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Behaviour Research and Therapy

John P Brady, Kelsey A Nogg, Kaitlin N Rozzell, Carlos E Rodriguez-Diaz, Keith J Horvath, Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill
OBJECTIVE: To investigate body image and condomless anal sex (CAS) among young Latino sexual minority men (SMM)-a population with health disparities in HIV and body image concerns. METHODS: Participants were 151 young Latino SMM from the San Diego area who were HIV-negative or unknown. Participants completed a questionnaire online in either English or Spanish, which included body image and sexual behavior items. A binary CAS variable was created based on the number of CAS partners reported (0 vs 1 + over past 3 months)...
November 2, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mai-Ly N Steers, Tzu-An Chen, Julie Neisler, Ezemenari M Obasi, Lorna H McNeill, Lorraine R Reitzel
Discrimination is a pervasive stressor among African-American adults. Social support is an important protective factor for psychological distress, especially among minority populations. Although a number of studies have examined social support in relation to discrimination, little research has examined how social support may serve as an important protective factor against both physical and psychological symptoms related to overall psychological distress within this group. The current study examined social support as a moderator of the relationship between discrimination and overall psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory among a community sample of 122 African-American church-going adults...
November 1, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Monika A Waszczuk, Camilo Ruggero, Kaiqiao Li, Benjamin J Luft, Roman Kotov
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases risk of future respiratory illness. However, mechanisms that underpin the association between these common and debilitating conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable, health-related behaviors they may explain the link between PTSD and respiratory problems. METHODS: World Trade Center responders (N = 452, 89% male, mean age = 55 years) completed baseline PTSD and sleep questionnaires, followed by 2-weeks of daily diaries, actigraphy and ambulatory spirometry to monitor lower respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, activity levels, stressors, and sleep...
November 1, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Georgina Clifford, Tim Dalgleish, Caitlin Hitchcock
Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs) are commonly associated with psychosis but are also reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hearing voices after the experience of stress has been conceptualised as a dissociative experience. Brewin and Patel's (2010) seminal study reported that hearing voices is relatively common in PTSD, as hearing voices was associated with PTSD in half and two thirds of military veterans and survivors of civilian trauma, respectively. The authors conceptualised these voices as "auditory pseudohallucinations...
October 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Bram Vervliet, Iris M Engelhard
Excessive avoidance towards innocuous cues is a central diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Relevant laboratory paradigms typically include instrumental learning procedures, where the presentation of an aversive cue (e.g., a shock) can be prevented by executing an experimenter-defined response (e.g., a button press) during the presentation of a warning cue (e.g., a square). Despite the popularity of these paradigms, there is no evaluation of how well the experimental findings of conditioned avoidance extend to maladaptive avoidance, or whether findings from animal studies could be informative for human studies...
October 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kevin E Vowles, Gail Sowden, Jayne Hickman, Julie Ashworth
A key issue in chronic pain treatment concerns changes necessary for reduced pain-related distress and disability. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a behavior change approach, theorizes several important treatment processes. Increased engagement in valued activities appears highly relevant as previous work has indicated it is related to current and future functioning and to treatment outcomes. This study sought to examine change trajectory in valued activity over the course of an interdisciplinary program of ACT and its relation to outcomes at treatment conclusion and three-month follow-up (N = 242)...
October 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Marie Lindebø Knutsen, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Silje Mørup Ormhaug
OBJECTIVE: Although there is compelling evidence that trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an effective treatment for traumatized youth, we know less about the mechanisms contributing to symptom reduction. To improve the understanding of change mechanisms in TF-CBT, this paper investigates the possible bi-directional longitudinal relationship between changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), cognitions and depression in a clinical sample of traumatized youth...
October 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Katherine A Kaplan, David C Talavera, Allison G Harvey
Sleep inertia involves decreased performance or disorientation upon waking that lasts several hours and impairs functioning. Though sleep inertia is common in insomnia and may interfere with treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) does not routinely include a component to address sleep inertia. The present study evaluates such a component, the RISE-UP routine, in CBTI for insomnia comorbid with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that the RISE-UP routine would increase physical activity in the morning and reduce the duration and severity of self-reported sleep inertia...
October 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Joseph W Ditre, Lisa R LaRowe, Peter A Vanable, Martin J De Vita, Michael J Zvolensky
Pain, tobacco cigarette smoking, and prescription opioid misuse are all highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Smoking and pain medication misuse can lead to deleterious outcomes, including more severe pain and physical impairment. However, we are not aware of any interventions that have attempted to address these issues in an integrated manner. Participants (N = 68) were recruited from an outpatient infectious disease clinic and randomized to either a computer-based personalized feedback intervention (Integrated PFI) that aimed to increase motivation, confidence, and intention to quit smoking, and decrease intentions to misuse prescription analgesic medications, or a Control PFI...
October 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lorra Garey, Thomas M Piasecki, Matthew W Gallagher, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and withdrawal symptoms are central to the maintenance of tobacco use. Previous research suggests that individual differences in the propensity to experience negative affect may be related to more severe withdrawal symptoms. However, little research has examined how individual differences in the ability to regulate affect (emotion dysregulation) may impact withdrawal symptoms over time. METHOD: Therefore, the current study examined the effects of emotion dysregulation on change in tobacco withdrawal symptoms over 12 weeks following a cigarette quit attempt among 188 (Mage  = 38...
