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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Lei Yang, Lanlan Tan, Fenghua Zhang, William J Gale, Zhibo Cheng, Wen Sang
Salinized land in the China's Xinjiang Region is being reclaimed for continuous cotton production. The specific objectives of this field study were (1) to compare bacterial composition and diversity in unfarmed (i.e., unreclaimed) and continuously (5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-yr) cropped soils and (2) to explore correlations between soil properties and the bacterial communities identified by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that bacterial species richness and diversity increased for 10 to 15 yr and then declined when salinized land was reclaimed for cotton production...
December 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Wang-Ye Xu, Yijing Li, Chen Fan
The increased serum survival gene (iss) has been identified as a virulence trait associated with the virulence of Escherichia coli, causing colibacillosis in poultry. However, it remains unclear as to whether iss mRNA copy number and sequence affect the virulence. To examine these influences, we assessed the presence of iss, sequence analysis, iss mRNA copy number, and serum resistance. iss was detected in (all) 88 E. coli isolates from different sources, and sequencing identified 16 alleles (32 different loci) and 10 amino acid sequences (10 different loci)...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Li Cao, Wenhong Shi, Rundong Shu, Jian Pang, Yuetao Liu, Xiaohua Zhang, Yuming Lei
A bacterial strain CQH-1 capable of mineralizing iprodione was isolated and characterized. On the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics combined with phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain CQH-1 was identified as a Microbacterium sp. CQH-1. It was able to use iprodione and 3,5-dichloroaniline as the sole source of carbon and energy for its growth. It completely degraded 100 mg·L-1 iprodione within 96 h at 30 °C. During the degradation of iprodione by strain CQH-1, 2 compounds were detected in GC-MS analysis and were recognized as N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-dioxoimidazolidine and 3,5-dichloroaniline...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Putthita Punjee, Wilailak- Siripornadulsil, Surasak- Siripornadulsil
The effects of the cadmium (Cd)-tolerant bacterium <i>Cupriavidus taiwanensis</i> KKU2500-3 on the growth, yield and Cd concentration in rice grains were investigated in the rice variety Phitsanulok 2 (PL2), which was cultivated in a hydroponic greenhouse. The numbers of Cd-tolerant bacteria isolated from the roots and shoots of plants under the RB [rice with bacteria] and RBC [rice with bacteria and Cd] treatments ranged from 2.60 to 9.03 and 3.99 to 9.60 log CFU•g<sup>-1</sup> of PL2, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Keqiang Shao, Guang Gao
The microbial community plays an important role in soil nutrient cycles and energy transformations in alpine grassland. In this study, we investigated the composition of soil microbial community collected from alpine cold swamp meadow (ASM), alpine cold meadow (AM), and alpine cold desert steppe (ADS) within the Bayinbuluke, China using Illumina amplicon sequencing. Of the 147,271 sequences obtained, 36 microbial phyla/groups were detected. The results showed that the ADS had lower microbial diversity than the ASM and AM, as estimated by the Shannon index...
December 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Eta Ashu, Ga Young Kim, Patrick Roy-Gayos, Kelly Dong, Adrian Forsythe, Victoria Giglio, Gregory Korfanty, Deborah Yamamura, Jianping Xu
Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause aspergillosis in humans. Over the last decade there have been increasing global reports of treatment failure due to triazole resistance. An emerging hypothesis states that agricultural triazole fungicide use causes clinical triazole-resistance. Here we test this hypothesis in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada by examining a total of 195 agricultural, urban and clinical isolates using 9 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. For each isolate, the in vitro susceptibilities to itraconazole and voriconazole, two triazole drugs commonly used in the management of patients, were also determined...
