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Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939043/neuroligin-induced-presynaptic-differentiation-through-slm2-mediated-splicing-modifications-of-neurexin-in-cerebellar-cultures
#1
Yuji Sato, Satoko Suzuki, Yoko Iijima, Takatoshi Iijima
Neurexins (NRXs) and neuroligins (NLs) play important roles in synapse specification. The alternatively spliced segment 4 (AS4) of NRX genes (Nrxn) is a critical element in selective trans-synaptic interactions. However, the role of splicing of NRXs and NLs in synapse specification is not fully understood. To investigate the exact role of splice-dependent NRX-NL interaction in the specification of glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic synapses in the cerebellum, we evaluated the synaptogenic receptor activity of NL1/2/3 isoforms in a neuron-fibroblast co-culture system, in which the Nrxn AS4 segments are manipulated using SLM2, a selective and dominant regulator of AS4 splicing...
September 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939042/inorganic-phosphate-induced-impairment-of-osteoclast-cell-cell-fusion-by-the-inhibition-of-ap-1-mediated-dc-stamp-expression
#2
Masaki Arioka, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Narihito Tatsumoto, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, leading to several disorders of bone metabolism. Although high concentrations of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) inhibit osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanism of this effect has not been fully understood. In the present study, therefore, we examined the effect of Pi on the differentiation of the osteoclast precursor RAW-D cells. Treatment with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand induced the differentiation of RAW-D cells (osteoclastogenesis)...
September 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939041/identification-of-transketolase-as-a-target-of-paris-in-substantia-nigra
#3
Hyein Kim, Hojin Kang, Yunjong Lee, ChiHu Park, Areum Jo, Rin Khang, Joo-Ho Shin
Recently, PARIS (ZNF746) is introduced as authentic substrate of parkin and transcriptionally represses PGC-1α by binding to insulin responsive sequences (IRSs) in the promoter of PGC-1α. The overexpression of PARIS selectively leads to the loss of dopaminergic neurons (DN) and mitochondrial abnormalities in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) models. To identify PARIS target molecules altered in SN region-specific manner, LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomic analysis is employed to investigate proteomic alteration in the cortex, striatum, and SN of AAV-PARIS injected mice...
September 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939040/stress-stimuli-induce-cancer-stemness-gene-expression-via-sp1-activation-leading-to-therapeutic-resistance-in-glioblastoma
#4
Kwang-Yu Chang, Chih-Ta Huang, Tsung-I Hsu, Che-Chia Hsu, Jr-Jiun Liu, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Jan-Jong Hung, Wen-Chang Chang, Kelvin K Tsai, Jian-Ying Chuang
It has been suggested that stress stimuli from the microenvironment maintain a subset of tumor cells with stem-like properties, including drug resistance. Here, we investigate whether Sp1, a stress-responsive factor, regulates stemness gene expression and if its inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy. Hydrogen peroxide- and serum deprivation-induced stresses were performed in glioblastoma (GBM) cells and patient-derived cells, and the effect of the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A (MA) on these stress-induced stem cells and temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant cells was evaluated...
September 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939039/hyperosmolarity-evokes-histamine-release-from-ileum-mucosa-by-stimulating-a-cholinergic-pathway
#5
Banqin Wang, Ning An, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Haoyi Wang, Ling Xiao, Hongwei Liu, Jingxin Li, Dongbo Zhao
Changes in extracellular osmolarity lead to alteration in cellular volume. In the study, we examined the effects of hyperosmolarity on short-circuit currents (Isc) in the rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. Mucosal exposure to 20 mM glucose evoked a decrease of ISC in the rat ileum, which was antagonized by the stretch-activated channel blocker GdCl3, TTX and atropine, respectively. In contrast, it was not blocked by phlorizin, a Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 inhibitor. Furthermore, the unabsorbed substances, such as sucrose, lactulose or urea, also induced a decrease of ISC in rat ileum...
