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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416167/partial-reinforcement-of-avoidance-and-resistance-to-extinction-in-humans
#1
Weike Xia, Simon Dymond, Keith Lloyd, Bram Vervliet
In anxiety, maladaptive avoidance behavior provides for near-perfect controllability of potential threat. There has been little laboratory-based treatment research conducted on controllability as a contributing factor in the transition from adaptive to maladaptive avoidance. Here, we investigated for the first time whether partial reinforcement rate, or the reliability of avoidance at controlling or preventing contact with an aversive event, influences subsequent extinction of avoidance in humans. Five groups of participants were exposed to different partial reinforcement rates where avoidance cancelled upcoming shock on 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% or 0% of trials...
April 12, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410461/gradients-of-fear-how-perception-influences-fear-generalization
#2
Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture...
April 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388967/corrigendum-to-examining-cognitive-examining-cognitive-processes-and-drinking-urge-in-ptsd-behav-res-ther-90-march-2017-159-168
#3
Jennifer P Read, Rachel L Bachrach, Jeffrey D Wardell, Scott F Coffey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391116/improving-cognitive-control-in-adolescents-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#4
Susanne Schweizer, Zobair Samimi, Jafar Hasani, Alireza Moradi, Fatemeh Mirdoraghi, Mohammad Khaleghi
The adverse impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the developing mind in adolescence can extend well into adulthood. The developmental malleability of cognitive control capacity in this age group, however, may hold particular promise for cognitive training interventions. The present study investigated the effects of affective working memory (aWMT) compared to placebo-training on cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents with PTSD. 30 treatment-seeking adolescents trained for 20 days on either an affective dual n-back task (aWMT; n = 15) or a feature match task (placebo; n = 15)...
April 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372805/corrigendum-to-patients-in-session-experiences-and-symptom-change-session-to-session-effects-on-a-within-and-between-patient-level-behav-res-ther-90-2017-58-66
#5
Julian A Rubel, David Rosenbaum, Wolfgang Lutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395158/clinical-characteristics-of-latent-classes-of-co2-hypersensitivity-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
Lance M Rappaport, Christina Sheerin, Jeanne E Savage, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
Although breathing CO2-enriched air reliably increases anxiety, there is debate concerning the nature and specificity of CO2 hypersensitivity to panic risk and panic disorder versus anxiety disorders and related traits broadly, particularly among adolescents and emerging adults. The present study sought to clarify the association of CO2 hypersensitivity with internalizing conditions and symptoms among adolescents and young adults. Participants (N = 628) self-reported anxiety levels every 2 min while breathing air enriched to 7...
March 30, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384509/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-adults-with-autism-receiving-virtual-reality-social-cognition-training-preliminary-findings
#7
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatment biomarkers that can accurately forecast the response to an evidence-based behavioral treatment, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training (VR-SCT). In a preliminary sample of 17 young adults with high-functioning ASD, we identified neural predictors of change in emotion recognition after VR-SCT...
March 29, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395157/attentional-focus-during-exposure-in-spider-phobia-the-effect-of-valence-and-schematicity-of-a-partial-distractor
#8
Vincent Dethier, Pierre Philippot
This study examines the impact of partial distractor valence and schematicity (i.e., their relation to fear representation) on exposure efficacy. One hundred forty-one spider phobics were exposed to spider pictures and asked, in a between-subjects experimental design, to form mental images of words that were fear related (to spiders) and negative (schematic negative), fear unrelated and negative (non-schematic negative) or fear unrelated and positive (non-schematic positive). Multilevel measures of anxiety were performed at pre-exposure, post-exposure and 6 days' follow-up...
March 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376342/children-s-behavioral-inhibition-and-anxiety-disorder-symptom-severity-the-role-of-individual-differences-in-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia
#9
Andres G Viana, Cara A Palmer, Michael J Zvolensky, Candice A Alfano, Laura J Dixon, Elizabeth M Raines
Although behavioral inhibition (BI) is clearly identified as a temperamental risk factor for childhood anxiety psychopathology, much less is known about whether the strength of this association may vary as a function of parasympathetic nervous system regulation in children with anxiety disorders. To build upon extant research in this area, the present study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) can explicate the conditions in which BI is linked to increased symptom severity among anxiety-disordered children (N = 44; M = 9...
March 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391115/pavlovian-disgust-conditioning-as-a-model-for-contamination-based-ocd-evidence-from-an-analogue-study
#10
Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced...
