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Comprehensive Psychiatry

Matteo Tonna, Francesca Paglia, Rebecca Ottoni, Paolo Ossola, Chiara De Panfilis, Carlo Marchesi
The relationship between personality and Delusional Disorder in still debated. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of personality features and emotional dispositions on the proneness to delusional beliefs, through the lens of a dimensional approach. 91 outpatients were administered the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Delusion proneness was positively related to the "Hiding the Self" domain of narcissistic vulnerability and to paranoid traits and negatively related to "Positive Affect"...
July 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Samuel E Cooper, Christian Grillon, Shmuel Lissek
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning is implicated as a central psychopathological mechanism of anxiety disorders. People with anxiety disorders typically demonstrate reduced affective discrimination between conditioned danger and safety cues. Here, affective discrimination refers to the ability to selectively display fear to dangerous but not safe situations. Though both generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) are linked to impaired affective discrimination, the clinical phenomenology of these disorders suggests that people with GAD versus PD might be less able to overcome such deficits...
July 4, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Katharina Nymo Engelstad, Anja Vaskinn, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen, Christine Mohn, Bjørn Lau, Bjørn Rishovd Rund
BACKGROUND: Our ability to predict and prevent homicides committed by individuals with schizophrenia is limited. Cognitive impairments are associated with poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia, possibly also homicide. The aim of the current study was to investigate global and specific cognition among homicide offenders with schizophrenia (HOS). METHODS: Twenty-six HOS were compared to 28 individuals with schizophrenia and no history of violence (non-HOS), and a group of healthy controls (HC, n = 151)...
July 4, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Cristiana Nicoli de Mattos, Hyoun S Kim, Emilie Lacroix, Marinalva Requião, Tatiana Zambrano Filomensky, David C Hodgins, Hermano Tavares
INTRODUCTION: Compulsive buying and binge eating are two frequently co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Hoarding, which is the psychological need to excessively gather and store items, is frequently associated with both compulsive buying severity and binge eating severity. In the present study, we explored whether different dimensions of hoarding are a shared feature of compulsive buying and binge eating. METHOD: Participants consisted of 434 people seeking treatment for compulsive buying disorder...
June 28, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
I Hanssen, E J Regeer, D Schut, P A Boelen
BACKGROUND: Although previous research has focused on distinguishing cognitive styles between Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), little is known about differences in positive affect regulation between these affective groups. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by investigating such differences between BD and MDD, and between the bipolar subtypes (BD-I vs. BD-II and predominant polarities), using large, clinical, outpatient samples. METHODS: In total, 298 participants (96 BD-I, 27 BD-II, and 175 MDD) were included...
June 27, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Heydrich Lopes Virgulino de Medeiros, Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Helio Elkis, Diana Rocha Martins, Raissa Miranda de Alexandria Leite, Ana Carla Leite de Albuquerque, Rosana Ramos Freitas, Maria Alice Scardoelli, Elaine Di Sarno, Isabel Napolitano, Graça Maria Oliveira, Adriana Vizzotto, Antônio Medeiros Peregrino da Silva, Murilo Duarte da Costa Lima
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) is a scale developed to measure negative symptoms in schizophrenia. METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the construct validity of BNSS, by using convergent and divergent validities as well as factor analysis, in a Brazilian sample of 111 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia by DSM-5. Patients were evaluated by the Brazilian version of the BNSS and positive and negative subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
June 21, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Agostino Brugnera, Gianluca Lo Coco, Laura Salerno, Rachel Sutton, Salvatore Gullo, Angelo Compare, Giorgio A Tasca
BACKGROUND: Patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and obesity experience distressing relationships, which could trigger negative affect and over-eating. To date no studies compared the interpersonal profiles and prototypicality of both groups using the Interpersonal Circumplex. METHOD: A sample of 177 patients with BED (mean age: 41.0 ± 12.5 years; 11.3% males), 321 obese non-BED adults (mean age: 44.5 ± 13.4 years; 28% males), and 108 normal weight adults (mean age: 37...
June 21, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Denise Alves Riambau Gomes, Rafael Moreno Ferro de Araújo, Maximiliano Schünke Gomes
BACKGROUND: Suicide is known to be the leading cause of death among police officers (PO) worldwide. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries, with no data from Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and the sociodemographic profile of suicide among a military PO subpopulation in South Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective cohort evaluated 31,110 military PO with available data on cause of death from 2006 to 2016. Participants were monitored for an average of 18...
June 19, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Carmen Simonsen, Ann Faerden, Torill Ueland, Anja Vaskinn, Thomas Bjella, Ole Andreassen, Kristin Lie Romm, Ingrid Melle
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge about self-rated disability over time in psychotic disorders is limited. How self-rated disability relates to clinician-rated global functioning, self-rated life satisfaction and symptomatology was investigated across the first year of treatment in early psychosis. METHODS: Participants with first treated episode of psychosis (n = 115) were investigated at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Self-rated Disability was measured with World Health Organization- Disability Assessment Schedule 2...
June 19, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Mary E Duffy, Megan L Rogers, Thomas E Joiner
OBJECTIVES: Exercise dependence and interoceptive deficits, particularly low body trust, have been associated with suicidality. This study tested whether low body trust predicted current suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts in individuals exhibiting symptoms of exercise dependence. METHODS: 540 individuals (55.6% female, mean age 36) recruited via MTurk completed online measures of exercise dependence, interoception, and history of suicidal ideation and attempts...
