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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#1
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284146/how-do-i-look-self-focused-attention-during-a-video-chat-of-women-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Noortje Vriends, Yasemin Meral, Javier A Bargas-Avila, Christina Stadler, Susan M Bögels
We investigated the role of self-focused attention (SFA) in social anxiety (disorder) in an ecologically valid way. In Experiment 1 high (n = 26) versus low (n = 25) socially anxious single women between 18 and 30 years had a video ("Skype") conversation with an attractive male confederate, while seeing themselves and the confederate on-screen. The conversation was divided in four phases: (I) warm-up, (II) positive (confederate was friendly to the participant), (III) critical (confederate was critical to the participant), and (IV) active (participant was instructed to ask questions to the confederate)...
March 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#3
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257982/online-visual-search-attentional-bias-modification-for-adolescents-with-heightened-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
E L De Voogd, R W Wiers, E Salemink
Anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, are both characterized by a negative attentional bias. As Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) can reduce such a bias, and might also affect emotional reactivity, it could be a promising early intervention. However, a growing number of studies also report comparable improvements in both active and placebo groups. The current study investigated the effects of eight online sessions of visual search (VS) ABM compared to both a VS placebo-training and a no-training control group in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 108)...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273505/engaging-in-an-experiential-processing-mode-increases-positive-emotional-response-during-recall-of-pleasant-autobiographical-memories
#5
Darius Gadeikis, Nikita Bos, Susanne Schweizer, Fionnuala Murphy, Barnaby Dunn
It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition)...
February 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257980/the-affect-stabilization-function-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#6
Kristof Vansteelandt, Marlies Houben, Laurence Claes, Ann Berens, Ellen Sleuwaegen, Pascal Sienaert, Peter Kuppens
Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is prominent in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and there is abundant evidence that affect regulation plays an important role in NSSI in the majority of patients. Affective variability is a core feature of BPD, and thus, we hypothesize that NSSI has an affect stabilization function in BPD. Affect stabilization is a process through which individuals attempt to make their affect more stable by reducing affective variability. We tested this hypothesis in 32 participants with BPD who reported on their NSSI and affect -using a displeasure-pleasure (valence) and activation-deactivation (activation) dimension- in an experience sampling study with 10 random signals scheduled per day for 8 days...
February 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236680/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-neurofeedback-for-the-reduction-of-negative-affect-and-anxiety
#7
Rocco Mennella, Elisabetta Patron, Daniela Palomba
Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression...
February 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257981/attention-to-beds-in-natural-scenes-by-observers-with-insomnia-symptoms
#8
Louise Beattie, Markus Bindemann, Simon D Kyle, Stephany M Biello
Attention biases to sleep-related stimuli are held to play a key role in the development and maintenance of insomnia, but such biases have only been shown with controlled visual displays. This study investigated whether observers with insomnia symptoms allocate attention to sleep-related items in natural scenes, by recording eye movements during free-viewing of bedrooms. Participants with insomnia symptoms and normal sleepers were matched in their visual exploration of these scenes, and there was no evidence that the attention of those with insomnia symptoms was captured more quickly by sleep-related stimuli than that of normal sleepers...
February 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171767/extinction-during-reconsolidation-eliminates-recovery-of-fear-conditioned-to-fear-irrelevant-and-fear-relevant-stimuli
#9
Alina Thompson, Ottmar V Lipp
Extant literature suggests that extinction training delivered during the memory reconsolidation period is superior to traditional extinction training in the reduction of fear recovery, as it targets the original fear memory trace. At present it is debated whether different types of fear memories are differentially sensitive to behavioral manipulations of reconsolidation. Here, we examined post-reconsolidation recovery of fear as a function of conditioned stimulus (CS) fear-relevance, using the unconditioned stimulus (US) to reactivate and destabilize conditioned fear memories...
February 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187306/one-or-many-which-and-how-many-parenting-variables-should-be-targeted-in-interventions-to-reduce-children-s-externalizing-behavior
#10
Laurie Loop, Bénédicte Mouton, Marie Stievenart, Isabelle Roskam
This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices...
