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Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

Inam Ullah Khan, Neeli Habib, Min Xiao, Xing Huang, Nasr Ullah Khan, Wan-Taek Im, Iftikhar Ahmed, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated YIM 730227T , was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karak district, Khyber-Pakhtun-Khwa, Pakistan. The bacterium was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Pairwise comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 730227T is closely related to Phenylobacterium lituiforme FaiI3T (97.5% sequence similarity), Phenylobacterium muchangponense A8T (97.4%), Phenylobacterium panacis DCY109T (97...
March 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Galina A Ekimova, Dmitry N Fedorov, Akio Tani, Nina V Doronina, Yuri A Trotsenko
The presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase determines the ability of bacteria to increase the resistance of plants to various types of stress. The genes of ACC deaminase (acdS) and the closely related enzyme D-cysteine desulfhydrase (dcyD) were searched in type strains of various representatives of the genus Methylobacterium. Using PCR screening and in silico searching in the available complete genome sequences of type strains, the genes were found in 28 of 48 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of proteins revealed two large groups of sequences of the AcdS protein and one of the DcyD protein...
March 8, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Li Li, Osama Abdalla Abdelshafy Mohamad, Jinbiao Ma, Ariel D Friel, Yangui Su, Yun Wang, Zulpiya Musa, Yonghong Liu, Brian P Hedlund, Wenjun Li
Little is known about the composition, diversity, and geographical distribution of bacterial communities associated with medicinal plants in arid lands. To address this, a collection of 116 endophytic bacteria were isolated from wild populations of the herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (licorice) in Xinyuan, Gongliu, and Tekesi of Xinjiang Province, China, and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The endophytes were highly diverse, including 20 genera and 35 species. The number of distinct bacterial genera obtained from root tissues was higher (n = 14) compared to stem (n = 9) and leaf (n = 6) tissue...
March 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Iara F Santiago, Vívian N Gonçalves, Benito Gómez-Silva, Alexandra Galetovic, Luiz H Rosa
Fungi are generally easily dispersed, able to colonise a wide variety of substrata and can tolerate diverse environmental conditions. However, despite these abilities, the diversity of fungi in the Atacama Desert is practically unknown. Most of the resident fungi in desert regions are ubiquitous. Some of them, however, seem to display specific adaptations that enable them to survive under the variety of extreme conditions of these regions, such as high temperature, low availability of water, osmotic stress, desiccation, low availability of nutrients, and exposure to high levels of UV radiation...
March 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Shaghayegh Nasr, Mona Mohammadimehr, Marzieh Geranpayeh Vaghei, Mohammad Ali Amoozegar, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli
A new ascomycetous black yeast-like species was recovered from healthy plant (Avicennia marina) of Hara protected mangrove forests at Qeshm Island, Iran. Morphological, physiological analysis as well as a molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large ribosomal subunit (D1/D2 domains) confirmed the placement of this strain in the genus Aureobasidium and based on considerable sequence divergence, distinguishable cardinal growth temperatures and salt tolerance a new species Aureobasidium mangrovei sp...
March 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Zoe Yi Ng, Geok Yuan Annie Tan
Tioman Island is one of many sources for underexplored actinobacterial diversity in Malaysia. Selective isolation, molecular profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to highlight the diversity of the marine actinobacterial community in a sediment collected off Tioman Island. A high number of diverse actinobacteria were recovered using skim milk/HEPES pre-treatment on a mannitol-based medium. A total of 123 actinobacterial strains were isolated, including thirty obligate marine actinobacteria putatively identified as Salinispora spp...
March 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lei Chen, Shi-Cheng Wang, Cui-Hong Ma, Dong-Xu Zheng, Zong-Jun Du, Guang-Yu Wang
An aerobic, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated as strain HQA918T , was isolated from an ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri, which was collected from the coast of Weihai in the north of the Yellow Sea, in China. The strain grew optimally at 28-30 °C, at pH values 7.0-8.0, and in the presence of 1.0-3.0% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl). A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HQA918T can be affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes, with 92...
March 3, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
J Nicole Flanagan, Todd R Steck
The methods used to generate antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains can be labour-intensive, costly, lengthy and/or prone to plate-to-plate variation. We propose a simple, inexpensive and easily replicated method to expose bacteria to a continuous gradient of antibiotic concentration, providing an environment of positive selective pressure for evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains.
March 1, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Zhen Tan, Yuan Wang, Ting Yang, Hong Ao, Shaokang Chen, Kai Xing, Fengxia Zhang, Xitong Zhao, Jianfeng Liu, Chuduan Wang
The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial communities in the gut and feces from female finishing Landrace pigs with high and low feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Many potential biomarkers can distinguish between high and low FCR groups in the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum, according to linear discriminant analysis effect sizes. The relative abundance of microbes were tested by Mann-Whitney test between the high and low FCR groups in different organs: Campylobacter, Prevotella and Sphaerochaeta were different in the duodenum (P < 0...
