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Comprehensive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215792/mental-disorder-comorbidity-and-treatment-utilization
#1
Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Nicholas R Eaton, Malki Stohl, Pia M Mauro, Deborah S Hasin
OBJECTIVE: Effective interventions have been developed for myriad common psychological and substance use disorders, though they remain highly underutilized. Previous research has shown that the likelihood of treatment utilization varies across disorder diagnosis. However, studies that focus on individual disorders have resulted in a large, piecemeal literature that neglects the high rates of multivariate comorbidity. The current study investigated the association between treatment utilization and transdiagnostic comorbidity factors...
February 9, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214752/metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-institutionalized-patients-with-schizophrenia-receiving-long-term-tertiary-care
#2
Lee Seng Esmond Seow, Siow Ann Chong, Peizhi Wang, Saleha Shafie, Hui Lin Ong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the cardiometabolic profile and the associated risk factors in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving prolonged hospital care in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore. METHODS: Patients residing in long stay wards who were hospitalized for a minimum period of 1year were recruited...
February 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213305/risk-of-suicide-according-to-the-level-of-psychiatric-contact-in-the-older-people-analysis-of-national-health-insurance-databases-in-taiwan
#3
Shin-Ting Yeh, Yee-Yung Ng, Shiao-Chi Wu
PURPOSE: Suicide in the older people is a serious problem worldwide; however the effect of psychiatric contact on the risk of suicide has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric contact and suicide in the older people in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based database was used in this national case-control study. Propensity score matching was used to match older people who did and did not commit suicide from 2010 to 2012 by calendar year, gender, age, and area of residence...
February 1, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160694/genetic-and-serum-biomarker-evidence-for-a-relationship-between-tnf%C3%AE-and-ptsd-in-vietnam-war-combat-veterans
#4
Dagmar Bruenig, Divya Mehta, Charles P Morris, Wendy Harvey, Bruce Lawford, Ross McD Young, Joanne Voisey
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased inflammation and comorbid medical conditions. However, study findings for individual inflammatory marker levels have been inconsistent. Some research suggests that resilience may play a role in decreased inflammation. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor α gene (TNFα), TNFA -308 (rs1800629) is associated with psychiatric illness but its role in PTSD is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates a key inflammatory marker, TNFα, for its role in PTSD severity...
January 24, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171742/impulsivity-and-its-relationship-with-anxiety-depression-and-stress
#5
Ahmed A Moustafa, Richard Tindle, Dorota Frydecka, Błażej Misiak
We aimed to assess the association between depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity with respect to age. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to 145 individuals. Due to a negative correlation between age, BIS-11 and DASS-42 subscales, participants were divided into three groups: young-aged (18-30years), middle-aged (31-49years) and old-aged (≥50years). Subjects from old-aged group had significantly lower scores of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity compared to those from younger groups...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167328/attentional-biases-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-eye-tracking-using-the-emotional-stroop-task
#6
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
OBJECTIVE: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. This study aimed to examine attentional biases in BDD via the emotional Stroop task with two modifications: i) incorporating an eye-tracking paradigm, and ii) employing an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) control group. METHOD: Twenty-one BDD, 19 OCD and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched, were included...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160693/a-comprehensive-model-of-food-addiction-in-patients-with-binge-eating-symptomatology-the-essential-role-of-negative-urgency
#7
Ines Wolz, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
BACKGROUND: Food addiction has been widely researched in past years. However, there is a debate on the mechanisms underlying addictive eating and a better understanding of the processes associated to these behaviors is needed. Previous studies have found characteristic psychological correlates of food addiction, such as high negative urgency, emotion regulation difficulties and low self-directedness, in different samples of adults with addictive eating patterns. Still, it seems difficult to disentangle effects independent from general eating disorder psychopathology...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208079/bias-in-beliefs-about-the-self-is-associated-with-depressive-but-not-anxious-mood
#8
M C Obonsawin, J Carlisle, C J Patterson, K Black, K M Davidson, N Masson
BACKGROUND: Biases in beliefs about the self are associated with psychopathology and depressive and anxious mood, but it is not clear if both negative and positive beliefs are associated with depression or anxiety. We examined these relationships in people who present with a wide range of depressive and anxious mood across diagnostic categories. METHODS: We probed positive and negative beliefs about the self with a task in which 74 female participants with either affective disorder (depression and/or anxiety), borderline personality disorder or no psychiatric history indicated the degree to which 60 self-related words was "like them" or "not like them"...
January 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167329/the-role-of-set-shifting-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#9
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Caterina Burrai, Rosanna Scanu, Antonella Baita, Pierfranco Trincas, Emanuela Trogu, Liliana Campus, Augusto Contu, Antonio Preti
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a cardinal characteristic of psychosis. Recent research on the neuropsychological mechanism of AVHs has focused on source monitoring failure, but a few studies have suggested the involvement of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, and executive functions. In this study we examined the neuropsychological profile of patients with AVHs, assuming that the mechanism underlying this symptom could be a dysfunction of specific cognitive domains...
January 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167327/physical-activity-ameliorates-the-association-between-sedentary-behavior-and-cardiometabolic-risk-among-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-a-comparison-versus-controls-using-accelerometry
#10
Brendon Stubbs, Li-Jung Chen, Ming-Shun Chung, Po-Wen Ku
OBJECTIVE: A lack of clarity exists regarding the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and cardiometabolic outcomes in people with schizophrenia. We conducted a large study investigating the independent relationships of PA and SB among inpatients with schizophrenia versus healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: A cross sectional study including 199 inpatients with schizophrenia (mean age 44.0years, mean illness duration 23...