March 23, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366433/intentions-matter-avoidance-intentions-regulate-anxiety-via-outcome-expectancy
#11
Anuja Ng, Peter F Lovibond
Intentions prospectively correlate with behaviour (e.g., Ajzen, 1991) but there is little research on whether they play a role in regulating emotion. Two experiments investigated whether avoidance intentions, mediated by expectancy, play a role in reducing anxiety. In Experiment 1, participants performed either an instrumental avoidance response that cancelled the shock signalled by a Pavlovian stimulus; a control response that had no effect on shock; or no response. Prior to this, they indicated their intention to respond or not respond on a form...
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355577/a-novel-perceptual-discrimination-training-task-reducing-fear-overgeneralization-in-the-context-of-fear-learning
#12
Rivkah Ginat-Frolich, Zohar Klein, Omer Katz, Tomer Shechner
Generalization is an adaptive learning mechanism, but it can be maladaptive when it occurs in excess. A novel perceptual discrimination training task was therefore designed to moderate fear overgeneralization. We hypothesized that improvement in basic perceptual discrimination would translate into lower fear overgeneralization in affective cues. Seventy adults completed a fear-conditioning task prior to being allocated into training or placebo groups. Predesignated geometric shape pairs were constructed for the training task...
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347840/enhanced-action-tendencies-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-erp-study
#13
Adi Dayan, Andrea Berger, Gideon Emanuel Anholt
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. This study explored the stages of motor response preparation that precede action performance or inhibition: We investigated whether OCD is related to enhanced action tendencies in response to external stimuli. Response preparation processes were assessed using the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). ERPs were recorded while 15 participants with OCD and 16 healthy controls performed a variation of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task using schematic faces (angry and neutral)...
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342947/what-good-are-positive-emotions-for-treatment-trait-positive-emotionality-predicts-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety
#14
Charles T Taylor, Sarah E Knapp, Jessica A Bomyea, Holly J Ramsawh, Martin P Paulus, Murray B Stein
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety...
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342540/corrigendum-to-the-neuroscience-of-depression-implications-for-assessment-and-intervention-behav-res-ther-62-2014-60-73
#15
Manpreet K Singh, Ian H Gotlib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384508/referential-focus-moderates-depression-linked-attentional-avoidance-of-positive-information
#16
Julie Lin Ji, Ben Grafton, Colin MacLeod
While there is consensus that depression is associated with a memory bias characterized by reduced retrieval of positive information that is restricted to information that had been self-referentially processed, there is less agreement concerning whether depression is characterized by an attention bias involving reduced attention to positive information. However, unlike memory research, previous attention research has not systematically examined the potential role of referential processing focus. The present study tested the hypothesis that evidence of depression-linked attentional avoidance of positive information would be more readily obtained following the self-referential processing of such information...
March 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347841/impaired-memory-updating-associated-with-impaired-recall-of-negative-words-in-dysphoric-rumination-evidence-for-a-removal-deficit
#17
Ee Pin Chang, Ullrich K H Ecker, Andrew C Page
We present evidence that dysphoric rumination involves a working memory (WM) updating deficit. Sixty-one undergraduates-pre-screened with rumination and depression scales-completed a novel task providing a specific measure of WM updating. This task involved the substitution of emotionally-valenced words, and provided an online measure of the time taken to remove outdated items from WM. Results showed that dysphoric ruminators spent less time removing outdated words from WM when the new to-be-remembered word was negative...
March 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342401/sudden-gains-in-exposure-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Lindsey M Collins, Meredith E Coles
Prior research in the treatment of depression and anxiety has demonstrated that a sudden reduction in symptoms between two consecutive sessions (sudden gain) is related to lower post-treatment symptom severity (e.g. Hofmann, Schulz, Meuret, Moscovitch, & Suvak, 2006; Tang & DeRubeis, 1999). However, only one study has examined sudden gains in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In that study, one-third of the patients with OCD experienced a sudden gain (Aderka et al., 2012). Further, patients who had a sudden gain had lower clinician-rated OCD symptom severity post-treatment (Aderka et al...
March 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#19
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284146/how-do-i-look-self-focused-attention-during-a-video-chat-of-women-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#20
Noortje Vriends, Yasemin Meral, Javier A Bargas-Avila, Christina Stadler, Susan M Bögels
We investigated the role of self-focused attention (SFA) in social anxiety (disorder) in an ecologically valid way. In Experiment 1 high (n = 26) versus low (n = 25) socially anxious single women between 18 and 30 years had a video ("Skype") conversation with an attractive male confederate, while seeing themselves and the confederate on-screen. The conversation was divided in four phases: (I) warm-up, (II) positive (confederate was friendly to the participant), (III) critical (confederate was critical to the participant), and (IV) active (participant was instructed to ask questions to the confederate)...
March 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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