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Behaviour Research and Therapy

Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
October 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Rafaële J C Huntjens, Ineke Wessel, Brian D Ostafin, Paul A Boelen, Friederike Behrens, Agnes van Minnen
This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Annika Clamor, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Tania M Lincoln
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84)...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Bastiaan Boh, Anita Jansen, Ineke Clijsters, Chantal Nederkoorn, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Gerasimos Spanakis, Anne Roefs
Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases...
October 4, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Meredith E Coles, Ariel Ravid
There is increasing recognition that instead of being motivated by a desire to prevent harm and reduce anxiety, some obsessive-compulsive symptoms may be driven by a desire to get things 'just right' or 'complete' and to reduce a sense of discomfort. However, existing data is largely from non-clinical samples. Therefore, in the current paper we examine the clinical presentation of not just right experiences (NJREs) in patients diagnosed with OCD and compare their experiences to both anxious and unselected controls...
September 29, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Elizabeth H Eustis, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Lizabeth Roemer, Susan M Orsillo
As a field, we lack information about specific mechanisms that are responsible for changes that occur over the course of treatments for anxiety disorders (Kazdin, 2007). Identifying these mechanisms would help streamline evidence-based approaches, increase treatment response rates, and aid in the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based approaches in diverse contexts. The current study examined reductions in experiential avoidance (EA; Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996), attempts to control or eliminate distressing internal experiences, regardless of behavioral consequences, as a potential mechanism of change in participants with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) receiving either acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) or applied relaxation (AR)...
September 28, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jessica L Schleider, John R Weisz
Efforts to reduce youth mental health problems have advanced greatly but have not lowered overall rates of youth mental illness. Thus, a need exists for disseminable, mechanism-targeted approaches to reducing risk of youth psychopathology. Accordingly, we conducted a randomized-controlled trial testing whether a single-session intervention teaching growth personality mindsets (the belief that personality is malleable) reduced known risk factors for anxiety and depression in adolescents experiencing or at risk for internalizing problems (N = 96, ages 12-15)...
September 26, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Louise Bezzina, Jessica C Lee, Peter F Lovibond, Ben Colagiuri
Reward cues can contribute to overconsumption of food and drugs and can relapse. The failure of exposure therapies to reduce overconsumption and relapse is generally attributed to the context-specificity of extinction. However, no previous study has examined whether cue-elicited reward-seeking (as opposed to cue-reactivity) is sensitive to context renewal. We tested this possibility in 160 healthy volunteers using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design involving voluntary responding for a high value natural reward (chocolate)...
September 20, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jaime Delgadillo, Stephen Kellett, Shehzad Ali, Dean McMillan, Michael Barkham, David Saxon, Gill Donohoe, Heather Stonebank, Sarah Mullaney, Patricia Eschoe, Richard Thwaites, Mike Lucock
BACKGROUND: This was a multi-service evaluation of the clinical and organisational effectiveness of large group psychoeducational CBT delivered within a stepped care model. METHOD: Clinical outcomes for 4451 participants in 163 psychoeducational groups delivered across 5 services were analysed by calculating pre-post treatment anxiety (GAD-7) effect sizes (Cohen's d). Overall and between-service effects were compared to published efficacy benchmarks. Multilevel modelling was used to examine if variability in clinical outcomes was explained by differences in service, group and patient-level (case-mix) variables...
September 20, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Patty Leijten, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro, Thomas J Dishion, Walter Matthys
There is a need to identify the "effective ingredients" of evidence-based behavior therapies. We tested the effects of one of the most common ingredients in parenting interventions for preventing disruptive child behavior, referred to as labeled praise (e.g., "well done picking up your toys"), which is typically recommended in preference to unlabeled praise (e.g., "well done"). We compared the effects of labeled praise, unlabeled praise, and no praise on child compliance in two experiments. Experiment 1 included 161 4 to 8 year-old community sample children and tested immediate effects of praise...
September 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jonathan M Feldman, Lynne Matte, Alejandro Interian, Paul M Lehrer, Shou-En Lu, Bari Scheckner, Dara M Steinberg, Tanya Oken, Anu Kotay, Sumita Sinha, Chang Shim
Confusion between panic and asthma symptoms can result in serious self-management errors. A cognitive behavior psychophysiological therapy (CBPT) intervention was culturally adapted for Latinos consisting of CBT for panic disorder (PD), asthma education, differentiation between panic and asthma symptoms, and heart rate variability biofeedback. An RCT compared CBPT to music and relaxation therapy (MRT), which included listening to relaxing music and paced breathing at resting respiration rates. Fifty-three Latino (primarily Puerto Rican) adults with asthma and PD were randomly assigned to CBPT or MRT for 8 weekly sessions...
