed a level of arsenic contamination (average concentration of 978 µg.L<sup>-1</sup>) that exceeds the safe drinking water limit of 10 µg.L<sup>-1</sup> recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Argentine Food Code (AFC)...
July 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Natallia Varankovich, Alexander Grigoryan, Kirsty Brown, G Douglas Inglis, Richard R E Uwiera, Michael T Nickerson, Darren R Korber
The efficacy of two strains of Lactobacillus probiotics immobilized in pea protein isolate (PPI) - alginate microcapsules was assessed using a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Mice were fed diets supplemented with freeze-dried probiotics, probiotic-containing PPI-alginate microcapsules or PPI-alginate microcapsules containing no probiotics. Half the mice were gavaged with C. rodentium 2 weeks after initiation of feeding. Daily monitoring of disease symptoms and body weights were undertaken...
June 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Maryanne Scott, Mamta Rani, Jamil Samsatly, Jean-Benoit Charron, Suha Jabaji
Plant endophytes are a group of microorganisms that reside asymptomatically within the healthy living tissue. The diversity and molecular and biochemical characterization of industrial hemp-associated endophytes have not been previously studied. This study explored the abundance and diversity of culturable endophytes residing in petioles, leaves, and seeds of three industrial hemp cultivars, and examined their biochemical attributes and antifungal potential. A total of 134 bacterial and 53 fungal strains were isolated from cultivars Anka, CRS-1, and Yvonne...
June 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Szilvia Kontár, L Vare Ka, Michal Híreš, Svetlana Kryštofová, Martin Šimkovič
The effect of light on the Ca2+ binding to mycelia and cell walls isolated from aerial mycelia of three strains of Trichoderma spp. was studied. Measurements of the total Ca2+ content in mycelium, and Ca2+ bound to cell walls isolated from aerial mycelium by two independent methods showed that the light-induced formation and maturation of conidia in Trichoderma spp. is accompanied by an increased Ca2+ deposition in mycelia and cell walls. Moreover, the cultivation of T. atroviride F-534 in the presence of 45Ca2+ under circadian illumination showed that radioactivity was exclusively localized in the light-induced conidial rings of aerial mycelium...
June 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Carmen M S Ambrosio, Severino Matias De Alencar, Andrea Micke Moreno, Eduardo Micotti Da Gloria
Essential oils (EOs), as substitutes for antibiotics in animal diets, should have a selective antibacterial activity between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria from animal gut. Thus, this study evaluated the selective antibacterial activity of <i>E. globulus</i> (EG) and <i>P. pseudocaryophyllus</i> (PP) EOs on <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> as surrogate model of pathogenic bacterium, and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> as beneficial bacterium model. The EOs antibacterial activity was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index determinations...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Camila Rodrigues de Carvalho, Alice Ferreira-D'Silva, David E Wedge, Charles L Cantrell, Luiz H Rosa
In the present study, we evaluated the antifungal potential of cytochalasins produced by Diaporthe taxa against phytopathogenic fungi. Using molecular methods, seven endophytic fungal strains from the medicinal plants Copaifera pubiflora and Melocactus ernestii were identified as D. miriciae, while two isolates were identified to the genus level (Diaporthe sp.). All crude extracts of Diaporthe species produced via solid-state fermentation were evaluated by 1H NMR analyses. Crude extracts of the isolates D. miriciae UFMGCB 6350, 7719, 7646, 7653, 7701, 7772, and 7770 and Diaporthe sp...
June 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Wenfeng Wang, Bang An, Liping Feng, Chaozu He, Hongli Luo
<i>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</i> is the causal agent of rubber tree anthracnose and leads to serious loss of natural rubber production. The pathogenesis of <i>C. gloeosporioides</i> on rubber tree retains unknown. Cerato-platanin proteins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins which contribute to virulence and function in fungal-plant interactions. A Cerato-platanin protein encoding gene, named as <i>CgCP1</i>, was identified from <i>C. gloeosporioides</i>...
June 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Deshun Xu, Lei Ji, Xiaofang Wu, Wei Yan, Liping Chen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common and important pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. A rapid, sensitive, and specific assay is urgently required for detection and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus strains. We designed three sets of primers and probes using groEL and two virulence genes (tdh and trh) from V. parahaemolyticus, and developed a multiplex real-time PCR protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex assay was evaluated by environmental and clinical specimens of V...
