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Kozaburo Hayashi, Masuya Kurimoto
BACKGROUND: The venous response to elevated blood pressure (BP) is of major importance because it is closely related to the etiology of venous diseases and the competency of vein grafts. In vitro culture experiments may provide useful information on the function of vein grafts because it is easier to separate mechanical and hemodynamic effects from other systemic influences compared to in vivo experiments. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of BP elevation on wall dimensions and mechanical properties of in vitro cultured veins...
July 10, 2018: Biorheology
Cheong-Ah Lee, Qi Kong, Dong-Guk Paeng
BACKGROUND: Previous numerical modeling studies on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation have elucidated the inverse relationship between shear rate and RBC aggregation under steady flow. However, information on the cyclic variation in RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow remains lacking. OBJECTIVE: RBC aggregation was simulated to investigate the complex interrelationships among the parameters of RBC motion under pulsatile flow. METHODS: A two-dimensional particle model was used to simulate RBC motion driven by hydrodynamic, aggregation, and elastic forces in a sinusoidal pulsatile flow field...
July 10, 2018: Biorheology
Mark Schumann, Alexander Brinker, Christian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Developments in the production of aquacultural salmonid feeds in the last 20 years have led to extruded diets with extremely low water content and a shift from mainly marine fish based ingredients towards plant content. These changes expose the industry to the vagaries of the highly dynamic plant protein market. Resulting variations in the precise composition of aqua feeds may carry unpredictable consequences for water quality, since some plant ingredients cause undesirable reductions in the mechanical stability of faeces...
2018: Biorheology
Takahiro Sasaki, Junji Seki, Tomoaki Itano, Masako Sugihara-Seki
BACKGROUND: In the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) were observed to be confined to an axial stream surrounded by a marginal RBC depleted layer. This axial accumulation of RBCs is considered to arise from the RBC deformability. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the effect of RBC deformability on their axial accumulation at a flow condition comparable to that in arterioles by developing a new observation system for accurate measurements of radial RBC positions in the cross section of capillary tubes...
2018: Biorheology
Lennart Kuck, Marijke Grau, Michael J Simmonds
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) deformability may increase, or decrease, following application of shear stress ("shear conditioning"), depending upon the specific magnitude and duration of exposure. However, the time course of altered RBC deformability following shear remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: We utilised shear conditioning known to increase (10 Pa) or decrease (64 Pa) RBC deformability and subsequently rested the cells; serial measurements of deformability during the rest period facilitated defining the time course of recoverability...
2018: Biorheology
Viktoria Somogyi, Katalin Peto, Adam Deak, Bence Tanczos, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. METHODS: Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months...
2018: Biorheology
Kozaburo Hayashi, Daichi Kakoi, Akihisa Makino
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have shown that arteries change diameter in response to chronic change in blood flow (BF), keeping wall shear stress (WSS) at physiologically normal levels, relatively little is known about the effects of flow restoration after flow reduction and also the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) during such a remodeling process. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biomechanical responses of the arterial wall to the restoration of normal BF after flow reduction and compare the results with our previous results observed in response to decreased BF alone...
2018: Biorheology
Oliver R Schätti, Vera Colombo, Peter A Torzilli, Luigi M Gallo
BACKGROUND: Cartilage surface contact geometry influences the deformational behavior and stress distribution throughout the extracellular matrix (ECM) under load. OBJECTIVE: To test the correlation between the mechanical and cellular response of articular cartilage when loaded with two different-sized spherical indenters under dynamic reciprocating sliding motion. METHODS: Articular cartilage explants were subjected to a reciprocating sliding load using a 17...
2018: Biorheology
Yuki Ogawa, Takuma Nakahara, Yuma Nishida, Chihiro Kobayashi, Takamichi Hirata, Hideaki Nagano, Suguru Shiratori, Kenjiro Shimano
BACKGROUND: Prediction of thrombus formation at intact arterial walls under low shear flow conditions is clinically important particularly for better prognoses of embolisation in cerebral aneurysms. Although a new mathematical model for this purpose is necessary, little quantitative information has been known about platelet adhesion to intact endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure the number of platelets adhering to intact endothelial cells with a focus upon the influence of the shear rate...
2018: Biorheology
Shang-Jen Yu, James P Buerck, Edgar A O'Rear, Thomas L Whitsett
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury often occurs with therapeutic intervention addressing the arterial occlusions causing acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The no-reflow phenomenon has been ascribed to leukocyte plugging and blood vessel constriction in the microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: To assess possible red cell contributions to post-thrombolytic no-reflow phenomenon. METHODS: Blood clots were formed by recalcifying 1 ml of citrated fresh human venous blood and then lysed by adding 1,000 units of streptokinase (SK) at several intervals within 1 hour...
