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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532988/biogeography-and-genotypic-diversity-of-i-metarhizium-brunneum-i-and-i-metarhizium-robertsii-i-in-northwestern-north-american-soils-i-i
#1
G Douglas Inglis, Grant M Duke, Mark S Goettel, J Todd Kabaluk, Rodrigo Ortega-Polo
The biogeography and genotype diversity of <i>Metarhizium</i> species in northwestern North American soils was examined; twenty ecoregions were sampled, including 58 agricultural and 80 natural habitat subsites, and areas that were glaciated during the Pleistocene epoch. One hundred and twenty nine isolates of <i>M. brunneum</i>, 26 isolates of <i>M. robertsii</i>, four isolates of <i>M. guizhouense</i>, one isolate of <i>M. flavoviride</i>, and 55 isolates of <i>Beauveria</i> were recovered...
December 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532987/presence-of-genes-associated-with-adhesion-invasion-and-toxin-production-in-i-campylobacter-jejuni-i-isolates-and-effect-of-temperature-on-their-expression
#2
Mauricéia Oliveira, Caroline Rizzi, Vanessa Galli, Graciela Volz Lopes, Louise Haubert, Odir Dellagostin, Wladimir Padilha Silva
The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of genes associated with adhesion (<i>cadF</i>), invasion (<i>ciaB</i>), and cytotoxin production (<i>cdtA, cdtB</i> and <i>cdtC</i>) among <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates from a poultry slaughterhouse and investigate the effect of different temperatures on the expression of these virulence-associated genes. A total of 88 <i>C. jejuni</i> isolates from cecum, liver, chicken carcasses, chilled water, and scalding water were submitted to PCR assay for detection of virulence genes...
December 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508393/remediation-of-deterioration-in-microbial-structure-in-continuous-pinellia-ternata-cropping-soil-by-crop-rotation
#3
Zhigui He, Renjun Mao, Juan'e Dong, Zongsuo Liang, Haihua Zhang, Lin Liu
Pinellia ternata is a traditional Chinese herb that suffers from continuous cropping (CC), which significantly decreases both yield and quality. The influence of CC on microbiome in P. ternata rhizosphere and the effects of remediation on microbiota by rotational cropping (CR) were assessed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. CC tends to decrease the α-diversities along with cultivation time, whereas CR tends to increase them. Differentially abundant analysis showed that microbial structure was important in maintaining the health status of P...
December 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30495976/evaluating-the-diversity-and-composition-of-bacterial-communities-associated-with-acacia-gerrardii-the-only-existing-native-tree-species-in-kuwait-desert
#4
Majda Khalil Suleiman, Kingsley Dixon, Lucy Commander, Paul Nevill, Ali Quoreshi, Narayana Bhat, Anitha Manuvel, Mini Sivadasan
We investigated the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric bulk soils as well as root nodule bacterial communities of Acacia gerrardii - the only native tree species existing in the Kuwait desert. Community fingerprinting comparisons and 16S rDNA sequence identifications were used for characterization of the bacterial population using specific primers. The bacterial characterization of soil samples revealed four major phyla, namely: Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria...
November 29, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485122/microbial-degradation-of-low-density-polyethylene-and-synthesis-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-polymers
#5
Zahra Montazer, Mohammad B Habibi Najafi, David B Levin
We have characterized the ability of eight bacterial strains to utilize powdered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic (un-treated and without any additives) as a sole carbon source. Cell mass production on LDPE containing medium after 21 days of incubation varied between 0.083 ± 0.015 g L-1 cell dry weight (cdw) for Micrococcus luteus IRN20 and 0.39 ± 0.036 g L-1 for Cupriavidus necator H16. The percent decrease in LDPE mass ranged from 18.9% ± 0.72 for M. luteus IRN20 to 33.7% ± 1.2 for C. necator H16...
November 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457895/pseudomonas-species-isolated-from-tobacco-seed-promote-root-growth-and-reduce-lead-contents-in-nicotiana-tobacum-k326
#6
Juan Li, Bufan Zheng, Ruiwen Hu, Yongjun Liu, Yongfeng Jing, Yunhua Xiao, Min Sun, Wu Chen, Qingming Zhou
Endophytic bacteria are generally helpful for plant growth and protection. We isolated three Pseudomonas strains (K03, Y04 and N05) from tobacco seeds, which could produce siderophores, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, fix nitrogen, dissolve phosphorus/potassium and tolerate heavy metals. In pot experiments, the three isolated strains significantly promoted root growth and increased the root enzyme activity in Nicotiana tobacum K326. Furthermore, bacterial inoculations increased the proportion of residual lead (Pb) by 8...
November 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452287/glucose-induced-changes-in-the-bacterial-communities-of-mine-tailings-at-different-acidification-stages
#7
Yang Li, Zhaojun Wu, Xingchen Dong, Dongmei Wang, Huizhen Qiu, Zhongjun Jia, Qingye Sun
Ecological restoration technologies applied to tailings can influence the associated bacterial communities. However, whether the shifts in these bacterial communities are caused by increased organic carbon, is unknown. Glucose-induced respiration and high-throughput sequencing were used to assess the microbial activity and bacterial communities, respectively. Glucose addition increased the microbial activity, and glucose-ammonium nitrate addition resulted in slightly higher CO2 emission than did glucose addition alone, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen limited microbial community growth...