September 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935373/human-alpha-a-crystallin-missing-n-terminal-domain-poorly-complexes-with-filensin-and-phakinin
#6
Jose M Chaves, Ratna Gupta, Kiran Srivastava, Om Srivastava
The aim of this study was to determine relative importance of N-terminal domain and C-terminal extension of αA-crystallin during their in vitro complex formation with phakinin and filensin (the two lens-specific intermediate filament [IF] proteins). Cloned phakinin, filensin and vimentin were purified under a denaturing conditions by consecutive DEAE-cellulose-, hydroxyapatite- and Sephadex G-75-column chromatographic methods. WTαA-crystallin, αA-NT (N-terminal domain [residue number 1-63])-deleted and αA-CT (C-terminal terminal extension [residue number 140-173]-deleted), were cloned in pET 100 TOPO vector, expressed in BL-21 (DE3) cells using 1% IPTG, and purified using a Ni(2+)-affinity column...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935372/structural-insights-into-the-dimer-tetramer-transition-of-fabi-from-bacillus-anthracis
#7
Hyun Tae Kim, Sulhee Kim, Byeong Kwan Na, Jiwoung Chung, Eunha Hwang, Kwang Yeon Hwang
Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR, also known as FabI) has received considerable interest as an anti-bacterial target due to its essentiality in fatty acid synthesis. All the FabI structures reported to date, regardless of the organism, are composed of homo-tetramers, except for two structures: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus FabI (bcFabI and saFabI, respectively), which have been reported as dimers. However, the reason for the existence of the dimeric form in these organisms and the biological meaning of dimeric and tetrameric forms of FabI are ambiguous...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935371/a-sir2-family-protein-rv1151c-deacetylates-hu-to-alter-its-dna-binding-mode-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Chinmay Anand, Rajni Garg, Soumitra Ghosh, Valakunja Nagaraja
Till recently, knowledge about epigenetic regulation in bacterial world confined largely to DNA methylation. Lysine acetylation/deacetylation of histones is a major contributor for chromatin dynamics in eukaryotes. However, little is known about such epigenetic changes brought about by post-translational modifications in bacteria. Here, we describe an example of such mechanism occurring in a histone like protein, HU from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previously, we demonstrated the interaction and acetylation of Mtb HU (MtHU) by one of the acetyl transferases, Eis...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935370/the-hierarchical-structure-of-the-perichromosomal-layer-comprises-ki67-ribosomal-rnas-and-nucleolar-proteins
#9
Yuki Hayashi, Kazashi Kato, Keiji Kimura
The perichromosomal layer (PCL) is a structure that surrounds mitotic chromosomes, found in both animal and plant cells. It comprises various proteins and RNAs, mainly derived from the nucleolus. Several functions for the PCL have been suggested; however, the mechanism of PCL organization during mitosis remains unclear. The localization of several nucleolar proteins to the PCL is reportedly dependent on pre-ribosomal RNAs and the marker of proliferation, Ki67, which is a major PCL-localized protein. Here we demonstrate that, although the removal of pre-ribosomal RNAs from the PCL causes PCL delocalization of several nucleolar proteins, it does not affect the localization of Ki67...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935369/a-three-dimensional-model-of-rnase-p-in-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-horikoshii-ot3
#10
Xuzhu Gao, Kosuke Oshima, Toshifumi Ueda, Takashi Nakashima, Makoto Kimura
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an endoribonuclease involved in maturation of the 5'-end of tRNA. We found previously that RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 consists of a catalytic RNase P RNA (PhopRNA) and five protein cofactors designated PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38. The crystal structures of the five proteins have been determined, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of PhopRNA has been constructed, and biochemical data, including protein-RNA interaction sites, have become available...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935368/ube2t-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-growth-via-ubiquitination-of-p53
#11
Li-Ping Liu, Mei Yang, Quan-Zhou Peng, Ming-Yue Li, Yu-Sen Zhang, Yue-Hua Guo, Yang Chen, Shi-Yun Bao
Deregulation of Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) contributes to the progression of human cancers. However, its clinical significance and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Here, we show that UBE2T is up-regulated in HCC and exerts oncogenic activities via ubiquitination of p53. High UBE2T expression was correlated with higher pathological grade, advanced TNM stage, tumor vascular invasion, and poor overall and disease-free survivals in two independent cohorts containing 827 patients with HCC...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928095/adam9-is-present-at-endothelial-cell-cell-junctions-and-regulates-monocyte-endothelial-transmigration
#12
William R English, Richard J Siviter, Martin Hansen, Gillian Murphy
We have found that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase-9 (ADAM9) localises to cell-cell junctions with VE-Cadherin in confluent endothelial monolayers. Co-cultures of cells separately transfected with ADAM9-EGFP or ADAM9-HA showed expression is required in two adjacent cells for localisation to cell-cell junctions suggesting the ADAM9 ectodomain may self-associate. A direct interaction between ADAM9 ectodomains was confirmed using recombinant proteins and an ELISA based method. As the ADAM9 ectodomain can also exist as a soluble form physiologically, we examined if this could inhibit endothelial functions dependent on cell-cell junctions...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928094/identification-of-hypoxia-regulated-angiogeneic-genes-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Shaoqi Zong, Wen Li, Hongjia Li, Susu Han, Shanshan Liu, Qi Shi, Fenggang Hou
The tumour hypoxia would trigger the angiogenesis switch for survival, and increase the ability of cancer cells to invade and metastasis. However, hypoxia regulated genes that invovled in angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been explored in detail. The aim of this study was to explore angiogenic genes under hypoxia condition in CRC. Here, we found that endothelial cells tube formation and cancer cells invasion ability were promoted even under chronic hypoxia condition (72 h) in colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928093/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-on-weight-loss-is-partly-mediated-by-liver-brain-adipose-neurocircuitry