2018: Biorheology
C J Nettle, L Jenkins, D Curtis, N Badiei, K Lewis, P R Williams, D R Daniels
BACKGROUND: The rheological properties of sputum may influence lung function and become modified in disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to correlate the viscoelastic properties of sputum with clinical data on the severity of disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Sputum samples from COPD patients were investigated using rheology, simple mathematical modelling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)...
2018: Biorheology
Yoshihito Hayashi, Marc-Aurèle Brun, Kenzo Machida, Seungmin Lee, Aya Murata, Shinji Omori, Hidetoshi Uchiyama, Yoshinori Inoue, Toshifumi Kudo, Takahiro Toyofuku, Masayuki Nagasawa, Isao Uchimura, Tomomasa Nakamura, Takeshi Muneta
BACKGROUND: In a whole blood coagulation test, the concentration of any in vitro diagnostic agent in plasma is dependent on the hematocrit level but its impact on the test result is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to clarify the effects of reagent concentration, particularly Ca2+, and to find a method for hematocrit estimation compatible with the coagulation test. METHODS: Whole blood coagulation tests by dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) and rotational thromboelastometry were performed with various concentrations of Ca2+ or on samples with different hematocrit levels...
2017: Biorheology
Christina Koliamitra, Bastian Holtkamp, Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. METHODS: 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm)...
2017: Biorheology
Dimitrios P Sokolis, Constantinos A Dimitriou, Pavlos Lelovas, Nikolaos G Kostomitsopoulos, Ismene A Dontas
BACKGROUND: Arterial function is regulated by estrogen, but no consistent pattern of arterial mechanical remodeling in response to depleted estrogen levels is available. OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on the mechanical properties, morphology, and histological structure of the carotid artery in middle-aged rats and a potentially protective effect of Sideritis euboea extract (SID), commonly consumed as "mountain tea". METHODS: 10-month-old female Wistar rats were allocated into control (sham-operated), OVX, OVX+SID, and OVX+MALT (maltodextrin; excipient used for dilution of SID) groups...
2017: Biorheology
Anwar Madkhali, Michael Chernos, Samin Fakhraei, Dana Grecov, Ezra Kwok
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common, localized joint disease that causes pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. The effects of osteoarthritis on the extensional rheology of synovial fluid in the knees are not fully understood and consequently require further study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to study the extensional rheology of osteoarthritic synovial fluid and to investigate a possible correlation between synovial fluid protein concentration and extensional rheology...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Anwar Madkhali, Michael Chernos, Dana Grecov, Ezra Kwok
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common, localized joint disease that causes pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. Osteoarthritis is particularly common in the knees. The effects of osteoarthritis on the rheology of synovial fluid in the knees are not fully understood and consequently require further study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of protein content on synovial fluid shear rheology. A secondary study outcome will include study of the temperature dependence of synovial fluid behaviour...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Antony P McNamee, Geoff D Tansley, Surendran Sabapathy, Michael J Simmonds
INTRODUCTION: Despite current generation mechanical assist devices being designed to limit shear stresses and minimise damage to formed elements in blood, severe secondary complications suggestive of impaired rheological functioning are still observed. At present, the precise interactions between the magnitude-duration of shear stress exposure and the deformability of red blood cells (RBC) remain largely undescribed for repeated subhaemolytic shear stress duty-cycles of less than 15 s...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Pinar Ulker
Backround:Possible toxic effects of hyperoxia have been reported previously. However, the number of studies investigating the influence of hyperoxia on blood cells is limited and there are no data regarding its hemorheological effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute hyperoxia, performed in human subjects at normal atmospheric pressure, on the rheological properties of blood. METHOD: The study was conducted with 12 brain death patients mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
Konstantinos M Lampropoulos, Dimitrios P Sokolis
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been paid to the role of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on large artery function/structure, despite being clinically useful for treating many forms of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term consequences of beta-blocker administration on the biomechanical properties, geometry, and histological structure of two major elastic arteries. METHODS: Healthy male rats received water with their food, while beta-blockade was produced in rats by adding propranolol in their drinking water...
November 9, 2016: Biorheology
L Martin-Alarcon, T A Schmidt
The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are largely attributed to the presence of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA). However, rheological differences between SF and pure HA solutions suggest that SF proteins actively contribute towards the bulk viscoelasticity of this biological fluid. Due to various experimental challenges involved with the rheometry of low-viscosity biological fluids, the macromolecular interactions in SF and their relative rheological importance are still a matter of active discussion...
July 29, 2016: Biorheology
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