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Kozaburo Hayashi, Daichi Kakoi, Akihisa Makino
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have shown that arteries change diameter in response to chronic change in blood flow (BF), keeping wall shear stress (WSS) at physiologically normal levels, relatively little is known about the effects of flow restoration after flow reduction and also the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) during such a remodeling process. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biomechanical responses of the arterial wall to the restoration of normal BF after flow reduction and compare the results with those observed in response to decreased BF alone...
January 23, 2018: Biorheology
Oliver R Schätti, Vera Colombo, Peter A Torzilli, Luigi M Gallo
BACKGROUND: Cartilage surface contact geometry influences the deformational behavior and stress distribution throughout the extracellular matrix (ECM) under load. OBJECTIVE: To test the correlation between the mechanical and cellular response of articular cartilage when loaded with two different-sized spherical indenters under dynamic reciprocating sliding motion. METHODS: Articular cartilage explants were subjected to a reciprocating sliding load using a 17...
January 23, 2018: Biorheology
Yuki Ogawa, Takuma Nakahara, Yuma Nishida, Chihiro Kobayashi, Takamichi Hirata, Hideaki Nagano, Suguru Shiratori, Kenjiro Shimano
BACKGROUND: Prediction of thrombus formation at intact arterial walls under low shear flow conditions is clinically important particularly for better prognoses of embolization in cerebral aneurysms. Although a new mathematical model for this purpose is necessary, little quantitative information has been known about platelet adhesion to intact endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure the number of platelets adhering to intact endothelial cells with a focus upon the influence of the shear rate...
January 16, 2018: Biorheology
Shang-Jen Yu, James P Buerck, Edgar A O'Rear, Thomas L Whitsett
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury often occurs with therapeutic intervention addressing the arterial occlusions causing acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The no-reflow phenomenon has been ascribed to leukocyte plugging and blood vessel constriction in the microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: To assess possible red cell contributions to post thrombolytic no-reflow phenomenon. METHODS: Blood clots were formed by recalcifying 1 ml of citrated fresh human venous blood and then lysed by adding 1,000 units of streptokinase (SK) at several intervals within 1 hour...
January 11, 2018: Biorheology
C J Nettle, L Jenkins, D Curtis, N Badiei, K Lewis, P R Williams, D R Daniels
Sputum samples from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients were investigated using rheology, simple mathematical modelling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The samples were all collected from patients within two days of their admission to Prince Philip Hospital due to an exacerbation of their COPD. Oscillatory and creep rheological techniques were used to measure changes in viscoelastic properties at different frequencies over time, and COPD sputum was observed to behave as a viscoelastic solid at all frequencies studied...
December 20, 2017: Biorheology
Christina Koliamitra, Bastian Holtkamp, Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. METHODS: 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm)...
July 3, 2017: Biorheology
Dimitrios P Sokolis, Constantinos A Dimitriou, Pavlos Lelovas, Nikolaos G Kostomitsopoulos, Ismene A Dontas
BACKGROUND: Arterial function is regulated by estrogen, but no consistent pattern of arterial mechanical remodeling in response to depleted estrogen levels is available. OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on the mechanical properties, morphology, and histological structure of carotid artery in middle-aged rats and a potentially protective effect of Sideritis euboea extract (SID), commonly consumed as "mountain tea". METHODS: 10-month-old female Wistar rats were allocated into control (sham-operated), OVX, OVX+SID, and OVX+MALT (maltodextrin; excipient used for dilution of SID) groups...
March 20, 2017: Biorheology
Yoshihito Hayashi, Marc-Aurèle Brun, Kenzo Machida, Seungmin Lee, Aya Murata, Shinji Omori, Hidetoshi Uchiyama, Yoshinori Inoue, Toshifumi Kudo, Takahiro Toyofuku, Masayuki Nagasawa, Isao Uchimura, Tomomasa Nakamura, Takeshi Muneta
BACKGROUND: In a whole blood coagulation test, the concentration of any in vitro diagnostic agent in plasma is dependent on the hematocrit level but its impact on the test result is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to clarify the effects of reagent concentration, particularly Ca2+, and to find a method for hematocrit estimation compatible with the coagulation test. METHODS: Whole blood coagulation tests by dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) and rotational thromboelastometry were performed with various concentrations of Ca2+ or on samples with different hematocrit levels...
