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British Journal of Nutrition

Nadya H Alves-Santos, Paula G Cocate, Ilana Eshriqui, Camila Benaim, Érica G Barros, Pauline M Emmett, Gilberto Kac
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns (DP) with maternal adiposity indicators, leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations during pregnancy. A prospective cohort of pregnant women followed up at the 5th-13th, 20th -26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks and 30-40 d postpartum was conducted in Rio de Janeiro. A FFQ was administered in the third trimester (30th-36th gestational weeks). The reduced rank regression procedure was used to identify DP that explain response variables (dietary fibre and total fat) related to indicators of maternal adiposity (postpartum weight retention and gestational weight gain (GWG) adequacy), and plasma leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Alix Warburton, Olga Vasieva, Peter Quinn, James P Stewart, John P Quinn
n-3 Fatty acids, flavonoids and resveratrol are well publicised for their beneficial effects on human health and wellbeing. Identifying common, underlying biological mechanisms targeted by these functional foods would therefore be informative for the public health sector for advising on nutritional health and disease, food and drug product development and consumer interest. The aim of this study was to explore the potential effects of gene expression changes associated with n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, flavonoids and resveratrol on modifying biological systems and disease pathways...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Joshua D McDonald, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Jinhui Li, Eunice Mah, Allison N Labyk, Elizabeth J Reverri, Kevin D Ballard, Jeff S Volek, Richard S Bruno
Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK)...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Christina Santamaria, Wei Guang Bi, Line Leduc, Negar Tabatabaei, Prévost Jantchou, Zhong-Cheng Luo, François Audibert, Anne Monique Nuyt, Shu Qin Wei
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we aimed to estimate the associations between prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth, adiposity and metabolic health. We searched the literature in human studies on prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth in PubMed, up to July 2017. Studies were selected according to their methodological quality and outcomes of interest (anthropometry, fat mass and diabetes in offspring). The inverse variance method was used to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) with 95 % CI for continuous outcomes, and the Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled OR with 95 % CI for dichotomous outcomes...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Jean-Philippe Krieger, Sophie Cabaset, Claudia Canonica, Ladina Christoffel, Aline Richard, Therese Schröder, Begoña Lipp von Wattenwyl, Sabine Rohrmann, Katharina Quack Lötscher
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with negative health consequences for mothers and their infants. Data on the vitamin D status of pregnant women in Switzerland are scarce. A three-centre study was conducted in the obstetric departments of Zurich, Bellinzona and Samedan (Switzerland) to investigate the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)<50 nmol/l) in 3rd-trimester pregnant women living in Switzerland (n 305), and the correlation between 25(OH)D in pregnant women and their offspring at birth (n 278)...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Kelly A Mulder, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
DHA is an important component of neural lipids accumulating in neural tissue during development. Inadequate DHA in gestation may compromise infant development, but it is unknown whether there are lasting effects. We sought to determine whether the observed effects of fetal DHA inadequacy on infant development persist into early childhood. This follow-up study assessed children (5-6 years) whose mothers received 400 mg/d DHA or a placebo during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed with several age-appropriate tests including the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Sukshma S Sharma, Darren C Greenwood, Nigel A B Simpson, Janet E Cade
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Yuanlong Pan, Adam D Kennedy, Thomas J Jönsson, Nortan W Milgram
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Nathan M D'Cunha, Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Lakshika Dadigamuwage, Jane Kellett, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Jackson Thomas, Andrew J McKune, Duane D Mellor, Nenad Naumovski
Nutraceuticals have generated interest as a way to mitigate the cognitive decline in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the evidence for these claims from the scientific literature in randomised, double-blinded, controlled trials (duration: ≥1 year; participants: n≥100; age(mean): ≥65 years). Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science) and identified twenty-five studies published between the 15·June·2006 and 14·June·2016...
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Genelle Healey, Rinki Murphy, Christine Butts, Louise Brough, Kevin Whelan, Jane Coad
Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic...
January 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Gary O'Donovan, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Mark Hamer
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the association between alcohol and obesity using data from 106 182 adults in England and Scotland (46·7 % male; mean 46·9 (sd 16·9) years). Trained interviewers asked participants about alcohol intake. Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2. Potential confounders included age, sex, smoking, physical activity, longstanding illness, psychological distress and socioeconomic status. Compared with those who drank at least five times a week, obesity risk was 1·21 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·27) in those who drank one to four times a week, 1·53 (95 % CI 1·43, 1·62) in those who drank one to two times a month, 1·61 (95 % CI 1·52, 1·71) in those who drank less than once every couple of months, 1·34 (95 % CI 1·23, 1·47) in those who were former drinkers, and 1·03 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·11) in those who were never drinkers...
