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Comprehensive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415197/reduced-willingness-to-invest-effort-in-schizophrenia-with-high-negative-symptoms-regardless-of-reward-stimulus-presentation-and-reward-value
#1
Daniel Bergé, Clara Pretus, Xavier Guell, Anna Pous, Aaron Arcos, Victor Pérez, Oscar Vilarroya
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia, which are related to poor functioning, are thought to be grounded on aberrant functioning in the reward system. We aimed to disentangle how negative symptoms and two cognitive aspects of goal-directed behavior, mental representation of reward and reward value, affect willingness to invest effort to attain a reward in schizophrenia. AIMS AND PROCEDURES: To this purpose, 43 schizophrenia patients and 35 healthy controls were assessed for negative symptoms and general functioning, and completed an effort-based reward task...
November 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415196/psychiatry-and-developmental-psychopathology-unifying-themes-and-future-directions
#2
Theodore P Beauchaine, John N Constantino, Elizabeth P Hayden
In the past 35 years, developmental psychopathology has grown into a flourishing discipline that shares a scientific agenda with contemporary psychiatry. In this editorial, which introduces the special issue, we describe the history of developmental psychopathology, including core principles that bridge allied disciplines. These include (1) emphasis on interdisciplinary research, (2) elucidation of multicausal pathways to seemingly single disorders (phenocopies), (3) description of divergent multifinal outcomes from common etiological start points (pathoplasticity), and (4) research conducted across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to environments...
November 1, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415199/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-mentalizing-in-moral-dilemma-decision-making
#3
Katja Koelkebeck, Lisa Kuegler, Waldemar Kohl, Alva Engell, Rebekka Lencer
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties in several aspects of social cognition, e.g. emotion recognition and mentalizing. It is yet unclear if patients also show deficits in moral decision-making and whether the two aspects interact. Deficits in moral decision-making abilities might put patients in disadvantageous positions in every-day interactions. METHOD: Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and twenty-five matched healthy controls participated in six moral dilemma tasks, a standard moral competency test and two mentalizing tasks...
October 31, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414552/increased-zonulin-is-associated-with-hyperactivity-and-social-dysfunctions-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Gonca Özyurt, Yusuf Öztürk, Yeliz Çağan Appak, Fatma Demet Arslan, Maşallah Baran, İnanç Karakoyun, Ali Evren Tufan, Aynur Akay Pekcanlar
BACKGROUND: In attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), deteriorations of brain gut axis has been shown in previous studies. One area where the most important challenges are seen in ADHD is social functioning. Zonulin is a protein found in the intestinal intraepithelial component; it has been shown that the level of zonulin increases when intestinal permeability is impaired. Changes in intestinal function were shown in ADHD. Zonulin has been shown to be associated with social impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder...
October 29, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415198/child-sex-moderates-the-relationship-between-cortisol-stress-reactivity-and-symptoms-over-time
#5
Andrew R Daoust, Yuliya Kotelnikova, Katie R Kryski, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Elizabeth P Hayden
BACKGROUND: Past work suggests that individual differences in stress reactivity have implications for the development of psychopathology; in particular, females' stress reactivity appears more closely tied to internalizing symptoms than males' reactivity. Conversely, males who are under-reactive to threat may be at risk for externalizing problems. However, little is known about when such differences may emerge, although this knowledge could have implications for early prevention. METHODS: Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor was assessed in 409 three-year-old children (201 boys), along with parent-reported children's internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (oppositional-defiant and attention problems and hyperactivity) symptoms...
October 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393119/does-response-to-the-stepps-program-differ-by-sex-age-or-race-in-offenders-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#6
Donald W Black, Nancee Blum, Jeff Allen
Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is an evidence-based group treatment program for ambulatory patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The program was introduced to the Iowa correctional system in 2005, and groups have been ongoing ever since. In this analysis, we examine whether response to the STEPPS program differs based on sex, age (<40/≥40 years), or race/ethnicity (minority/non-minority) using data collected in Iowa prisons and in community corrections...
