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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149225/chemical-analysis-in-saliva-and-the-search-for-salivary-biomarkers-a-tutorial-review
#1
Kamonwad Ngamchuea, Korbua Chaisiwamongkhol, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Richard G Compton
Biomarkers refer to analytes that can be used in the diagnosis of diseases or disorders. In saliva, there are many components that are potential biomarkers, and increasing research has focussed on the development of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. This review summarizes the existing uses of salivary biomarkers and highlights the importance of the choice of saliva collection as well as the storage procedures. A case study on the effect of collection tools on the concentrations of one of the potential biomarkers, glutathione, is highlighted...
November 17, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144516/a-ratiometric-mitochondria-targeting-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-for-imaging-of-nitric-oxide-in-vivo
#2
Xinyue Zhu, Jin-Quan Chen, Chen Ma, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiao-Ping Cao, Haixia Zhang
A two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe (Mito-N) has been developed for monitoring mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) in vivo. Mito-N exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward NO among various ROS/RNS. The successful two-photon imaging of mitochondrial NO proved that Mito-N is a powerful noninvasive imaging tool in living systems.
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144515/detection-of-sepsis-in-patient-blood-samples-using-cd64-expression-in-a-microfluidic-cell-separation-device
#3
Ye Zhang, Wenjie Li, Yun Zhou, Amanda Johnson, Amanda Venable, Ahmed Hassan, John Griswold, Dimitri Pappas
A microfluidic affinity separation device was developed for the detection of sepsis in critical care patients. An affinity capture method was developed to capture cells based on changes in CD64 expression in a single, simple microfluidic chip for sepsis detection. Both sepsis patient samples and a laboratory CD64+ expression model were used to validate the microfluidic assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the chip cell capture had a linear relationship with CD64 expression in laboratory models. The Sepsis Chip detected an increase in upregulated neutrophil-like cells when the upregulated cell population is as low as 10% of total cells spiked into commercially available aseptic blood samples...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143841/ionic-liquids-as-stationary-phases-for-fatty-acid-analysis-by-gas-chromatography
#4
REVIEW
C Fanali, G Micalizzi, P Dugo, L Mondello
The present paper provides an overview of the application of ionic liquid (IL) columns for GC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Although their separation can be carried out utilizing GC columns containing polar stationary phases, some ILs have been employed as stationary phases, either commercial or laboratory made, in GC analysis. Monodimensional and bidimensional GC methods have been optimized in order to achieve the best separation especially considering the geometric and positional isomers of unsaturated fatty acids...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143837/development-of-a-label-free-raman-imaging-technique-for-differentiation-of-malaria-parasite-infected-from-non-infected-tissue
#5
Laura Frame, James Brewer, Rebecca Lee, Karen Faulds, Duncan Graham
During malarial infection, the host uses the spleen to clear the malaria parasites, however, the parasites have evolved the ability to bind to endothelial receptors in blood vessels of tissues to avoid removal, known as sequestration, and this is largely responsible for the symptoms and severity of infection. So a technique which could non-invasively diagnose tissue burden could be utilised as an aid for localised malaria diagnosis within tissue. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free imaging technique and can provide unique and chemically specific Raman 'fingerprint' spectrum of biological samples such as tissue...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142996/selective-phosphatidylcholine-double-bond-fragmentation-and-localisation-using-patern%C3%A3-b%C3%A3-chi-reactions-and-ultraviolet-photodissociation
#6
Fabian Wäldchen, Simon Becher, Patrick Esch, Mario Kompauer, Sven Heiles
The effect of double bond functionalisation for selective double bond localisation by ultraviolet photodissociation of phosphatidylcholines is investigated. Paternò-Büchi reactions in nanoESI emitter tips enable attachment of acetophenone to double bonds of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines after 100 s of 254 nm light irradiation with about 50-80% reaction yield. Functionalized phosphatidylcholines dissociate upon 266 nm irradiation yielding double bond selective fragment ions in contrast to results for ultraviolet photodissociation of unmodified lipids...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140390/a-carboxylated-graphene-nanodisks-glucose-oxidase-nanotags-and-mn-cds-tio2-matrix-based-dual-signal-amplification-strategy-for-ultrasensitive-photoelectrochemical-detection-of-tumor-markers
#7
Jie Song, Shuo Wu, Xinlan Yang, Jingli Yuan
