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Comprehensive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888700/negative-mood-and-interference-control-in-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#1
Kenneth J D Allen, Jill M Hooley
People who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) often report high levels of impulsivity. However, results from behavioral tasks measuring impulsivity have been mixed: those with a history of NSSI generally perform comparably to healthy controls. Recent research suggests, however, that people who self-injure have specific deficits in response inhibition to negative emotional stimuli. Here, we extend this work by testing whether negative mood impairs interference control in NSSI. 33 participants reporting a history of NSSI (approximately half in the past year) and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed the multi-source interference task before and after a written negative mood induction designed to increase feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and shame...
November 4, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886522/increase-in-pas-induced-neuroplasticity-after-a-treatment-course-of-intranasal-ketamine-for-depression-report-of-three-cases-from-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Verònica Gálvez, Stevan Nikolin, Kerrie-Anne Ho, Angelo Alonzo, Andrew A Somogyi, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that neural plasticity may play a role in the antidepressant effects of a single ketamine dose. However, the potential effects of repeated ketamine treatments on human neuroplasticity are unknown. METHODS: This pilot RCT study measured plasticity-induced changes before and after a ketamine course, in three treatment-resistant depressed subjects, who were randomized to receive 8 intranasal treatments of 100mg ketamine or 4.5mg midazolam...
November 4, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852002/risk-factors-for-child-mental-health-problems-in-lithuania-the-role-of-parental-nationality
#3
Viviane Kovess Masfety, Sigita Lesinskiene, Mathilde M Husky, Anders Boyd, Phuong Ha, Christophe Fermanian, Ondine Pez
BACKGROUND: We compare the mental health status of children who reside in Lithuania with parents who are either Lithuanian nationals or non-Lithuanian nationals. METHOD: Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health Europe survey (SCMHE), a cross-sectional survey of school children aged 6-11years. A total of 1152 Lithuanian children participated, among them 11.7% from a non-Lithuanian family. Child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI) and the parent- and teacher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
October 26, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855338/subjective-anger-and-overt-aggression-in-psychiatric-outpatients
#4
Timothy Genovese, Kristy Dalrymple, Iwona Chelminski, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The attention given to anger and aggression in psychiatric patients pales in comparison to the attention given to depression and anxiety. Most studies have focused on a limited number of psychiatric disorders, and results have been inconsistent. The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project sought to replicate and extend prior findings examining which psychiatric disorders and demographic characteristics were independently associated with elevated levels of anger and aggression...
October 17, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838572/the-effect-of-treatment-on-quality-of-life-and-functioning-in-ocd
#5
Anu Asnaani, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Elizabeth Alpert, Carmen P McLean, H Blair Simpson, Edna B Foa
BACKGROUND: Given that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and functioning, it is important examine whether therapeutic recovery from OCD leads to improvements on these important secondary outcomes. Only a few studies have examined how measures of OCD symptom severity relate to QoL and functioning among patients receiving treatment for OCD. METHODS: OCD severity was measured with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), a self-report scale of OCD, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), an interview measure of OCD...
October 11, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837679/purinergic-system-dysfunctions-in-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#6
Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Antonios Dakanalis, Enrico Brosio, Alessio Miotto, Enrico Capuzzi, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
BACKGROUND: Subjects with bipolar mania may have increased uric acid levels, based on a purinergic system dysfunction with reduced neurotransmission of adenosine. We investigated whether there were differences in uric acid levels between individuals with bipolar disorder (in manic or depressive phases) and those with major depressive disorder. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study recruiting 128 subjects with bipolar disorder and 118 with major depressive disorder, admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit...
September 30, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653781/psychological-and-neuropsychological-assessment-of-regular-hoasca-users
#7
Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa, Rick J Strassman, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Kelsy Areco, Robert Hoy, Jessica Pommy, Robert Thoma, Michael Bogenschutz
BACKGROUND: Hoasca (also called ayahuasca) is a N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) - containing psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the Amazon Basin. Recently, Brazilian syncretic churches have helped spread the ritual use of hoasca to Western societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate substance use, and neuropsychological and psychological functioning of regular hoasca users within a religious setting. METHODS: Assessment of socio-economic status, mood, personality traits, impulsiveness, drug use, quality of life, extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity, and neuropsychological function was performed on 30 volunteers from a U...
September 12, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649322/borderline-personality-disorder-in-youth-the-prospective-impact-of-child-abuse-on-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-suicidality
#8
Cynthia Kaplan, Naomi Tarlow, Jeremy G Stewart, Blaise Aguirre, Gillian Galen, Randy P Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by greater engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality. The aim of the study is to test whether the occurrence of child abuse contributes to these high-risk behaviors in BPD youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPD female youth aged 13-21years with (n=29) and without (n=29) a history of child abuse were administered clinical interviews assessing diagnostic history, child abuse, NSSI and suicidality (i...
