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Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

Zander R Human, Casparus J Crous, Francois Roets, Stephanus N Venter, Michael J Wingfield, Z Wilhelm de Beer
Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees...
September 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Joost Willemse, Ferhat Büke, Dino van Dissel, Sanne Grevink, Dennis Claessen, Gilles P van Wezel
Streptomycetes are filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of bioactive natural products and industrial enzymes. Their mycelial lifestyle typically results in high heterogeneity in bioreactors, with morphologies ranging from fragments and open mycelial mats to dense pellets. There is a strong correlation between morphology and production in submerged cultures, with small and open mycelia favouring enzyme production, while most antibiotics are produced mainly in pellets. Here we describe SParticle, a Streptomyces Particle analysis method that combines whole slide imaging with automated image analysis to characterize the morphology of submerged grown Streptomyces cultures...
September 15, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Wenchao Li, Xiaowei Guo, Linlin Shi, Junwei Zhao, Liangliang Yan, Xiaotong Zhong, Chen Zhang, Yufei Chen, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
A Gram-positive, non-motile actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-FJL1(T), was isolated from tomato root (Solanum lycopersicum L.) collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang province, north China. The strain formed single spores with smooth surfaces from substrate mycelia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-FJL1(T) should be affiliated with the genus Plantactinospora and forms a distinct branch with its close neighbour Plantactinospora soyae NEAU-gxj3(T) (99.2% sequence similarity)...
September 14, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Rodica C Efrose, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Andrei Stefan, Culita Sirbu, Lucian D Gorgan, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis
The symbiotic nitrogen fixing legumes play an essential role in sustainable agriculture. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most valuable perennial legumes in pastures and meadows of temperate regions. Despite its great agriculture and economic importance, there is no detailed available information on phylogenetic assignation and characterization of rhizobia associated with native white clover plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the present work, the diversity of indigenous white clover rhizobia originating in 11 different natural ecosystems in North-Eastern Romania were assessed by a polyphasic approach...
September 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Oscar Dias, Thiago O Basso, Isabel Rocha, Eugénio C Ferreira, Andreas K Gombert
The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis has received attention both from academia and industry due to some important features, such as its capacity to grow in lactose-based media, its safe status, its suitability for large-scale cultivation and for heterologous protein synthesis. It has also been considered as a model organism for genomics and metabolic regulation. Despite this, very few studies were carried out hitherto under strictly controlled conditions, such as those found in a chemostat. Here we report a set of quantitative physiological data generated during chemostat cultivations with the K...
September 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Daohong Liu, Zhirui Li, Guoqi Wang, Tongtong Li, Lihai Zhang, Peifu Tang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in a controlled animal study using the standard sterile gauze and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), including activation of agr, gene expression and production of virulence foctors and depth of bacterial invasion. The tissue specimens were harvested on days 0 (6 h after bacterial inoculation), 2, 4, 6, and 8 at the center of wound beds. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to obtain bioluminescent images which were used to measure the depth of bacterial invasion...
September 11, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Purnita Bhattacharyya, Bikash Agarwal, Madhurankhi Goswami, Debasish Maiti, Sunandan Baruah, Prosun Tribedi
Biofilms are structured consortia of microbial cells that grow on living and non living surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers. Infections with bacterial biofilms have emerged as a foremost public health concern because biofilm growing cells can be highly resistant to both antibiotics and host immune defenses. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been reported as a potential antimicrobial agent, thus, in the current study, we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as antibiofilm activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae which is a significant cause of disease...
September 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
J Gleńska-Olender, K Durlik, I Konieczna, P Kowalska, J Gawęda, W Kaca
Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative human pathogens responsible mainly for urinary tract and wound infections, bacteremia and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have analyzed and compared by ELISA the titer of antibodies in plasmas of healthy individuals and in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizing a potential host cross-reactive epitope (lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes) present in Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In our experiments LPSs isolated from two mutants of smooth Proteus mirabilis 1959 (O3), i...
September 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Xin-Zhan Liu, Marizeth Groenewald, Teun Boekhout, Feng-Yan Bai
Two strains, GT-165(T) and GT-261, isolated from plant leaves collected from Gutian Mountain in Zhejiang province in China were identified as a novel species of the genus Kondoa by the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of rRNA (LSU rRNA) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), complemented by physiological tests. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of ITS, D1/D2 and RPB2 showed that the closest known relatives of the new species are three undescribed Kondoa species and Kondoa thailandica...
September 4, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Xiaojing Xia, Likun Cheng, Shouping Zhang, Lei Wang, Jianhe Hu
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a family of small polypeptides that are produced by constitutive or inducible expression in organisms, are integral components of the host innate immune system. In addition to their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, natural AMPs also have many biological activities against fungi, viruses and parasites. Natural AMPs exert multiple immunomodulatory roles that may predominate under physiological conditions where they lose their microbicidal properties in serum and tissue environments...
August 30, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ainsley C Nicholson, Christopher A Gulvik, Anne M Whitney, Ben W Humrighouse, James Graziano, Brian Emery, Melissa Bell, Vladimir Loparev, Phalasy Juieng, Jarrett Gartin, Chantal Bizet, Dominique Clermont, Alexis Criscuolo, Sylvain Brisse, John R McQuiston
The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus...
