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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Szilvia Kontár, L Vare Ka, Michal Híreš, Svetlana Kryštofová, Martin Šimkovič
The effect of light on the Ca2+ binding to mycelia and cell walls isolated from aerial mycelia of three strains of Trichoderma spp. was studied. Measurements of the total Ca2+ content in mycelium, and Ca2+ bound to cell walls isolated from aerial mycelium by two independent methods showed that the light-induced formation and maturation of conidia in Trichoderma spp. is accompanied by an increased Ca2+ deposition in mycelia and cell walls. Moreover, the cultivation of T. atroviride F-534 in the presence of 45Ca2+ under circadian illumination showed that radioactivity was exclusively localized in the light-induced conidial rings of aerial mycelium...
June 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Carmen M S Ambrosio, Severino Matias De Alencar, Andrea Micke Moreno, Eduardo Micotti Da Gloria
Essential oils (EOs), as substitutes for antibiotics in animal diets, should have a selective antibacterial activity between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria from animal gut. Thus, this study evaluated the selective antibacterial activity of <i>E. globulus</i> (EG) and <i>P. pseudocaryophyllus</i> (PP) EOs on <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> as surrogate model of pathogenic bacterium, and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> as beneficial bacterium model. The EOs antibacterial activity was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index determinations...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Camila Rodrigues de Carvalho, Alice Ferreira-D'Silva, David E Wedge, Charles L Cantrell, Luiz H Rosa
In the present study, we evaluated the antifungal potential of cytochalasins produced by Diaporthe taxa against phytopathogenic fungi. Using molecular methods, seven endophytic fungal strains from the medicinal plants Copaifera pubiflora and Melocactus ernestii were identified as D. miriciae, while two isolates were identified to the genus level (Diaporthe sp.). All crude extracts of Diaporthe species produced via solid-state fermentation were evaluated by 1H NMR analyses. Crude extracts of the isolates D. miriciae UFMGCB 6350, 7719, 7646, 7653, 7701, 7772, and 7770 and Diaporthe sp...
June 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Wenfeng Wang, Bang An, Liping Feng, Chaozu He, Hongli Luo
<i>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</i> is the causal agent of rubber tree anthracnose and leads to serious loss of natural rubber production. The pathogenesis of <i>C. gloeosporioides</i> on rubber tree retains unknown. Cerato-platanin proteins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins which contribute to virulence and function in fungal-plant interactions. A Cerato-platanin protein encoding gene, named as <i>CgCP1</i>, was identified from <i>C. gloeosporioides</i>...
June 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Deshun Xu, Lei Ji, Xiaofang Wu, Wei Yan, Liping Chen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is a common and important pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. A rapid, sensitive and specific assay is urgently required for detection and differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. We designed three sets of primers and probes using the groEL, and two virulence genes (tdh and trh) from V. parahaemolyticus, and developed a multiplex real-time PCR protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex assay was evaluated by V.parahaemolyticus strain from environment and clinical specimens...
June 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Haibo Lou, Xiaobing Wang, Jun Chen, Bozhi Wang, Wei Wang
To develop efficient biocontrol agents, it is essential to investigate the response of soil-borne plant pathogens to such agents. For example, the response of Ralstonia solanacearum, the tomato wilt pathogen, to antimicrobial metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens is unknown. Thus, we assessed the effects of P. fluorescens SN15-2 fermentation broth on R. solanacearum by transmission electron microscopy and transcriptome technology. RNA sequencing identified 109 and 155 genes that are significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in response to P...
May 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Vikas Thakur, Vijay Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Dharam Singh
Pangi-Chamba Himalaya (PCH) region is very pristine, unique and virgin niche for bioresource exploration. In the current study, for the first time, the bacterial diversity of this region for potential cellulose degrader was investigated. A total of 454 pure bacterial isolates were obtained from diverse sites in PCH region and 111 isolates were further selected for 16S rDNA characterization based on ARDRA grouping. Identified bacteria belongs to twenty-eight genera representing four phyla namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Linghuo Jiang, Yi Yang
The ancient family of cation channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, is highly conserved in eukaryotes and plays various physiological functions from sensation of ion homeostasis to reception of pain and vision. Calcium-permeable TRP channels have been identified from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCsc1) and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScCsc1), respectively. In this study, we have characterized the functions of the Csc1 homolog, the orf19.4805, in Candida albicans. The orf19...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Tristan T Watson, Tom A Forge, Louise M Nelson
Inoculation with antagonistic soil microorganisms has shown potential to suppress replant disease of apple in orchard soils. <i>Pseudomonas</i> spp. may have potential to reduce <i>Pratylenchus penetrans</i> populations on apple. <i>Pseudomonas</i> spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of sweet cherry, screened for antagonistic characteristics, and two highly antagonistic <i>Pseudomonas</i> isolates, P10-32 and P10-42, were evaluated for growth promotion of apple seedlings, suppression of <i>P...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zhaoyu Kong, Wenbo Kou, Yantian Ma, Haotian Yu, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The spatio-temporal shifts of bacterioplankton community can mirror their transition of functional traits in aquatic ecosystem. However, our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition structure (BCCs) within large, shallow and highly dynamic freshwater lake is still elusive. Here we examined the seasonal and spatial variability of BCCs in the Poyang Lake by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore how hydrological changes affect the BCCs. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the BCCs varied significantly among four sampling seasons, but not spatially...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Huan Qu, Yanjie Huang, Yinghao Shi, Ying Liu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