October 19, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Julianne G Wilner, Clair Cassiello-Robbins, Pooja Saraff, Danyelle Pagan
Evaluating the unique effects of each component included in treatment protocols for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a necessary step in refining these interventions so that they only include skills that drive therapeutic change. One strategy, included in several prominent treatments for BPD, is acting opposite to emotion-driven behavioral urges; engaging in behaviors that are inconsistent with an experienced emotion is thought to lead to reductions in its intensity, though this has not been empirically-tested...
October 16, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Steven C Hayes, Stefan G Hofmann, Cory E Stanton, Joseph K Carpenter, Brandon T Sanford, Joshua E Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi
For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with given clients. This is an inherently more idiographic question than has normally been at issue in evidence-based therapy over the last few decades. In this article we explore methods of assessment and analysis that can integrate idiographic and nomothetic approaches in a process-based era...
October 16, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Justin Dainer-Best, Jason D Shumake, Christopher G Beevers
Depressed adults often show a bias towards negative self-referent processing at the expense of positive self-referent processing. The current study assessed whether a mental imagery intervention (Positive Self Reference Training-PSRT) delivered via the Internet could improve self-referent processing and depressive symptomatology among adults with moderate or greater depression symptoms. Participants were recruited via online methods and randomly assigned to one of two computerized interventions: active PSRT (n=44) or control training (NTC; n=43)...
October 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Vilas Sawrikar, David J Hawes, Caroline Moul, Mark R Dadds
BACKGROUND: Parent attributions about the causes of their children's behaviour problems are a known predictor of problematic parenting and ongoing child problems. However, their importance in parenting interventions remains unknown as research has not addressed whether parental attributions predict outcomes associated with parenting training. The current study examined whether problematic pre-treatment and change resistant parental attributions during treatment uniquely predict child behaviour outcomes...
October 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Vítor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Mariel Mendez, Adam Bisaga, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
OBJECTIVES: Stimulant Use Disorders (SUDs) are an emergent public health concern in the United States and worldwide. However, there is still a lack of consensus for best-approaches regarding treatment of SUD. Recent trials have evaluated combinations of medications and psychosocial treatments to enhance efficacy. Contingency Management (CM) is a behavioral intervention that has shown effectiveness in treating SUDs. Our aim was to review studies using a combined methods approach such as CM and medications for the treatment of SUD...
October 4, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jonathan Greenberg, Tosca D Braun, Marissa L Schneider, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Lisa A Conboy, Elizabeth D Schifano, Crystal Park, Sara W Lazar
Home practice is a major component of mind-body programs, yet little is known about how to optimize the amount of prescribed home practice in order to achieve an effective "dose" of practice while minimizing participant burden. This study tested how varying the amount of home practice in a mind-body program impacts compliance and stress reduction, and whether prescribing a flexible home practice schedule increases compliance. Eighty-four stressed participants undergoing a 12-week yoga program were randomized to low, medium, and high home practice conditions...
October 4, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sophia Fürtjes, Maria Seidel, Joseph A King, Ronald Biemann, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Rumination about body weight/figure as well as food is common in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and may be a maintenance factor of the disorder. While rumination can generally be considered as a cognitive-affective process, food-related rumination may be driven primarily by a physiological response to undernutrition. In the current longitudinal study, we integrate ecological momentary assessment of rumination and affect and, as a biological marker of undernutrition, plasma leptin levels collected from 33 AN patients...
October 2, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Johanna Hepp, Lisa M Störkel, Pascal J Kieslich, Christian Schmahl, Inga Niedtfeld
Previous research suggests that individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) tend to evaluate other people as untrustworthy or hostile, which could contribute to the marked interpersonal problems in BPD. In contrast, alterations in first impressions of potential interaction partners of those with BPD remain under-researched and poorly understood. Herein, we focused on how naïve raters evaluate BPD individuals, hypothesizing that raters would tend to evaluate them negatively. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 26 BPD and 26 healthy control participants (46% male) as targets in the 'Thin Slices' paradigm...
September 29, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Rebecca C Cox, Sonya K Sterba, David A Cole, Raghu P Upender, Bunmi O Olatunji
Previous research has linked sleep disturbance to anxiety. However, evidence for this relation has been inconsistent, largely limited to retrospective reports that do not account for daily variability, and silent on when the association is most pronounced. Thus, the present study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the effects of daily deviations in total sleep time (TST) and person-average TST on anxiety and whether these effects varied as a function of time of day in a sample of unselected adults (N = 138)...
September 29, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tom Hildebrandt, Kurt Schulz, Daniela Schiller, Ashley Heywood, Wayne Goodman, Robyn Sysko
Food avoidance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been hypothesized to occur as a result of deficits in reversal learning and altered neuronal processing of food-cue relationships. Extant findings suggest that those with AN may rely on heightened recruitment of prefrontal regions during initial formation of food-cue learning and difficulty extinguishing these relationships may result from elevated insula activity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing behavioral and neuronal responses to food-cue acquisition and reversal between adolescents with AN and healthy controls...
September 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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