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Behaviour Research and Therapy

Dubravka Gavric, David A Moscovitch, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) is defined as repetitive negative thinking following anxiety provoking social events. PEP is thought to maintain anxiety symptoms in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) but little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the maintenance of PEP. AIMS: The current study investigated how perceptions of performance and positive metacognitive beliefs might contribute to the persistence of PEP. METHOD: Participants with SAD (n = 24) as well as anxious (n = 24) and healthy (n = 25) control participants completed a standardized social performance task in the lab...
January 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Scott A Baldwin, Michael J Larson
Statistical training psychology focuses on frequentist methods. Bayesian methods are an alternative to standard frequentist methods. This article provides researchers with an introduction to fundamental ideas in Bayesian modeling. We use data from an electroencephalogram (EEG) and anxiety study to illustrate Bayesian models. Specifically, the models examine the relationship between error-related negativity (ERN), a particular event-related potential, and trait anxiety. Methodological topics covered include: how to set up a regression model in a Bayesian framework, specifying priors, examining convergence of the model, visualizing and interpreting posterior distributions, interval estimates, expected and predicted values, and model comparison tools...
December 31, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jennifer P Read, Rachel L Bachrach, Jeffrey D Wardell, Scott F Coffey
Despite their centrality to learning theories, strikingly little attention has been paid to the role of cognitions in efforts to understand associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine information processing pathways for trauma and alcohol information, and the effects of posttraumatic stress and trauma cue exposure on these pathways. Participants were college students (N = 232; 49% female; Mage = 19.56,SD = 1.44) categorized into three diagnostic groups based on current PTSD status determined by structured clinical interview...
December 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Alayna L Park, Tina Wang, Ana I Etchison, Denise A Chavira, Bruce F Chorpita
This review included 136 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of youth cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatments. We aimed to test the premise that evidence-based youth treatments can be better differentiated from each other by applying more nuanced standards of evidence. Accordingly, we applied three standards to this article sample to determine how many treatments produced significant results: (a) on multiple target symptom measures, (b) at follow-up, and/or (c) against an active comparison group...
December 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Maurice Topper, Paul M G Emmelkamp, Ed Watkins, Thomas Ehring
BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a preventive intervention for anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive levels of repetitive negative thinking (RNT; worry and rumination) in adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Participants (N = 251, 83.7% female) showing elevated levels of RNT were randomly allocated to a 6-week cognitive-behavioral training delivered in a group, via the internet, or to a waitlist control condition...
December 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Richard J Macatee, Brian J Albanese, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Cognitive theories of anxiety psychopathology cite biased attention towards threat as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. However, many studies have found threat bias indices to have poor reliability and have failed to observe the theorized relationship between threat bias and anxiety symptoms; this may be due to the non-unitary nature of threat bias and the influence of state-level variables on its expression. Accumulating data suggests that state anxious mood is important for the robust expression of threat bias and for relations to emerge between threat bias and symptoms, though this possibility has not been experimentally tested...
December 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Meredith L Wallace, Dana L McMakin, Patricia Z Tan, Dana Rosen, Erika E Forbes, Cecile D Ladouceur, Neal D Ryan, Greg J Siegle, Ronald E Dahl, Philip C Kendall, Anthony Mannarino, Jennifer S Silk
Do day-to-day emotions, social interactions, and sleep play a role in determining which anxious youth respond to supportive child-centered therapy (CCT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)? We explored whether measures of day-to-day functioning (captured through ecological momentary assessment, sleep diary, and actigraphy), along with clinical and demographic measures, were predictors or moderators of treatment outcome in 114 anxious youth randomized to CCT or CBT. We statistically combined individual moderators into a single, optimal composite moderator to characterize subgroups for which CCT or CBT may be preferable...
December 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Julina A Rattel, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task...
December 15, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
André Wannemueller, Dirk Adolph, Hans-Peter Joehren, Simon E Blackwell, Jürgen Margraf
Psychophysiological responses indicating the preparation of defensive behaviour, such as heart rate (HR)-increase and startle-response (SR) potentiation, have often been reported amongst individuals suffering from phobic disorders when exposed to phobia-related information. Although exposure is widely considered the 'gold standard' for treatment of Specific Phobia, it is unclear to what extent psychophysiological defensive response patterns change following treatment, and whether any changes are maintained...
December 14, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sarah Vigerland, Eva Serlachius, Ulrika Thulin, Gerhard Andersson, Jan-Olov Larsson, Brjánn Ljótsson
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the long-term outcomes of internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for children with anxiety disorders, and potential pre-treatment predictors of treatment outcome. METHOD: The sample included eighty-four children (8-12 years old) with anxiety disorders, from both a treatment group and a waitlist control (after participants had crossed over to treatment) of a previous randomized controlled study. Participants were assessed at post-treatment and three- and twelve-months after treatment using a semi-structured interview and parent ratings...
