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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#1
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328948/psychopathology-and-episodic-future-thinking-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-specificity-and-episodic-detail
#2
D J Hallford, D W Austin, K Takano, F Raes
Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the mental simulation of future events that might be personally-experienced; a crucial mental process in adaptation. Psychiatric disorders are associated with deficits in recalling episodic memory, however, no study has reviewed the empirical literature to assess for similar deficits in EFT. A systematic review comparing psychiatric groups with control groups on the specificity and episodic detail of EFT returned 19 eligible studies. An overall effect of g = -0.84 (95%CI = -1...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328947/evaluating-the-role-of-repetitive-negative-thinking-in-the-maintenance-of-social-appearance-anxiety-an-experimental-manipulation
#3
Erin E Reilly, Elana B Gordis, James F Boswell, Joseph M Donahue, Stephanie M Emhoff, Drew A Anderson
Social appearance anxiety (SAA), or fear of having one's appearance negatively evaluated by others, is a risk factor for eating pathology and social anxiety, but maintenance processes for SAA remain unclear. The current study evaluated repetitive negative thinking (RNT) as a process through which SAA is maintained over time. Undergraduates (N = 126) completed self-report measurements, made an impromptu speech task to induce SAA, and were randomized to either engage in RNT or distraction following the speech task...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307439/editor-s-note
#4
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287764/a-mechanism-focused-approach-to-the-science-of-behavior-change-an-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#5
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Sumner, Theodore P Beauchaine, Lisbeth Nielsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289759/interpretation-bias-in-middle-childhood-attachment-causal-effects-on-attachment-memories-and-scripts
#6
Simon De Winter, Elske Salemink, Guy Bosmans
Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Children (9-12 years old; N = 84) were assigned to either a secure training condition, training children to interpret mother's behavior as supportive, or a neutral placebo condition, where interpretations about maternal behavior were unrelated to support...
December 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291584/effects-of-mindfulness-exercises-as-stand-alone-intervention-on-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Paul Blanck, Sarah Perleth, Thomas Heidenreich, Paula Kröger, Beate Ditzen, Hinrich Bents, Johannes Mander
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of SAMs on symptoms of anxiety and depression...
December 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274949/what-works-better-food-cue-exposure-aiming-at-the-habituation-of-eating-desires-or-food-cue-exposure-aiming-at-the-violation-of-overeating-expectancies
#8
Ghislaine Schyns, Karolien van den Akker, Anne Roefs, Rianne Hilberath, Anita Jansen
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the role of habituation of eating desires and violation of overeating expectancies during food cue exposure in obese women. METHOD: 52 obese females were randomised into a two-session exposure condition aimed at habituation, a two-session exposure condition aimed at expectancy violation, or a no-treatment control condition. Eating in the absence of hunger of foods included during cue exposure (i.e., exposed foods) and foods not included during cue exposure (i...
December 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277023/development-of-an-in-vivo-metric-to-aid-visual-inspection-of-single-case-design-data-do-we-need-to-run-more-sessions
#9
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Todd D Little, Zhanxia Yang
Comparing visual inspection results of graphed data reveals inconsistencies in the interpretation of the same graph among single-case experimental design (SCED) researchers and practitioners. Although several investigators have disseminated structured criteria and visual inspection aids or strategies, inconsistencies in interpreting graphed data continue to exist even for individuals considered to be experts at interpreting SCED graphs. We propose a fail safe k metric that can be used in conjunction with visual inspection, and it can be used in-vivo after each additional data point is collected within a phase to determine the optimal point in time to shift between phases (e...
December 16, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229376/combat-related-guilt-and-the-mechanisms-of-exposure-therapy
#10
Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, Sandra M Neer, Vu Nguyen, B Christopher Frueh, Deborah C Beidel
Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment...
November 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182944/learning-to-feel-tired-a-learning-trajectory-towards-chronic-fatigue
#11
Bert Lenaert, Yannick Boddez, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Caroline M van Heugten
Chronic fatigue complaints are frequently reported in the general population and fatigue ranks among the most commonly reported symptoms in chronic disease. In contrast to its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, relatively little is understood about the etiology of chronic fatigue. We present a cognitive-behavioral framework, the 'ALT+F' model, that conceptualizes fatigue from an associative learning perspective, and we will evaluate the current evidence for this position. Central to this framework is the notion that interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli can become associated with the fatigue experience...
November 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179024/effects-of-brief-mindfulness-and-loving-kindness-meditation-inductions-on-emotional-and-behavioral-responses-to-social-rejection-among-individuals-with-high-borderline-personality-traits
#12
Shian-Ling Keng, Hui Han Tan
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an enduring pattern of instability across affective, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal domains. Individuals with BPD are known to be particularly vulnerable to experiences of social rejection, but little work has examined strategies that may moderate their reactivity to social rejection. Using a laboratory experimental approach, this study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection in a sample of adults with high BPD traits...
November 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174218/individual-differences-in-fear-relapse
#13
G King, B M Graham, R Richardson
Vulnerability to anxiety disorders might be due to enhanced acquisition of aversive associations, impaired inhibition of those associations (extinction), and/or vulnerability to the return of fear (relapse). Animal research investigating the processes underpinning fear learning, extinction, and relapse will be critical to further advancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment. Here we examined whether individual differences in the rate of extinction might be related to vulnerability to relapse...
November 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249452/measuring-self-efficacy-executive-function-and-temporal-discounting-in-kenya
#14
Kristina Esopo, Daniel Mellow, Catherine Thomas, Hannah Uckat, Justin Abraham, Prachi Jain, Chaning Jang, Nicholas Otis, Michala Riis-Vestergaard, Amanda Starcev, Kate Orkin, Johannes Haushofer
Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. In the current study, we adapt psychological scales and behavioral tasks, measuring each of these three constructs, for use among adults in Kenya...
November 17, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153443/subjective-sleep-disturbances-are-associated-with-intrinsic-motivation-toward-sleep-related-thinking
#15
Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes
Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Thus, we examined the untested idea that people with subjective sleep disturbances would prefer sleep-related topics, using a modified version of the pay-per-view task...
November 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128585/a-return-to-the-psychiatric-dark-ages-with-a-two-system-framework-for-fear
#16
Michael S Fanselow, Zachary T Pennington
The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. As an alternative, he and colleagues propose that a 'two-system' framework for the study of responses to threat will expedite the advancement of medical treatments for fear disorders...
November 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128584/the-influence-of-maternal-modeling-on-body-image-concerns-and-eating-disturbances-in-preadolescent-girls
#17
Charlotte M Handford, Ronald M Rapee, Jasmine Fardouly
Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8-12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50)...
November 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103528/a-randomised-controlled-trial-investigating-the-benefits-of-adaptive-working-memory-training-for-working-memory-capacity-and-attentional-control-in-high-worriers
#18
Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers...
November 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107762/major-depression-prevention-effects-for-a-cognitive-behavioral-adolescent-indicated-prevention-group-intervention-across-four-trials
#19
Paul Rohde, Frédéric N Brière, Eric Stice
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16...
October 31, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107763/a-brighter-future-the-effect-of-positive-episodic-simulation-on-future-predictions-in-non-depressed-moderately-dysphoric-highly-dysphoric-individuals
#20
Jennifer Boland, Kevin J Riggs, Rachel J Anderson
Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. The current studies investigated positive future episodic simulation as a method of modifying predictions regarding the likelihood of occurrence, perceived control, and importance of positive and negative future events...
October 26, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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