January 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Hanieh Roshan, Omid Nikpayam, Meghdad Sedaghat, Golbon Sohrab
This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (GCE) on anthropometric indices, glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance and appetite in patients with the metabolic syndrome (Mets). Subjects were randomly allocated to consume 400 mg GCE or placebo capsules twice per d for 8 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy balanced diet. After GCE supplementation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly reduced compared with the placebo group (-13·76 (sd 8·48) v...
January 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Dong Ruan, Ahmed M Fouad, Qiuli Fan, Weiguang Xia, Shuang Wang, Wei Chen, Chuxiao Lin, Ying Wang, Lin Yang, Chuntian Zheng
The study investigated whether dietary methionine (Met) affects egg weight and antioxidant status through regulating gene expression of ovalbumin (OVAL), nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) and haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in laying duck breeders. Longyan duck breeders (n 540, 19 weeks) were randomly assigned to six treatments with six replicates of fifteen birds each. Breeders were fed diets with six Met levels (2·00, 2·75, 3·50, 4·25, 5·00 and 5·75 g/kg) for 24 weeks. The egg weight (g), egg mass (g/d), feed conversion ratio, hatchability, 1-d duckling weight, albumen weight, albumen proportion and OVAL mRNA level improved with dietary Met levels, whereas yolk proportion decreased (P<0·05)...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Priscilla C Lages, Simone V Generoso, Maria Isabel T D Correia
Studies on the 'gut origin of sepsis' have suggested that stressful insults, such as surgery, can affect intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation. Symbiotics have been reported to be able to improve gut permeability and modulate the immunologic system, thereby decreasing postoperative complications. Therefore we aimed to evaluate the postoperative use of symbiotics in head and neck cancer surgical patients for intestinal function and permeability, as well as the postoperative outcomes. Patients were double-blind randomised into the symbiotic (n 18) or the control group (n 18)...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, Itziar Zazpe, Susana Santiago, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Miguel A Martinez-Gonzalez, Francisca Lahortiga-Ramos
The association between added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of depression, as well as the role of carbohydrate quality in depression risk, remains unclear. Among 15 546 Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort study, diet was assessed with a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. Cumulative average consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and an overall carbohydrate quality index (CQI) were calculated...
December 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Priscila G Fassini, Sai Krupa Das, Karina Pfrimer, Vivian M M Suen, Júlio Sérgio Marchini, Eduardo Ferriolli
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) represents a serious intestinal absorption disorder, and patients may be prone to severe malnutrition. Dietetic therapy is critically important both for immediate prognosis and successful long-term rehabilitation. To maintain energy balance, an accurate assessment of energy intake is required. Our objective was to compare energy intake (EI) assessed by 24-h dietary recalls (EIrecall), a standard clinical assessment, with the total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water (TEEdlw) method in SBS patients and matched controls...
December 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Alison J Hodgkinson, Olivia A M Wallace, Marlena C Kruger, Colin G Prosser
This study assessed bioavailability and utilisation of vitamin D3 in two feeding trials using young, growing Sprague-Dawley male rats. Trial one fed animals standard AIN-93G diet (casein protein) containing no vitamin D3 and goat or cow skimmed milk supplemented with vitamin D3. Trial two fed animals modified dairy-free AIN-93G diet (egg albumin) containing no vitamin D3 and goat or cow skimmed or full-fat milk supplemented with vitamin D3. Control groups received AIN-93G diets with or without vitamin D, and water...
December 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
María E Oliva, Agustina Creus, María R Ferreira, Adriana Chicco, Yolanda B Lombardo
This study investigates the effects of replacing dietary casein by soya protein on the underlying mechanisms involved in the impaired metabolic fate of glucose and lipid metabolisms in the heart of dyslipidaemic rats chronically fed (8 months) a sucrose-rich (62·5 %) diet (SRD). To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were fed an SRD for 4 months. From months 4 to 8, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed an SRD in which casein was substituted by soya. The control group received a diet with maize starch as the carbohydrate source...
December 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Yang-Yi Fan, Natividad R Fuentes, Tim Y Hou, Rola Barhoumi, Xian C Li, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Marielle P K J Engelen, David N McMurray, Robert S Chapkin
Cell membrane fatty acids influence fundamental properties of the plasma membrane, including membrane fluidity, protein functionality, and lipid raft signalling. Evidence suggests that dietary n-3 PUFA may target the plasma membrane of immune cells by altering plasma membrane lipid dynamics, thereby regulating the attenuation of immune cell activation and suppression of inflammation. As lipid-based immunotherapy might be a promising new clinical strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA on CD4+ T cell membrane order, mitochondrial bioenergetics and lymphoproliferation...
December 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Juan Tian, Hua Wen, Xing Lu, Wei Liu, Fan Wu, Chang-Geng Yang, Ming Jiang, Li-Juan Yu
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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