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Pavel Damborský, Katarzyna M Koczula, Andrea Gallotta, Jaroslav Katrlík
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) enable the simple and rapid detection and quantification of analytes and is popular for point-of-care (PoC), point-of-use and outdoor testing applications. LFAs typically depend on antibody or nucleic acid based recognition. We present the innovative concept of a LFA using lectins in the role of the biorecognition element. Lectins are a special kind of glycan-binding protein and the lectin-based LFA herein described was developed for the determination of the glycosylation of free prostate specific antigen (PSA)...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Michael G Wolfe, Qiang Zhang, Christy Hui, Katherine Radford, Parameswaran Nair, John D Brennan
With over 4.8 million Canadians suffering from chronic airway diseases, respiratory exacerbations are currently the leading cause of hospitalization in Canada. In cases of bacterial infection, neutrophil cell density increases from ∼10 million cells per gram to over 15 million cells per gram. As sputum is a direct discharge from the primarily affected areas of respiratory diseases, quantification of granulocytes (including neutrophils) can be used to effectively determine a course of patient treatment. Unfortunately this quantification is currently limited to labour-intensive and time-consuming cell counts...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Ryan Stables, Graeme Clemens, Holly J Butler, Katherine M Ashton, Andrew Brodbelt, Timothy P Dawson, Leanne M Fullwood, Michael D Jenkinson, Matthew J Baker
Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Yongkang Yue, Fangjun Huo, Songyi Lee, Caixia Yin, Juyoung Yoon
Intracellular pH values are some of the most important factors that govern biological processes and the acid-base homeostasis in cells, body fluids and organs sustains the normal operations of the body. Subcellular organelles including the acidic lysosomes and the alkalescent mitochondria undergo various processes such as intracellular digestion, ATP production and apoptosis. Due to their precise imaging capabilities, fluorescent probes have attracted great attention for the illustration of pH modulated processes...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Tomasz P Wrobel, Prabuddha Mukherjee, Rohit Bhargava
Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging has been used to measure the composition and orientation of polymeric systems for decades. IR microscopy can provide detailed views of microscopic regions, allowing the observation of both morphology and molecular properties of a sample, but involves a trade-off between the spatial extent and details of molecular content. Here we describe an approximately two orders of magnitude faster approach to measure the spherulitic structure and molecular orientation in large semi-crystalline polymer samples compared to extant Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging...
October 18, 2016: Analyst
Longjiang Ding, Minggang Zhao, Sisi Fan, Hui Li, Ye Ma, Jingjing Liang, Shougang Chen
3D NiO/Co3O4 p-p junction foam was fabricated and applied for electrochemical detection of biomarkers. The theoretical model of employing the interfacial potential barrier as an electrochemical tuning factor was explored in depth. The signals of different targets with similar redox properties could be controllably distinguished by depressing or strengthening the potential barrier. The absorbed positively charged molecules would induce negative charges, inciting a decrease of the potential barrier height Φ and resistance, which is an enhanced tuning factor of the electrochemical signal...
October 13, 2016: Analyst
M Brasino, J N Cha
Here we describe novel covalent conjugates of antibody-phage for the detection of multiple cancer biomarkers using real time immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR). While the conventional process of immuno-PCR utilizes DNA-conjugated antibodies, chemical modification of antibodies not only reduces antibody affinity but also creates a heterogeneous population of products. However, phage naturally encapsulate genomic DNA, which can be used as a PCR template. To produce covalently conjugated antibody-phage constructs without recombinant antibody expression or chemical modification of antibodies, we incorporated a photocrosslinkable non-canonical amino acid within an antibody-binding domain displayed on one of the phage coat proteins...
October 12, 2016: Analyst
Juntuo Zhou, Yuxin Yin
Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instruments and analytical strategies have brought about great progress in targeted metabolomics analysis. This methodology is now capable of performing precise targeted measurement of dozens or hundreds of metabolites in complex biological samples. Classic targeted quantification assay using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode has been the foundation of high-quality metabolite quantitation. However, utilization of this strategy in biological studies has been limited by its relatively low metabolite coverage and throughput capacity...
October 10, 2016: Analyst
I Freitag, C Beleites, S Dochow, J H Clement, C Krafft, J Popp
SERS active nanoparticles were labeled with a reporter molecule and conjugated with anti-EpCAM antibodies. These immuno SERS markers were mixed with leukocytes, MCF-7 breast cancer cells and polystyrene beads, and the mixture was injected into a microfluidic quartz chip. Raman spectra were acquired at 785 nm excitation with 25 milliseconds exposure time in a continuous flow regime. Spectral unmixing by N-FINDR identified spectral signatures of SERS-labelled cells and polystyrene beads. This approach demonstrated rapid and reproducible SERS-assisted cell detection...
October 7, 2016: Analyst
O J Old, G R Lloyd, J Nallala, M Isabelle, L M Almond, N A Shepherd, C A Kendall, A C Shore, H Barr, N Stone
Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition that can progress to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic surveillance aims to identify potential progression at an early, treatable stage, but generates large numbers of tissue biopsies. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) mapping was used to develop an automated histology tool for detection of BE and Barrett's neoplasia in tissue biopsies. 22 oesophageal tissue samples were collected from 19 patients. Contiguous frozen tissue sections were taken for pathology review and FTIR imaging...
October 7, 2016: Analyst
Karin Ortmayr, Verena Charwat, Cornelia Kasper, Stephan Hann, Gunda Koellensperger
The p-value is the most prominent established metric for statistical significance in non-targeted metabolomics. However, its adequacy has repeatedly been the subject of discussion criticizing its uncertainty and its dependence on sample size and statistical power. These issues compromise non-targeted metabolomics in model systems, where studies typically investigate 5-10 samples per group. In this paper we propose a different approach for assessing the relevance of fold change (FC) data, where the FC is treated as a quantitative value and is validated by uncertainty budgeting...
