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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521110/ethanol-induced-stress-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Jasmine M Pando, Richard F Pfeltz, Jesus A Cuaron, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Mukti N Mishra, Nathanial J Torres, Mohamed O Elasri, Brian J Wilkinson, John E Gustafson
Transcriptional profiles of two unrelated clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were analyzed following 10 % v/v ethanol challenge (15 min), which arrested growth but did not reduce viability. Ethanol-induced stress (EIS) resulted in differential gene expression of 1091 genes, 600 common to both strains, of which 291 were up-regulated. With the exception of the down-regulation of genes involved with osmotic stress functions, EIS resulted in the up-regulation of genes that contribute to stress response networks, notably those altered by oxidative stress, protein quality control in general, and heat shock in particular...
May 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499096/genetic-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-rhizobia-nodulating-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-in-soils-from-southern-and-central-ethiopia
#2
Wondwosen Tena, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel, Tulu Degefu, Fran Walley
Forty-two chickpea-nodulating rhizobia were isolated from soil samples collected from diverse agro-ecological locations of Ethiopia, and characterized based on 76 phenotypic traits. Furthermore, 18 representative strains were selected and characterized using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core and symbiotic gene loci. Numerical analysis of the phenotypic characteristics grouped the 42 strains in to four distinct clusters. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the 18 strains showed that they belong to the Mesorhizobium genus...
May 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482164/brucella-melitensis-m5-90%C3%A2-bp26-as-a-potential-live-vaccine-that-allows-for-the-distinction-between-natural-infection-and-immunization
#3
Tiansen Li, Zhixia Tong, Meiling Huang, Liyan Tang, Hui Zhang, Chuangfu Chen
Brucella is Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects humans and animals and contributes to great economic losses in developing countries. Presently, live attenuated Brucella vaccines (B. melitensis strain M5-90) are the most effective means of brucellosis control and prevention in animals. However, these vaccines have several drawbacks, such as an inability to distinguish between a natural infection and immunization and an association with abortions in pregnant animals. Therefore, this study constructed a Brucella M5-90△bp26 mutant and evaluated its virulence...
May 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460189/genetic-characterization-of-a-neisseria-meningitidis-cluster-in-queensland-australia
#4
Noor Radawy Abady, Christine Guglielmino, Rikki Graham, Joseph Adelskov, Helen Violet Smith, Bharat Patel, Amy Victoria Jennison
Neisseria meningitidis serogroups B and C have been responsible for the majority of invasive meningococcal disease in Australia, with serogroup B strains causing an increasing proportion of cases in recent years. Serogroup Y has typically caused sporadic disease in Australia. In 2002, a cluster of four cases was reported from a rural region in Queensland. Three of these cases were serogroup C, with one case diagnosed by molecular detection only, and the fourth case was identified as a serogroup Y infection...
May 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414922/three-new-active-members-of-the-i-onui-family-of-homing-endonucleases
#5
Iman M Bilto, Tuhin Kumar Guha, Alvan Wai, Georg Hausner
In vitro characterization of three LAGLIDADG-type homing endonucleases (I-CcaI, I-CcaII and I-AstI) that belong to the I-OnuI family showed that they are functional homing endonucleases that cleave their respective cognate target sites. These endonucleases are encoded within group ID introns and appear to be orthologs that have inserted into three different mitochondrial genes, rns, rnl and cox3, respectively. The endonuclease activity of I-CcaI was tested using various substrates and its minimum DNA recognition sequence was estimated to be 26 nt...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414921/distinct-distribution-patterns-of-proteobacterial-nirk-and-nirs-type-denitrifiers-in-the-yellow-river-estuary-china
#6
Fenge Li, Mingcong Li, Wenchong Shi, Han Li, Zhongtao Sun, Zheng Gao
