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Canadian Journal of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444416/structural-changes-in-the-cell-envelope-of-yarrowia-lipolytica-yeast-under-stress-conditions
#1
Anna Yurievna Arinbasarova, Andrey Valerievich Machulin, Elena Nikolaevna Biryukova, Vladimir Vladislavovich Sorokin, Alexander Grigorievich Medentsev, Nataliya Egorovna Suzina
The ultrastructural changes in the cell envelope of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as stress response were examined using electron microscopy technique. The formation of new cellular surface structures including membrane vesicles, pore channels and wall surface globules were shown for the first time under conditions of oxidative (endogenous and exogenous) or thermal stress. This demonstrates once again that under stress conditions the microorganisms reveal properties unknown for them before. Particularly noteworthy is the silicon accumulation, which was revealed at the surface globules with X-ray microanalysis of the elemental composition of cells' thin sections...
February 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438626/reactive-cold-plasma-particles-generate-oxidative-stress-in-yeast-but-do-not-trigger-apoptosis
#2
Peter Polčic, Lucia Pakosová, Petra Chovančíková, Zdenko Machala
Interactions of living cells with cold plasma of electrical discharges affect the cell physiology, often resulting in the loss of viability. The mechanisms involved in cell killing are, however, poorly understood and dissection of cellular pathways or structures affected by plasma using simple eu-karyotic models is needed. Using selected genetic mutants of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we have investigated the role of oxidative stress and yeast apoptosis in plasma-induced cell killing. Increased sensitivity of yeast strains deficient in superoxide dismutases indicated that reactive oxygen species generated in the plasma are among the most prominent factors involved in killing of yeast cells...
February 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420915/sge1-is-involved-in-conidiation-and-pathogenicity-of-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense
#3
Xingrong Hou, Bang An, Qiannan Wang, Yunfeng Guo, Hongli Luo, Chaozu He
The ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc TR4) causes vascular wilt diseases in banana (Musa spp.). In the present study, the roles of SGE1 in regulating growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity of Foc TR4 were investigated. Deletion of SGE1 did not influence vegetative growth, but impaired the conidiation of Foc TR4. Besides, the SGE1 deletion mutant basically lost pathogenicity on banana plantlets. Observation under the microscope indicated that the penetration and colonization processes were severely impaired in the SGE1 deletion mutant...
February 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406824/effects-of-copper-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-microbial-communities-in-laboratory-scale-swine-manure-composting
#4
Yanan Yin, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Xiaxia Tuo, Kaiyu Zhang, Li Zhang, Aiyun Guo, Xin Zhang
This study investigated the effects of adding copper at three treatment levels (0 (control: CK), 200 (low: L), and 2000 (high: H) mg kg-1 treatments) on the bacterial communities during swine manure composting. The abundances of the bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and their compositions were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the abundance of bacteria was inhibited by H during days 7-35, and principal component analysis clearly separated H from CK and L. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial taxa, and a high copper concentration decreased the abundances of bacteria that degrade cellulose and lignin (e...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401407/microbial-diversity-and-community-structure-in-agricultural-soils-suffering-from-4-year-pb-contamination
#5
An Fengqiu, Diao Zhan, Lv Jialong
Heavy metal pollution has become a widespread environmental problem due to rapid economic development. The phylogenetic diversity and structure of microbial communities in Pb-contaminated Lou soils were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The presence of Pb2+ in soil showed weak impact on the diversity of soil bacteria community, but influenced the abundance of some genera of bacteria, as well as soil physicochemical properties. We found significant differences in the relative abundances of heavy metal resistant bacteria such as Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter at the genus level...
February 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401406/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-dutch-elm-disease-fungus-ophiostoma-novo-ulmi-subspecies-novo-ulmi
#6
George Talal Abboud, Abdullah Zubaer, Alvan Wai, Georg Hausner
Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, a member of the Ophiostomatales (Ascomycota) is the causal agents of the current Dutch elm disease pandemic in Europe and North America. The complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subsp. novo-ulmi, the European component of O. novo-ulmi, has been sequenced and annotated. Gene order (synteny) among the currently available members of the Ophiostomatales was examined and appears to be conserved and mtDNA size variability among the Ophiostomatales in part is due the presence of introns and their encoded open reading frames...