October 6, 2016: Analyst
William F Siems, Larry A Viehland, Herbert H Hill
The fundamental ion mobility equation computes the energy-averaged collision cross section as a function of measured drift velocity, electric field strength, ion and neutral masses, and drift gas state parameters. As field strength approaches zero, in particular when the drift velocity drops below about 4% of the average ion-neutral thermal speed, the fundamental equation takes on an especially simple form because the collision frequency and average momentum transfer become indistinguishable from their thermal values...
October 5, 2016: Analyst
R Asri, B O'Neill, J C Patel, K A Siletti, M E Rice
The study of transmitter interactions in reward and motor pathways in the brain, including the striatum, requires methodology to detect stimulus-driven neurotransmitter release events. Such methods exist for dopamine, and have contributed to the understanding of local and behavioral factors that regulate dopamine release. However, factors that regulate release of another key transmitter in these pathways, acetylcholine (ACh), are unresolved, in part because of limited temporal and spatial resolution of current detection methods...
October 3, 2016: Analyst
Huning Jia, Ying Bu, Bingjie Zou, Jianping Wang, Shalen Kumar, Janet L Pitman, Guohua Zhou, Qinxin Song
Micro ribose nucleic acids (miRNAs) play an important role in biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore, miRNAs are potentially a powerful marker for monitoring cancer and diagnosis. Here, we present sensitive signal amplification for miRNAs based on modified cycling probe technology with strand displacement amplification. miRNA was captured by the template coupled with beads, and then the first cycle based on SDA was repeatedly extended to the nicking end, which was produced by the extension reaction of miRNA...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
Qianhui Wei, Meiqin Zhang, Božidar Ogorevc, Xueji Zhang
This review highlights the considerable advances in the chemical imaging of human fingermarks that provide more chemical information, including numerous endogenous and exogenous constituents. Despite remarkable development in DNA analysis and recognition, human fingermark analysis remains one of the priority approaches available for obtaining reliable forensic evidence. Additional information about the donor can be obtained from the chemical composition of latent fingermarks in addition to the ridge pattern, such as the age, gender, medical history, and possible drug habits...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
Jinsu Kim, Ryan Poling-Skutvik, João R C Trabuco, Katerina Kourentzi, Richard C Willson, Jacinta C Conrad
Using microscopy and image analysis, we characterize binding of filamentous viral nanoparticles to a fibrous affinity matrix as models for reporter capture in a lateral flow assay (LFA). M13 bacteriophage (M13) displaying an in vivo-biotinylated peptide (AviTag) genetically fused to the M13 tail protein p3 are functionalized with fluorescent labels. We functionalize glass fiber LFA membranes with antibodies to M13, which primarily capture M13 on the major p8 coat proteins, or with avidin, which captures M13 at the biotin-functionalized tail, and compare orientational modes of reporter capture for the side- versus tip-binding recognition interactions...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
A T Chen, S Zou
Arrhythmia caused by drug-induced cardiotoxicity is among the leading reasons for late-stage drug attrition and is therefore a core subject in safety testing of new compounds. Alternative methods such as surface and interface characterization approaches for assessing the drug-mediated cardiotoxicity should be promoted, in order to reduce, refine and replace the use of laboratory animals. Here, we investigate the possibility of using known human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel blockers to induce irregular beating patterns in the mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (miPSC and hiPSC) cardiomyocyte (CM) model systems...
September 29, 2016: Analyst
Samuel Weng, Xiaochun Li, Yunchao Li, Hua-Zhong Yu
Beyond their essential applications in portable data storage for the past 30 years, optical discs and corresponding recording/reading technologies have been extensively explored with the ultimate goal of creating novel analytical tools for on-site chemical analysis and point-of-care (POC) medical diagnosis. In particular, the disc media (CD, DVD, and BD) are proven to be inexpensive and versatile substrate materials for the preparation of various biochips and microfluidic systems; conventional computer drives and disc players are widely adapted for biochip signal reading and microscopic imaging...
September 27, 2016: Analyst
Abdulghani Ismail, Marillya O Araújo, Cyro L S Chagas, Sophie Griveau, Fanny D'Orlyé, Anne Varenne, Fethi Bedioui, Wendell K T Coltro
A disposable microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed to easily analyse different S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through colorimetric measurements. RSNOs are carriers of nitric oxide (NO) that play several physiological and physiopathological roles. The quantification of RSNOs relies on their decomposition using several protocols and the colorimetric detection of the final product, NO or nitrite. μPADs were fabricated by wax printing technology in a geometry containing one central zone for the sample inlet and eight circular detection zones interconnected by microfluidic channels for decomposition and posterior detection of decayed products...
September 26, 2016: Analyst
Leah Elizabeth Page, Xi Zhang, Christina Marie Tyrakowski, Chiun-Teh Ho, Preston Todd Snee
A quantum dot-based ratiometrically responsive fluorescent sensor for unlabeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is reported. Several technical issues concerning the development of high yield ssDNA-QD conjugation chemistry were addressed. The DNA sensor was synthesized by conjugating methacrylic phosphoramidite-functional oligonucleotides to water-soluble cadmium zinc sulfide core/zinc sulfide shell quantum dots (CdZnS/ZnS QDs). Duplex DNA was formed when the QD-bound ssDNA was incubated with its complement. Next, titration with PicoGreen resulted in FRET energy transfer from the dot to the dsDNA intercalating dye...
September 26, 2016: Analyst
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