November 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412427/impact-of-artificial-reefs-on-sediment-bacterial-structure-and-function-in-bohai-bay
#8
Yu Wang, Jinsheng Sun, Enjun Fang, Biao Guo, Yuanyuan Dai, Yan Gao, Hong Wang, Xue Zhang, Xiaofu Xu, Yu Ying, Kefeng Liu
Artificial reefs have significantly altered ecological and environmental conditions compared with natural reefs, but how these changes affect sediment bacteria structure and function is unknown. Here, we compared the structure and function of sediment bacterial community in the artificial reef area、the future artificial reef area and the control area in Bohai Bay using 16S rRNA genes sequencing. Our results indicated that bacteria communities in the sediment were both taxonomically and functionally different between the reef area and control area...
November 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398901/hydrogen-cyanide-produced-by-i-i-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-i-i-o6-is-a-key-aphicidal-metabolite
#9
Beom Ryong Kang, Anne J Anderson, Young Cheol Kim
A biocontrol bacterium <i></i>Pseudomonas chlororaphis<i></i> O6 promotes plant health through multifaceted mechanisms. In this study, we used <i></i>P. chlororaphis<i></i> O6 mutants to examine metabolites with aphicidal activity. Direct application of intact <i></i>P. chlororaphis<i></i> cells to the surface of second instar nymphs of the green peach aphid resulted in no mortality. However, nymphs died when exposed only to the volatiles produced by the <i></i>P...
November 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395485/anti-adhesion-of-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-wefa23-against-5-pathogens-and-the-beneficial-effect-of-its-s-layer-proteins-against-listeria-monocytogenes
#10
Yao He, Xiongpeng Xu, Fen Zhang, Di Xu, Zhengqi Liu, Xueying Tao, Hua Wei
<i>Enterococcus faecium</i> WEFA23 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from Chinese infant feces. In this study, the antagonistic activity of <i>E. faecium</i> WEFA23 on the adhesion to pathogens was investigated. <i>E. faecium</i> WEFA23 was able to compete, exclude and displace the adhesion of <i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7, <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium ATCC13311, <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> CMCC54007, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> CMCC26003 and Shigella sonnei ATCC25931 on Caco-2 cells...
November 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395482/a-real-time-pcr-regimen-for-testing-of-environmental-samples-for-i-salmonella-enterica-i-subsp-i-enterica-i-serovars-of-concern-to-the-poultry-industry-with-special-focus-on-i-salmonella-i-enteritidis
#11
Susan Nadin-Davis, Louise Pope, Dele Ogunremi, Brian W Brooks, John Devenish
A real-time PCR (qPCR) regimen, using up to six genetic targets, was developed for the rapid detection of Salmonella and in particular for the identification of S. Enteritidis. The test regimen was first evaluated using a reference culture collection of Salmonella to confirm the appropriateness of the selected targets including up to three genetic markers for discrimination of S. Enteritidis from other Salmonella serovars commonly found in poultry facilities. The qPCR procedure was then compared with culture methods for Salmonella detection using a collection of enrichment broths previously generated from 239 environmental samples collected from a large number of hatchery facilities across Canada over several years...
November 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395480/identification-of-borrelia-bissettii-in-ixodes-scapularis-ticks-from-new-brunswick-canada
#12
Julie Lewis, Vett Lloyd
Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease that is emerging in Canada. The disease is caused by spirochetes of the Lyme borreliosis group, which is expanding as new species are discovered. In Canada, Lyme disease risk has so far been assessed primarily by detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. From Ixodes scapularis ticks collected between 2014-2016 in New Brunswick, Canada, 7 were shown to be infected with B. bissettii by nested PCR and sequencing of 5 B. bissettii genes. As different Borrelia species are associated with different clinical manifestations and are not detected with the same diagnostic tests, the identification of a previously undocumented or underreported pathogenic Borrelia species has important implications for public and veterinary medicine...
November 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339767/-adhesion-and-invasion-capacity-to-human-epithelial-cells-and-its-relation-to-the-presence-of-virulence-genes-motility-and-biofilm-formation-of-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-isolated-from-chicken-and-bovine
#13
Mauricio Farfán, Natalia Lártiga, Maria Belén Benavides, Raúl Alegría-Morán, Cristal Salcedo, Leonardo Sáenz, Lisette Ll Lapierre
Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted through the "farm to fork" route. Outbreaks are associated with consumption of chicken meat, however, other sources as been described. Currently, there is not enough data comparing the virulence of strains isolated from these reservoirs. In our study we compared C. jejuni strains isolated from broiler chicken and dairy cattle through determining their ability to adhere to and invade in vitro human colonic epithelial cell line T84 with their motility, formation of biofilms, and presence of eight virulence genes...
