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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914317/the-disgust-related-images-dirti-database-validation-of-a-novel-standardized-set-of-disgust-pictures
#1
Anke Haberkamp, Julia Anna Glombiewski, Filipp Schmidt, Antonia Barke
Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene)...
November 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918916/induced-optimism-as-mental-rehearsal-to-decrease-depressive-predictive-certainty
#2
Regina Miranda, Mariann Weierich, Valerie Khait, Justyna Jurska, Susan M Andersen
The present study examined whether practice in making optimistic future-event predictions would result in change in the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression. Individuals (N = 170) with low, mild, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a condition in which they practiced making optimistic future-event predictions or to a control condition in which they viewed the same stimuli but practiced determining whether a given phrase contained an adjective. Overall, individuals in the induced optimism condition showed increases in optimistic predictions, relative to the control condition, as a result of practice, but only individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression who practiced making optimistic future-event predictions showed decreases in depressive predictive certainty, relative to the control condition...
November 22, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907817/moderators-of-change-in-an-internet-based-intervention-for-eating-disorders-with-different-levels-of-therapist-support-what-works-for-whom
#3
Jiska J Aardoom, Alexandra E Dingemans, Marjolein Fokkema, Philip Spinhoven, Eric F Van Furth
This study investigated moderators of intervention response in a fully automated Internet-based monitoring and feedback intervention ('Featback') with different levels of therapist support for individuals with eating disorder (ED) symptoms. This study was part of a randomized controlled trial comparing four conditions: 1) Featback, 2) Featback with low-intensity (weekly) therapist support, 3) Featback with high-intensity (three times a week) therapist support, and 4) a waiting list. A total of 273 participants completed baseline and post-intervention assessments...
November 22, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894058/a-non-inferiority-trial-of-prolonged-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-person-versus-home-based-telehealth
#4
Ron Acierno, Rebecca Knapp, Peter Tuerk, Amanda K Gilmore, Carl Lejuez, Kenneth Ruggiero, Wendy Muzzy, Leonard Egede, Melba A Hernandez-Tejada, Edna B Foa
This is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate non-inferiority of Prolonged Exposure (PE) delivered via home-based telehealth (HBT) compared to standard in-person (IP) PE. One-hundred thirty two Veterans recruited from a Southeastern Veterans Affairs Medical Center and affiliated University who met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to receive PE via HBT or PE via IP. Results indicated that PE-HBT was non-inferior to PE-IP in terms of reducing PTSD scores at post-treatment, 3 and 6 month follow-up...
November 22, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890222/multiple-imputation-as-a-flexible-tool-for-missing-data-handling-in-clinical-research
#5
Craig K Enders
The last 20 years has seen an uptick in research on missing data problems, and most software applications now implement one or more sophisticated missing data handling routines (e.g., multiple imputation or maximum likelihood estimation). Despite their superior statistical properties (e.g., less stringent assumptions, greater accuracy and power), the adoption of these modern analytic approaches is not uniform in psychology and related disciplines. Thus, the primary goal of this manuscript is to describe and illustrate the application of multiple imputation...
November 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907818/reactive-dissociative-experiences-in-response-to-acute-increases-in-shame-feelings
#6
Martin J Dorahy, Hadyn McKendry, Amber Scott, Kumar Yogeeswaran, Andy Martens, Donncha Hanna
Studies have not examined if a direct causal relationship exists between shame and dissociation. The current research examined whether increases in dissociation were evident following exposure to acute shame feelings induced via narrative scripts of shame-evoking situations. Following Gilbert's (1998) differentiation between external and internal shame, participants heard shame-inducing or emotionally neutral stories in conditions designed to heighten (1) external shame, (2) internal shame or (3) general shame...
November 15, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883927/randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-alcohol-self-harm-and-hiv-prevention-program-for-teens-in-mental-health-treatment
#7
Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Wendy Hadley, Timothy W Curby, Larry K Brown
Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C)...
November 12, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863331/intensive-enhanced-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-severe-and-enduring-anorexia-nervosa-a-longitudinal-outcome-study
#8
Simona Calugi, Marwan El Ghoch, Riccardo Dalle Grave
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes in patients with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN), as compared with those with non SE-AN (NSE-AN), both treated via an inpatient programme based on a "recovery model" approach. METHODS: Sixty-six adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) were recruited from among consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic offering inpatient enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E)...
November 12, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846417/threat-interpretation-and-parental-influences-for-children-with-asthma-and-anxiety
#9
Gemma Sicouri, Louise Sharpe, Jennifer L Hudson, Jo Dudeney, Adam Jaffe, Hiran Selvadurai, Sarah Lorimer, Caroline Hunt
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the cognitive and parent factors that may underpin this relationship. The present study investigated interpretation biases in children with asthma and anxiety and their parents, and whether parent-child discussions influenced children's interpretations. Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups: children with asthma and anxiety, children with anxiety only, children with asthma only and healthy children (aged between 8 and 13 years old)...
