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Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Mahsa Ranji, Christine M Sorenson, Reyhaneh Sepehr, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness. In the present study, we aimed to determine the nature of diabetes-induced, highly localized biochemical changes in the neuroretina at the onset of diabetes. High-resolution synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (s-FTIR) wide field microscopy coupled with multivariate analysis (PCA-LDA) was employed to identify biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy with spatial resolution at the cellular level. We compared the retinal tissue prepared from 6-week-old Ins2(Akita/+) heterozygous (Akita/+, N = 6; a model of diabetes) male mice with the wild-type (control, N = 6) mice...
February 17, 2017: Analyst
Vojtech Adam, Marketa Vaculovicova
Nanomaterials are, in analytical science, used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection and identification of target molecules. This review covers the application of nanomaterials for sample pretreatment in capillary electrophoresis. It targets the utilization of nanomaterials for sample purification, preconcentration and/or extraction coupled both off-line and on-line with capillary electrophoretic analysis. Especially due to their large surface area, nanoparticles and nanomaterials are exceptionally helpful in making up for the limited concentration detection limits provided by capillary electrophoresis...
February 16, 2017: Analyst
Zahra Ayazi
This paper presents a comprehensive review concerning the recent trends for the preparation of nanocomposites (NCs) and their applications in microextraction techniques. NCs are defined as organic-inorganic hybrid materials in which at least one dimension of one component is less than 100 nm. Numerous synthesis routes have been introduced to prepare NCs in recent years. This review provides a general overview regarding the present progress and new applications of NCs toward their synthesis and use in microextraction techniques, including solid-phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and needle trap extraction, among others...
February 15, 2017: Analyst
Meltem Elitaş, Meral Yüce, Hikmet Budak
The development of microfabricated devices that will provide high-throughput quantitative data and high resolution in a fast, repeatable and reproducible manner is essential for plant biology research. Plants have been intensely explored since the beginning of humanity, especially for medical needs. However, plant biology research is still laborious, lacking the latest technological advancements in the laboratory practices. Microfabricated tools can provide a significant contribution to plant biology research since they require small volumes of samples and reagents with minimal cost and labor...
February 15, 2017: Analyst
Lu Wang, Yunfeng Chai, Wenquan Zhu, Yuanjiang Pan, Cuirong Sun, Su Zeng
Mutual chiral recognition of four stereoisomers of tadalafil and three pairs of enantiomers of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) including pantoprazole, lansoprazole, and omeprazole, as well as quantitative analysis of enantiomeric excess is achieved on the basis of the competitive fragmentation of doubly charged trimeric Ni(II) cluster ions. Compared with a singly charged trimeric cluster ion, a doubly charged trimeric cluster ion was proved efficient in the recognition of chiral drugs with one or multiple chiral centers, due to its rich fragmentation ions...
February 15, 2017: Analyst
Daohong Zhang, David Broyles, Eric A Hunt, Emre Dikici, Sylvia Daunert, Sapna K Deo
Viral detection presents a host of challenges for even the most sensitive analytical techniques, and the complexity of common detection platforms typically preclude portability. With these considerations in mind, we designed a paper microzone plate-based virus detection system for the detection of viral genetic material that can be performed with simple instruments. The sensing system can detect viral cDNA reverse-transcribed from total RNA extraction by utilizing a biotinylated capture probe and an Alexa Fluor® 647-labeled reporter probe...
February 14, 2017: Analyst
J W Martin, M K Nieuwoudt, M J T Vargas, O L C Bodley, T S Yohendiran, R N Oosterbeek, D E Williams, M Cather Simpson
The implausible combination of centrifugal disc microfluidics and un-covered channels provides a simple way in which Raman spectroscopy can be implemented in industrially-relevant lab-on-a disc technology. Here we demonstrate these advantages by detecting very low concentrations of melamine in liquid milk, without pre-processing, without surface enhancement of the Raman signal and with no evidence of spectral contamination from the polymeric chip itself. A limit of detection (LOD) of 203 ppm for melamine in milk was achieved from Raman spectra of milk after drying...
