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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Wenjuan Kang, Lin Xu, Zhehao Jiang, Shangli Shi
Research on rhizobium diversity has paved the way for diversification of rhizobial germplasm resources. Seventy-three endophytic bacterial isolates were collected from seven tissues of five alfalfa varieties in three geographic locations in Gansu, China, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting of 16S rRNA and analysis of concatenated sequence of three housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA, and symbiotic genes nodC and nifH were used for strain identification. Results showed that the endophytic strains were genetically diverse at different taxonomic levels, and Ensifer meliloti (31) and Agrobacterium radiobacter (12) are common Medicago sativa endophytic bacteria in Gansu, China...
October 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jiangang Pan, Xin Lv, Decai Jin, Zhihui Bai, Hongyan Qi, Hongxun Zhang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Transgenic Bt cotton is widely cultivated, yet its impact on the phyllosphere mycobiome is poorly understood. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects resulting from the planting of Bt cotton on fungal diversity composition. The alpha diversity for the Bt cotton line SGK321 was lower than that of control plants at the budding stage and blossoming and boll-forming stage, while an obvious increase in diversity for Bt cotton XP188 was observed at the same stage. The Cry1Ac levels were higher at the seedling stage than at the budding stage and blossoming and boll-forming stage...
September 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sun Wenwen, Zhang Liuping, Lu Xiaoyan, Feng Lei, Shujuan Sun
The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the most commonly clinically isolated fungal species and its resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole is known to be increasing. In this paper, we sought to characterize the effect of sodium phenylbutyrate used alone or in combination with azoles against resistant C. albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (sMIC) were determined to explore the synergistic mechanism. The results showed that sodium phenylbutyrate exerted clear antifungal activity and that the combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and azoles functioned synergistically to combat resistant C...
September 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nicole A Lerminiaux, Andrew D S Cameron
A global medical crisis is unfolding as antibiotics lose effectiveness against a growing number of bacterial pathogens. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes significantly to the rapid spread of resistance, yet the transmission dynamics of genes that confer antibiotic resistance are poorly understood. Multiple mechanisms of HGT liberate genes from normal vertical inheritance. Conjugation by plasmids, transduction by bacteriophages, and natural transformation by extracellular DNA each allow genetic material to jump between strains and species...
September 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Hong Xiao Cui, Xiu Rong Xu
Rabbit is susceptible to intestinal infection, which often results in severe inflammatory response. To investigate whether the special community structure of rabbit's intestinal bacteria contributes to this susceptibility, we compared the inflammatory responses of isolated rabbit crypt and villus to heat-treated total bacteria in pig's, chicken's and rabbit's ileal contents. The dominant phylum in pig's and chicken's ileum was Firmcutes, while Bacteroidetes held preponderance in rabbit's. The intestinal bacteria from rabbit induced higher expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in rabbit's crypt and villus (P < 0...
September 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
QingRong Li, Sentai Liao, Huyu Zhi, Dongxu Xing, Yang Xiao, Qiong Yang
Fusarium wilt is a devastating soil-borne disease and caused mainly by highly host-specific formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum. Antagonistic microorganisms play a very important role in Fusarium wilt control, and the isolation of potential biocontrol strains is becoming more and more important. We isolated a bacterial strain (SEM-9) from the high-temperature stage of silkworm excrement composting, which had a marked ability to solubilize phosphorus, promote the growth and increase the yield of the small Chinese cabbage, and which also exhibited considerable antagonistic effect towards Fusarium sambucinum, etc...
September 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Giovanni Eraclio, Giovanni Ricci, Paolo Moroni, Carlos Santisteban, Carme Plumed-Ferrer, James Bennett, Maria Grazia Fortina
Lactococcus garvieae is now recognized as a species with clinical significance for human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of this pathogen in sand bedding and milk samples.. Two Minnesota farms in with problems of clinical and subclinical mastitis due to streptococci-like organisms were selected. Twenty-four Lactococcus garvieae isolates from sand bedding and 18 isolates from quarter milk were comparatively studied using a genotypic approach. RAPD and REP-PCR experiments highlighted a similar electrophoretic profile...
September 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, Maskit Maymon, Flora Pule-Meulenberg, Ann M Hirsch
The Green Revolution developed new crop varieties, which greatly improved food security worldwide. However, the growth of these plants relied heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which have led to an overuse of synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides with serious environmental consequences and negative effects on human health. Environmentally friendly plant-growth promoting methods to replace our current reliance on synthetic chemicals and to develop more sustainable agricultural practices to offset the damage caused by many agrochemicals are proposed herein...
September 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nilmini Mendis, Hana Trigui, Mariam Saad, Adrianna Tsang, Sébastien P Faucher
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is a strict aerobe, surviving and replicating in environments where it frequently encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the nutrient-poor water environment and its replicative niche inside host cells. In many proteobacteria, the LysR-type regulator OxyR controls the oxidative stress response; however, the importance of the OxyR homologue in Lp is still unclear. Therefore, we undertook the characterisation of phenotypes associated with the deletion of oxyR in Lp...
September 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
George C diCenzo, Maryam Zamani, Alice Checcucci, Marco Fondi, Joel Griffitts, Turlough Finan, Alessio Mengoni
The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a major source of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) in the biosphere. The potential for this process to increase agricultural yield while reducing the reliance on nitrogen-based fertilizers has generated interest in understanding and manipulating this process. For decades, rhizobium research has benefited from the use of leading techniques from a very broad set of fields, including population genetics, molecular genetics, genomics, and systems biology. In this review, we summarize many of the research strategies that have been employed in the study of rhizobia and the unique knowledge gained from these diverse tools, with a focus on genome and systems-level approaches...