2017: Biorheology
Anwar Madkhali, Michael Chernos, Samin Fakhraei, Dana Grecov, Ezra Kwok
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common, localized joint disease that causes pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. The effects of osteoarthritis on the extensional rheology of synovial fluid in the knees are not fully understood and consequently require further study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to study the extensional rheology of osteoarthritic synovial fluid and to investigate a possible correlation between synovial fluid protein concentration and extensional rheology...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Anwar Madkhali, Michael Chernos, Dana Grecov, Ezra Kwok
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common, localized joint disease that causes pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. Osteoarthritis is particularly common in the knees. The effects of osteoarthritis on the rheology of synovial fluid in the knees are not fully understood and consequently require further study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of protein content on synovial fluid shear rheology. A secondary study outcome will include study of the temperature dependence of synovial fluid behaviour...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Antony P McNamee, Geoff D Tansley, Surendran Sabapathy, Michael J Simmonds
INTRODUCTION: Despite current generation mechanical assist devices being designed to limit shear stresses and minimise damage to formed elements in blood, severe secondary complications suggestive of impaired rheological functioning are still observed. At present, the precise interactions between the magnitude-duration of shear stress exposure and the deformability of red blood cells (RBC) remain largely undescribed for repeated subhaemolytic shear stress duty-cycles of less than 15 s...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Pinar Ulker
Backround:Possible toxic effects of hyperoxia have been reported previously. However, the number of studies investigating the influence of hyperoxia on blood cells is limited and there are no data regarding its hemorheological effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute hyperoxia, performed in human subjects at normal atmospheric pressure, on the rheological properties of blood. METHOD: The study was conducted with 12 brain death patients mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Konstantinos M Lampropoulos, Dimitrios P Sokolis
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been paid to the role of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on large artery function/structure, despite being clinically useful for treating many forms of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term consequences of beta-blocker administration on the biomechanical properties, geometry, and histological structure of two major elastic arteries. METHODS: Healthy male rats received water with their food, while beta-blockade was produced in rats by adding propranolol in their drinking water...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
L Martin-Alarcon, T A Schmidt
The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are largely attributed to the presence of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA). However, rheological differences between SF and pure HA solutions suggest that SF proteins actively contribute towards the bulk viscoelasticity of this biological fluid. Due to various experimental challenges involved with the rheometry of low-viscosity biological fluids, the macromolecular interactions in SF and their relative rheological importance are still a matter of active discussion...
July 29, 2016: Biorheology
Jae-Suk Lee, Makoto Kaibara, Edgar A O'Rear
BACKGROUND: Devices gauging viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation like the thromboelastograph support fundamental research as well as point of care needs. Associated fibrinolysis data are based on endogenous species or plasminogen activator added to a homogeneous sample prior to clot formation. Digestion in a monolithic structure differs from the physical situation of thrombolytic therapy where surface reactions dominate. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop rheological testing for heterogeneous phase fibrinolysis...
July 29, 2016: Biorheology
Mark B Plotnikov, Oleg I Aliev, Alexey V Nosarev, Alexander Y Shamanaev, Anastasia V Sidekhmenova, Yana Anfinogenova, Anna M Anishchenko, Ekaterina V Pushkina
BACKGROUND: Systemic arterial pressure (AP) depends on two physiological variables: cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). The latter depends on vascular hindrance and blood viscosity (BV). However, the relative contributions of the vascular and rheological factors to TPR remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our work was to study the haemodynamic and haemorheologic effects of a treatment course with pentoxifylline (PTX) in SHRs in an effort to assess the impact of the rheological factor on TPR and AP...
July 26, 2016: Biorheology
Vasilios A Morikis, Chris Radecke, Yanyan Jiang, Volkmar Heinrich, Fitz-Roy Curry, Scott I Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2016: Biorheology
Matthieu Robert de Saint Vincent
BACKGROUND: Biological cells exhibit complex mechanical properties which determine their responses to applied force. OBJECTIVE: We developed an optical method to probe the temporal evolution of power-law rheology of single cells. METHODS: The method consisted in applying optically a constant mechanical torque to a birefringent microparticle bound to the cell membrane, and observing dynamics of the particle's in-plane rotation. RESULTS: The deformation dynamics of the membrane followed a power law of time, which directly relates to cytoskeletal prestress as reported in the literature...
May 26, 2016: Biorheology
Dimitrios Kokkinos, Haider Dakhil, Andreas Wierschem, Heiko Briesen, André Braun
BACKGROUND: High-density cultures require operating below the critical threshold of shear stress, in order to avoid reducing the specific growth rate of the cells. When determining this threshold, direct inspection of the cells in flow provides insight into the conditions of shearing. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was using a novel rheo-optical setup for the observation of cells in laminar shear flow and the determination of the critical shear stress required to damage them in their natural environment...
March 10, 2016: Biorheology
Saranya Rajendran, Lakshmikirupa Sundaresan, Krithika Rajendran, Monica Selvaraj, Ravi Gupta, Suvro Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Fluid flow plays an important role in vascular development. However, the detailed mechanisms, particularly the link between flow and modulation of gene expression during vascular development, remain unexplored. In chick embryo, the key events of vascular development from initiation of heart beat to establishment of effective blood flow occur between the stages HH10 and HH13. Therefore, we propose a novel in vivo model to study the flow experienced by developing endothelium...
February 11, 2016: Biorheology
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