June 18, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Brigitta Kakuszi, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with adult ADHD (aADHD), and its association with gender and psychopathology. METHODS: Case-control study with 206 participants (patients = 103/healthy controls = 103; matched on gender, age, and education). SI was assessed by the Beck-I Depression-Inventory. The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) was used to characterize the ADHD symptom-domains. RESULTS: Compared to controls, the likelihood of SI was significantly higher in females with ADHD (odds ratio[OR] = 25...
June 18, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen, Ora Nakash
BACKGROUND: Prominent psychiatric diagnostic systems such as the DSM-IV and ICD-10 have shown low reliability in clinical practice. An alternative approach to classification of psychiatric disorders is prototype matching. In the current study, we examined reliability of assessing mood, anxiety and personality disorders using a multi-method multi informant approach. More specifically, we examined diagnosis made by treating clinician and independent expert clinical interviewer, using three different diagnostic systems (DSM symptom count, DSM-IV prototype diagnosis and empirically derived prototype diagnosis)...
June 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Anja Vaskinn, Stein Andersson, Tiril Østefjells, Ole A Andreassen, Kjetil Sundet
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) can be divided into cognitive and affective ToM, and a distinction can be made between overmentalizing and undermentalizing errors. Research has shown that ToM in schizophrenia is associated with non-social and social cognition, and with clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate cognitive and clinical predictors of different ToM processes. METHODS: Ninety-one individuals with schizophrenia participated. ToM was measured with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) yielding six scores (total ToM, cognitive ToM, affective ToM, overmentalizing errors, undermentalizing errors and no mentalizing errors)...
June 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Alvin Kuowei Tay, Mohammed Mohsin, Susan Rees, Natalino Tam, Moses Kareth, Derrick Silove
OBJECTIVES: The intention to include a category of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) in ICD-11 has renewed interest in this construct. Although growing evidence from high income countries supports the construct validity of CPTSD, little parallel research has been undertaken across cultures. We tested theoretically supported CPTSD structures (a one-factor, six-factor, one-factor higher-order, and two-factor higher order structure) in a community sample of West Papuan refugees living in a remote town, Kiunga, in Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
May 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Emil F Coccaro
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate how many adults with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) would also meet diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD). This was done by examining how many individuals with IED would meet the DMDD criterion of being persistently angry in between impulsive aggressive outbursts. METHODS: The first one-hundred study participants diagnosed with DSM-5 IED in our clinical research program were included in this study...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jessica M LaCroix, Victoria A Colborn, Helena O Hassen, Kanchana U Perera, Jennifer Weaver, Alyssa Soumoff, Laura A Novak, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
OBJECTIVE: Suicide among United States service members is a significant public health concern. Intimate partner relationship stress may contribute to suicide risk, as a failed or failing relationship is the most commonly documented stressor preceding military suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about the manner by which relationship stressors are associated with the experience of military suicidality. METHODS: A sample of 190 psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel and adult dependents enrolled in an ongoing randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidality were included in this study...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Alberto Fernández, Ali H Al-Timemy, Francisco Ferre, Gabriel Rubio, Javier Escudero
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The lack of a biomarker for Bipolar Disorder (BD) causes problems in the differential diagnosis with other mood disorders such as major depression (MD), and misdiagnosis frequently occurs. Bearing this in mind, we investigated non-linear magnetoencephalography (MEG) patterns in BD and MD. METHODS: Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) was used to evaluate the resting-state MEG activity in a cross-sectional sample of 60 subjects, including 20 patients with MD, 16 patients with BD type-I, and 24 control (CON) subjects...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Hilary Weingarden, Lawrence Scahill, Susanne Hoeppner, Alan L Peterson, Douglas W Woods, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Sabine Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTD) are stigmatizing disorders that may significantly impact self-esteem. Alternatively, comorbid psychiatric illnesses may affect self-esteem more than tics themselves. Extant research on self-esteem in TS/CTD is limited, has inconsistently examined the effect of comorbidities on self-esteem, and yields mixed findings. METHOD: This study aimed to clarify the roles of tics versus comorbid diagnoses on self-esteem in a large, carefully diagnosed sample of adults with TS/CTD (N = 122) receiving 10 weeks of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) or Psychoeducation and Supportive Therapy (PST)...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ester di Giacomo, Fabrizia Colmegna, Francesca Pescatore, Flora Aspesi, Maria Fotiadou, Massimo Clerici
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major health concern. Many women smoke during their reproductive years, some of them during their pregnancy. Adverse outcomes for the newborns physical health are well recognized, while the influence on their mental health is still under investigation. We aim at demonstrating the contribution of maternal personality disorders in maintaining addiction to tobacco during pregnancy, to underline their role and the need of their detection as a preventive effort...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jeremy Quek, Clair Bennett, Glenn A Melvin, Naysun Saeedi, Michael S Gordon, Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: According to mentalization-based theory, transgenerational transmission of mentalization from caregiver to offspring is implicated in the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has demonstrated an association between hypermentalizing (excessive, inaccurate mental state reasoning) and BPD, indicating the particular relevance of this form of mentalizing dysfunction to the transgenerational mentalization-based model. As yet, no study has empirically assessed a transgenerational mentalization-based model of BPD...
July 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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