Denitrification was considered to be the critical process removing reactive nitrogen in estuarine ecosystem. In the present study, the abundance, diversity and community structure of nirK- and nirS-type denitrifiers were compared in sediments from the Yellow River estuary. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the abundance of the two types denitrifiers performed different distribution patterns among the samples, indicating their distinct habitat preference. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the most sequences from cluster Ⅰ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ for nirK-type denitrifiers were dominant distributed at the lower dissolved oxygen (DO) sites and sequences in other clusters were dominant at higher DO area...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414919/functional-characterization-of-an-n-terminally-truncated-mitochondrial-porin-expressed-in-i-neurospora-crassa-i
#7
Sabbir Rahman Shuvo, Uliana Kovaltchouk, Abdullah Zubaer, Ayush Kumar, William A T Summers, Lynda J Donald, George Hausner, Deborah A Court
Mitochondrial porin, which forms voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC) in the outer membrane, can be folded into a 19 β-stranded barrel. The N-terminus of the protein is external to the barrel, and contains α-helical structure. Targeted modifications of the N‑terminal region have been assessed in artificial membranes, leading to different models for gating <i>in vitro</i>. However, the i<i>n vivo</i> requirements for gating and the N-terminal segment of porin are less well-understood...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414918/frogs-host-faecal-bacteria-typically-associated-with-humans
#8
Karen Gibb, Xavier Schobben, Keith Christian
Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks, which may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407475/fungal-endophytes-of-wild-and-hybrid-vitis-leaves-and-their-potential-for-vineyard-biocontrol
#9
Gavin Kernaghan, Michael Mayerhofer, Amanda Griffin
Plants are colonized by diverse assemblages of fungal endophytes that have potential as biocontrol agents for a variety of crops, including grapevine. Although the diversity of symbionts can be very high in wild plants, the fungal endophytes of wild Vitis plants have not yet been investigated. We surveyed the fungal endophytes of six wild populations of Vitis riparia, as well as a cold tolerant, hybrid grapevine in five vineyards (one certified organic), using 454 pyrosequencing. We detected between 43 and 235 OTUs per sample, with the highest richness and diversity in the wild, the lowest in conventional vineyards, and intermediate levels in the organic vineyard...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384416/metabolites-of-trichoderma-species-isolated-from-damp-building-materials
#10
David R McMullin, Justin B Renaud, Tharcisse Barasubiye, Mark W Sumarah, J David Miller
Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores, spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mold exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in Eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376308/differential-colonization-by-bioprospected-rhizobial-bacteria-associated-to-common-bean-in-different-cropping-systems-i-i
#11
Josiele Polzin de Oliveira-Francesquini, Mariangela Hungria, Daiani Cristina Savi, Chirlei Glienke, Rodrigo Aluizio, Vanessa Kava, Lygia Vitória Galli-Terasawa
In this study, we evaluated the diversity of rhizobia isolated from root nodules on common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i>) derived from Andean and Mesoamerican centers and grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Genetic characterization of isolates was performed by sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA and two housekeeping genes, <i>rec</i>A and <i>gln</i>II, and by the amplification of <i>nif</i>H. Symbiotic efficiency was evaluated by examining nodulation, plant-biomass production and plant-N accumulation...
April 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376307/comparative-bacterial-community-analysis-in-relatively-pristine-and-anthropogenically-influenced-mangrove-ecosystems-on-the-red-sea
#12
Riaz Ullah, Muhammad Yasir, Imran Khan, Fehmida Bibi, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Ahmed Al-Ansari, Fahad Al-Abbasi, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani, Ihsanullah Daur, Seon Woo Lee, Esam I Azhar
Mangrove habitats are ecologically important ecosystems that are under severe pressure worldwide because of environmental changes and human activities. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon deep-sequencing was used to compare bacterial communities in Red Sea mangrove ecosystems at anthropogenically influenced coastal sites and a relatively pristine island site. In total, 32 phyla were identified from the mangrove rhizospheres, with Proteobacteria predominating at each of the studied sites; however, the relative abundance was significantly decreased at the coastal sites (Mastorah, MG-MS and Ar-Rayis, MG-AR) compared with the pristine island site near Dhahban (MG-DBI)...
