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Comprehensive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636896/early-maladaptive-schemas-of-emotional-deprivation-social-isolation-shame-and-abandonment-are-related-to-a-history-of-suicide-attempts-among-patients-with-major-depressive-disorders
#1
Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Sommayyeh Astinsadaf, Amineh Akhondi, Mohammad Haghighi, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Marzieh Nazaribadie, Leila Jahangard, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. METHOD: Ninety participants took part in the study...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636895/neurocognitive-characteristics-of-youth-with-noncomorbid-and-comorbid-forms-of-conduct-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Andrea L Glenn, Rheanna J Remmel, Min Yee Ong, Nikki S J Lim, Rebecca P Ang, A Hunter Threadgill, Nicole Ryerson, Adrian Raine, Daniel Fung, Yoon Phaik Ooi
OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating neurocognitive deficits in youth with conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often confounded by the high rates of comorbidity between the two. METHOD: Neurocognitive functioning was examined in three diagnostic groups (ADHD only, CD only, comorbid ADHD and CD) matched by age, sex, IQ, and medication status (n=28-32 per group). RESULTS: No significant differences emerged between the diagnostic groups on measures of risk-taking or response inhibition...
June 8, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628806/resilience-and-spirituality-in-patients-with-depression-and-their-family-members-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Chisa Ozawa, Takefumi Suzuki, Yuya Mizuno, Ryosuke Tarumi, Kazunari Yoshida, Kazuhito Fujii, Jinichi Hirano, Hideaki Tani, Ellen B Rubinstein, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE: The degree and quality of resilience in patients with depression have never been investigated in the context of remission status, spirituality/religiosity, and family members' resilience levels, which was addressed in this study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited Japanese outpatients with depressive disorder according to ICD-10 and cohabitant family members who were free from psychiatric diagnoses. Resilience was assessed using the 25-item Resilience Scale (RS)...
June 8, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623813/association-between-altered-physical-activity-and-neurocognitive-function-among-people-with-schizophrenia-a-minimum-6-months-follow-up-study
#4
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
BACKGROUND: The long-term benefits of physical activity on neurocognitive function among patients with schizophrenia, specifically among inpatients, remain unclear. This preliminary study, with a minimum of 6-months' follow-up, examined alterations in physical activity and neurocognitive function in both inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Symptoms and neurocognitive function were assessed at 2 intervals using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Cognitrax, respectively...
June 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605622/factors-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-community-volunteers-during-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-korea
#5
Ju-Yeon Lee, Sung-Wan Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. METHODS: In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster...
June 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549313/the-persistent-shadow-of-suicide-ideation-and-attempts-in-a-high-risk-group-of-psychiatric-patients-a-focus-for-intervention
#6
Jane G Tillman, A Jill Clemence, Robyn Cree, Katie C Lewis, Jennifer L Stevens, David Reiss
OBJECTIVE: Patients with a history of suicidal ideation or attempts, especially if they have serious psychopathology with repeated hospitalizations, are burdened by ongoing risk for suicide. We studied this high-risk group to assess their psychological status following their most recent suicide attempt, in contrast to equally ill patients without a suicide history. Further, among suicidal patients, we compared those with only ideation, with a non-medically serious suicide attempt and with medically serious suicide attempts...
May 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549312/exposure-to-suicide-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-among-national-guard-military-personnel
#7
Craig J Bryan, Julie Cerel, AnnaBelle O Bryan
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that individuals who know someone who died by suicide are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and recent suicidal thoughts. Studies have not yet investigated the association of suicide exposure with suicide attempts, however, especially among high-risk subgroups of military personnel such as the National Guard. PROCEDURES: An anonymous online survey was completed by 971 military personnel assigned to the National Guard in Utah and Idaho...
May 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551411/relations-among-adults-remembrances-of-parental-acceptance-rejection-in-childhood-self-reported-psychological-adjustment-and-adult-psychopathology
#8
Ebru Akün
AIMS: The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. METHODS: Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study...
May 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535434/course-and-predictors-of-dsm-5-somatic-symptom-disorder-in-patients-with-vertigo-and-dizziness-symptoms-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Karina Limburg, Heribert Sattel, Andreas Dinkel, Katharina Radziej, Sandra Becker-Bense, Claas Lahmann
BACKGROUND: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a diagnosis that was newly included in DSM-5. Currently, data on the course of SSD are largely lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate the natural course of SSD in a one-year follow-up study in patients with vertigo and dizziness (VD) symptoms. METHODS: We investigated n=239 outpatients presenting in a tertiary care neurological setting over a one-year period. Patients had a medical examination at baseline and completed self-report questionnaires, which were re-assessed after 12months...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495022/delineating-the-joint-hierarchical-structure-of-clinical-and-personality-disorders-in-an-outpatient-psychiatric-sample
#10
Miriam K Forbes, Roman Kotov, Camilo J Ruggero, David Watson, Mark Zimmerman, Robert F Krueger
BACKGROUND: A large body of research has focused on identifying the optimal number of dimensions - or spectra - to model individual differences in psychopathology. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that ostensibly competing models with varying numbers of spectra can be synthesized in empirically derived hierarchical structures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We examined the convergence between top-down (bass-ackwards or sequential principal components analysis) and bottom-up (hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis) statistical methods for elucidating hierarchies to explicate the joint hierarchical structure of clinical and personality disorders...
