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Behaviour Research and Therapy

Alina Thompson, Peter M McEvoy, Ottmar V Lipp
BACKGROUND: Fears underlying anxiety disorders are commonly treated with exposure-based therapies, which are based on the principles of extinction learning. While these treatments are efficacious, fears may return after successful treatment. Past research suggested that post-extinction recovery of fear could be reduced through extinction training that involves occasional presentations of the aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), paired with the conditioned stimulus (CS). Here, we examined whether extinction training with occasionally paired or unpaired US presentations is superior in the reduction of fear recovery to non-reinforced extinction...
July 3, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
M Alexandra Kredlow, Scott P Orr, Michael W Otto
Over a dozen studies have examined the efficacy of post-retrieval extinction (PRE) in healthy adults in the fear conditioning laboratory, with a recent meta-analysis reporting an overall small-moderate effect on attenuating the return of fear compared to standard extinction. The current study was designed to extend PRE effects to a mixed sample of healthy and anxious individuals, explore potential moderators, and examine the benefit of PRE for a memory conditioned over multiple days. Healthy (n = 49) and anxious (n = 43) adults received either one day of acquisition followed by PRE, one day of acquisition followed by extinction, or three days of acquisition followed by PRE...
June 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tobias Teismann, Julia Brailovskaia, Christina Totzeck, Andre Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
Positive mental health has been shown to predict remission from anxiety disorders in community samples. However, it is unclear, whether positive mental health is also predictive of symptom severity and remission from anxiety disorders in patients receiving exposure therapy. A total of 130 adult outpatients suffering from panic disorder, agoraphobia, or specific phobia received manualized exposure-therapy. Positive mental health was considered as a predictor of symptom severity and remission at the post-treatment assessment and at the follow-up assessment six months after treatment termination - controlling for depression, anxiety, anxiety cognitions, bodily sensations, number of treatment sessions, age and gender...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Shanta Dey, Jutta Joormann, Michelle L Moulds, Ben R Newell
rumination is characteristic of depressed individuals, as is the tendency to experience post-decisional regret. We conducted two studies to test whether (i) abstract rumination is associated with post-decisional regret, and (ii) inducing the converse style of thinking, namely concrete rumination, would reduce post-decisional regret. In Study 1, participants identified a personally important decision that they regretted having made in the past 6 months, were instructed to think in either an abstract (n = 29) or concrete (n = 29) way about their decision, then rated the extent to which they regretted the decision...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Camilla C Luck, Shannon Bramwell, Jessica Kerin, Luke J S Green, Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
In associative learning, if stimulus A is presented in the same temporal context as the conditional stimulus (CS) - outcome association (but not in a way that allows an A-CS association to form) it becomes a temporal context cue, acquiring the ability to activate this context and retrieve the CS-outcome association. We examined whether a CS- presented during acquisition or extinction that predicted the absence of the unconditional stimulus (US) could act as a temporal context cue, reducing or enhancing responding, in differential fear conditioning...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Michael P Twohig, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Brooke M Smith, Laura E Fabricant, Ryan J Jacoby, Kate L Morrison, Ellen J Bluett, Lillian Reuman, Shannon M Blakey, Thomas Ledermann
The objective of this study was to test whether treatment acceptability, exposure engagement, and completion rates could be increased by integrating acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with traditional exposure and response prevention (ERP). 58 adults (68% female) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age = 27, 80% white) engaged in a multisite randomized controlled trial of 16 individual twice-weekly sessions of either ERP or ACT + ERP. Assessors unaware of treatment condition administered assessments of OCD, depression, psychological flexibility, and obsessional beliefs at pretreatment, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
André Wannemueller, Dirk Moser, Robert Kumsta, Hans-Peter Jöhren, Dirk Adolph, Jürgen Margraf
There is considerable interindividual variation in response to psychotherapeutical intervention. In order to realize the long-term goal of personalised treatment approaches, it is important to identify behavioural and biological moderators and mediators of treatment responses. Here, we tested the predictive value of experimental fear extinction efficacy as well as the role of genetic variation of the serotonin transporter gene for the outcome of a fear-exposure treatment. A discriminative fear conditioning paradigm was conducted in 159 adults highly fearful of spiders, dental surgeries or blood, injuries and injections...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
David A Moscovitch, Vanja Vidovic, Ariella P Lenton-Brym, Jessica R Dupasquier, Kevin C Barber, Taylor Hudd, Nick Zabara, Mia Romano
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SADs; n = 41) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 40) were administered the Waterloo Images and Memories Interview, in which they described mental images that they tend to experience in both anxiety-provoking and non-anxiety-provoking social situations. Participants then recalled, in as much detail as possible, specific autobiographical memories of salient aversive and non-aversive social experiences that they believed led to the formation of these images. Audio-recorded memory narratives were transcribed and coded based on the procedure of the Autobiographical Interview, which provides a precise measure of the degree of episodic detail contained within each memory...
June 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Erland Axelsson, Erik Andersson, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf
Strategies to increase the availability of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for severe health anxiety (SHA) are needed, and this study investigated the cost-effectiveness and long-term efficacy of three forms of minimal-contact CBT for SHA. We hypothesised that therapist-guided internet CBT (G-ICBT), unguided internet CBT (U-ICBT), and cognitive behavioural bibliotherapy (BIB-CBT) would all be more cost-effective than a waiting-list condition (WLC), as assessed over the main phase of the trial. We also hypothesised that improvements would remain stable up to one-year follow-up...