#14
Yoshikazu Sawada, Yoshihiko Izumida, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Nobuhiro Wada, EnXu Li, Yuki Murayama, Xiaoying Piao, Akito Shikama, Yukari Masuda, Makiko Nishi-Tatsumi, Midori Kubota, Motohiro Sekiya, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Yoko Sugano, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Yagyu, Yasushi Kawakami, Takashi Kadowaki, Hitoshi Shimano, Naoya Yahagi
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-obesity effect remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the glycogen depletion signal triggers lipolysis in adipose tissue via liver-brain-adipose neurocircuitry. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether the anti-obesity mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor is mediated by this mechanism. Diet-induced obese mice were subjected to hepatic vagotomy (HVx) or sham operation and loaded with high fat diet containing 0...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928092/idh2-deficiency-accelerates-renal-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#15
Su Jeong Lee, Hanvit Cha, Seoyoon Lee, Hyunjin Kim, Hyeong Jun Ku, Sung Hwan Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Jin Hyup Lee, Kwon Moo Park, Jeen-Woo Park
The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging postulates that senescence is due to an accumulation of cellular oxidative damage, caused largely by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced as by-products of normal metabolic processes in mitochondria. The oxidative stress may arise as a result of either increased ROS production or decreased ability to detoxify ROS. The availability of the mitochondrial NADPH pool is critical for the maintenance of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. The major enzyme responsible for generating mitochondrial NADPH is mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2)...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928091/p2y12-antibody-inhibits-platelet-activity-and-protects-against-thrombogenesis
#16
Nicole R Hensch, Zubair A Karim, Joshua Pineda, Nicole Mercado, Fatima Z Alshbool, Fadi T Khasawneh
Given that platelet hyperactivity is known to give rise to thrombotic disorders, new and/or novel antiplatelet therapies are constantly being developed to add to, or to complement the current arsenal of agents. To this end, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an important platelet activator that acts by binding to the G-protein coupled P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. Although the contribution of the P2Y12 receptor to the genesis of thrombosis is well established, the parenteral arsenal of drugs targeting this receptor in clinical use is limited to cangrelor...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928090/investigation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-phyllanthus-niruri-l-using-assays-for-%C3%AE-glucosidase-muscle-glucose-transport-liver-glucose-production-and-adipogenesis
#17
Maliheh Najari Beidokhti, Mia Vesterholm Andersen, Hoda M Eid, Mayra Luz Sanchez Villavicencio, Dan Staerk, Pierre S Haddad, Anna K Jäger
Phyllanthus niruri is used in herbal medicine for treatment of diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of P. niruri, using assays for α-glucosidase, muscle glucose transport, liver glucose production and adipogenesis. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was performed on aqueous and ethanolic extract of aerial parts of P. niruri. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. niruri showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 3.7 ± 1.1 and 6.3 ± 4...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923246/klf15-regulates-in-vitro-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-targeting-sox9
#18
Zhuoyue Song, Xiaolei Lian, Yang Wang, Yong Xiang, Guangheng Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells residing in the bone marrow. MSCs have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and other types of cells. However, the mechanism underlying MSC differentiation is still not fully understood. Here we aimed to investigate the function of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) transcriptional factor family in regulating chondrogenic differentiation from human MSCs. Among the KLF family members, KLF15 was activated during different models of chondrogenic differentiation in a time-dependent manner...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923247/effects-of-plant-and-animal-based-high-fat-diets-on-lipid-storage-and-distribution-in-environmental-bacteria-colonized-gnotobiotic-mice
#19
Yi-Hsun Chen, Chien-Chao Chiu, Shao-Wen Hung, Ju-Yun Liu, Yu-Chih Wang, Qiang Lv, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Yi-Wen Huang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Ter-Hsin Chen
Different edible oils such as lard and soybean oil have been reported to interact with the gut microbiota, affecting host lipid metabolism. However, whether bacteria derived from the environment influence host lipid metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the roles of environmental bacteria in host lipid storage and distribution with various edible oils. Gnotobiotic C57BL/6JNarl mice were inoculated with Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Paenibacillus azoreducens and then fed either a normal diet (LabDiet 5010, control group) or a diet containing 60% lard (L-group) or soybean oil (S-group) for 18 months...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923245/a20-inhibits-both-the-degradation-and-limited-processing-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p105-precursor-a-novel-additional-layer-to-its-regulator-role
#20
Dana Lapid, Shirly Lahav-Baratz, Shai Cohen
p105 plays dual roles in NF-κB signaling: it generates the active subunit p50 and in its precursor form inhibits NF-κB activation. p105 processing occurs under basal conditions and increases following signaling. IκB kinase β (IKKβ) mediates phosphorylation at the C-terminal domain of p105, leads to accelerated processing and degradation of the precursor. A20 is a dual function deubiquitinating and ubiquitin ligating enzyme, involving in turning-off the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here we show that A20 suppresses TNFα-induced proteolysis of p105...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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