October 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336068/activation-of-caspase-3-during-i-chlamydia-trachomatis-i-induced-apoptosis-at-a-late-stage
#14
Junji Matsuo, Sanae Haga, Kent Hashimoto, Torahiko Okubo, Takeaki Ozawa, Michitaka Ozaki, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Obligate intracellular bacterium <i>Chlamydia trachomatis </i>activates the host cell apoptosis pathway at a late stage of its developmental cycle. However, whether caspase-3, which is a key enzyme of apoptosis, is activated in <i>Chlamydia</i>-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we established HEp-2 cells stably expressing cFluc-DEVD, which is a caspase-3 substrate sequence inserted into cyclic firefly luciferase, and then monitored the dynamics of caspase-3 activity in cells infected with <i>Chlamydia</i>...
October 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336067/restoration-of-polar-flagellum-motility-and-biofilm-forming-capacity-in-the-mmsb1-mutant-of-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-points-to-a-new-role-for-a-homologue-of-3-hydroxyisobutyrate-dehydrogenase
#15
Andrei V Shelud'ko, Yulia A Filip'echeva, Elizaveta M Telesheva, Stella S Yevstigneyeva, Lilia P Petrova, Elena I Katsy
Bacteria Azospirillum brasilense can swim and swarm owing to the rotation of a constitutive polar flagellum (Fla) and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. They also form biofilms on various interfaces. Experimental data on flagellar assembly and social behaviours in these bacteria are scarce. Here, for the first time, the chromosomal coding sequence mmsB1 for a homologue of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (protein accession nos. ADT80774 and E7CWE2) was shown to play a role in the assembly of motile Fla and in biofilm biomass accumulation...
October 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273494/genetic-diversity-and-symbiotic-efficiency-difference-of-endophytic-rhizobia-of-medicago-sativa
#16
Wenjuan Kang, Lin Xu, Zhehao Jiang, Shangli Shi
Research on rhizobium diversity has paved the way for diversification of rhizobial germplasm resources. Seventy-three endophytic bacterial isolates were collected from seven tissues of five alfalfa varieties in three geographic locations in Gansu, China, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting of 16S rRNA and analysis of concatenated sequence of three housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA, and symbiotic genes nodC and nifH were used for strain identification. Results showed that the endophytic strains were genetically diverse at different taxonomic levels, and Ensifer meliloti (31) and Agrobacterium radiobacter (12) are common Medicago sativa endophytic bacteria in Gansu, China...
October 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265845/developmental-stage-has-a-greater-effect-than-cry1ac-expression-in-transgenic-cotton-on-the-phyllosphere-mycobiome
#17
Jiangang Pan, Xin Lv, Decai Jin, Zhihui Bai, Hongyan Qi, Hongxun Zhang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Transgenic Bt cotton is widely cultivated, yet its impact on the phyllosphere mycobiome is poorly understood. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects resulting from the planting of Bt cotton on fungal diversity composition. The alpha diversity for the Bt cotton line SGK321 was lower than that of control plants at the budding stage and blossoming and boll-forming stage, while an obvious increase in diversity for Bt cotton XP188 was observed at the same stage. The Cry1Ac levels were higher at the seedling stage than at the budding stage and blossoming and boll-forming stage...
September 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261147/the-synergistic-antifungal-effects-of-sodium-phenylbutyrate-combined-with-azoles-against-candida-albicans-via-regulating-ras-camp-pka-signalling-pathway-and-virulence
#18
Sun Wenwen, Zhang Liuping, Lu Xiaoyan, Feng Lei, Shujuan Sun
The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the most commonly clinically isolated fungal species and its resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole is known to be increasing. In this paper, we sought to characterize the effect of sodium phenylbutyrate used alone or in combination with azoles against resistant C. albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (sMIC) were determined to explore the synergistic mechanism. The results showed that sodium phenylbutyrate exerted clear antifungal activity and that the combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and azoles functioned synergistically to combat resistant C...
September 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248271/horizontal-transfer-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-clinical-environments
#19
Nicole A Lerminiaux, Andrew D S Cameron
A global medical crisis is unfolding as antibiotics lose effectiveness against a growing number of bacterial pathogens. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes significantly to the rapid spread of resistance, yet the transmission dynamics of genes that confer antibiotic resistance are poorly understood. Multiple mechanisms of HGT liberate genes from normal vertical inheritance. Conjugation by plasmids, transduction by bacteriophages, and natural transformation by extracellular DNA each allow genetic material to jump between strains and species...
September 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230923/comparing-the-effect-of-intestinal-bacteria-from-rabbit-pig-and-chicken-on-inflammatory-response-in-cultured-rabbit-s-crypt-and-villus
#20
Hong Xiao Cui, Xiu Rong Xu
Rabbit is susceptible to intestinal infection, which often results in severe inflammatory response. To investigate whether the special community structure of rabbit's intestinal bacteria contributes to this susceptibility, we compared the inflammatory responses of isolated rabbit crypt and villus to heat-treated total bacteria in pig's, chicken's and rabbit's ileal contents. The dominant phylum in pig's and chicken's ileum was Firmcutes, while Bacteroidetes held preponderance in rabbit's. The intestinal bacteria from rabbit induced higher expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in rabbit's crypt and villus (P < 0...
September 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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