This study investigated the use for bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotic alternative in the diet of growing-finishing pigs by examining their digestive bacterial communities. Forty-five Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs were randomly allocated to five diet groups: 0%,0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% bamboo vinegar levels and antibiotics. After 37 days, the digesta in duodenum of four pigs from each treatment were analyzed for their bacterial community compositions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Addition of 1...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Timothy Howdeshell, Takuji Tanaka
A bioethanol byproduct (dried distiller's grains with solubles; DDGS) contains a high cellulose and starch. We hypothesized combinations of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and digestion by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) could increase the recovery of glucose from this byproduct through concentrating and loosening cellulose matrix by their activities. DDGS was individually fermented with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma koningii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, or Lactobacillus plantarum...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Justin Falardeau, Khalil Walji, Maxime Haure, Karen Fong, Gregory A Taylor, Yussanne Ma, Sean Smukler, Siyun Wang
Soil is an important reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen implicated in numerous produce-related outbreaks. Our objective was to (i) compare the survival of L. monocytogenes between three soils, (ii) compare the native bacterial communities across these soils, and (iii) investigate relationships between L. monocytogenes survival, native bacterial communities, and soil properties. Listeria spp. populations were monitored on PALCAM agar in three soils inoculated with L. monocytogenes (~5 x 106 CFU/g): conventionally farmed (CS), grassland transitioning to conventionally farmed (TS), and uncultivated grassland (GS)...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
G Douglas Inglis, S J M Zaytsoff, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, R R E Uwiera
Enrofloxacin is registered for therapeutic use in beef cattle to treat bovine respiratory disease in Canada. A murine model was used to experimentally examine the impact of therapeutic administration of enrofloxacin on fluoroquinolone resistance development in <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>. Administration of enrofloxacin to mice via subcutaneous injection or <i>per os</i> routes resulted in equivalent levels of bioactive enrofloxacin within the intestine, but bioactivity was short-lived (<48 hr after cessation)...
May 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nadia Massa, Simone Cantamessa, Giorgia Novello, Elia Ranzato, Simona Martinotti, Matteo Pavan, Andrea Rocchetti, Graziella Berta, Elisa Gamalero, Elisa Bona
<i></i>Candida glabrata<i></i> is an opportunistic pathogen, associated with endocarditis, meningitis and disseminated disease and also with complicated vaginitis. Essential oils derived from aromatic plants are known in traditional medicine as antimicrobial agents and have antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the twelve tested essential oils (tea tree, laurel, anise, basil, bergamot, lavender, mint, oregano, grapefruit, rosemary, winter savory and ginger) could have a transverse effect on <i></i>C...
May 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Johanna M Rinta-Kanto, Kati Pehkonen, Hanna Sinkko, Manu Valtteri Tamminen, Sari Timonen
In this study the abundance and composition of prokaryotic communities associated with the inner tissue of fruiting bodies of <i>Suillus bovinus</i>, <i>Boletus pinophilus</i>, <i>Cantharellus cibarius</i>, <i>Agaricus arvensis</I>, <i>Lycoperdon perlatum</i> and <i>Piptoporus betulinus</i> were analyzed using culture-independent methods. Our findings indicate that archaea and bacteria colonize the internal tissues of all investigated specimens and that archaea are prominent members of the prokaryotic community...
May 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Anakkathil Balan Sudeep, Neda Shaikh, Youwaraj Ghodke, Viswas Ingale, Mangesh Gokhale
Chittoor virus (CHITV), a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (Orthobunyavirus: Bunyaviridae) isolated in India, has been found to be antigenically close to the Batai virus (BATV),which has a wide distribution across Asia, Europe and Africa. The latter causes influenza-like illness in humans and mild illness in sheep and goats. BATV has been involved in genetic reassortment with other bunyaviruses, generating novel genome combinations and causing severe clinical manifestations including hemorrhagic fever. Conversely, CHITV has never been associated with any major outbreaks in India, although neutralizing antibodies have been detected in humans and domestic animals...
May 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Salma Mukhtar, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad Sajjad Mirza, Babur Saeed Mirza, Kauser Abdulla Malik
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, with a total of 3% of the world's land mass being affected by salinity. Approximately 6.3 million hectares of land in Pakistan is affected by salinity to varying degree and most of the areas are arid to semiarid with low annual precipitation. The aim of present study is to identify and characterize Bacillus and Bacillus-derived bacterial genera from the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil samples from Khewra Salt Mine, Pakistan by using culture-independent as well as culture-dependent methods...
April 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Ashok Bankar, Smita Zinjarde, Aishwarya Telmore, Aishwarya Walke, Ameeta Ravikumar
The marine dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has been proposed as a suitable model for the dimorphism study. In this study, the morphological behaviour of two marine strains of Y. lipolytica (NCIM 3589 and NCIM 3590) was studied under stress of different heavy metals. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphological features of yeast cells. This study revealed that the normal ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells was changed into oval, rounded, or elongated in response to different heavy-metal stress...
April 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Joost Theo Petra Verhoeven, Marta Canuti, Hannah J Munro, Suzanne C Dufour, Andrew S Lang
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are becoming increasingly important within microbiology research, but aspects of library preparation, such as high cost per sample or strict input requirements, make HTS difficult to implement in some niche applications and for research groups on a budget. To answer these necessities, we developed ViDiT, a customizable, PCR-based, extremely low-cost (<5 US dollars per sample) and versatile library preparation method, and CACTUS, an analysis pipeline designed to rely on cloud computing power to generate high-quality data from ViDiT-based experiments without the need of expensive servers...
April 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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