September 17, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
Individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD; N = 40) were enrolled in a randomized, four-session trial comparing interpretation bias modification (IBM) training designed to target social evaluation- and appearance-related interpretation biases with a placebo control training condition (PC). Sessions took place over the course of two weeks (two sessions per week). Analyses indicated that, relative to the PC condition, IBM led to a significant increase in benign biases and reduction in threat biases at post-treatment...
September 15, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Charles M Morin, Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Lynda Bélanger, Hans Ivers, Montserrat Sánchez Ortuño, Annie Vallières, Josée Savard, Bernard Guay, Chantal Mérette
: While impairment of daytime functioning due to poor sleep is often the main determinant for seeking treatment, few studies have examined the clinical impact of insomnia therapies on daytime outcomes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), alone and combined with medication, on various indices of daytime and psychological functioning. Participants were 160 individuals with chronic insomnia who received CBT alone or CBT plus medication (zolpidem) for an initial six-week therapy, followed by an extended six-month therapy...
September 13, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Annette Brose, Ernst H W Koster, Rudi De Raedt
Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation and seems to be the cognitive mechanism linking stress to depressive symptoms. However, it remains to be investigated whether individuals' variation in rumination in relation to the occurrence of stressful events (e.g., phasic co-variation between stressful events and rumination) prospectively predict the experience of depressive symptoms in lengthy follow-up moments. In this eighteen months prospective design, a large unselected sample of undergraduates was tested before, during, and after a period with prominent naturally occurring stressful events...
September 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Lea Gutz, Stefan Roepke, Babette Renneberg
Causal attributions of social events are crucial for understanding emotional responses. Aim of the study was to identify appraisal processes in response to social exclusion in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Twenty-five patients with BPD, 25 patients with SAD and 25 healthy controls played Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing paradigm that experimentally induces social exclusion. Causal attributions, subjective feelings and action tendencies in response to social exclusion were assessed...
August 31, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Karina L Allen, Susan M Byrne, Ross D Crosby, Eric Stice
Almost no research has tested whether risk factors interact in the prediction of future eating disorder onset, which might suggest qualitatively distinct etiologic pathways. Accordingly, this prospective study tested for possible interactions between risk factors in the prediction of binge eating and purging eating disorders in adolescents. It also examined sex differences in pathways to risk. Two analytical approaches were used: (1) classification tree analysis (CTA), which is ideally suited to identifying non-linear interactions and the optimal cut-points for defining risk, with follow-up random forest analyses; and (2) two-way interaction terms in a series of logistic regression models...
August 27, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
E L de Voogd, R W Wiers, P J M Prins, P J de Jong, W J Boendermaker, R J Zwitser, E Salemink
Based on information processing models of anxiety and depression, we investigated the efficacy of multiple sessions of online attentional bias modification training to reduce attentional bias and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and to increase emotional resilience in youth. Unselected adolescents (N = 340, age: 11-18 years) were randomly allocated to eight sessions of a dot-probe, or a visual search-based attentional training, or one of two corresponding placebo control conditions. Cognitive and emotional measures were assessed pre- and post-training; emotional outcome measures also at three, six and twelve months follow-up...
August 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Stuart B Murray, Michael Treanor, Betty Liao, Katharine L Loeb, Scott Griffiths, Daniel Le Grange
By virtue of adopting the core symptomatic fear (i.e., a fear of weight gain) as a primary treatment target, the treatment of AN centrally involves exposure-driven processes. However, exposure trials targeting the fear of weight gain in AN have been sparse, yielding mixed results to date. In translating extinction theory to the treatment of AN, it is likely that the absence of a clear distinction between what constitutes the core feared cue and the core feared outcome has stymied the application of exposure treatments in AN...
August 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Elise M Clerkin, Joshua C Magee, Tony T Wells, Courtney Beard, Nancy P Barnett
OBJECTIVE: Attention biases may be an important treatment target for both alcohol dependence and social anxiety. This is the first ABM trial to investigate two (vs. one) targets of attention bias within a sample with co-occurring symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol dependence. Additionally, we used trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) to capture the phenomena of attention bias in a more ecologically valid, dynamic way compared to traditional attention bias scores. METHOD: Adult participants (N = 86; 41% Female; 52% African American; 40% White) with elevated social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an 8-session training condition in this 2 (Social Anxiety ABM vs...
August 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jeffrey R Vittengl, Lee Anna Clark, Michael E Thase, Robin B Jarrett
BACKGROUND: Acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but responders experience varying post-acute outcomes (e.g., relapse vs. recovery). Responders' symptom-change trajectories during response to acute-phase CT may predict longer term outcomes. METHOD: We studied adult outpatients (N = 220) with recurrent MDD who responded to CT but had residual symptoms. Responders with linear (steady improvement), log-linear (quicker improvement earlier and slower later), one-step (a single, relatively large, stable improvement between adjacent assessments), or undefined (not linear, log-linear, or one-step) symptom trajectories were assessed every 4 months for 32 additional months...
August 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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