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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222270/the-effects-of-pig-manure-application-on-the-spread-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-bulk-and-cucumber-rhizosphere-soils-a-greenhouse-experiment
#1
Yijun Kang, Yangyang Hao, Dan Xia, Min Shen, Qing Li, Jian Hu
Understanding the dynamics of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in bulk and rhizosphere soils is important to evaluate the spread of TRGs from pig manure to human. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in abundance of TRB, tetracycline-resistant E. coli (TRE), tetracycline-resistant Pseudomonas spp. (TRP), as well as TRGs between bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. The application of pig manure resulted in the long-term persistence of TRB, TRE, TRP and TRGs in bulk soil and rhizosphere of cucumber for at least 65 days...
February 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194995/aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophs-in-gold-mine-tailings-in-nopiming-provincial-park-manitoba-canada
#2
Elizabeth Hughes, Breanne Head, Chris Maltman, Michele Piercey-Normore, Vladimir Yurkov
A sampling trip to Central Gold Mine, Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, was taken in September 2011. Abundance, distribution, and physiology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAP) from 4 locations were studied. Enumeration revealed 14.6% of culturable microbes were AAP. Five strains (NM4.16, NM4.18, C4, C9, C11) were chosen for analysis. All grow best on complex media without vitamin requirements and with an optimal pH 7.0-8.0, with strain C4 preferring pH 6.0. Strain NM4.18 tolerates the highest pH 11.0. Optimal temperature for all is 28 °C (range of 2-37 °C except NM4...
February 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192677/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-bacterial-communities-associated-with-i-cladophora-glomerata-i-mats-along-the-nearshore-of-lake-ontario
#3
Michael Ibsen, Dinesh Fernando, Ayush Kumar, Andrea Kirkwood
The alga <i>Cladophora glomerata</i> can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of <i>Cladophora</i>, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in <i>Cladophora</i>-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178425/synthetic-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-medium-diminishes-i-burkholderia-cenocepacia-i-antifungal-activity-against-i-aspergillus-fumigatus-i-independently-of-phenylacetic-acid-production
#4
Tasia Joy Lightly, Ryan R Phung, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Phenylacetic acid (PAA), an intermediate of phenylalanine degradation, is emerging as a signal molecule in microbial interactions with the host. In this work, we explore the presence of phenylalanine and PAA catabolism in three microbial pathogens of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome: <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> and <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i>. While <i>in silico</i> analysis of <i>B. cenocepacia</i> J2315 and <i>A...
February 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178423/physiological-and-molecular-characterization-of-compost-bacteria-antagonistic-to-soilborne-plant-pathogens
#5
Rowida Mohamed, Emma Groulx, Stefanie Defilippi, Tamara Erak, James T Tambong, Russell J Tweddell, Apollinaire Tsopmo, Tyler J Avis
Disease suppressive composts have the potential to mitigate the risks associated with chemical pesticides. One of the main characteristics responsible for the suppressive nature of composts is their microbiological populations. In order to gain insight into the determinants responsible for their suppressive effects, composts were assayed (i) to isolate and identify beneficial antagonistic bacteria, (ii) to quantify their antifungal and anti-oomycetal activities, (iii) to extract inhibitory compounds produced by the bacteria, and (iv) to identify antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by these bacteria...
February 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177782/vertical-and-horizontal-distribution-of-sediment-nitrite-dependent-methane-oxidizing-organisms-in-a-mesotrophic-freshwater-reservoir
#6
Yan Long, Changbao Liu, Hengliang Lin, Ningning Li, Qingwei Guo, Shuguang Xie
The present study was to investigate the spatial change of sediment n-damo organisms in mesotrophic freshwater Gaozhou Reservoir (six different sampling locations and two sediment depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm)), one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in China. The abundance of sediment n-damo bacteria was quantified using quantitative PCR assay, while the richness, diversity and composition of n-damo pmoA gene sequences were characterized using clone library analysis. The vertical and horizontal changes of sediment n-damo bacterial abundance occurred in Gaozhou Reservoir, with 1...
January 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177783/expression-purification-and-renaturation-of-recombinant-peptide-based-hiv-vaccine-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Wei He, Jiayi Shu, Jian Zhang, Zhihua Liu, Jianqing Xu, Xia Jin, Xuedong Wang
One of the new HIV vaccine strategies is to design epitope-based immunogen. We previously predicted 20 potential HIV epitopes using bioinformatics approaches. The combination of these 20 epitopes has a theoretical coverage of 98.1% of the population for both the prevalent HIV genotypes and Chinese human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR types. In order to test whether this vaccine is immunogenic in vivo, a corresponding antigen needs to be prepared. To this end, we constructed recombinant plasmid containing DNA encoding 300 amino acids of this vaccine protein, and then transformed Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells with the plasmid...