March 1, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Luis Cáceres, Alfonso F Davila, Alvaro Soliz, Jessica Saldivia
Here we consider that the corrosion of polished bared metal coupons can be used as a passive sensor to detect or identify the lower limit of water availability suitable for biological activity in Atacama Desert soils or solid substrates. For this purpose, carbon steel coupons were deposited at selected sites along a west-east transect and removed at predetermined times for morphological inspection. The advantage of this procedure is that the attributes of the oxide layer (corrosion extent, morphology and oxide phases) can be considered as a fingerprint of the atmospheric moisture history at a given time interval...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sándor Hornok, Krisztina Szőke, Péter Estók, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Anne-Jifke Haarsma, Dávid Kováts, Sándor A Boldogh, Pál Morandini, Sándor Szekeres, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Marina L Meli, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Beatrice Weibel, Enikő Gönczi, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Daiana R Duca, David R Rose, Bernard R Glick
The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4 was transformed to increase the biosynthesis of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Four native IAA biosynthesis genes from strain UW4 were individually cloned into an expression vector and introduced back into the wild-type strain. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the introduced genes ami, nit, nthAB and phe were all overexpressed in these transformants. A significant increase in the production of IAA was observed for all modified strains...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Janani Ravi, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Maria Laura Gennaro
The phage shock protein (Psp) stress-response system protects bacteria from envelope stress through a cascade of interactions with other proteins and membrane lipids to stabilize the cell membrane. A key component of this multi-gene system is PspA, an effector protein that is found in diverse bacterial phyla, archaea, cyanobacteria, and chloroplasts. Other members of the Psp system include the cognate partners of PspA that are part of known operons: pspF||pspABC in Proteobacteria, liaIHGFSR in Firmicutes, and clgRpspAMN in Actinobacteria...
February 27, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ana Paula Guarnieri Bassi, Leticia Meneguello, Anna Livia Paraluppi, Beatriz Cristina Pecoraro Sanches, Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini
The alcoholic fermentation for fuel ethanol production in Brazil occurs in the presence of several microorganisms present with the starter strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sugarcane musts. It is expected that a multitude of microbial interactions may exist and impact on the fermentation yield. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis and the bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum are important and frequent contaminants of industrial processes, although reports on the effects of both microorganisms simultaneously in ethanolic fermentation are scarce...
February 27, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Alexander V Pinevich, Eugeny E Andronov, Elizaveta V Pershina, Agnia A Pinevich, Helena Y Dmitrieva
Reliance on pure cultures was introduced at the beginning of microbiology as a discipline and has remained significant although their adaptive properties are essentially dissimilar from those of mixed cultures and environmental populations. They are needed for (i) taxonomic identification; (ii) diagnostics of pathogens; (iii) virulence and pathogenicity studies; (iv) elucidation of metabolic properties; (v) testing sensitivity to antibiotics; (vi) full-length genome assembly; (vii) strain deposition in microbial collections; and (viii) description of new species with name validation...
February 27, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Yu-Shuai Wang, Zheng-Fei Yan, Pei Lin, Wei Gao, Tae-Hoo Yi
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, motile by flagella bacterial strain (THG-N2.35T ), was isolated from Pu'er tea. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 4-7 (optimum 7) and at 0-5% NaCl (optimum 1%). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the near phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-N2.35T were identified as Paracoccus hibisci KACC 18632T (99.0%), Paracoccus tibetensis CGMCC 1.8925T (98.7%), Paracoccus beibuensis CGMCC 1.7295T (98.2%), Paracoccus aestuarii KCTC 22049T (98...
February 26, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lorena Carro, Valeria Razmilic, Imen Nouioui, Lee Richardson, Che Pan, Patrycja Golinska, Juan A Asenjo, Alan T Bull, Hans-Peter Klenk, Michael Goodfellow
Innovative procedures were used to selectively isolate small numbers of Micromonospora strains from extreme hyper-arid and high altitude Atacama Desert soils. Micromonosporae were recognised on isolation plates by their ability to produce filamentous microcolonies that were strongly attached to the agar. Most of the isolates formed characteristic orange colonies that lacked aerial hyphae and turned black on spore formation, whereas those from the high altitude soil were dry, blue-green and covered by white aerial hyphae...
February 26, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Marina de Toledo Ferraz Dellias, Clóvis Daniel Borges, Mário Lúcio Lopes, Sandra Helena da Cruz, Henrique Vianna de Amorim, Siu Mui Tsai
Industrial ethanol fermentation is subject to bacterial contamination that causes significant economic losses in ethanol fuel plants. Chronic contamination has been associated with biofilms that are normally more resistant to antimicrobials and cleaning efforts than planktonic cells. In this study, contaminant species of Lactobacillus isolated from biofilms (source of sessile cells) and wine (source of planktonic cells) from industrial and pilot-scale fermentations were compared regarding their ability to form biofilms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobials...
February 24, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Kenji Arakawa
Streptomyces is well characterized by an ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites including antibiotics, whose expression is strictly controlled by small diffusible signaling molecules at nano-molar concentrations. The signaling molecules identified to date are classified into three skeletons; γ-butyrolactones, furans, and γ-butenolides. Accumulated data suggest the structural diversity of the signaling molecules in Streptomyces species and their potential in activating cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways...
February 23, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Wang Guoqi, Li Zhirui, Wang Song, Li Tongtong, Zhang Lihai, Zhang Licheng, Tang Peifu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility, virulence factors and biofilms are known to be detrimental to wound healing. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) against P. aeruginosa has been little studied, either in vitro or in vivo. The present study evaluated the effect of negative pressure (NP) on P. aeruginosa motility in vitro, and the effect of NPWT on virulence factors and biofilms in vivo. P. aeruginosa motility was quantified under different levels of NP (atmospheric pressure, - 75, - 125, - 200 mmHg) using an in vitro model...
February 21, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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