November 10, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838273/the-effects-of-adaptive-working-memory-training-and-mindfulness-meditation-training-on-processing-efficiency-and-worry-in-high-worriers
#10
Jenna Course-Choi, Harry Saville, Nazanin Derakshan
Worry is the principle characteristic of generalised anxiety disorder, and has been linked to deficient attentional control, a main function of working memory (WM). Adaptive WM training and mindfulness meditation practice (MMP) have both shown potential to increase attentional control. The present study hence investigates the individual and combined effects of MMP and a dual adaptive n-back task on a non-clinical, randomised sample of high worriers. 60 participants were tested before and after seven days of training...
November 10, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846418/sudden-gains-in-routine-care-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-a-replication-with-extensions
#11
Felix Wucherpfennig, Julian A Rubel, Steven D Hollon, Wolfgang Lutz
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, a substantial amount of findings have been reported on the association between sudden gains (large symptom improvements in a between-session interval) and treatment outcome. Accurate replications of previous findings are needed to tackle inconsistencies and to shed light on the clinical implications of sudden gains. This study investigates whether similar effects of sudden gains can be expected under routine care conditions, when the patients are comparable to those examined in the original study by Tang and DeRubeis (1999)...
November 9, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865431/regression-based-statistical-mediation-and-moderation-analysis-in-clinical-research-observations-recommendations-and-implementation
#12
Andrew F Hayes, Nicholas J Rockwood
There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS...
November 5, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846419/exclusion-of-participants-based-on-substance-use-status-findings-from-randomized-controlled-trials-of-treatments-for-ptsd
#13
Robert F Leeman, Kathryn Hefner, Tessa Frohe, Adrian Murray, Robert A Rosenheck, Bradley V Watts, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more than four times as likely as those without PTSD to have substance use disorder (SUD), making it critical to understand the interaction of substance use status and PTSD outcomes. Using the broader treatment literature, we examined PTSD treatment effects, with and without co-morbid SUD, by extending a published meta-analysis to include recent studies. From reports of 156 Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), we extracted exclusion criteria based on substance use and findings involving substance use as a predictor or outcome...
October 27, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771572/d-cycloserine-does-not-enhance-the-effects-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-exposure-among-young-people-with-broad-based-anxiety-disorders
#14
Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
October 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768984/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-for-psychotic-symptoms
#15
Annika Clamor, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Tania M Lincoln
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84)...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736671/indulgent-thinking-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-overweight-and-healthy-weight-participants-cognitions-and-emotions
#16
Bastiaan Boh, Anita Jansen, Ineke Clijsters, Chantal Nederkoorn, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Gerasimos Spanakis, Anne Roefs
Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases...
October 4, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716490/clinical-presentation-of-not-just-right-experiences-njres-in-individuals-with-ocd-characteristics-and-response-to-treatment
#17
Meredith E Coles, Ariel Ravid
There is increasing recognition that instead of being motivated by a desire to prevent harm and reduce anxiety, some obsessive-compulsive symptoms may be driven by a desire to get things 'just right' or 'complete' and to reduce a sense of discomfort. However, existing data is largely from non-clinical samples. Therefore, in the current paper we examine the clinical presentation of not just right experiences (NJREs) in patients diagnosed with OCD and compare their experiences to both anxious and unselected controls...
September 29, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693829/extinction-and-renewal-of-cue-elicited-reward-seeking
#18
Louise Bezzina, Jessica C Lee, Peter F Lovibond, Ben Colagiuri
Reward cues can contribute to overconsumption of food and drugs and can relapse. The failure of exposure therapies to reduce overconsumption and relapse is generally attributed to the context-specificity of extinction. However, no previous study has examined whether cue-elicited reward-seeking (as opposed to cue-reactivity) is sensitive to context renewal. We tested this possibility in 160 healthy volunteers using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design involving voluntary responding for a high value natural reward (chocolate)...
September 20, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685938/a-multi-service-practice-research-network-study-of-large-group-psychoeducational-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#19
Jaime Delgadillo, Stephen Kellett, Shehzad Ali, Dean McMillan, Michael Barkham, David Saxon, Gill Donohoe, Heather Stonebank, Sarah Mullaney, Patricia Eschoe, Richard Thwaites, Mike Lucock
BACKGROUND: This was a multi-service evaluation of the clinical and organisational effectiveness of large group psychoeducational CBT delivered within a stepped care model. METHOD: Clinical outcomes for 4451 participants in 163 psychoeducational groups delivered across 5 services were analysed by calculating pre-post treatment anxiety (GAD-7) effect sizes (Cohen's d). Overall and between-service effects were compared to published efficacy benchmarks. Multilevel modelling was used to examine if variability in clinical outcomes was explained by differences in service, group and patient-level (case-mix) variables...
September 20, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665415/what-good-is-labeling-what-s-good-a-field-experimental-investigation-of-parental-labeled-praise-and-child-compliance
#20
Patty Leijten, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro, Thomas J Dishion, Walter Matthys
There is a need to identify the "effective ingredients" of evidence-based behavior therapies. We tested the effects of one of the most common ingredients in parenting interventions for preventing disruptive child behavior, referred to as labeled praise (e.g., "well done picking up your toys"), which is typically recommended in preference to unlabeled praise (e.g., "well done"). We compared the effects of labeled praise, unlabeled praise, and no praise on child compliance in two experiments. Experiment 1 included 161 4 to 8 year-old community sample children and tested immediate effects of praise...
September 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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