January 20, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142098/evaluating-clinicians-representations-of-schizoaffective-disorder
#11
Christopher A Webb, Jared W Keeley
BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) has routinely exhibited poor diagnostic accuracy and reliability. In addition to phenomenological problems with the definition of SAD, the way in which clinicians represent the symptoms of the disorder could contribute to its poor diagnostic outcomes. PURPOSE: The present study sought to examine clinicians' representations of SAD compared to schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BiPD-PSY), and major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDD-PSY)...
January 20, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147290/personality-traits-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-recent-onset-of-psychosis-patients
#12
Julia Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Pablo Cano-Domínguez, Antonia de-Luis-Matilla, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, Alberto Espina-Eizaguirre, Berta Moreno-Kustner, Susana Ochoa
OBJECTIVE: Personality in patients with psychosis, and particularly its relation to psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients, is understudied. The aims of this research were to study the relation between dimensional and categorical clinical personality traits and symptoms, as well as the effects that symptoms, sex and age have on clinically significant personality traits. METHODS: Data for these analyses were obtained from 94 ROP patients. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess personality and symptoms...
January 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126482/serum-levels-of-interleukin-33-and-its-soluble-form-receptor-sst2-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Salvina Maria de Campos-Carli, Aline Silva Miranda, Ingrid Caroline Silva Dias, Amanda de Oliveira, Breno Fiuza Cruz, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, João Vinícius Salgado, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: Changes in immune system have been reported in schizophrenia. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of IL-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, in schizophrenia and its association with cognitive performance in these patients. METHODS: Forty patients with chronic schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects participated in the study. Serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 (soluble form of the IL-33 receptor) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126481/traumatic-brain-injury-and-ptsd-symptoms-as-a-consequence-of-intimate-partner-violence
#14
Katherine M Iverson, Christina M Dardis, Terri K Pogoda
OBJECTIVE: To effectively diagnose and treat women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV), it is important to identify the full range of physical and mental health consequences, including hidden wounds such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to identify the occurrence of IPV-related TBI and associated PTSD symptoms among women veterans who experienced IPV. METHODS: A web-based survey was administered in 2014 to a national sample of U...
January 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113098/gender-differences-in-positive-mental-health-among-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#15
Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Edimansyah Abdin, Rajeswari Sambasivam, Esmond Seow, Shirlene Pang, Louisa Picco, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to investigate the gender differences in positive mental health among outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 142 outpatients (aged 21-65 years) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from a tertiary psychiatric hospital. They were administered the following instruments: The Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale...
January 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095340/body-image-in-patients-with-mental-disorders-characteristics-associations-with-diagnosis-and-treatment-outcome
#16
Mia Scheffers, Jooske T van Busschbach, Ruud J Bosscher, Liza C Aerts, Durk Wiersma, Robert A Schoevers
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls...
January 10, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110224/emotional-intelligence-and-coping-strategies-as-determinants-of-quality-of-life-in-depressed-patient-caregiver-dyads-an-actor-partner-interdependence-analysis
#17
L Boyer, K Baumstarck, M Alessandrini, Z Hamidou, J Testart, M Serres, P Arquillière, P Auquier, T Leroy, X Zendjidjian
OBJECTIVE: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their natural caregivers experience major lifestyle difficulties. Little is known concerning dyadic (i.e., patient and natural caregiver) characteristics' impact on quality of life. In a sample of depressed patient-caregiver dyads, we examined quality of life (QoL) levels compared with the general population and whether QoL is influenced by emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM)...
January 8, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107643/does-psychological-well-being-change-following-treatment-an-exploratory-study-on-outpatients-with-eating-disorders
#18
Elena Tomba, Lucia Tecuta, Romana Schumann, Donatella Ballardini
Psychological well-being changes following cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment were investigated in outpatients with eating disorders (ED). While it is known that CBT reduces symptomatology in EDs, less is known about how changes in positive functioning may ensue. One-hundred and eighty five ED outpatients were analyzed for pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in psychological well-being (PWB) by last observation carried forward - Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Significant gains in all PWB dimensions were found, with moderate effect size correlations in environmental mastery (r=-...
January 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092775/alcohol-use-and-suicidality-in-firefighters-associations-with-depressive-symptoms-and-posttraumatic-stress
#19
Colleen E Martin, Anka A Vujanovic, Daniel J Paulus, Brooke Bartlett, Matthew W Gallagher, Jana K Tran
Both suicidality and alcohol use disorders are significant public health concerns among firefighters, and alcohol use is associated with increased suicide risk. In addition, firefighters endorse high rates of symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, the current investigation examined associations between alcohol dependence and suicide risk among a large sample of firefighters. Specifically, this study examined the indirect effects of alcohol dependence on suicidality outcomes via both depression and posttraumatic stress, using structural equation modeling...
January 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088747/decreased-s100b-serum-levels-after-treatment-in-bipolar-patients-in-a-manic-phase
#20
Meng-Chang Tsai, Tiao-Lai Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with bipolar disorder might have brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of brain injury biomarkers and S100A10 in bipolar patients in a manic phase, and evaluate the changes in S100B, neuron specific enolase (NSE), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and S100A10 after treatment. METHOD: We consecutively enrolled 17 bipolar inpatients in a manic phase and 30 healthy subjects. Serum brain injury biomarkers and S100A10 were measured with assay kits...
January 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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