September 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jishun Li, Yuanzheng Wu, Kai Chen, Yilian Wang, Jindong Hu, Yanli Wei, Hetong Yang
During a biodiversity survey of Trichoderma (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) in the coastal and lake wetlands of China, a new species Trichoderma cyanodichotomus was isolated from Dongting Lake wetland of Hunan province. The strain TW21990-1 was characterized by having two types of conidia and producing a distinct blue-green pigment on PDA and CMD. The taxonomic position was analyzed using three molecular markers, internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α), RNA polymerase II subunit B (RPB2), revealing less than 95...
September 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Xuchen Yang, Qingqing Hu, Zhenzhen Han, Xinyi Ruan, Siwen Jiang, Jin Chai, Rong Zheng
Composting is a widely accepted method for the disposal of deceased livestock. Composting is a biological self-heating process, during which animal carcasses are converted to fertilizer products. Additional inoculants can facilitate the composting progress. This study investigated how the addition of microbial inocula can improve the composting effectiveness and change the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in the carcass composting process. Inoculants comprised of four Bacillus strains were inoculated into the swine carcass composting piles...
September 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Eduardo Kovalski Mitter, Renato de Freitas, James J Germida
Microbial communities that colonize the plant rhizosphere and the root interior can ameliorate plant stress and promote growth. These plant-microbe associations are being investigated to assist in reclamation soils in northern Alberta. This study assessed the diversity of bacterial species associated with barley plants growing at different cover managements and slope positions in an oil sands reclamation area. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis of the microbial communities indicated that both cover type and slope, in addition to soil total and organic carbon, NH4 + , and organic matter, were significant determinants of microbial community composition...
September 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Adharsh Rajasekar, Stephen Wilkinson, Raju Sekar, Jonathan Bridge, Eduardo Medina-Roldán, Charles K S Moy
We report an investigation of microbially induced carbonate precipitation by seven indigenous bacteria isolated from a landfill in China. Bacterial strains were cultured in a medium supplemented with 25 mmol/L calcium chloride and 333 mmol/L urea. The experiments were carried out at 30 °C for 7 days with agitation by a shaking table at 130 r/min. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses showed variations in calcium carbonate polymorphs and mineral composition induced by all bacterial strains...
August 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
D Wang, A Huber, K Dunfield, K Murray, F Wu, K Warriner
The fate of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in swine or dairy manure amended into sandy loam or loam soil under field conditions was studied. Soil was amended with manure inoculated with a Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 cocktail, then transferred to 0.22 μm pore size membrane walled vials. The vials were then placed on the surface or at 15 cm depth in the test plots. Pathogen numbers, soil moisture, rainfall, and temperature were measured throughout the three trials (20-47 weeks duration) representing spring or fall application...
August 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Shiying Zhang, Cong Fan, Yongxia Wang, Yunsheng Xia, Wei Xiao, Xiaolong Cui
Growth and productivity of rice is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, some salt-tolerant bacteria improve the health of plants under saline stress. In this study, 305 bacteria were isolated from paddy soil in Taoyuan, China. Among these, 162 strains were tested for salt-tolerance; 67.3%, 28.4%, and 9.3% of the strains could grow in media with NaCl concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 g/L, respectively. The phylogenic analysis of 74 of these 162 strains indicates that these bacteria belong to Bacillales (72%), Actinomycetales (22%), Rhizobiales (1%), and Oceanospirillales (4%)...
August 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Zhimin Duan, Qing Chen, Rong Zeng, Leilei Du, Caixia Liu, Xu Chen, Min Li
The prevalence of Candida infection induced by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species is increasing. However, as a common NAC species, C. tropicalis has received much less study in terms of host immunity than C. albicans has. In this study, we evaluated the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses evoked by C. tropicalis and determined whether dectin-1 and downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways played roles in inflammation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and THP-1 macrophage-like cells...
August 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Liqiang Zhong, Daming Li, Minghua Wang, Xiaohui Chen, Wenji Bian, Guangwei Zhu
The changes in the bacterial community composition in a channel catfish nursery pond with a cage-pond integration system were investigated by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene through Illumina MiSeq sequencing platforms. A total of 1 362 877 sequences and 1440 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in the cage and pond groups were similar, including Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, although a significant difference was detected between them by ANOSIM (P < 0...
August 17, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Hristo Najdenski, Tanya Dimova, Maya M Zaharieva, Boris P Nikolov, Gergana Petrova-Dinkova, Svetla Dalakchieva, Konstantin S Popov, Iva P Hristova-Nikolova, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Strahil G Peev, Anetka Trifonova-Hristova, Elisabeth Carniel, Yulia A Panferova, Nikolay K Tokarevich
At the crossroad between Europe, Asia and Africa, Bulgaria is part of the Mediterranean/Black Sea Flyway (MBSF) used by millions of migratory birds. In this study bird species migrating through Bulgaria were investigated as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. In total, 706 birds belonging to 46 species were checked for the presence of various bacterial pathogens (<i>Campylobacter, Yersinia, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi</i> and <i>Brucella</i> spp)...
August 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Juntao Cui, Yanan Li, Chengyu Wang, Kyung Seok Kim, Tianye Wang, Shuxia Liu
The characteristics of the rhizosphere microbial community across different cultivation years (from 1, 3, 5, 15, 20, and 50 years) in saline-alkaline paddy soils in Songnen Plain of China were investigated based on sequence variation of 16S rDNA using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that the microbial community diversity varied across cultivation years, showing higher diversity in cultivation years >15 than in cultivation years <15. The dominant microbial community of the rhizosphere was mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes...
August 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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