September 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816847/gender-matters-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-results-from-a-healthcare-users-epidemiological-study-in-malaga-spain
#9
Eleni Petkari, Fermín Mayoral, Berta Moreno-Küstner
PURPOSE: Women suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders may differ from men in clinical course and outcome. Still, those differences can only be portrayed accurately by means of studies that derive information from multiple sources. One such study was performed in a well-defined area supported by a Mental Health Clinical Management Unit in Malaga, Spain. METHODS: Data from 1640 patients (1048 men and 592 women) that were in contact with services during 2008 were examined for the purpose of the present analysis...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816846/bipolar-i-disorder-in-remission-vs-schizophrenia-in-remission-is-there-a-difference-in-burden
#10
Oluyomi Esan, Christopher Osunbote, Oluremi Oladele, Sina Fakunle, Christopher Ehindero, Konstantinos N Fountoulakis
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered to have a better outcome in comparison to schizophrenia. However, recent data dispute this notion. The current study aimed to compare the burden of patients with BD type I (BD-I) in remission with similar patients with schizophrenia (SZ) in remission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (n=75) and BD-I (n=54) aged 18-64years were included in the study. The diagnosis was made with the SCID-I/P. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic variables, stigma, quality of life, disability, suicidality and current symptomatology...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816711/an-examination-of-the-role-of-intolerance-of-distress-and-uncertainty-in-hoarding-symptoms
#11
Brittany M Mathes, Mary E Oglesby, Nicole A Short, Amberly K Portero, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder (HD) is a common and debilitating disorder characterized by an accumulation of and failure to discard one's possessions. The identification and examination of underlying factors that may contribute to hoarding symptoms are needed to elucidate the nature of the disorder and refine existing treatments. Two transdiagnostic vulnerability factors that have been associated with hoarding symptoms are distress intolerance (DI) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU)...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810547/exploring-depression-self-esteem-and-verbal-fluency-with-different-degrees-of-internet-addiction-among-chinese-college-students
#12
Jia Nie, Wei Zhang, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. METHODS: The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810546/is-gambling-disorder-associated-with-impulsivity-traits-measured-by-the-upps-p-and-is-this-association-moderated-by-sex-and-age
#13
Lamprini G Savvidou, Ana B Fagundo, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, Laurence Claes, Núria Mallorquí-Baqué, Antonio Verdejo-García, Howard Steiger, Mimi Israel, Laura Moragas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Zaida Agüera, Iris Tolosa-Sola, Melania La Verde, Eugenio Aguglia, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a construct that is strongly associated with Gambling Disorder (GD). The main objectives in the present study are: 1) to explore the role of sex and age on impulsivity levels in GD patients; 2) to identify the relationship of the different impulsivity facets with comorbid psychopathology and other personality traits in GD patients; and (3) to assess whether impulsivity is a predictor for the severity of GD. METHOD: The final sample consisted of 406 consecutive participants...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776275/war-and-remembrance-combat-exposure-in-young-adulthood-and-memory-function-sixty-years-later
#14
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771563/the-modular-assessment-of-risk-for-imminent-suicide-maris-a-proof-of-concept-for-a-multi-informant-tool-for-evaluation-of-short-term-suicide-risk
#15
Mariah Hawes, Zimri Yaseen, Jessica Briggs, Igor Galynker
BACKGROUND: To date, no diagnostic tool has demonstrated clinical value for the assessment of short-term suicide risk among high-risk individuals. To this end we have developed the Modular Assessment of Risk for Imminent Suicide (MARIS), a modular patient and clinician informed risk evaluation instrument. Here we assess its predictive validity for suicidal behavior (SB) in psychiatric patients following discharge from an inpatient unit. METHODS: The MARIS and a psychological test battery were administered to 136 adult psychiatric patients hospitalized for high risk of suicide...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768944/attentional-and-motor-impulsivity-interactively-predict-food-addiction-in-obese-individuals
#16
Adrian Meule, Martina de Zwaan, Astrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and constitutes a common risk factor for a range of behaviors associated with poor self-control (e.g., substance use or binge eating). The short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsive behaviors related to attentional (inability to focus attention or concentrate), motor (acting without thinking), and non-planning (lack of future orientation or forethought) impulsivity. Eating-related measures appear to be particularly related to attentional and motor impulsivity and recent findings suggest that interactive effects between these two facets may play a role in eating- and weight-regulation...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764677/the-temporal-stability-of-the-bifactor-model-of-comorbidity-an-examination-of-moderated-continuity-pathways
#17
Ashley L Greene, Nicholas R Eaton
BACKGROUND: Structural models of psychopathology indicate that common mental disorder comorbidity reflects latent transdiagnostic factors. Multiple studies have replicated transdiagnostic internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisociality-, and impulsivity-related disorders) factors; other studies support distress and fear sub-factors of internalizing. These factors show a high degree of temporal stability. Recently, a bifactor conceptualization of multivariate comorbidity has emerged, positing the existence of an orthogonal general psychopathology factor that saturates all diagnoses in addition to internalizing/distress/fear and externalizing, although no studies have examined the temporal stability of the factors in this competing model over time among adults...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744270/mental-health-problems-among-children-and-adolescents-experiencing-two-major-earthquakes-in-remote-mountainous-regions-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744108/measuring-attitudes-towards-suicide-preliminary-evaluation-of-an-attitude-towards-suicide-scale
#19
Jan Christopher Cwik, Benedikt Till, Angela Bieda, Simon E Blackwell, Carolin Walter, Tobias Teismann
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. METHOD: Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736667/the-relationship-between-self-reported-childhood-adversities-adulthood-psychopathology-and-psychological-stress-markers-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Dea Seidenfaden, Ulla Knorr, Mia Greisen Soendergaard, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Anders Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. AIMS: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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