December 14, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Monika Trentowska, Jennifer Svaldi, Jens Blechert, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
BACKGROUND: Body exposure is a common and effective treatment for body image disturbance in bulimia nervosa (BN). However, little is known about treatment mechanisms. Based on models of emotional processing and neurovisceral integration, we expected to observe a) initial activation and b) habituation of cognitive-affective and autonomic responding within one and between two standardized body exposure sessions. METHODS: A group of 13 women with BN and 13 healthy controls (HC) were repeatedly exposed to their bodies...
December 13, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Julian A Rubel, David Rosenbaum, Wolfgang Lutz
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of patients' in-session experiences that lead to symptom change in psychotherapy is limited. This study aims to investigate the within- and between-patient relationships between three in-session processes in psychotherapy (coping skills, therapeutic relationship quality, and emotional involvement) and symptom change on a session-by-session level. METHOD: Participants (n = 1550) with various disorders, including primarily depression and anxiety, were treated with CBT in a German outpatient clinic...
December 13, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Magali Van de Walle, Patricia Bijttebier, Rudi De Raedt, Guy Bosmans
It has been suggested that an increased attentional focus on the mother should be maladaptive in middle childhood. However, the effect of a more narrow attentional field around the mother may depend on the mother-child relationship. The current study tested whether a more narrow attentional field around the mother is mainly maladaptive for children who tend to think repetitively about their mother (RTm) during distress. More specifically, it investigates whether RTm during distress provides the context in which an increased attentional focus on the mother is linked to depressive symptoms in middle childhood...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Susan H Spence, Caroline L Donovan, Sonja March, Justin A Kenardy, Cate S Hearn
The study examined whether the efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder for children and adolescents is increased if intervention addresses specific cognitive and behavioral factors linked to the development and maintenance of SAD in young people, over and above the traditional generic CBT approach. Participants were 125 youth, aged 8-17 years, with a primary diagnosis of SAD, who were randomly assigned to generic CBT (CBT-GEN), social anxiety specific CBT (CBT-SAD) or a wait list control (WLC)...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
David F Tolin, Amber L Billingsley, Lauren S Hallion, Gretchen J Diefenbach
Recent clinical trial research suggests that baseline low end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2, the biological marker of hyperventilation) may predict poorer response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders. The present study examined the predictive value of baseline ETCO2 among patients treated for such disorders in a naturalistic clinical setting. Sixty-nine adults with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-5 anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder completed a 4-min assessment of resting ETCO2, and respiration rate (the first minute was analyzed)...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jack Cotter, Alison R Yung, Rebekah Carney, Richard J Drake
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are common among people with psychosis. In this meta-analysis we examined whether these are also present in people meeting at-risk mental state (ARMS) criteria. We also explored the relationship between metacognitive beliefs and symptoms in the ARMS group. An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until August 2016 was conducted using keyword search terms synonymous with ARMS and metacognition. Eligible studies were original research articles that examined metacognitive beliefs using the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ) among people meeting ARMS criteria...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kim Haesen, Tom Beckers, Frank Baeyens, Bram Vervliet
Adaptive defensive actions necessitate a fear learning system that is both fast and specific. Fast learning serves to minimize the number of threat confrontations, while specific learning ensures that the acquired fears are tied to threat-relevant cues only. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear acquisition is typically studied via repetitive pairings of a single cue with an aversive experience, which is not optimal for the examination of fast specific fear learning. In this study, we adopted the one-trial overshadowing procedure from basic learning research, in which a combination of two visual cues is presented once and paired with an aversive electrical stimulation...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Yinyin Zang, Jessica Yu, Daniel Chazin, Anu Asnaani, Laurie J Zandberg, Edna B Foa
OBJECTIVE: The current study examines changes in coping among 165 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for co-morbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD). METHOD: Participants were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants received supportive counseling focused on alcohol use (BRENDA). Assessments of coping, PTSD, and AD were conducted at pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up...
November 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Anke Haberkamp, Julia Anna Glombiewski, Filipp Schmidt, Antonia Barke
Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene)...
November 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Regina Miranda, Mariann Weierich, Valerie Khait, Justyna Jurska, Susan M Andersen
The present study examined whether practice in making optimistic future-event predictions would result in change in the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression. Individuals (N = 170) with low, mild, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a condition in which they practiced making optimistic future-event predictions or to a control condition in which they viewed the same stimuli but practiced determining whether a given phrase contained an adjective. Overall, individuals in the induced optimism condition showed increases in optimistic predictions, relative to the control condition, as a result of practice, but only individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression who practiced making optimistic future-event predictions showed decreases in depressive predictive certainty, relative to the control condition...
November 22, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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