Graphene nanodisks with good conductivity and plenty of edge sites were synthesized to load glucose oxidase (GRD-GOD) and coupled with a Mn(2+) doped CdS quantum dot (QD) modified TiO2 electrode (CdS:Mn/TiO2) for a highly sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay. The specific immune-recognition behaviour can bring the GRD-GOD labelled antigen into the antibody immobilized CdS:Mn/TiO2 interface and dramatically enhance the photocurrent response via a dual signal amplification strategy. First, graphene nanodisks with a strong electron transfer capacity can improve the conductivity of both the insulating protein layers and the CdS:Mn/TiO2 matrix, thus facilitating the regeneration of trapped carriers and hot electrons in the CdS:Mn QD films and enhancing the PEC performance...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139486/simple-and-rapid-colorimetric-detection-of-melanoma-circulating-tumor-cells-using-bifunctional-magnetic-nanoparticles
#8
Junrong Li, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Matt Trau
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising biomarker for monitoring cancer metastasis and therapy response. However, the rarity and inherent fragility of CTCs pose great challenges for CTC detection. Currently, CTC detection requires advanced instruments that might be inaccessible in most hospitals or labs. To allow simple and rapid CTC detection, we propose a sensor platform that relies only on the intrinsic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) including rapid separation as well as nanozyme activity...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139484/ftir-imaging-detects-diet-and-genotype-dependent-chemical-composition-changes-in-wild-type-and-mutant-c-elegans-strains
#9
A Bouyanfif, S Liyanage, J E Hewitt, S A Vanapalli, N Moustaid-Moussa, E Hequet, N Abidi
This study focuses on the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to determine chemical changes induced in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by supplementation of C. elegans maintenance media (CeMM) by Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Wild-type C. elegans (N2) and mutant strains (tub-1 and fat-3) were grown in CeMM alone, and CeMM supplemented with EPA at 25 or 100 μM. Feeding was performed for 72 h. FTIR imaging was performed in transmission mode on individual worms. The FTIR imaging analysis of wild-type animals revealed the presence of vibrations assigned to unsaturated fatty acids, specifically bands at 3008 cm(-1) ([double bond, length as m-dash]C-H, olefinic stretch) and 1744 cm(-1) (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, unsaturated fatty acids)...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138777/expanding-the-structural-analysis-capabilities-on-an-orbitrap-based-mass-spectrometer-for-large-macromolecular-complexes
#10
Kyle L Fort, Michiel van de Waterbeemd, Dmitriy Boll, Maria Reinhardt-Szyba, Mikhail E Belov, Eita Sasaki, Reinhard Zschoche, Donald Hilvert, Alexander A Makarov, Albert J R Heck
Native mass spectrometry can provide insight into the structure of macromolecular biological systems. As analytes under investigation get larger and more complex, instrument capabilities need to be advanced. Herein, modifications to an Orbitrap Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer that increase signal intensity, mass resolution, and maximum m/z measurable are described.
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138767/a-facile-method-for-urinary-phenylalanine-measurement-on-paper-based-lab-on-chip-for-pku-therapy-monitoring
#11
M A Messina, C Meli, S Conoci, S Petralia
A miniaturized paper-based lab-on-chip (LoC) was developed for the facile measurement of urinary Phe (phenylalanine) level on PKU (Phenylketonuria) treated patient. This system permits the monitoring of Phe in a dynamic range concentration of 20-3000 μM.
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138765/sizing-sub-diffraction-limit-electrosprayed-droplets-by-structured-illumination-microscopy
#12
Adam Hollerbach, David Logsdon, Kiran Iyer, Anyin Li, J Andy Schaber, R Graham Cooks
Electrosprayed droplets are widely studied for their role in the formation of ions at atmospheric pressure. Most droplet measurement methods used today employ light scattering to infer information about an electrosprayed droplet's size. However, these methods fail to measure droplets smaller than about 400 nm in diameter due to constraints imposed by the diffraction limit of light. To overcome this limitation, a super resolution fluorescence microscopy-based method for determining the sizes of electrosprayed droplets has been developed...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136068/electrokinetically-operated-microfluidic-devices-for-integrated-immunoaffinity-monolith-extraction-and-electrophoretic-separation-of-preterm-birth-biomarkers
#13
Mukul Sonker, Ellen K Parker, Anna V Nielsen, Vishal Sahore, Adam T Woolley
Biomarkers are often present in complex biological fluids like blood, requiring multiple, slow sample preparation steps that pose limitations in simplifying analysis. Here we report integrated immunoaffinity extraction and separation devices for analysis of preterm birth biomarkers in a human blood serum matrix. A reactive polymer monolith was used for immobilization of antibodies for selective extraction of target preterm birth biomarkers. Microfluidic immunoaffinity extraction protocols were optimized and then integrated with microchip electrophoresis for separation...
