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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171767/extinction-during-reconsolidation-eliminates-recovery-of-fear-conditioned-to-fear-irrelevant-and-fear-relevant-stimuli
#1
Alina Thompson, Ottmar V Lipp
Extant literature suggests that extinction training delivered during the memory reconsolidation period is superior to traditional extinction training in the reduction of fear recovery, as it targets the original fear memory trace. At present it is debated whether different types of fear memories are differentially sensitive to behavioral manipulations of reconsolidation. Here, we examined post-reconsolidation recovery of fear as a function of conditioned stimulus (CS) fear-relevance, using the unconditioned stimulus (US) to reactivate and destabilize conditioned fear memories...
February 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187306/one-or-many-which-and-how-many-parenting-variables-should-be-targeted-in-interventions-to-reduce-children-s-externalizing-behavior
#2
Laurie Loop, Bénédicte Mouton, Marie Stievenart, Isabelle Roskam
This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices...
January 31, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167330/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-a-low-intensity-interactive-online-parenting-intervention-triple-p-online-brief-with-parents-of-children-with-early-onset-conduct-problems
#3
Sabine Baker, Matthew R Sanders, Karen M T Turner, Alina Morawska
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of Triple P Online Brief, a low-intensity online positive parenting program for parents of children with early onset disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: Two hundred parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (n = 100) or a Waitlist Control group (n = 100). RESULTS: At 8-week post-assessment, parents in the intervention group displayed significantly less use of ineffective parenting strategies and significantly more confidence in dealing with a range of behavior concerns...
January 30, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171782/prediction-of-pre-exam-state-anxiety-from-ruminative-disposition-the-mediating-role-of-impaired-attentional-disengagement-from-negative-information
#4
Sergiu P Vălenaş, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Ben Grafton, Lies Notebaert, Andrei C Miu, Colin MacLeod
Rumination is a maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that enhances stress responses, and heightened disposition to engage in rumination may contribute to the onset and persistence of stress-related symptoms. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity are not yet fully understood. This study investigated the hypothesis that the impact of ruminative disposition on stress reactivity is carried by an attentional bias reflecting impaired attentional disengagement from negative information...
January 25, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147254/pre-treatment-predictors-of-dropout-from-prolonged-exposure-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorders
#5
Emily L Belleau, Eu Gene Chin, Sonya G Wanklyn, Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Julie A Schumacher, Scott F Coffey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35-62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes...
January 25, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167331/turning-lemonade-into-lemons-dampening-appraisals-reduce-positive-affect-and-increase-negative-affect-during-positive-activity-scheduling
#6
Leigh-Anne Burr, Mahmood Javiad, Grace Jell, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Barnaby D Dunn
The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions...
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160721/testing-the-differential-effects-of-acceptance-and-attention-based-psychological-interventions-on-intrusive-thoughts-and-worry
#7
B Ainsworth, H Bolderston, M Garner
BACKGROUND: Worry is a key component of anxiety and may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention. We compared two psychological processes (attention and acceptance) on the frequency of intrusive worrying thoughts in an experimental worry task. METHOD: 77 participants were randomised across three groups and completed either a 10 min attention or acceptance-based psychological exercise, or progressive muscle relaxation control. We subsequently measured anxiety, and the content and frequency of intrusive thoughts before and after a 'worry induction task'...
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160720/increasing-valued-behaviors-precedes-reduction-in-suffering-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-using-act
#8
Andrew T Gloster, Jens Klotsche, Joseph Ciarrochi, Georg Eifert, Rainer Sonntag, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Jürgen Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Psychological flexibility theory (PFT) suggests three key processes of change: increases in value-directed behaviors, reduction in struggle with symptoms, and reduction in suffering. We hypothesized that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) would change these processes and that increases in valued action and decreases in struggle would precede change in suffering. METHOD: Data were derived from a randomized clinical trial testing ACT (vs. waitlist) for treatment-resistant patients with primary panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (n = 41)...
