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British Journal of Nutrition

Amelia S Cook, Rochelle McCook, Peter Petocz, Fiona O'Leary, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
A single question (SQ) and a twenty-eight-item FFQ to measure takeaway meal intake were compared with two 7-d estimated food records (EFR; reference method). Test methods were completed after the reference period and repeated 6-8 d later for repeatability. The SQ asked about intake of high-SFA takeaway meals. FFQ items included low- and high-SFA meals. Test methods were compared with EFR for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, using a goal of ≤1 high-SFA weekly takeaway meals...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Yurii B Shvetsov, Brook E Harmon, Reynolette Ettienne, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Carol J Boushey
The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants' total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45-75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13-18 years...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Theresia Jumbe, Sarah S Comstock, William S Harris, Joyce Kinabo, Matthew B Pontifex, Jenifer I Fenton
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Courtney M Peterson, John W Apolzan, Courtney Wright, Corby K Martin
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Jia-Ying Zhang, Ying Yin, Li Ni, Quan Long, Li You, Qian Zhang, Shan-Yan Lin, Jing Chen
Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Veronica T Boyle, Eric B Thorstensen, David Mourath, M Beatrix Jones, Lesley M E McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Philip N Baker
Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Controversy remains as findings have been inconsistent between disparate populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pregnancy outcomes in a large, prospective pregnancy cohort. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks of gestation from 1710 New Zealand women participating in a large, observational study...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone
This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Svein A Mjøs, Daniela M Pampanin, Rasa Slizyte, Ana Carvajal, Tore Remman, Ingmar Høgøy, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Stine M Ulven, Lena Leder, Elisabeth Elind, Inger Ottestad, Jacob J Christensen, Vibeke H Telle-Hansen, Anne J Skjetne, Ellen Raael, Navida A Sheikh, Marianne Holck, Kristin Torvik, Amandine Lamglait, Kari Thyholt, Marte G Byfuglien, Linda Granlund, Lene F Andersen, Kirsten B Holven
The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Uku Vainik, Kenn Konstabel, Evelin Lätt, Jarek Mäestu, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe
Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Amanda W Singer, Suzan L Carmichael, Steve Selvin, Cecilia Fu, Gladys Block, Catherine Metayer
Previous studies on maternal nutrition and childhood leukaemia risk have focused on the role of specific nutrients such as folate and have not considered broader measures of diet quality, which may better capture intake of diverse nutrients known to impact fetal development. We examined the relationship between maternal diet quality before pregnancy, as summarised by a diet quality index, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in a case-control study in California...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Chelsea Anderson, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler, Hazel B Nichols
Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Yuni Choi, Jung Eun Lee, Yoosoo Chang, Mi Kyung Kim, Eunju Sung, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of intakes of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of Na and K with the prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD. We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 177 participants (46 596 men and 53 581 women) who underwent a health screening examination and completed a FFQ at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea, between 2011 and 2013...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Masatoshi Kubota, Reiko Watanabe, Miki Yamaguchi, Michihiro Hosojima, Akihiko Saito, Mikio Fujii, Shinobu Fujimura, Motoni Kadowaki
We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Joshua J Todd, Emeir M McSorley, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Sharon M Madigan, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Pamela J Magee
Vitamin D is typically supplied in capsule form, both in trials and in clinical practice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of vitamin D administered via oral sprays - a method that primarily bypasses the gastrointestinal absorption route. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vitamin D3 liquid capsules and oral spray solution in increasing wintertime total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. In this randomised, open-label, cross-over trial, healthy adults (n 22) received 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks in either capsule or oral spray form...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Hoang V T Ho, John L Sievenpiper, Andreea Zurbau, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Elena Jovanovski, Fei Au-Yeung, Alexandra L Jenkins, Vladimir Vuksan
Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Anika Reinbott, Anna Schelling, Judith Kuchenbecker, Theresa Jeremias, Iean Russell, Ou Kevanna, Michael B Krawinkel, Irmgard Jordan
Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are major determinants of chronic malnutrition. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education (NE) programme aimed at promoting improved IYCF behaviours in combination with an agriculture intervention on children's dietary diversity and nutritional status. From 2012 to 2014, a cluster randomised trial was rolled out in Cambodia in the context of an agriculture and nutrition project of the FAO of the UN. The cross-sectional baseline study was carried out in sixteen pre-selected communes in 2012...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Katarzyna A Szcześniak, Anna Ciecierska, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Shahnaz Ahmadi, Mehri Jamilian, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Jafari, Zatollah Asemi
To the best of our knowledge, data on the effects of synbiotic supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid concentrations in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are scarce. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in GDM patients. In total, seventy patients with GDM aged 18-40 years were assigned to two groups - the synbiotic group (n 35) and the placebo group (n 35) - in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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