June 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Haibo Lou, Xiaobing Wang, Jun Chen, Bozhi Wang, Wei Wang
To develop efficient biocontrol agents, it is essential to investigate the response of soil-borne plant pathogens to such agents. For example, the response of Ralstonia solanacearum, the tomato wilt pathogen, to antimicrobial metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens is unknown. Thus, we assessed the effects of P. fluorescens SN15-2 fermentation broth on R. solanacearum by transmission electron microscopy and transcriptome technology. RNA sequencing identified 109 and 155 genes that are significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in response to P...
May 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Vikas Thakur, Vijay Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Dharam Singh
Pangi-Chamba Himalaya (PCH) region is very pristine, unique and virgin niche for bioresource exploration. In the current study, for the first time, the bacterial diversity of this region for potential cellulose degrader was investigated. A total of 454 pure bacterial isolates were obtained from diverse sites in PCH region and 111 isolates were further selected for 16S rDNA characterization based on ARDRA grouping. Identified bacteria belongs to twenty-eight genera representing four phyla namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Linghuo Jiang, Yi Yang
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, an ancient family of cation channels, are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play various physiological functions, ranging from sensation of ion homeostasis to reception of pain and vision. Calcium-permeable TRP channels have been identified from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCsc1) and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScCsc1). In this study, we characterized the functions of the Csc1 homolog, orf19.4805, in Candida albicans. Orf19.4805 is a protein of 866 amino acids and 11 transmembrane domains, which shares 49% identity (69% similarity) in amino acid sequence with ScRsn1...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Tristan T Watson, Tom A Forge, Louise M Nelson
Inoculation with antagonistic soil microorganisms has shown potential to suppress replant disease of apple in orchard soils. Pseudomonas spp. may have the potential to reduce Pratylenchus penetrans populations on apple. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet cherry and screened for antagonistic characteristics. Two highly antagonistic Pseudomonas isolates, P10-32 and P10-42, were evaluated for growth promotion of apple seedlings, suppression of P. penetrans populations, and root colonization in soil from three orchards...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zhaoyu Kong, Wenbo Kou, Yantian Ma, Haotian Yu, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The spatio-temporal shifts of bacterioplankton community can mirror their transition of functional traits in aquatic ecosystem. However, our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition structure (BCCs) within large, shallow and highly dynamic freshwater lake is still elusive. Here we examined the seasonal and spatial variability of BCCs in the Poyang Lake by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore how hydrological changes affect the BCCs. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the BCCs varied significantly among four sampling seasons, but not spatially...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Huan Qu, Yanjie Huang, Yinghao Shi, Ying Liu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
This study investigated the use for bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotic alternative in the diet of growing-finishing pigs by examining their digestive bacterial communities. Forty-five Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs were randomly allocated to five diet groups: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% bamboo vinegar levels and antibiotics. After 37 days, the digesta in duodenum of four pigs from each treatment were analyzed for their bacterial community compositions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The addition of 1...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Timothy Howdeshell, Takuji Tanaka
A bioethanol by-product, dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) contains high levels of cellulose and starch. We hypothesized that combinations of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and digestion by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) could increase the recovery of glucose from this by-product by concentrating and loosening the cellulose matrix through their activities. DDGS was individually fermented with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma koningii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, or Lactobacillus plantarum...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Justin Falardeau, Khalil Walji, Maxime Haure, Karen Fong, Greg Taylor, Yussanne Ma, Sean Smukler, Siyun Wang
Soil is an important reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen implicated in numerous produce-related outbreaks. Our objectives were to (i) compare the survival of L. monocytogenes among three soils, (ii) compare the native bacterial communities across these soils, and (iii) investigate relationships between L. monocytogenes survival, native bacterial communities, and soil properties. Listeria spp. populations were monitored on PALCAM agar in three soils inoculated with L. monocytogenes (∼5 × 106 CFU/g): conventionally farmed (CS), grassland transitioning to conventionally farmed (TS), and uncultivated grassland (GS)...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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