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Khairunnisa Amreen, Sivakumar Nisha, Annamalai Senthil Kumar
Direct sensing of uric acid (UA) in an undiluted whole blood sample is reported here taking human whole blood as an analyte and a self-supporting electrolyte. Among various solid electrodes (Pt, Au, GCE, and GCE/Nafion) and carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanofibers, graphene oxide, graphite nanopowder, graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMC), single-walled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes) tested, a GMC-modified glassy carbon electrode, designated as GCE/GMC, showed a remarkable response towards direct electrochemical oxidation of blood uric acid at ∼0...
March 16, 2018: Analyst
Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Sepideh Almasi, Stuart Miller, Zsolt Marton, Vivek Nagarkar, Guillem Pratx
Radioluminescence microscopy is an emerging modality that can be used to image radionuclide probes with micron-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful as a way to probe the metabolic behavior of single cells and to screen and characterize radiopharmaceuticals, but the quality of the images is critically dependent on the scintillator material used to image the cells. In this paper, we detail the development of a microscopy dish made of a thin-film scintillating material, Lu2O3:Eu, that could be used as the blueprint for a future consumable product...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Neelam Khanal, Chiara Masellis, Michael Z Kamrath, David E Clemmer, Thomas R Rizzo
We report here our combination of cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared (IR) spectroscopy with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) as a way to identify and analyze a set of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) ranging from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. The added dimension of IR spectroscopy provides a diagnostic fingerprint in the OH and NH stretching region, which is crucial to identify these oligosaccharides, which are difficult to distinguish by IMS alone. These results extend our previous work in demonstrating the generality of this combined approach for distinguishing subtly different structural and regioisomers of glycans of biologically relevant size...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Charles M Nichols, Jody C May, Stacy D Sherrod, John A McLean
The field of ion mobility-based omics studies requires high-quality collision cross section (CCS) libraries to effectively utilize CCS as a molecular descriptor. Absolute CCS values with the highest precision are obtained on drift tube instruments by measuring the drift time of ions at multiple drift voltages, commonly referred to as a 'stepped field' experiment. However, generating large scale absolute CCS libraries from drift tube instruments is time consuming due to the current lack of high-throughput methods...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Jagpreet Singh Sidhu, Ashutosh Singh, Neha Garg, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh
Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) is a redox regulating enzyme which is predestined for the maintenance of redox homeostasis of mammalian cells. However, the elevated level of TrxR is associated with the progress of various types of tumors and therefore, this is a significant target for the detection of cancer cells. Herein, an easily engineered 'Turn ON' fluorescent sensor probe has been synthesized for the detection of TrxR and cell imaging using carbon dots. The emission intensity of fCDs on complexation with Cu2+ ions was drastically quenched...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Katherine D Hills, Daniela A Oliveira, Nicholas D Cavallaro, Carmen L Gomes, Eric S McLamore
We demonstrate a sensing mechanism for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples using the actuation of chitosan-aptamer nanobrush borders. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing strategy mimic natural symbiotic systems, where low levels of bacteria are selectively captured from complex matrices. To engineer this biomimetic system, we first develop reduced graphene oxide/nanoplatinum (rGO-nPt) electrodes, and characterize the fundamental electrochemical behavior in the presence and absence of chitosan nanobrushes during actuation (pH-stimulated osmotic swelling)...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Joonchul Shin, Sudesna Chakravarty, Wooseok Choi, Kyungyeon Lee, Dongsik Han, Hyundoo Hwang, Jaekyu Choi, Hyo-Il Jung
The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes...
March 14, 2018: Analyst
Marwa M Azab, Rédha Cherif, Aryanne L Finnie, Maha M Abou El-Alamin, Maha A Sultan, Alastair W Wark
Gold nanorods (NRs) have attracted a great deal of interest for a variety of biomedical and sensing applications. However, developing robust methods for biofunctionalizing NRs has continued to be challenging, especially for NR-DNA conjugates. This is due to the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which plays an essential role in controlling the anisotropic particle growth. In this article, we systematically explore the growth of a polydopamine (PDA) layer on a range of NR surfaces, comparing different polyelectrolyte and alkanethiol coatings as well as direct CTAB displacement...
March 13, 2018: Analyst
Neema Pallikkarathodi Mani, Manjunatha Ganiga, Jobin Cyriac
Fluorescence sensors for biologically active molecules are catching attention due to their good performance and simplicity. Herein, we report a fluorescence sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) in aqueous samples. MoS2 nanohybrid material composed of MoS2 quantum dots dispersed over MoS2 nanosheets (MoS2 QDNS) in alkaline medium was employed as the fluorescent probe. In the presence of DA, the photoluminescence intensity of MoS2 QDNS was quenched linearly with increasing concentration of the former...
March 13, 2018: Analyst
Li Wang, Aiguo Wu, Gang Wei
Graphene-based nanomaterials have been widely utilized to fabricate various biosensors for environmental monitoring, food safety, and biomedical diagnostics. The combination of aptamers with graphene for creating biofunctional nanocomposites improved the sensitivity and selectivity of fabricated biosensors due to the unique molecular recognition and biocompatibility of aptamers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the design, fabrication, and biomedical sensing application of graphene-based aptasensors within the last five years (2013-current)...
March 12, 2018: Analyst
Carlton F O Hoy, Keiichiro Kushiro, Madoka Takai
Correction for 'Fabrication and assessment of an electrospun polymeric microfiber-based platform under bulk flow conditions with rapid and efficient antigen capture' by Carlton F. O. Hoy et al., Analyst, 2018, 143, 865-873.
