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Comprehensive Psychiatry

Jan Christopher Cwik, Benedikt Till, Angela Bieda, Simon E Blackwell, Carolin Walter, Tobias Teismann
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. METHOD: Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Dea Seidenfaden, Ulla Knorr, Mia Greisen Soendergaard, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Anders Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. AIMS: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Francois Kazour, Nada R Zahreddine, Michel G Maragel, Mustafa A Almustafa, Michel Soufia, Ramzi Haddad, Sami Richa
INTRODUCTION: Lebanon is the main hosting country for the Syrian crisis, with more than one million Syrian refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identify its possible predictors, in a sample of Syrian refugees living in camps in Lebanon. METHOD: We conducted a household survey on Syrian refugees between 18 and 65years old in 6 camps of the Central Bekaa region, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Mariana G Boeckel, Thiago Wendt Viola, Ledo Daruy-Filho, Manuela Martinez, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The chronic consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) on HPA activation are a topic of debate. The current study investigated hair cortisol concentrations in female victims of IPV and their children. METHODS: A total of 52 mother-child dyads were divided into two groups depending on exposure to IPV: IPV group (n=27 dyads) and control group (n=25 dyads). Hair cortisol concentration was measured in 1-cm-long hair strands, representing 30days of exposure before assessment...
September 19, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Eric W Leppink, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. METHODS: One hundred sixty-five adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity...
September 16, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
September 13, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa, Rick J Strassman, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Kelsy Areco, Robert Hoy, Jessica Pommy, Robert Thoma, Michael Bogenschutz
BACKGROUND: Hoasca (also called ayahuasca) is a N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) - containing psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the Amazon Basin. Recently, Brazilian syncretic churches have helped spread the ritual use of hoasca to Western societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate substance use, and neuropsychological and psychological functioning of regular hoasca users within a religious setting. METHODS: Assessment of socio-economic status, mood, personality traits, impulsiveness, drug use, quality of life, extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity, and neuropsychological function was performed on 30 volunteers from a U...
September 12, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Katherine M Shear, Theresa Schwartz, Angela Ghesquiere, Julie Khaler, Liliana Dell'Osso
INTRODUCTION: Complicated grief (CG) has been the subject of increasing attention in the past decades but its relationship with separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is still controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and clinical significance of adult SEPAD in a sample of help-seeking individuals with CG. METHODS: 151 adults with CG, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of (CG) treatment to that of interpersonal therapy, were assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), the Grief Related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ), the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES)...
September 10, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
R Ramachandran Pillai, Leena Sharon, Nancy R Premkumar, Shivanand Kattimani, Haritha Sagili, Soundravally Rajendiran
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the common adverse outcome of child bearing which affects the wellbeing of both mother and newborn and has long-term effects. Hence, reliable potential biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were associated with depressive disorders and the present study estimated the levels of serum FSH, LH in postpartum depression and explored them as predictive biomarkers in the development of PPD...
September 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Cynthia Kaplan, Naomi Tarlow, Jeremy G Stewart, Blaise Aguirre, Gillian Galen, Randy P Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by greater engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality. The aim of the study is to test whether the occurrence of child abuse contributes to these high-risk behaviors in BPD youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPD female youth aged 13-21years with (n=29) and without (n=29) a history of child abuse were administered clinical interviews assessing diagnostic history, child abuse, NSSI and suicidality (i...
September 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Manuel Canal-Rivero, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Salvador Perona-Garcelán, Juan F Rodriguez-Testal, Lucas Giner, Jordi E Obiols-Llandrich, Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla
OBJECTIVES: The highest suicide rates occur after psychiatric hospitalization or soon after discharge. In addition to other factors, personality traits have been suggested as predictors of suicide attempts (SA) after first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study we examined their temporal pattern and the influence of personality traits on first suicide attempts (fSA) during one year after FEP. METHOD: One-year follow-up of 65 FEP patients. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the relationship between personality traits and fSA...