November 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yulia A Filip'echeva, Andrei V Shelud'ko, Alexei G Prilipov, Gennady L Burygin, Elizaveta M Telesheva, Stella S Yevstigneyeva, Marina P Chernyshova, Lilia P Petrova, Elena I Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense can swim and swarm owing to the activity of a constitutive polar flagellum (Fla) and inducible lateral flagella (Laf), respectively. Experimental data on the regulation of the Fla and Laf assembly in azospirilla are scarce. Here, the coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_p1160043 (fabG1) for a putative 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein (ACP)] reductase was found essential for the construction of both types of flagella. In an immotile leaky Fla- Laf- fabG1::Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1610, defects in flagellation and motility were fully complemented by expressing the CDS AZOBR_p1160043 from plasmid pRK415...
November 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yan Wang, Zhang Yiquan, Zhe Yin, Jie Wang, Yongzhe Zhu, Haoran Peng, Dongsheng Zhou, Zhongtian Qi, Wenhui Yang
Swarming motility is ultimately mediated by the proton-powered lateral flagellar (laf) system in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Expression of laf is tightly regulated by a number of environmental conditions and regulatory factors. The nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is a small and abundant protein that is widely distributed in bacteria, and H-NS like proteins-dependent expression of laf genes have been identified in V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The data presented here shows that H-NS acts as a repressor of the swarming motility in V...
November 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Maika Furukawa, Noriko Goji, Timothy W Janzen, Matthew C Thomas, Dele Ogunremi, Burton Blais, Naoaki Misawa, Kingsley Kwaku Amoako
Serotyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is a critical step for foodborne salmonellosis investigation. We have developed a new assay to identify Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S. enterica) serovars based on a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with pyrosequencing for amplicon confirmation and phylogenetic discrimination of strain. The top 54 most prevalent serovars of S. enterica in Canada were examined with a total of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or variations (SNVs) located on three genes (fliD, sopE2, and spaO)...
October 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Huijiao Lin, Xiang Jiang, Jianping Yi, Xinguo Wang, Ranling Zuo, Zide Jiang, Weifang Wang, Erxun Zhou
A rolling-circle amplification (RCA) method with padlock probes targeted on <i>EF-1α</i> regions was developed for rapid detection of apple bull's eye rot (BER) pathogens, including<i> Neofabraea malicorticis</i>,<i> N. perennans</i>, <i>N. kienholzii</i> and <i>N. vagabunda</i> (synonym:<i> N. alba</i>). Four padlock probes (PLP-Nm, PLP-Np, PLP-Nk and PLP-Nv) were designed and tested against 28 samples, including 22 BER pathogen cultures, 4 closely related species and 2 unrelated species which may cause serious apple decays...
October 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Li Gong, Qin Huang, Aikun Fu, Yanping Wu, Ya-Li Li, Xiaogang Xu, Yi Huang, Dong-You Yu, Wei-Fen Li
Previous studies found that Bacillus subtilis BS02 (B. subtilis BS02) and B. subtilis subsp. natto BS04 (B. subtilis natto BS04) isolated in our laboratory could activate immune response of murine macrophages in vitro. This study aims to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus spores on the systemic cellular immune response in BALB/C mice. Results showed that both B. subtilis BS02 and B. subtilis natto BS04 enhanced the phagocytic function of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells...
October 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Andrea Y Calvo, Julieta M Manrique, Leandro R Jones
Rare microbes make up most of the diversity of marine microbiomes and recent works have highlighted their importance for microbial community dynamics and in fragmented habitats. Rare taxa have been little studied in comparison to abundant groups and rare unclassified sequences are common in culture-independent studies. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of no classifiable sequences from the Chubut river estuary at the Argentinean Patagonia. Standard taxonomic assignments of environmental 16S rRNA sequences resulted in about 13 % unclassified OTUs...
October 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Chuanqing Zhong, Chao Zhang, Jiafang Fu, Wenbing Chen, Tianyi Jiang, Guangxiang Cao
Enterobacter cloacae strain R11 is a multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from sewage water near a swine feedlot in China. Strain R11 can survive in medium containing up to 192 μg/mL polymyxin E, indicating a tolerance for this antibiotic that is significantly higher than that reported for other gram-negative bacteria. In this study, conjugation experiments showed that partial polymyxin E resistance could be transferred from strain R11 to Escherichia coli strain 25922, revealing that some genes related to polymyxin E resistance are plasmid-based...