August 30, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Limin Fan, Wei Wu, Liping Qiu, Chao Song, Shunlong Meng, Yao Zheng, Gengdong Hu, Dandan Li, Jiazhang Chen
Aquaculture ponds represent ecologically relevant environments to study the community composition and diversity of methanogenic assemblages, as well as their interactions with cultivated species and chemical indicators. In this study, aquaculture ponds with crab (Eriocheir sinensis), oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense), perch (Micropterus salmonides) and Wuchang fish (Parabramis pekinensis) were sampled, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the methanogenic communities...
August 24, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Brian P Hedlund, Iain C Sutcliffe, Martha E Trujillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Pranava S Mishra, Pratibha Narang, Rahul Narang, Bidhan Goswami, Deepak K Mendiratta
During the last two decades, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have gained in importance but there is still a paucity of data, particularly for environmental isolates. We studied, over a period of two years, the spatio-temporal features of NTM isolates obtained from different environmental sources in Wardha district, India. A total of 1398 samples (699 each of soil and water) were tested and 170 (12.2%) yielded NTM isolates, including 123 from soil and 47 from water samples. Out of 170 NTM isolates, 107 (63%) belonged to potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (PPM) and 63 (37%) to the less pathogenic mycobacterial (LPM) group...
August 23, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Nitish Kumar Mahato, Vipin Gupta, Priya Singh, Rashmi Kumari, Helianthous Verma, Charu Tripathi, Pooja Rani, Anukriti Sharma, Nirjara Singhvi, Utkarsh Sood, Princy Hira, Puneet Kohli, Namita Nayyar, Akshita Puri, Abhay Bajaj, Roshan Kumar, Vivek Negi, Chandni Talwar, Himani Khurana, Shekhar Nagar, Monika Sharma, Harshita Mishra, Amit Kumar Singh, Gauri Dhingra, Ram Krishan Negi, Mallikarjun Shakarad, Yogendra Singh, Rup Lal
The current prokaryotic taxonomy classifies phenotypically and genotypically diverse microorganisms using a polyphasic approach. With advances in the next-generation sequencing technologies and computational tools for analysis of genomes, the traditional polyphasic method is complemented with genomic data to delineate and classify bacterial genera and species as an alternative to cumbersome and error-prone laboratory tests. This review discusses the applications of sequence-based tools and techniques for bacterial classification and provides a scheme for more robust and reproducible bacterial classification based on genomic data...
August 22, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lucas William Mendes, Siu Mui Tsai
Soil microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, and the central goal in microbial ecology studies is to elucidate which factors shape community structure. A better understanding of the relationship between microbial diversity, functions and environmental parameters would increase our ability to set conservation priorities. Here, the bacterial and archaeal community structure in Atlantic Forest, restinga and mangrove soils was described and compared based on shotgun metagenomics. We hypothesized that each distinct site would harbor a distinct taxonomic and functional soil community, which is influenced by environmental parameters...
August 22, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Yang Ji, Wei-Xun Chunyu, En-Yuan Li, Zhang-Gui Ding, Min Yin, Yu-Rong Zhao, Yun Wang, Shu-Kun Tang
A novel aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile halotolerant actinobacterium, designated strain YIM 96448(T), was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from the south bank of Aiding Lake in Xinjiang Province, northwest China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM 96448(T) is closely related to Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009(T) (98.0%) and Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila EGI 80629(T) (97.0%). Optimum growth of the strain was observed at 28-37 °C, pH 7-9 and in the presence of 5-8% NaCl (w/v)...
August 20, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Kouta Hatayama, Yurika Oikawa, Hiroyuki Ito
The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae...
August 16, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Andrey V Mardanov, Vadim M Gumerov, Alexey V Beletsky, Nikolai V Ravin
Microbial communities of four acidic thermal pools in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia, were studied using amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The sites differed in temperature and pH: 1805 (60 °C, pH 3.7), 1810 (90 °C, pH 4.1), 1818 (80 °C, pH 3.5), and 1807 (86 °C, pH 5.6). Archaea of the order Sulfolobales were present among the dominant groups in all four pools. Acidilobales dominated in pool 1818 but were a minor fraction at the higher temperature in pool 1810. Uncultivated Archaea of the Hot Thaumarchaeota-related clade were present in significant quantities in pools 1805 and 1807, but they were not abundant in pools 1810 and 1818, where high temperatures were combined with low pH...
August 16, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Monika Marek-Kozaczuk, Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel, Michał Kalita, Mykhaylo Chernetskyy, Kamil Deryło, Marek Tchórzewski, Anna Skorupska
Trifolium rubens L., commonly known as the red feather clover, is capable of symbiotic interactions with rhizobia. Up to now, no specific symbionts of T. rubens and their symbiotic compatibility with Trifolium spp. have been described. We characterized the genomic diversity of T. rubens symbionts by analyses of plasmid profiles and BOX-PCR. The phylogeny of T. rubens isolates was inferred based on the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA and two core genes (atpD, recA). The nodC phylogeny allowed classification of rhizobia nodulating T...
August 8, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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