February 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401402/potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-zdy2013-and-bifidobacterium-bifidum-wbin03-in-relieving-colitis-by-gut-microbiota-immune-and-anti-oxidative-stress
#7
Yuanyuan Wang, Yilin Guo, Hui Chen, Hua Wei, Cuixiang Wan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that is difficult to cure with rising incidence in recent decades. Probiotics have become a new strategy for the UC treatment. In this study, we chose two new multi-source probiotic, L. plantarum ZDY2013 from acid beans, B. bifidum WBIN03 from infant feces, and their mixture, to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect on the H2O2-induced HT-29 cell oxidation damaged model and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Compared with the model group, the general relative indexes results showed L...
February 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401401/presence-of-archaea-and-selected-bacteria-in-infected-root-canal-system
#8
Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Elżbieta Pawłowska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Henryk Włodzimierz Witas, Urszula Godzik, Justyna Agier
The infections of root canal have polymicrobial etiology. The main group of microflora in the infected pulp is bacteria. There is limited data that archaea may be present in infected pulp tissue. This study's aim was to check the prevalence of archaea in necrotic root canal samples obtained from patients with primary or post-treatment infection. Prevalence of selected bacteria species (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Synergistes sp.) in necrotic samples, was evaluated as well...
February 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394487/lipid-and-carotenoid-synthesis-by-rhodosporidium-diobovatum-grown-on-glucose-versus-glycerol-and-its-biodiesel-potential
#9
Nima Nasirian, Maryam Mirzaie, Nazim Cicek, David B Levin
Relationships between lipid and carotenoid synthesis by Rhodosporidium diobovatum were investigated for cell cultures in nitrogen-limited medium (GMY) containing equimolar amounts of carbon of glucose or glycerol. The cultures were also supplemented with additional substrate at 120 hours (h) post-inoculation (pi) and during a fed-batch experiment. Growth of R.diobovatum on glucose resulted in higher yields of TAGs and carotenoid than when grown on glycerol, even though the cultures contained equimolar amounts of carbon...
February 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390194/genotypic-variation-in-the-response-of-chickpea-to-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-non-mycorrhizal-fungal-endophytes
#10
Navid Bazghaleh, Chantal Hamel, Yantai Gan, Bunyamin Tar'an, J Diane Knight
Plant roots host symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other fungal endophytes that can impact plant growth and health. The impact of microbial interactions in roots may depend on the genetic properties of the host plant and its interactions with root-associated fungi. We conducted a controlled condition experiment to investigate the effect of several chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.) on the efficiency of the symbiosis with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Whereas the AM symbiosis increased the biomass of most of the chickpea cultivars, inoculation with non-AM fungal endophytes had a neutral effect...
February 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370531/evaluation-of-the-plant-growth-promoting-abilities-of-endophytic-bacteria-from-the-psammophyte-i-ammodendron-bifolium-i
#11
Yanlei Zhu, Xiaoping She
The objective of this study was to assess the plant growth-promoting abilities of 45 endophytic bacterial isolates from <i>Ammodendron bifolium</i> through physiological characteristics detection and endophytic bacteria-plant interaction. Each of these isolates exhibited 1 or more plant growth-promoting traits, but only 11 isolates belonging to the genera <i>Bacillus</i>, <i>Staphylococcus</i> and <i>Kocuria</i> were capable of promoting seed germination and radicle growth...
January 25, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361248/characterization-of-ftsy-its-interaction-with-ffh-and-proteomic-identification-of-their-potential-substrates-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Arunkumar Venkatesan, Kannan Palaniyandi, Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bhist, Sujatha Narayanan
Universally conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway that mediates co-translational targeting of membrane and secretory proteins is essential for eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis SRP pathway consists of two proteins Ffh, FtsY and a 4.5S RNA molecule. Although the Escherichia coli SRP pathway is well studied, understanding about the M. tuberculosis SRP pathway components is very limited. In this study, we have over-expressed and characterized the M. tuberculosis SRP receptor (SR) FtsY as a GTP binding protein...
January 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357266/genetic-diversity-of-k-antigen-gene-clusters-of-e-coli-and-their-molecular-typing-using-a-suspension-array
#13
Shuang Yang, Daoyi Xi, Fuyi Jing, Deju Kong, Junli Wu, Lu Feng, Boyang Cao, Lei Wang
Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), or K-antigens, are the major surface antigens of Escherichia coli. More than 80 serologically unique K-antigens are classified into four groups (Groups 1-4) of capsules. Group 1 and 4 contain the Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway and the gene clusters are in the order galF to gnd; Group 2 and 3 contain the ABC transporter-dependent pathway and the gene clusters consist of three regions, region 1, 2 and 3. Little is known about the variations among the gene clusters. In this study, nine serotypes of K-antigen gene clusters (K2ab, K11, K20, K24, K38, K84, K92, K96, and K102), were sequenced and correlated with their CPS chemical structures...