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129879/corrigendum-to-effects-of-triple-p-parenting-intervention-on-child-health-outcomes-for-childhood-asthma-and-eczema-randomised-controlled-trial-behav-res-ther-83-2016-35-44
#9
Alina Morawska, Amy E Mitchell, Scott Burgess, Jennifer Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196772/intervening-variables-in-group-based-acceptance-commitment-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety
#10
Trine Eilenberg, Ditte Hoffmann, Jens S Jensen, Lisbeth Frostholm
OBJECTIVE: The present study is based on a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial (RCT) on Acceptance and Commitment Group therapy (ACT-G) for severe health anxiety (HA) and investigates intervening variables of ACT for HA. The process primarily targeted by ACT is psychological flexibility (PF). No randomized study has yet examined the possible intervening variables of ACT for HA. METHODS: 126 patients diagnosed with severe HA were enrolled in the RCT of which 107 were included in the analyses...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160719/both-positive-mental-health-and-psychopathology-should-be-monitored-in-psychotherapy-confirmation-for-the-dual-factor-model-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#11
H R Trompetter, S M A Lamers, G J Westerhof, M Fledderus, E T Bohlmeijer
The dual-factor model of mental health suggests that enhancing positive mental health and alleviating psychopathology do not automatically go hand-in-hand. This study investigates the relationship between the effectiveness on depression/anxiety symptoms and positive mental health of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). It draws on RCT data (n = 250) of a self-help ACT. Patients' depression/anxiety symptoms and positive mental health were completed at baseline, at post-intervention after nine weeks, and at follow-up after five months...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153337/a-practical-guide-to-propensity-score-analysis-for-applied-clinical-research
#12
Jaehoon Lee, Todd D Little
Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157599/harm-beliefs-and-coping-expectancies-in-youth-with-specific-phobias
#13
Thomas H Ollendick, Lars-Göran Öst, Sarah M Ryan, Nicole N Capriola, Lena Reuterskiöld
Catastrophic beliefs and lowered coping expectancies are often present in individuals with specific phobias (SPs). The current study examined these beliefs and expectancies in 251 youth who received One Session Treatment for one of the three most common types of SP in youth (animals, natural environment, and situational). We compared the children's subjective beliefs to objective ratings of the likelihood of occurrence and the dangerousness of the feared events. Results revealed pre-treatment differences in the youths' beliefs across phobia types and age...
January 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129574/effects-of-mindfulness-reappraisal-and-suppression-on-sad-mood-and-cognitive-resources
#14
Shian-Ling Keng, Elysia Li Yan Tan, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Moria J Smoski
The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness...
January 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110112/verbal-memory-functioning-moderates-psychotherapy-treatment-response-for-ptsd-related-nightmares
#15
J Cobb Scott, Gerlinde Harb, Janeese A Brownlow, Jennifer Greene, Ruben C Gur, Richard J Ross
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive deficits in attention, executive control, and memory, although few studies have investigated the relevance of cognitive difficulties for treatment outcomes. We examined whether cognitive functioning and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were associated with response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD-related sleep problems. In a randomized controlled trial of Imagery Rehearsal (IR) added to components of CBT for Insomnia (IR + cCBT-I) compared to cCBT-I alone for PTSD-related recurrent nightmares, 94 U...
January 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108010/from-avoidance-to-approach-the-influence-of-threat-of-shock-on-reward-based-decision-making
#16
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers, Andre Pittig
Potential threat can prime defensive responding and avoidance behavior, which may result in the loss of rewards. When aversive consequences do not occur, avoidance should, thus, be quickly overcome in healthy individuals. This study examined the impact of threat anticipation on reward-based decisions. Sixty-five participants completed a decision-making task in which they had to choose between high- and low-reward options. To model an approach-avoidance conflict, the high-reward option was contingent with a threat-of-shock cue; the low-reward option was contingent with a safety cue...
January 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110111/applying-a-novel-statistical-method-to-advance-the-personalized-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-a-composite-moderator-of-comparative-drop-out-from-cbt-and-act
#17
Andrea N Niles, Kate B Wolitzky-Taylor, Joanna J Arch, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND: No prior studies have examined moderators of dropout between distinct treatments for anxiety disorders. This study applied a novel statistical approach for examining moderators of dropout from traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). METHOD: We combined data from two randomized controlled trials (N = 208) comparing CBT and ACT for patients with DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Adapting Kraemer's method for constructing and evaluating composite moderators (2013), 26 variables were examined for individual effect sizes...
January 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088679/post-event-processing-in-social-anxiety-disorder-examining-the-mediating-roles-of-positive-metacognitive-beliefs-and-perceptions-of-performance
#18
Dubravka Gavric, David A Moscovitch, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) is defined as repetitive negative thinking following anxiety provoking social events. PEP is thought to maintain anxiety symptoms in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) but little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the maintenance of PEP. AIMS: The current study investigated how perceptions of performance and positive metacognitive beliefs might contribute to the persistence of PEP. METHOD: Participants with SAD (n = 24) as well as anxious (n = 24) and healthy (n = 25) control participants completed a standardized social performance task in the lab...
January 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081861/an-introduction-to-using-bayesian-linear-regression-with-clinical-data
#19
Scott A Baldwin, Michael J Larson
Statistical training psychology focuses on frequentist methods. Bayesian methods are an alternative to standard frequentist methods. This article provides researchers with an introduction to fundamental ideas in Bayesian modeling. We use data from an electroencephalogram (EEG) and anxiety study to illustrate Bayesian models. Specifically, the models examine the relationship between error-related negativity (ERN), a particular event-related potential, and trait anxiety. Methodological topics covered include: how to set up a regression model in a Bayesian framework, specifying priors, examining convergence of the model, visualizing and interpreting posterior distributions, interval estimates, expected and predicted values, and model comparison tools...
December 31, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034445/higher-threat-avoidance-costs-reduce-avoidance-behaviour-which-in-turn-promotes-fear-extinction-in-humans
#20
Julina A Rattel, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task...
December 15, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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