March 12, 2018: Analyst
Yanfeng Wang, Lei Bai, Yonglan Wang, Dongdong Qin, Duoliang Shan, Xiaoquan Lu
A novel and highly sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose based on ternary nanocomposites of Au/CuS/TiO2 (Au/CuS/TiO2 ) has been fabricated. Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by anodization of Ti foils, and CuS nanoparticles (NPs) and Au NPs were deposited on TiO2 NTs by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The resultant Au/CuS/TiO2 exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical behavior as a glucose sensor under white light illumination due to the remarkable photocatalytic capabilities of TiO2 and CuS, and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au NPs...
March 9, 2018: Analyst
Nina Fu, Yue Hu, Saihua Shi, Shaokang Ren, Wei Liu, Shao Su, Baomin Zhao, Lixing Weng, Lianhui Wang
MiRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that play crucial roles in the oncogenic state in various cancers and have shown highly promising clinical applications as plasma-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. Due to their electroanalytical advantages, photoelectrochemical biosensors are a very attractive alternative technology for miRNA sensing and detection. In this work, we demonstrated a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor using the in situ grown Au nanoparticles/two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanosheet heterojunction (MoS2 -AuNPs) on ITO glass as the photoanode (MoS2 -AuNPs/ITO)...
March 8, 2018: Analyst
Juan Song, Fei Yin, Xia Li, Na Dong, Yingjie Zhu, Yanan Shao, Baoli Chen, Wei Jiang, Chen-Zhong Li
We developed a novel approach to determine formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) activity by taking advantage of target-induced self-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) and magnetic nanoprobes. Herein, a unique nick (8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoG) was positioned in duplex DNA containing P-circle and P1 , which together serve as a FPG substrate, RCA template, and RCA primer probe. The presence of FPG specifically binds 8-oxoG and cleaves the P-circle into two parts, producing 5'-phosphoryl termini. A phosphodiester bond between the 5'-phosphoryl and 3'-hydroxyl termini was formed with the addition of T4 DNA ligase, producing an unnicked circular strand...
March 8, 2018: Analyst
Xifeng Chen, Dawei Yang, Yuguo Tang, Peng Miao
DNA endonucleases play critical roles in medicinal chemistry, which are also commonly used in molecular biology investigation. Sensitive quantification of endonuclease activity is of great significance. In this study, a reliable electrochemical approach for endonuclease activity sensing is developed with the adoption of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) as electrochemical reporters. Firstly, a DNA duplex is designed and modified on a gold electrode, which acts as the template for the synthesis of CuNPs. Subsequently, the formed NPs are dissolved and then electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode for DPV measurements...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Nicolas Cerusico, Juan P Aybar, Silvana Lopez, Silvia G Molina, Romina Chavez Jara, Maria Eugenia Sesto Cabral, Juan C Valdez, Aida Ben Altabef, Alberto N Ramos
Chronic venous leg ulcer (CVLU) arises as a chronic venous insufficiency complication and is a major cause of morbidity throughout the world. Our hypothesis is that the CVLU exudate composition is a biochemical representation of the wound clinical state. Then, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could be a useful and less-invasive technique to study the clinical state of the ulcer. For this, the aim of this work was to perform a spectral characterization of the exudate from CVLU using FTIR spectroscopy to identify potential healing markers...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Vini Singh, Sadagopan Krishnan
Diabetes is a complex immune disorder that requires extensive medical care beyond glycemic control. Recently, the prevalence of diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes (T1D), has significantly increased from 5% to 10%, and this has affected the health-associated complication incidences in children and adults. The 2012 statistics by the American Diabetes Association reported that 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) had diabetes, and 86 million Americans (age ≥20 years, an increase from 79 million in 2010) had prediabetes...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Honghai Wang, Yan Sun, Weiwei Yue, Qi Kang, Huijuan Li, Dazhong Shen
Sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers is valuable for clinical diagnosis and treatment assessment of cancers. Herein, we report a simple smartphone-based double-channel fluorescence setup for immunoassay. Not including the smartphone, the total cost of the detection device itself is about 80 $, including a laser pointer, a twinning measurement cell, a collective lens, and an outside box. The fluorescence images of the sample and reference areas were captured by the camera in the smartphone and the brightness ratio was calculated using a user-edited smartphone app...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Yanli Ma, Yu Mao, Yuan An, Tian Tian, Huimin Zhang, Jinmao Yan, Zhi Zhu, Chaoyong James Yang
We have successfully developed a target-responsive aptamer cross-linked hydrogel for the visual detection of glucose, an important biomedical analyte. In this work, the glucose-responsive hydrogel was prepared using the target aptamer and its two short complementary DNA strands grafted onto a linear polyacrylamide chain as cross-linkers. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with thiol-PEG were encapsulated in the gel and used as the output signal for visible detection. The complex of glucose and its ligand of boronic acid derivatives (Shinkai's receptor) can bind with the aptamer to disrupt the hydrogel, leading to the release of AuNPs with a distinct red colour in the supernatant...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Kseniia Boriachek, Muhammad Umer, Md Nazmul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred K Lam, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
Recent evidence suggests that small non-coding RNAs such as microRNA (miRNA) encapsulated in exosomes represent an important mechanism of communication between the cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in carcinogenesis via enhancing the cell to cell communication and targeting the cell growth molecular pathways which in turn facilitate metastasis in cancers. Despite progressive advances, the current methods for the exosomal miRNA detection mostly rely on labor-intensive sequencing approaches which are often prone to amplification bias and require costly and bulky equipment...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
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