January 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177784/effects-of-several-in-feed-antibiotic-combinations-on-the-abundance-and-diversity-of-fecal-microbes-in-weaned-pigs
#8
Huizhi Li, Tingting Liang, Qingpo Chu, Feilong Xu, Yuan Li, Lingling Fu, Bo Zhou
To characterize the effects of several subtherapeutic antibiotic combinations on the abundance and diversity of fecal microbes, 400 weaned pigs were selected and randomly assigned to 8 groups, where they were continuously fed different antibiotic combinations for 28 days. Then, a total of 48 pigs were randomly selected to individually collect the feces for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Compared with the pigs without antibiotic administration, the diversities of fecal microbes were decreased in the pigs fed chlortetracycline (CTC), olaquindox (OLA) and enramycin (ER)/ virginiamycin (VIR), where the relative abundance of the phymum Bacteroidetes and the genus Prevotella were increased...
January 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177785/effects-of-inoculation-with-organic-phosphorus-mineralizing-bacteria-on-soybean-glycine-max-growth-and-indigenous-bacterial-community-diversity
#9
Wei Sun, Xun Qian, Jie Gu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Yang Li, Man-Li Duan
Three organic phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max) respectively, and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity...
January 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177786/response-of-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-under-different-culture-conditions
#10
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yuhong Fei
Roxarsone is a feed additive widely used in broiler and swine industry that has the potential to contaminate environment, mainly via the use of poultry manure as fertilizer, which results in release of inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. This study was conducted to investigate the roxarsone degradation and the response of microbial community under different culture conditions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Poultry litter was incubated for 288 h in the presence of roxarsone under light aerobic, dark aerobic, or dark anaerobic conditions, showing that roxarsone was completely degraded after 48 h of dark anaerobic incubation, while 79...
January 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177787/-i-i-sporicidal-efficacy-of-thermal-sprayed-copper-alloy-coating
#11
Romina Shafaghi, Javad Mostaghimi, Valerian Pershin, Maurice Ringuette
Approximately 200,000 Canadians acquire healthcare-associated bacterial infections each year and several-fold more acquire food-borne bacterial illnesses.  Bacterial spores are particularly problematic as they survive several months on surfaces.  Due to its sporicidal activity, copper sheet metal is sometimes used in hospital settings but widespread use is limited by cost and incompatibility with complex furniture/instrument design and topographies.  A potential alternative is the use of thermal spray technology to coat surfaces with copper alloys...
January 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177789/prevalence-and-diversity-of-waterborne-i-arcobacter-butzleri-i-in-southwestern-alberta-canada
#12
Andrew Lawrence Webb, Eduardo N Taboada, L Brent Selinger, Valerie F Boras, G Douglas Inglis
<i>Arcobacter butzleri</i> is a potential enteric pathogen to human beings, but its reservoirs and modes of transmission are largely unverified. Microbiological and molecular detection and subtyping techniques can facilitate surveillance of <i>A. butzleri</i> in hosts and environmental reservoirs. We isolated <i>A. butzleri</i> from 173 surface water samples (25.6%) and 81 treated wastewater samples (77.9%) collected in southwestern Alberta over a 1 year period. <i>Arcobacter butzleri</i> isolates (n=500) were genotyped and compared to determine diversity of <i>A...
January 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177788/a-fast-and-accurate-method-of-detecting-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-in-blood-and-tissues-of-chronically-infected-mink
#13
A H Farid, Priyanka P Rupasinghe
The objective of this study was to assess sensitivity of the Omni Klentaq-LA DNA polymerase for detecting Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in mink blood and tissues by PCR without DNA extraction. The presence of AMDV DNA was directly tested by Klentaq in plasma, serum, whole blood and spleen homogenates of 188 mink 4 and 16 months after inoculation with the virus. Samples from bone marrow, small intestine, liver, lungs, kidneys and lymph nodes of 20 of the same mink were also tested by Klentaq. DNA was extracted from paired samples of plasma and the aforesaid tissues by a commercial nucleic acid extraction kit (Dynabeads Silane) and tested by PCR...
January 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177790/bacterial-community-composition-and-fermentation-in-the-rumen-of-xinjiang-brown-cattle-bos-taurus-tarim-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-yarkandensis-and-karakul-sheep-ovis-aries
#14
Wenxi Qian, Zhipeng Li, Weiping Ao, Guangyong Zhao, Guangyu Li, Jianping Wu
The rumen microbiota plays a major role in the metabolism and absorption of indigestible food sources. Xinjiang brown cattle (Bos taurus), Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and Karakul sheep (Ovis aries) are important ruminant species for animal husbandry in the Tarim Basin. However, the microbiota and rumen fermentation of these animals are poorly understood. Here, we apply high-throughput sequencing to examine the bacterial community in the rumen of cattle, red deer and sheep and measured rumen fermentation products...