November 14, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134205/towards-the-electrochemical-diagnostic-of-influenza-virus-development-of-a-graphene-au-hybrid-nanocomposite-modified-influenza-virus-biosensor-based-on-neuraminidase-activity
#14
Ülkü Anik, Yudum Tepeli, Maher Sayhi, Jihene Nsiri, Mohamed Fethi Diouani
An effective electrochemical influenza A biosensor based on a graphene-gold (Au) hybrid nanocomposite modified Au-screen printed electrode has been developed. The working principle of the developed biosensor relies on the measurement of neuraminidase (N) activity. After the optimization of experimental parameters like the effect of bovine serum albumin addition and immobilization times of fetuin A and PNA lectin, the analytical characteristics of the influenza A biosensor were investigated. As a result, a linear range between 10(-8) U mL(-1) and 10(-1) U mL(-1) was found with a relative standard deviation value of 3...
November 14, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131209/bulk-double-emulsification-for-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-microfluidic-droplets
#15
David J Sukovich, Samuel C Kim, Noorsher Ahmed, Adam R Abate
Droplet microfluidics is valuable for applications in chemistry and biology, but generates massive numbers of droplets that must be analyzed and sorted. Here, we describe a simple approach to bulk double emulsify microfluidic emulsions for analysis and sorting with commercial flow cytometers. We illustrate the method by using it to identify droplets based on nucleic acid content. Though simple, our method provides a general approach for analyzing and sorting microfluidic droplets without custom microfluidic double emulsifiers or sorters...
November 13, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124255/a-microdialysis-based-analytical-system-for-dynamic-monitoring-of-arsenic-transformation-under-microbial-activity
#16
Keng-Chang Hsu, Jing-Ru Hsieh, Ya-Ching Chen, Pi-Fu Hsu, Chih-Chang Hung, Yeou-Lih Huang
In this study, a microdialysis (MD) technique was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for continuous monitoring of the dynamic variations of arsenic species in a microbe-inoculated culture broth. After optimizing the analytical system, retrodialysis was applied to assess the probe recovery and analytical performance of the proposed method. The mean probe recoveries of four arsenic species were in the range from 57.0 to 81.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) for arsenic was in the range of 0...
November 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120471/rational-design-of-a-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-dinotefuran-theoretical-and-experimental-studies-aimed-at-the-development-of-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent
#17
Camilla Fonseca Silva, Keyller Bastos Borges, Clebio Soares do Nascimento
In this work, we studied theoretically the formation process of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for dinotefuran (DNF), testing distinct functional monomers (FM) in various solvents through density functional theory calculations. The results revealed that the best conditions for MIP synthesis were established with methacrylic acid (MAA) as FM in a 1 : 4 stoichiometry and with chloroform as the solvent. This protocol showed the most favourable stabilization energies for the pre-polymerization complexes...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120465/resonance-raman-detection-of-antioxidants-using-an-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-catalysed-decolourisation-assay
#18
Sian Sloan-Dennison, Neil C Shand, Duncan Graham, Karen Faulds
Nanozymes are metal nanoparticles with catalytic properties that can be used to oxidise peroxidase substrates giving a colorimetric response which can be detected using UV-vis, and recently, Raman spectroscopy. Due to their ease of synthesis and increased stability, nanozymes are being increasing investigated to replace conventional enzymes for the detection of biomolecules. Here we exploit the catalytic activity of iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles combined with the substrate 2,2-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) in a decolourisation assay for the detection of antioxidants...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119999/ion-mobility-resolved-collision-induced-dissociation-and-electron-transfer-dissociation-of-n-glycopeptides-gathering-orthogonal-connectivity-information-from-a-single-mass-selected-precursor-ion-population
#19
Venkata Kolli, Katherine N Schumacher, Eric D Dodds
Glycopeptide-level mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses are commonly performed to establish site-specific protein glycosylation profiles that are of central importance to gaining structure-function insights on glycoproteins. Confoundingly, the complete characterization of glycopeptide connectivity usually requires the acquisition of multiple MS/MS fragmentation spectra. Complementary ion fragmentation techniques such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) are often applied in concert to address this need...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119998/development-of-a-computationally-designed-polymeric-adsorbent-specific-for-mycotoxin-patulin
#20
Elena V Piletska, Demi Pink, Kal Karim, Sergey A Piletsky
Patulin is a toxic compound which is found predominantly in apples affected by mould rot. Since apples and apple-containing products are a popular food for the elderly, children and babies, the monitoring of the toxin is crucial. This paper describes a development of a computationally-designed polymeric adsorbent for the solid-phase extraction of patulin, which provides an effective clean-up of the food samples and allows the detection and accurate quantification of patulin levels present in apple juice using conventional chromatography methods...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
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