October 23, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343247/psychological-impact-of-the-2015-mers-outbreak-on-hospital-workers-and-quarantined-hemodialysis-patients
#7
Sang Min Lee, Won Sub Kang, Ah-Rang Cho, Tae Kim, Jin Kyung Park
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the immediate stress and psychological impact experienced by quarantined patients undergoing hemodialysis and university hospital workers who treated patients Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) during its outbreak. DESIGN: The group of subjects consisted of 1800 hospital practitioners and 73 quarantined patients undergoing hemodialysis. The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) was administered to the practitioners twice, once during the hospital shutdown and again one month after the shutdown...
October 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340017/gender-differences-in-social-functioning-in-people-with-schizophrenia-in-psychosocial-rehabilitation-services-using-one-dimensional-and-multidimensional-instruments
#8
Gemma Prat, María José Escandell, Mar Garcia-Franco, Jose Ramón Martín-Martínez, Ingrid Tortades, Sonia Vilamala, Maria Calderón, Romina Torras, Susana Ochoa, Emma Casas-Anguera
Women with schizophrenia have shown better social and clinical functioning than men in several previous studies. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in social functioning of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who are in psychosocial rehabilitation treatment in Catalonia, using several different one-dimensional and multidimensional measures of clinical and social functioning. Gender differences were found only in several daily life activities, in which women showed better functioning: independence-competence (p = 0...
October 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327123/our-final-editorial
#9
EDITORIAL
John C Markowitz, Franklin Schneier, David L Dunner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326358/neonatal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-untreated-and-treated-panic-disorder
#10
Faruk Uguz, Goksen Yuksel, Ozge Sahmelikoglu Onur, Cagatay Karsidag, Kazim Gezginc, Nazile Arpaci
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare neonatal outcomes including gestational age, birth weight and hospitalization of newborns of pregnant women with treated with antidepressants and untreated panic disorder. METHODS: The study sample included 146 pregnant women (44 patients with panic disorder treated with antidepressants, 52 patients with untreated panic disorder, and 50 healthy controls). Panic disorder was diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition...
October 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336382/examining-the-relationships-between-error-related-brain-activity-the-ern-and-anxiety-disorders-versus-externalizing-disorders-in-young-children-focusing-on-cognitive-control-fear-and-shyness
#11
Alexandria Meyer, Daniel N Klein
OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between individual differences in temperament (cognitive control, fear, and shyness) and the error-related negativity (i.e., the ERN) in a large sample of young children. Furthermore, we explore to what extent variation in temperament may underlie the associations between the ERN and anxiety disorders versus externalizing disorders. METHOD: Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), we focus on scales related to cognitive control (attentional focusing, attentional shifting, and inhibitory control) and a fearful/anxious temperament (fearfulness and shyness)...
October 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367986/temperament-and-character-in-patients-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#12
Erik Lexne, Lars Brudin, James J Strain, Per-Olof Nylander, Ina Marteinsdottir
BACKGROUND: Several conditions presenting with abdominal pain are associated with specific personality factors although it is unclear if this is true also in emergency clinic settings. OBJECTIVE: To study personality factors among patients with acute abdominal pain in an emergency ward. METHODS: Consecutive patients (N = 165) with abdominal symptoms at an emergency clinic were administrated the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
September 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282059/contribution-of-stress-and-coping-strategies-to-problematic-internet-use-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#13
Ju-Yeon Lee, Young-Chul Chung, Je-Heon Song, Yo-Han Lee, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
INTRODUCTION: Internet use is already high and increasing rapidly among people with psychotic disorders, but there have been few studies on problematic Internet use (PIU) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of PIU and identify the factors associated with PIU among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed that included 368 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: 317 with schizophrenia, 22 with schizoaffective disorder, 9 with schizophreniform disorder, and 20 with other schizophrenia spectrum and psychotic disorders...
September 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312885/interview-based-ratings-of-dsm-iv-axis-ii-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorder-symptoms-in-consecutively-admitted-insomnia-patients-a-comparison-study-with-consecutively-admitted-psychotherapy-patients-matched-on-age-and-gender
#14
Antonella Somma, Sara Marelli, Laura E Giarolli, Cesare Maffei, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Andrea Fossati
BACKGROUND: Selected personality features may represent important predisposing as well as perpetuating factors for insomnia, and previous studies stressed the importance to assess personality disorders in insomnia patients. METHODS: In order to evaluate the relationships between DSM-IV Axis II/DSM-5 Section II Personality Disorders (PDs) and insomnia, a sample of 171 consecutively admitted insomnia patients and a sample of 171 psychotherapy patients, matched on age and gender were administered the Italian translation of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2...