September 4, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Sern-Yih Cheah, Janine K Lurie, Bruce R Lawford, Ross McD Young, Charles P Morris, Joanne Voisey
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and may be explained by its complex genetic architecture. Many schizophrenia susceptibility genes were identified but the picture remains unclear due to inconsistent or contradictory genetic association studies. This confusion may, in part, be because symptoms result from the combined interaction of many genes and these interacting genes are associated with specific sub-phenotypes of schizophrenia rather than schizophrenia as a whole...
September 2, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Alina Kałużna-Wielobób, Joanna Kłosowska
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of skin picking behaviors in a sample of young Polish adults. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-four participants completed measurements of skin picking frequency and severity. They also retrospectively rated the intensity of affective states experienced before, during and after skin picking episodes. RESULTS: In total, 46.07% of the participants endorsed some forms of skin picking, and the prevalence of skin picking disorder (SPD) in the study sample amounted to 7...
August 29, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Valentina Bambini, Giorgio Arcara, Margherita Bechi, Mariachiara Buonocore, Roberto Cavallaro, Marta Bosia
BACKGROUND: Impairments in specific aspects of pragmatic competence, supporting the use of language in context, are largely documented in schizophrenia and might represent an indicator of poor outcome. Yet pragmatics is rarely included in clinical settings. This paper aims to promote a clinical consideration of pragmatics as a target of assessment and intervention. We investigated the frequency of the pragmatic deficit, its cognitive substrates, and the relation with quality of life. METHODS: Pragmatic abilities were compared in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls based on a comprehensive pragmatic test (APACS)...
August 26, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Feng-Rong An, Rui Yang, Zhi-Min Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Helen F K Chiu, Ping-Ping Wu, Xin Jin, Lu Li, Grace K I Lok, Yu-Tao Xiang
PURPOSE: To examine the frequency of hyperprolactinemia and the socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of life (QOL) correlates. The frequency of prolactin-related side effects and associated subjective experiences were also examined. METHODS: A cohort of 1364 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited and evaluated. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Psychopathology, prolactin-related side effects were measured using standardized instruments...
August 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Mary E Oglesby, Brittany A Gibby, Brittany M Mathes, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the literature. However, no research to date has investigated the relationship between IU and PTSS within a clinical trauma-exposed sample, which is an important next step in the literature and crucial for the generalizability of these findings. Therefore, the current study hypothesized that IU would be related to increased PTSS within a clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals...
August 21, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Chrysoula Zouraraki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Penny Karamaouna, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Panos Roussos, Panos Bitsios, Stella G Giakoumaki
BACKGROUND: Increased schizotypal traits are observed in a percentage of the general population and in the schizophrenia-spectrum and have been associated with impairments in working memory. In this study we examined the effects of four schizotypal dimensions [Negative (NegS), Paranoid (ParS), Cognitive-Perceptual (CPS), Disorganized (DiS)] on executive working memory (EWM), as mediated by set-shifting, planning and control inhibition. We also examined whether these associations are moderated by family-history of psychosis...
August 21, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Madhavi K Reddy, Thomas D Meyer, Natalie M Wittlin, Ivan W Miller, Lauren M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: According to data from epidemiological and clinical samples, there are elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known about the clinical correlates that may distinguish patients with BD and comorbid PTSD from those without comorbid PTSD. The present study sought to elucidate those differences and examine factors, such as psychosis, history of suicide attempts, and comorbid personality disorders, which may predict comorbid PTSD in patients with BD-I...
August 18, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Rachel A Câmara, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Paulo R Nunes-Neto, André R Brunoni, João Quevedo, Brisa S Fernandes, Giulio Perugi, Thomas N Hyphantis, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: Preliminary evidence indicates that premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) may be frequently co-morbid with bipolar spectrum disorders. In addition, the manifestations of PMDD seem similar to a subthreshold depressive mixed state. Nevertheless, the associations between PMDD and affective temperaments and emotional traits have not been previously investigated. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 514 drug-free Brazilian women (mean age: 22.8; SD=5.4years) took part in this cross-sectional study...
August 18, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ying Wang, Shiming Tang, Shunsheng Xu, Shenhong Weng, Zhongchun Liu
BACKGROUND: Results of the relationships between diabetes and the risk of suicide death are inconclusive. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess this association. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library up to February 29, 2016 for relevant observational studies regarding the association between diabetes and risk of suicide. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
August 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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