October 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lempie Kashinasha Ekandjo, Silke Ruppel, Rainer Remus, Katja Witzel, Sascha Patz, Yvonne Becker
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is considered one of the key plant growth-promoting (PGP) factors for diazotrophic organisms. Whether the Fe and the FeMo nitrogenases of <i>Kosakonia radicincitans</i> contribute to its PGP effect is yet to be proven. Hence, for the first time we conducted site-directed mutagenesis in <i>K. radicincitans</i> to knock out <i>anfH</i> and/or <i>nifH</i> as means to deactivate BNF in this strain. We used <sup>15</sup>N<sub>2</sub> labeled air to trace BNF activities in Δ<i>anfH</i> Δ<i>nifH</i> and Δ<i>anfH</i>Δ<i>nifH</i> mutants...
October 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Kandaswamy Rekha, Baburaj Baskar, Santhanam Srinath, Balasundaram Usha
Malic acid, one of the major organic acid exudates from roots, plays a significant role in the chemotaxis of beneficial bacteria to the plant's rhizosphere. In this study, the effect of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis RR4, on the synthesis and exudation of malic acid (MA) from roots is demonstrated in rice. To test the chemotactic ability of RR4 towards MA, capillary chemotaxis assay was performed which revealed a positive response (relative chemotactic ratio of 6.15 with 10 µM MA) and with increasing concentrations of MA, an elevated chemotactic response was observed...
October 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zhibo Cheng, Fenghua Zhang, William Jeffrey Gale, Weichao Wang, Wen Sang, Haichang Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate bacterial community structure and diversity in soil aggregate fractions when salinized farmland was reclaimed after > 27 yr of abandonment and then farmed again for 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was performed to characterize the soil bacterial communities in five aggregate size classes in each treatment. The results indicated that reclamation significantly increased macro-aggregation (> 0.25 mm), as well as soil organic C, available N, and available P...
October 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
James Gillis, Kenton Ko, Juliana A Ramsay, Bruce A Ramsay
Greater than 65 % of canola and high oleic soy oil fatty acids is oleic acid, which is readily converted to nonanoic (NA) and azelaic (AzA) acids by ozonolysis. NA is an excellent substrate for medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production but AzA has few uses. Pseudomonas citronellolis DSM 50332 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400, both able to produce mcl-PHA from fatty acids and able to grow on AzA as the sole source of carbon and energy were assessed for the accumulation of mcl-PHA from AzA and NA...
October 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Supansa Bunpa, Nishibuchi Mitsuaki, Jumroensri Thawonsuwan, Natthawan Sermwittayawong
<i>Vibrio alginolyticus</i> is ubiquitous in marine environments and is among the human and marine animal pathogens. The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between genetic diversity and origins, and to develop new primers based on <i>gyrB</i> sequence for identification of <i>V. alginolyticus</i> isolated from various sources. To determine the genetic diversity of this bacterium, arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) technique was performed on 36 strains of <i>V...
October 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Deborah A Court, Shivani Khetoo, Sabbir R Shuvo, Shayne D Reitmeier, Georg Hausner
In eukaryotic cells, communication and dynamic interactions among different organelles are important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex establishes membrane contact sites between ER and mitochondria and is essential for phospholipid transport, protein import, and mitochondrial dynamics and inheritance. In this work, in silico analyses were used to probe the intramolecular interactions in ERMES proteins and the interactions that support the ERMES complex...
October 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Parveen K Sharma, Riffat I Munir, Teresa de Kievit, David B Levin
Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 was isolated from soybean roots as a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium. This strain secretes a wide range of compounds, including the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), pyrrolnitrin, and 2-hydroxyphenazine. We have determined that P. chlororaphis PA23 can synthesize medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymers utilizing free fatty acids, such as octanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as vegetable oils as sole carbon sources. Genome analysis identified a pha operon containing 7 genes in P...
October 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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