February 9, 2017: Analyst
Jusheng Lu, Xin Hua, Yi-Tao Long
Electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) analysis is of great significance in the investigation of electrochemical (EC) processes. Current ex situ surface techniques provided rich information of the structural/chemical composition of the EEI. However, real-time and in situ monitoring of the EEI is in great demand for a better understanding of the dynamic changes of the redox systems. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful technique for mass-resolved analysis of various analytes with the capability of on-line measurement...
February 9, 2017: Analyst
Lorna Ashton, Victoria L Brewster, Elon Correa, Royston Goodacre
In this study we demonstrate the use of Raman spectroscopy to determine protein modifications as a result of glycosylation and iron binding. Most proteins undergo some modifications after translation which can directly affect protein function. Identifying these modifications is particularly important in the production of biotherapeutic agents as they can affect stability, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics. However, post-translational modifications can often be difficult to detect with regard to the subtle structural changes they induce in proteins...
February 8, 2017: Analyst
Josh Smith, Stefan Mittermayr, Csaba Váradi, Jonathan Bones
Post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of glycans is governed by a variety of highly specific enzymes and is associated with fundamental impacts on the parent protein's physical, chemical and biological properties. The inherent connection between cellular physiology and specific glycosylation patterns has been shown to offer potential for diagnostic and prognostic monitoring of altered glycosylation in the disease state. Conversely, glycoprotein based biopharmaceuticals have emerged as dominant therapeutic strategies in the treatment of intricate diseases...
February 7, 2017: Analyst
Shaiju S Nazeer, Rarinthorn Samrid, David Perez-Guaita, Parichat Prachaney, Kowit Chaisiwamongkol, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Ponlatham Chaiyarit, Bayden R Wood
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) imaging has been applied to investigate biochemical differences between salivary glands from control and hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups including a control group and another hypertension group that were treated orally, with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) via drinking water for 3 weeks to develop hypertension. In the control group, rats were treated with only drinking water for 3 weeks. The formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens from submandibular and sublingual glands were analysed with a FTIR focal plane array imaging spectrometer and multi-composite images of all tissue sections were analysed simultaneously using Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (UHCA) and the extracted spectra were further analysed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)...
February 3, 2017: Analyst
M Schwenk, A Katzir, B Mizaikoff
Tetrahydrofuran is a relevant auxiliary molecule when storing carbon dioxide or hydrocarbons as gas hydrates. The present study demonstrates the application of in situ mid-infrared fiber-optic evanescent field absorption spectroscopy for studying the formation and dissociation of THF hydrates. Thereby, the utility of this analytical technique for providing unique molecular-level insight even under harsh environmental conditions is evidenced.
February 3, 2017: Analyst
Joey G Sheff, Morgan Hepburn, Yaping Yu, Susan P Lees-Miller, David C Schriemer
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) has made important contributions to the study of protein structure and function. Unfortunately, it is not known for low limits of detection, when compared with other forms of peptide-based or bottom-up protein MS methods. Systems perform poorly on sub-pmol quantities of protein states with greater than 300 kDa of unique sequences. The HX-MS analysis of complex protein states would be possible if proteomics-grade configurations could be used reliably, but temperature and temporal constraints have proven to be significant design challenges...
February 3, 2017: Analyst
Jinhua Dong, Mototada Shichiri, Chan-I Chung, Takahiro Shibata, Koji Uchida, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Yasukazu Yoshida, Hiroshi Ueda
Lipid peroxidation is involved in many disorders and diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and even aging. Lipid peroxidation products existing in blood or bodily fluids are very important biomarkers for the diagnosis of such diseases. In particular, 13(R,S)-hydroxy-9(E),11(E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-(E,E)-HODE) is an oxidiation product of linoleic acid, which is an important biomarker for many diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we successfully displayed the antigen-binding fragment of an antibody produced by hybridoma 1213-1 on the M13 phage and performed analysis of the antibody variable region genes...