April 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346844/inactivation-of-i-clostridium-difficile-i-spore-outgrowth-by-synergistic-effects-of-nisin-and-lysozyme
#13
Changhoon Chai, Kyung-Soo Lee, Goo-Sang Imm, Young Soon Kim, Se-Wook Oh
Inactivating <i>Clostridium difficile</i> spores is difficult, as they are resistant to heat, chemicals, and antimicrobials. However, this note describes inactivation of <i>C. difficile</i> spore outgrowth by incubation in a solution containing a germinant (1% w/v sodium taurocholate), co-germinants (1% w/v tryptose and 1% w/v NaCl), and natural antimicrobials (20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme). <i>C. difficile</i> spores were resistant to nisin and lysozyme but became susceptible during germination and outgrowth triggered and promoted by sodium taurocholate, tryptose, and NaCl...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334551/using-micro-patterned-surfaces-to-inhibit-settlement-and-biofilm-formation-by-bacillus-subtilis
#14
Siyuan Chang, Xiaodong Chen, Shuo Jiang, Jinchun Chen, Lin Shi
Biofilm is a biological complex caused by bacteria settlement to the substrates, their subsequent reproduction and secretion. This phenomena reduce heat transfer efficiency and cause significant losses in treated sewage heat recovering systems. This paper describes a physical approach to inhibit the bacteria settlement and biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis, which is the dominant genera in the treated sewage. Here, the micro-patterned surfaces with different characteristics (stripe and cube) and dimensions (1 μm to 100 μm) were fabricated as surfaces of interest...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329448/a-novel-nhad-type-na-h-antiporter-from-the-moderate-halophile-and-alkaliphile-halomonas-alkaliphila
#15
Yanhong Wang, Na Song, Lina Yang, Heba Abdel-Motaal, Rui Zhang, Zhenglai Zhang, Fankui Meng, Juquan Jiang
In this study, a NhaD-type Na+/H+ antiporter gene designated Ha-nhaD was obtained by selection of genomic DNA from the moderate halophile and alkaliphile Halomonas alkaliphila in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na+/H+ antiporters. The presence of Ha-NhaD conferred tolerance of E. coli KNabc to up to 0.6 M NaCl and 0.2 M LiCl and an alkaline pH. pH-dependent Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity was detected from everted membrane vesicles prepared from E. coli KNabc/pUC-nhaD but not those from KNabc/pUC18...
March 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324657/a-review-of-the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-methods-for-brachyspira
#16
Dharmasiri G R S Kulathunga, Joseph E Rubin
The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000's has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage, the lack of standardized methods is therefore an important limitation to the evidence based use of antimicrobials...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264171/role-of-the-luxr-family-transcriptional-regulator-lpg2524-in-the-survival-of-i-legionella-pneumophila-i-in-water
#17
Laam Li, Sébastien P Faucher
The water-borne Gram-negative bacterium <i>Legionella pneumophila</i> (<i>Lp</i>) is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. <i>Lp</i> is typically transmitted to human from water systems, where it grows inside amoebae. Survival of <i>Lp</i> in water is central to its transmission to humans. A transcriptomic study previously identified many genes induced by <i>Lp</i> in water. One of such gene, <i>lpg2524</i>, encodes a putative LuxR family transcriptional regulator...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264165/from-source-to-filter-changes-in-bacterial-community-composition-during-potable-water-treatment
#18
Enisa Zanacic, Dena W McMartin, John Stavrinides
Rural communities rely on surface water reservoirs for potable water. Effective removal of chemical contaminants and bacterial pathogens from these reservoirs requires an understanding of the bacterial community diversity that is present. In this study, we carried out a 16S rRNA-based profiling approach to describe the bacterial consortia in the raw surface water entering the water treatment plants of two rural communities. Our results show that source water is dominated by the <i>Proteobacteria</i>, <i>Bacteroidetes</i>, and <i>Cyanobacteria </i>with some evidence of seasonal effects altering the predominant groups at each location...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257583/the-oral-cavity-microbiota-between-health-oral-disease-and-cancers-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#19
Pierre Le Bars, Sebastien Metamoros, Emmanuel Montassier, Françoise Le Vacon, Gilles Potel, Assem Soueidan, Fabienne Jordana, Marie-France De La Cochétière
Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity...
March 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257579/an-extracellular-aminopeptidase-encoded-by-ywad-gene-plays-an-important-role-in-supplying-nitrogen-nutrition-for-the-growth-of-bacillus-subtilis-168
#20
Zhongmei Liu, Xinxing Gao, Li Zhou, Wenjin Cui, Yaping Tian, Zhemin Zhou
To investigate the physiological role of an extracellular aminopeptidase (BSAP168) encoded by ywaD gene in Bacillus subtilis 168, the ywaD-deletion mutant (BS-AP-K) was constructed. Compared with that of wild-type strain, the maximum growth rate of BS-AP-K was reduced by 28% when grown in soybean protein medium at 37°C, but not in LB medium. The impaired growth rate was more marked at higher temperature and can be compensated by amino acid supplement to the culture media. Further studies showed that there was an obvious difference in the amino acid compositions and peptide distribution in the culture supernatants between the culture supernatants of wild-type and BS-AP-K strains...
March 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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