April 29, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495012/what-do-clinicians-treat-diagnoses-or-symptoms-the-incremental-validity-of-a-symptom-based-dimensional-characterization-of-emotional-disorders-in-predicting-medication-prescription-patterns
#11
Monika A Waszczuk, Mark Zimmerman, Camilo Ruggero, Kaiqiao Li, Annmarie MacNamara, Anna Weinberg, Greg Hajcak, David Watson, Roman Kotov
BACKGROUND: Although practice guidelines are based on disorders specified in diagnostic manuals, such as the DSM, practitioners appear to follow symptoms when making treatment decisions. Psychiatric medication is generally prescribed in a transdiagnostic manner, further highlighting how symptoms, not diagnoses, often guide clinical practice. A quantitative approach to nosology promises to provide better guidance as it describes psychopathology dimensionally and its organization reflects patterns of covariation among symptoms...
April 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531646/lifetime-presence-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-less-favorable-socio-demographic-and-certain-clinical-features
#12
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Giulia Camuri, Laura Cremaschi, Cristina Dobrea, Massimiliano Buoli, Terence A Ketter, A Carlo Altamura
BACKGROUND: The presence of psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) is considered a feature of higher severity of illness and, in particular, of manic episodes in bipolar I disorder (BD I). However, the possibility to apply the "with psychotic features" specifier to major depressive episodes in either bipolar II disorder (BD II) or BD I highlights the need for additional research in this area. METHODS: The present study assessed the lifetime presence of psychotic symptoms and related socio-demographic and clinical features in a large sample of BD patients (N=360), with (BDPs, N=207) and without a lifetime history of psychosis (BDNPs, N=153)...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#13
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#14
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528230/effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-cognitive-functions-in-a-sample-of-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Xian-Bin Li, Qi-Jing Bo, Guang-Ping Zhang, Wei Zheng, Zhi-Min Wang, An-Ning Li, Qing Tian, Jin-Tong Liu, Yi-Lang Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang
In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of various types of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive functions in Chinese patients presented with schizophrenia. One hundred sixty-two patients were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We investigated the correlations between various types of CT, demographic characteristics, and cognitive functions. Significant negative correlations were observed in physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) with the language score (r=-0...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521252/trauma-type-as-a-conditional-risk-factor-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-referred-clinic-sample-of-adolescents
#16
Jani Nöthling, Candice Simmons, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic experiences that are varied in type and severity may lead to the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Some trauma types present a higher conditional risk for PTSD owing to their nature and impact on growth and functioning. Few studies have investigated the conditional risk of PTSD in clinic referred adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of the study was to determine the conditional risk for PTSD based on various trauma types (car accidents, other serious accidents, fires, witnessing a natural disaster, witnessing a violent crime, being confronted with traumatic news, witnessing domestic violence, physical abuse and sexual abuse) and to stratify risk by gender...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#17
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501733/insomnia-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-comparison-with-borderline-personality-disorder-population-in-a-clinical-setting-and-control-participants
#18
Sébastien Weibel, Françoise Jermann, Luisa Weiner, Rosetta Nicastro, Stefano Ardu, Eleonore Pham, Roland Hasler, Alexandre Dayer, Paco Prada, Nader Perroud
OBJECTIVES: Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report sleeping difficulties. The relationship between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood, and shows discrepancies between subjective and objective measures. In order to determine the specificity of sleep-associated symptoms in ADHD, subjective sleep assessments among ADHD adult patients were compared with control subjects and with individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: 129 outpatients with ADHD, 70 with BPD (including 17 patients with BPD and ADHD comorbidity), and 65 control participants were assessed for sleep quality, insomnia, and sleepiness, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482249/association-among-serum-cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-levels-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-men-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#19
Rui Peng, Yan Li
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) with psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 162 men with schizophrenia and 138 age-matched healthy controls, for whom data were collected on demographic characteristics, age at disease onset, disease duration, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, and history of atypical antipsychotic treatment...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456054/nightmares-and-nonsuicidal-self-injury-the-mediating-role-of-emotional-dysregulation
#20
Chelsea R Ennis, Nicole A Short, Allison J Moltisanti, Caitlin E Smith, Thomas E Joiner, Jeanette Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a transdiagnostic behavior associated with significant psychopathology. Research has shown a positive association between sleep disturbances, (e.g., nightmares and insomnia), and suicidal behavior, however, the relation between NSSI and sleep disturbances has yet to be examined. Sleep disturbances have been found to have a causal role in problems with emotional dysfunction. Specifically, sleep disturbances inhibit the emotion processing function of sleep...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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