June 15, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Lonneke A van Tuijl, Klaske A Glashouwer, Hermien J Elgersma, Claudi L H Bockting, Brenda W J H Penninx, Peter J de Jong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Shevaugn Johnson, Paul Williamson, Tracey D Wade
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence supporting the association between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptomology and four types of cognitive processing abnormalities: local processing, selective attention, interpretive biases, and memory deficits. Twenty-three studies met inclusion requirements that examined differences in performance on cognitive tasks between BDD and control groups across the four categories. Multilevel modelling was used to calculate an overall effect size for each cognitive category...
May 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Alex H K Wong, Peter F Lovibond
Trait anxiety has been widely accepted as a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, few studies have examined how trait anxiety may affect fear generalisation, which is believed to be a core feature of anxiety disorders. Using a single-cue conditioning paradigm, the current study found a range of discrete generalisation gradients in both expectancy ratings and skin conductance, which were highly consistent with participants' reported abstract rules. Trait anxious participants showed the same level of threat expectancy to the conditioned cue as low anxious participants...
May 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Susan J Wenze, Trent L Gaugler, Erin S Sheets, Jennifer M DeCicco
We used ecological momentary assessment to investigate momentary correlates, antecedents, and consequences of experiential avoidance (EA), and to explore whether depression and anxiety moderate these within-person relationships. Participants recorded their mood, thoughts, stress, and EA four times daily for one week. Baseline depression and anxiety were associated with EA. EA was lower when participants reported more positive mood and thoughts, and higher when participants reported more negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress...
May 29, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Barnaby D Dunn, Leigh Anne Burr, Harriet Bunker Smith, Anna Hunt, Daniel Dadgostar, Lucy Dalglish, Sophie Smith, Ellie Attree, Grace Jell, James Martyn, Nikita Bos, Aliza Werner-Seidler
Two studies examined whether use of dampening appraisals (e.g., thinking "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., thinking "I deserve this") modulated affective experience when remembering (Study One) and anticipating (Study Two) positive events. Both studies used a mixed within-between participants design, with participants completing an uninstructed positive recall/anticipation task before being randomized to either control, dampening, or amplifying instructions during a second positive recall/anticipation task...
May 25, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tomislav D Zbozinek, Michelle G Craske
Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders is derived from Pavlovian extinction learning. With the aim of optimizing exposure therapy, the present study evaluated the effects of multiple extinction stimuli on inhibitory learning. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, participants were randomized to one of three extinction conditions: Extinction_CS+ received nine presentations of the original conditional stimulus (CS+); Extinction_Singular received nine presentations of a generalization stimulus (GS; stimulus similar to the CS+); and Extinction_Variety received one presentation each of nine GSs...
May 24, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Tess K Drazdowski, Andrea Niles, Peter Roy-Byrne, Richard Ries, Richard Rawson, Michelle G Craske
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety sensitivity and coping motives for substance use are processes implicated in anxiety and substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity, and are malleable treatment targets. Little is known about whether changes in anxiety sensitivity or coping motives during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders (with or without CBT for SUD) mediate substance use outcomes among patients with comorbid anxiety disorders and SUD. We examined whether changes in anxiety sensitivity and coping motives during treatment for comorbid SUD and anxiety disorders (either CBT for SUD only or CBT for SUD and anxiety disorders) were associated with substance use outcomes...
May 24, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Carly Yasinski, Adele M Hayes, Elizabeth Alpert, Thomas McCauley, C Beth Ready, Charles Webb, Esther Deblinger
OBJECTIVE: Premature dropout is a significant concern in trauma-focused psychotherapy for youth. Previous studies have primarily examined pre-treatment demographic and symptom-related predictors of dropout, but few consistent findings have been reported. The current study examined demographic, symptom, and in-session process variables as predictors of dropout from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth. METHOD: Participants were a diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7-17; n = 108) and their nonoffending caregivers (n = 86), who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting...
May 22, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Andrea N Niles, Richard Ries, Jennifer L Krull, Richard Rawson, Peter Roy-Byrne, Michelle Craske
INTRODUCTION: Understanding for whom treatments exert their greatest effects is crucial for prescriptive recommendations that can improve overall treatment efficacy. Anxiety and substance use disorder comorbidity is prevalent and a significant public health concern. Little is known about who should receive specialized, integrated treatments to address both problems. This study aimed to examine baseline patient characteristics that predict differential outcome between typical treatment for substance use disorders (UC) compared to that treatment combined with cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders (UC + CALM ARC)...
May 17, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Peter M McEvoy, David M Erceg-Hurn, Kevin C Barber, Jessica R Dupasquier, David A Moscovitch
Pilot and open trials suggest that imagery-enhanced group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is highly effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, before being considered reliable and generalisable, the effects of the intervention need to be replicated by clinicians in a setting that is independent of the protocol developers. The current study compared outcomes from clients with a principal diagnosis of SAD at the Australian clinic where the protocol was developed (n = 123) to those from an independent Canadian clinic (n = 46) to investigate whether the large effects would generalise...
July 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Alexandra D W Sullivan, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Bruce E Compas
Interparental conflict, which is common among families where a parent has a history of Major Depressive Disorder, is associated with deficits in parenting. Models of family functioning propose that interparental conflict and parenting behaviors are transactional in nature. Given the interdependent nature of family systems, increases in positive parenting practices may lead to subsequent decreases in interparental conflict. The current study was a secondary analysis of data from a preventive intervention to improve parenting, child coping skills, and child behavior in families with a history of parental depression...
July 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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