January 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177791/influence-of-i-rhizoglomus-irregulare-i-on-nutraceutical-quality-and-regeneration-of-i-lycium-barbarum-i-leaves-under-salt-stress
#15
Hongguang Liu, Yajun Wang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) augment the nutraceutical quality of crops under salt stress is critical as a potential agronomic practice in salinized farmland. To evaluate the effect of <i>Rhizoglomus irregulare</i> on the nutraceutical quality of <i>Lycium barbarum</i> leaves under salt stress, growth parameters, rutin, polysaccharide, acidic polysaccharide and amino acids of two harvests were analyzed. Inoculation of <i>R. irregulare</i> significantly increased the regenerated bud number (PES=0...
January 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140652/ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-meningitidis-in-canada-likely-imported-strains
#16
Raymond S W Tsang, Dennis K S Law, Saul Deng, Linda Hoang
The prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis in Canada was studied by testing 346 isolates received at the National Microbiology Laboratory during the calendar years 2013 to 2015. Of the 277 individual invasive and 69 noninvasive isolates tested, only 2 serogroup C (MenC) isolates were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. Both MenC were typed as sequence type (ST)-4821, a unique clone found mainly in China, thus suggesting both isolates might be from travel-related or imported cases. This prompted us to also examine 6 serogroup A (MenA) isolates in our collection, since MenA is not currently endemic in Canada...
January 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177794/evaluation-of-recombinant-protein-superoxide-dismutase-of-haemophilus-parasuis-strain-sh0165-as-vaccine-candidate-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Ling Guo, Lei Xu, Tao Wu, Shulin Fu, Yinsheng Qiu, Chien-An Andy Hu, Xinglong Ren, Rongrong Liu, Mengdie Ye
Haemophilus parasuis, can cause a severe membrane inflammation disorder. It has been documented that superoxide dismutase is a potential target to treat systemic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we constructed an experimental H. parasuis subunit vaccine SOD and determined the protective efficacy of SOD using a lethal dose challenge against H. parasuis serovar 4 strain MD0322 and serovar 5 strain SH0165 in a mouse model. The results demonstrated that SOD could induce a strong humoral immune response in mice and provide significant immunoprotection efficacy against a lethal dose of H...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177793/biocontrol-of-i-burkholderia-cepacia-i-complex-bacteria-and-bacterial-phytopathogens-by-i-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-i
#18
Damian McNeely, Ryan M Chanyi, James S Dooley, John E Moore, Susan F Koval
<i>Bdellovibrio</i> and like organisms are predatory bacteria that have the unusual property of using the cytoplasmic constituents of other Gram-negative bacteria as nutrients. These predators may thus provide an alternative approach to the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Predators were isolated in enrichment cultures with soil and sewage on <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> strains K56-2 and J2315 as prey cells. Three isolates (DM7C, DM8A and DM11A) were identified as <i>Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus</i> based on morphology, a periplasmic life cycle and 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177792/utilization-of-carbon-sources-by-clinical-isolates-of-i-aeromonas-i
#19
Karoline de Campos Prediger, Monica Surek, Cibelle De Borba Dalagassa, Flávia Emanoelli Araújo de Assis, Mário Sérgio Piantavini, Emanuel E M Souza, Fabio O F O Pedrosa, Sônia Maria de Souza Santos Farah, Dayane Alberton, Cyntia Maria Telles Fadel-Picheth
Bacteria in the genus <i>Aeromonas</i> are primarily aquatic organisms; however, some species can cause diseases in humans, ranging from wound infections to septicemia, of which diarrhea is the most common condition. The ability to use a variety of carbon substrates is advantageous for pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, we used Biolog GN2 microplates to analyze the ability of 103 clinical, predominantly diarrheal, isolates of <i>Aeromonas</i> to use various carbon sources and verified whether among the substrates metabolized by these strains there were some endogenous to the human intestine...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177795/the-development-of-probiotics-for-women-s-health
#20
Gregor Reid
The idea you could insert lactic acid bacteria into the vagina or take them orally to treat and prevent urogenital infections was ridiculed in the early 1980s. The only interest in bacteria was to eradicate them by antibiotic therapy, damn the consequences to those that might be present for beneficial reasons. Thirty years later, probiotic administration of microbes is widespread worldwide, including for vaginal and bladder health in women, and the scientific basis and clinical efficacy data for this and multiple other applications prove the viability of this concept...
December 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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