January 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351385/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-detection-with-an-internal-amplification-control
#14
Huanlan Yang, Shuang Wei, Ravi Gooneratne, Anthony N Mutukumirad, Xuejun Ma, Shuze Tang, Xiyang Wu
A novel RPA-IAC assay using recombinase polymerase and an internal amplification control (IAC) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection was developed. Specific primers were designed based on the coding sequence (CDS) for the toxR gene in V. parahaemolyticus. The recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reaction was conducted at a constant low temperature of 37°C for 20 min. Assay specificity was validated by using 63 Vibrio strains and 10 non-Vibrio bacterial species. In addition, a competitive IAC was employed to avoid false-negative results, which co-amplified simultaneously with the target sequence...
January 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342372/enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soil-receiving-composts-derived-from-swine-manure-yard-wastes-or-food-wastes-and-evidence-for-multi-year-persistence-of-swine-i-i-clostridium-i-i-spp
#15
Andrew Scott, Yuan-Ching Tien, Craig F Drury, W Daniel Reynolds, Edward Topp
The impact of amendment with swine manure composts (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared to untreated control soil, all three amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to four years post-application...
January 17, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298396/bifidobacterium-breve-ipla20005-affects-in-vitro-the-expression-of-hly-and-luxs-genes-related-to-the-virulence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-lm23
#16
David Rios-Covian, Alicja Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Ana Hernandez-Barranco, Isabel Cuesta, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilan
Mechanistic features about the interaction and inhibition of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by members of the genus Bifidobacterium still remain unclear. In the present work we tried to shed light into the influence that co-cultivation of L. monocytogenes with Bifidobacterium breve may exert on both microorganisms and on the pathogen virulence. Production of acetate and lactate was measured by gas chromatography and HPLC respectively, bacterial counts were obtained by plate count, gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR and the hemolytic activity was analyzed against goat erythrocytes...
January 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268028/different-strategies-to-kill-the-host-presented-by-metarhizium-anisopliae-and-beauveria-bassiana
#17
Cynthia Barbosa Rustiguel, María Fernández-Bravo, Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
Studies conducted over the last decades have shown the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the biocontrol of some insect pests. They infect their host through the cuticle, so they do not need to be ingested to be effective. These fungi also secrete secondary metabolites and proteins that are toxic to insect pests. In this context, we analyzed the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) strains IBCB 384 and IBCB 425 and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. strains E 1764 and E 3158 against Galleria mellonella (Linn...
December 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253356/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-stimulates-innate-immune-signaling-in-the-mouse-macrophage-raw264-7
#18
Xiaoying Zhi, Jianliang Lv, Yanquan Wei, Ping Du, Yanyan Chang, Yun Zhang, Yuan Gao, Run Wu
The innate immune system acts as the first line of defense against invasion by bacterial and viral pathogens. The role of macrophages in innate immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is poorly understood. To determine the mechanism underlying activation of innate immunity after FMDV infection in macrophages, we performed FMDV infection in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and found that FMDV serotype O infection induced a cytopathic effect. We then evaluated the gene expression profile in macrophages RAW264...
December 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253355/isolation-and-characterization-of-two-lytic-cold-active-bacteriophages-infecting-pseudomonas-fluorescens-from-the-napahai-plateau-wetland
#19
Yingying Xiang, Shuang Wang, Jiankai Li, Yunlin Wei, Qi Zhang, Lianbing Lin, Xiuling Ji
As the "kidneys of Earth", wetlands play important roles as biodiversity reservoirs, in water purification, and in flood control. In this study, two lytic cold-active bacteriophages, named VW-6S and VW-6B, infecting Pseudomonas fluorescens W-6 cells from the Napahai plateau wetland in China were isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that both VW-6S and VW-6B had an icosahedral head (66.7 nm and 61.1 nm, respectively) and a long tail (8.3 nm in width/233.3 nm in length and 11.1 nm in width/166...
December 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227747/duration-of-continuous-cropping-with-straw-return-affects-the-composition-and-structure-of-soil-bacterial-communities-in-cotton-fields
#20
Lei Yang, Lanlan Tan, Fenghua Zhang, William J Gale, Zhibo Cheng, Wen Sang
Salinized land in the China's Xinjiang Region is being reclaimed for continuous cotton production. The specific objectives of this field study were (1) to compare bacterial composition and diversity in unfarmed (i.e., unreclaimed) and continuously (5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-yr) cropped soils and (2) to explore correlations between soil properties and the bacterial communities identified by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that bacterial species richness and diversity increased for 10 to 15 yr and then declined when salinized land was reclaimed for cotton production...
December 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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