February 1, 2017: Analyst
Wei-Xian Wang, Yee-Wai Cheung, Roderick M Dirkzwager, Wai-Chung Wong, Julian A Tanner, Hong-Wei Li, Yuqing Wu
Innovative nanomaterials offer significant potential for diagnosis of severe diseases of the developing world such as malaria. Small sized silver nanoclusters have shown promise for diagnostics due to their intense fluorescence emission and photo-stabilities. Here, double-stranded DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs-dsDNA) were prepared to detect the established malaria biomarker, Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). Significant luminescence enhancement over a wide concentration range of PfLDH was demonstrated...
January 31, 2017: Analyst
Hai-Juan Lv, Xiao-Tai Zhang, Shu Wang, Guo-Wen Xing
Two BODIPY-carbazole dye based fluorescent probes BCA and BCAS were designed, synthesized and encapsulated by liposomes to obtain fluorescent nanoparticles BCA-FNP and BCAS-FNP. The fluorescence imaging showed that BCA-FNP was membrane-permeable and capable of localizing lysosomes in living cells.
January 31, 2017: Analyst
Hongmei Yang, Wenbin Yao, Yihan Wang, Lei Shi, Rui Su, Debin Wan, Niusheng Xu, Wenhui Lian, Changbao Chen, Shuying Liu
Conventional strategies for the screening of DNA triplex binders cannot be used for complicated samples, such as ligand libraries created by combinatorial chemistry or from natural product extracts. In the current study, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS)-based approach, which we call peak area-fading (PAF) UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS and was designed for just such a purpose, is reported. The triplex DNA modified 96-well plate and the single stranded oligonucleotide modified 96-well plate (as control) were incubated with ligand libraries, and the unbound ligands were directly determined via UHPLC-ESI-MS...
January 31, 2017: Analyst
Jianmin Zhao, Ting Zheng, Jiaxi Gao, Shijing Guo, Xingxing Zhou, Wenju Xu
In this work, a simple and sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for protein (thrombin - TB used as the model) was developed by using cubic Cu2O nanocages (Cu2O-NCs) loaded with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs@Cu2O-NCs) as non-enzymatic electrocatalysts and robust redox probes. Through the specific sandwich-type reaction between TB and TB aptamers (TBA), the formed AuNPs@Cu2O-NCs bound with NH2-TBA were captured onto the electrode surface modified with SH-TBA. Based on the inherent redox activity of AuNPs@Cu2O-NCs with cubic nanostructures, a detectable electrochemical signal was generated which was dependent on the analyte concentration...
January 31, 2017: Analyst
Yuan Zhang, Xianliang Ke, Yan Liu, Zhenhua Zheng, Jin Meng, Hanzhong Wang
Herein a convenient strategy was developed to quantify protein SUMOylation. The amount of target proteins and SUMO proteins conjugated to them could be quantified through luciferase-based bioluminescence detection and the relative bioluminescence was used to evaluate the SUMOylation degree of the target proteins.
January 31, 2017: Analyst
Lei Liu, Yihe Zhang, Ruifeng Du, Jinhong Li, Xuelian Yu
In this study, highly monodispersed Cu2SnZnS4 NCs with a quasi-spherical structure were prepared to construct a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein detection. Quaternary Cu2SnZnS4 NCs as novel biomimetic catalysts show an efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity for H2O2 reduction. This excellent catalytic activity is ascribed to the higher electroconductivity than those of the binary Cu2S and ternary Cu2SnS3 NCs. Moreover, β-cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene sheets are used as substrate materials that can capture large amounts of primary antibodies due to host-guest interaction and high surface area...
January 30, 2017: Analyst
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