September 25, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282058/understanding-the-severity-of-depression-which-symptoms-of-depression-are-the-best-indicators-of-depression-severity
#15
Mark Zimmerman, Caroline Balling, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple
BACKGROUND: In DSM-5, all symptoms of depression are considered equal representations of severity. In ICD-10, the type of symptom is considered in classifying severity. It is important to better understand if the defining symptoms of depression are differentially associated with overall severity so that severity categorization in diagnostic systems is most valid. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined the association between the individual diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and global ratings of depression severity...
September 24, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253268/association-between-binge-eating-disorder-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-profiles-in-patients-with-obesity-seeking-bariatric-surgery
#16
Virginie Borgès Da Silva, Roxane Borgès Da Silva, Alexandre Prud'homme, Pierre Campan, Jean Michel Azorin, Raoul Belzeaux
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders could be an important factor in the development of obesity, but psychiatric comorbidities are very heterogeneous in patients with obesity. Moreover, relationship between binge eating disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities is not clear. Our objective was to identify psychiatric comorbidity profiles of bariatric surgery candidates and to analyze the association between these profiles and binge-eating disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of bariatric surgery candidates (n = 92) with mean Body Mass Index at 41...
September 18, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223198/the-relationship-between-morningness-eveningness-and-resilience-in-mood-disorder-patients
#17
Jae Kyung Chung, Kyeong-Sook Choi, Hee-Gyoo Kang, Hee Yeon Jung, Eun-Jeong Joo
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that resilience is related to mental illness. Patients with a mood disorder have a tendency to show eveningness, and they tend to be less resilient. However, no study has investigated the association between resilience and morningness-eveningness in patients with a mood disorder. The aim of this study was to explore whether morningness-eveningness is related to resilience in patients with a mood disorder. METHODS: We recruited 224 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 77 with bipolar disorder (BD), and 958 control participants...
September 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300818/women-with-compulsive-buying-or-gambling-disorder-similar-profiles-for-different-behavioural-addictions
#18
Dominica Díez, Núria Aragay, Mercè Soms, Gemma Prat, Pere Bonet, Miquel Casas
The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 104 women diagnosed with compulsive buying behaviour (CBB = 55) or gambling disorder (GD = 49) treated at three public hospitals unit specialized in behavioural addictions from January 2004 to December 2015. Significant between-group differences in sociodemographic variables were observed for cohabitation status (living with a partner or not) and educational level, with a higher percentage of women in the GD group cohabiting (х2 (1 ), p = ...
September 8, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219373/posttraumatic-stress-alcohol-use-and-alcohol-use-reasons-in-firefighters-the-role-of-sleep-disturbance
#19
Lia J Smith, Matthew W Gallagher, Jana K Tran, Anka A Vujanovic
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are at elevated risk for posttraumatic stress and alcohol use, with research indicating that individuals with posttraumatic stress are likely to use alcohol as a coping strategy. A behavioral mechanism of clinical relevance to these associations is sleep disturbance. Thus, it was hypothesized that higher posttraumatic stress and sleep disturbance would be associated with higher alcohol use and alcohol use coping reasons; and sleep disturbance would moderate the association between posttraumatic stress and alcohol use and alcohol use coping reasons...
September 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205310/the-interaction-between-sense-of-mastery-social-support-and-parental-distress-among-mothers-with-and-without-serious-mental-illness
#20
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Tali Malka, Gil Goldzweig, David Roe
BACKGROUND: Social support and sense of mastery are considered important resources in coping both with serious mental illness (SMI) and with motherhood-related challenges. However, their interactive effects on the parental stress of mothers with SMI are not clear. METHODS: Scales assessing parental distress, social support, and sense of mastery were administered to 60 mothers with SMI and 60 mothers without SMI. RESULTS: A main effect of sense of mastery and a lack of main effect of social support were found in both groups...
September 1, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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