January 31, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129879/corrigendum-to-effects-of-triple-p-parenting-intervention-on-child-health-outcomes-for-childhood-asthma-and-eczema-randomised-controlled-trial-behav-res-ther-83-2016-35-44
#11
Alina Morawska, Amy E Mitchell, Scott Burgess, Jennifer Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196772/intervening-variables-in-group-based-acceptance-commitment-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety
#12
Trine Eilenberg, Ditte Hoffmann, Jens S Jensen, Lisbeth Frostholm
OBJECTIVE: The present study is based on a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial (RCT) on Acceptance and Commitment Group therapy (ACT-G) for severe health anxiety (HA) and investigates intervening variables of ACT for HA. The process primarily targeted by ACT is psychological flexibility (PF). No randomized study has yet examined the possible intervening variables of ACT for HA. METHODS: 126 patients diagnosed with severe HA were enrolled in the RCT of which 107 were included in the analyses...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153337/a-practical-guide-to-propensity-score-analysis-for-applied-clinical-research
#13
Jaehoon Lee, Todd D Little
Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108010/from-avoidance-to-approach-the-influence-of-threat-of-shock-on-reward-based-decision-making
#14
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers, Andre Pittig
Potential threat can prime defensive responding and avoidance behavior, which may result in the loss of rewards. When aversive consequences do not occur, avoidance should, thus, be quickly overcome in healthy individuals. This study examined the impact of threat anticipation on reward-based decisions. Sixty-five participants completed a decision-making task in which they had to choose between high- and low-reward options. To model an approach-avoidance conflict, the high-reward option was contingent with a threat-of-shock cue; the low-reward option was contingent with a safety cue...
January 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081861/an-introduction-to-using-bayesian-linear-regression-with-clinical-data
#15
Scott A Baldwin, Michael J Larson
Statistical training psychology focuses on frequentist methods. Bayesian methods are an alternative to standard frequentist methods. This article provides researchers with an introduction to fundamental ideas in Bayesian modeling. We use data from an electroencephalogram (EEG) and anxiety study to illustrate Bayesian models. Specifically, the models examine the relationship between error-related negativity (ERN), a particular event-related potential, and trait anxiety. Methodological topics covered include: how to set up a regression model in a Bayesian framework, specifying priors, examining convergence of the model, visualizing and interpreting posterior distributions, interval estimates, expected and predicted values, and model comparison tools...
December 31, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171782/prediction-of-pre-exam-state-anxiety-from-ruminative-disposition-the-mediating-role-of-impaired-attentional-disengagement-from-negative-information
#16
Sergiu P Vălenaş, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Ben Grafton, Lies Notebaert, Andrei C Miu, Colin MacLeod
Rumination is a maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that enhances stress responses, and heightened disposition to engage in rumination may contribute to the onset and persistence of stress-related symptoms. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity are not yet fully understood. This study investigated the hypothesis that the impact of ruminative disposition on stress reactivity is carried by an attentional bias reflecting impaired attentional disengagement from negative information...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167331/turning-lemonade-into-lemons-dampening-appraisals-reduce-positive-affect-and-increase-negative-affect-during-positive-activity-scheduling
#17
Leigh-Anne Burr, Mahmood Javiad, Grace Jell, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Barnaby D Dunn
The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167330/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-a-low-intensity-interactive-online-parenting-intervention-triple-p-online-brief-with-parents-of-children-with-early-onset-conduct-problems
#18
Sabine Baker, Matthew R Sanders, Karen M T Turner, Alina Morawska
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of Triple P Online Brief, a low-intensity online positive parenting program for parents of children with early onset disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: Two hundred parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (n = 100) or a Waitlist Control group (n = 100). RESULTS: At 8-week post-assessment, parents in the intervention group displayed significantly less use of ineffective parenting strategies and significantly more confidence in dealing with a range of behavior concerns...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160721/testing-the-differential-effects-of-acceptance-and-attention-based-psychological-interventions-on-intrusive-thoughts-and-worry
#19
B Ainsworth, H Bolderston, M Garner
BACKGROUND: Worry is a key component of anxiety and may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention. We compared two psychological processes (attention and acceptance) on the frequency of intrusive worrying thoughts in an experimental worry task. METHOD: 77 participants were randomised across three groups and completed either a 10 min attention or acceptance-based psychological exercise, or progressive muscle relaxation control. We subsequently measured anxiety, and the content and frequency of intrusive thoughts before and after a 'worry induction task'...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160720/increasing-valued-behaviors-precedes-reduction-in-suffering-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-using-act
#20
Andrew T Gloster, Jens Klotsche, Joseph Ciarrochi, Georg Eifert, Rainer Sonntag, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Jürgen Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Psychological flexibility theory (PFT) suggests three key processes of change: increases in value-directed behaviors, reduction in struggle with symptoms, and reduction in suffering. We hypothesized that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) would change these processes and that increases in valued action and decreases in struggle would precede change in suffering. METHOD: Data were derived from a randomized clinical trial testing ACT (vs. waitlist) for treatment-resistant patients with primary panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (n = 41)...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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