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Behaviour Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153443/subjective-sleep-disturbances-are-associated-with-intrinsic-motivation-toward-sleep-related-thinking
#1
Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes
Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Thus, we examined the untested idea that people with subjective sleep disturbances would prefer sleep-related topics, using a modified version of the pay-per-view task...
November 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128585/a-return-to-the-psychiatric-dark-ages-with-a-two-system-framework-for-fear
#2
Michael S Fanselow, Zachary T Pennington
The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. As an alternative, he and colleagues propose that a 'two-system' framework for the study of responses to threat will expedite the advancement of medical treatments for fear disorders...
November 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128584/the-influence-of-maternal-modeling-on-body-image-concerns-and-eating-disturbances-in-preadolescent-girls
#3
Charlotte M Handford, Ronald M Rapee, Jasmine Fardouly
Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8-12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50)...
November 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103528/a-randomised-controlled-trial-investigating-the-benefits-of-adaptive-working-memory-training-for-working-memory-capacity-and-attentional-control-in-high-worriers
#4
Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers...
November 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107762/major-depression-prevention-effects-for-a-cognitive-behavioral-adolescent-indicated-prevention-group-intervention-across-four-trials
#5
Paul Rohde, Frédéric N Brière, Eric Stice
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16...
October 31, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107763/a-brighter-future-the-effect-of-positive-episodic-simulation-on-future-predictions-in-non-depressed-moderately-dysphoric-highly-dysphoric-individuals
#6
Jennifer Boland, Kevin J Riggs, Rachel J Anderson
Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. The current studies investigated positive future episodic simulation as a method of modifying predictions regarding the likelihood of occurrence, perceived control, and importance of positive and negative future events...
October 26, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107937/avoidance-in-posttraumatic-stress-among-refugee-survivors-of-violent-conflict-and-atrocities-testing-trans-cultural-risk-processes-and-candidate-intervention-targets
#7
Kim Yuval, Amit Bernstein
BACKGROUND: A fast-growing population of refugees and survivors of violent conflict and atrocities are at risk for trauma-related mental health problems. Experimental clinical research key to the development of interventions tailored to this population is limited. AIMS: In an experimental psychopathology laboratory paradigm, we tested the expression and function of avoidance in posttraumatic stress (PTS) among a highly traumatized community sample of forcibly displaced refugees seeking asylum...
October 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101842/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-on-implicit-self-esteem-is-mediated-by-rumination-after-criticism
#8
Rudi De Raedt, Jonathan Remue, Tom Loeys, Jill M Hooley, Chris Baeken
It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism...
October 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108651/targeting-couple-and-parent-child-coercion-to-improve-health-behaviors
#9
Amy M Smith Slep, Richard E Heyman, Danielle M Mitnick, Michael F Lorber, Theodore P Beauchaine
This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality...
October 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101841/the-mediating-role-of-changes-in-harm-beliefs-and-coping-efficacy-in-youth-with-specific-phobias
#10
Thomas H Ollendick, Sarah M Ryan, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Lena Reuterskiöld, Lars-Göran Öst
Individuals with specific phobias (SPs) often experience catastrophic cognitions and compromised efficacy regarding their ability to cope when in the presence of the phobic object/situation. In the current study, 165 children (7-16 years; 62% male) received either One Session Treatment or Educational Support Therapy for their SP. The children identified their feared belief and rated "how bad" it was, "how likely" it was to occur, and their ability to cope if it did occur. All of these ratings were reduced from pre-treatment to 6-month follow-up, across both treatment conditions...
October 18, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045856/direction-of-stimulus-movement-alters-fear-linked-individual-differences-in-attentional-vigilance-to-spider-stimuli
#11
Julian Basanovic, Laurence Dean, John H Riskind, Colin MacLeod
Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Hence, the present study developed a novel methodology designed to examine the influence of stimulus movement on attentional vigilance to spider and non-spider stimuli...
October 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101843/a-cognitive-behavioral-and-mindfulness-based-group-sleep-intervention-improves-behavior-problems-in-at-risk-adolescents-by-improving-perceived-sleep-quality
#12
Matthew J Blake, Lian Snoep, Monika Raniti, Orli Schwartz, Joanna M Waloszek, Julian G Simmons, Greg Murray, Laura Blake, Elizabeth R Landau, Ronald E Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Dana L McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep. METHOD: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12.04-16.31 years) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms...
October 12, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078199/brief-training-in-mindfulness-meditation-reduces-symptoms-in-patients-with-a-chronic-or-recurrent-lifetime-history-of-depression-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Matti Gärtner, Paul Chadwick, Thorsten Barnhofer
BACKGROUND: Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history were randomly allocated to receive either a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) encompassing three individual sessions and regular home practice or a control condition that combined psycho-educational components and regular rest periods using the same format as the MBI...
October 12, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074231/the-engage-study-integrating-neuroimaging-virtual-reality-and-smartphone-sensing-to-understand-self-regulation-for-managing-depression-and-obesity-in-a-precision-medicine-model
#14
Leanne M Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L Michael Perry, Joshua M Smyth, Megan A Lewis, Elizabeth M Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M Simmons, Jun Ma
Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings...
October 7, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066077/applying-novel-technologies-and-methods-to-inform-the-ontology-of-self-regulation
#15
Ian W Eisenberg, Patrick G Bissett, Jessica R Canning, Jesse Dallery, A Zeynep Enkavi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Oscar Gonzalez, Alan I Green, Mary Ann Greene, Michaela Kiernan, Sunny Jung Kim, Jamie Li, Michael R Lowe, Gina L Mazza, Stephen A Metcalf, Lisa Onken, Sadev S Parikh, Ellen Peters, Judith J Prochaska, Emily A Scherer, Luke E Stoeckel, Matthew J Valente, Jialing Wu, Haiyi Xie, David P MacKinnon, Lisa A Marsch, Russell A Poldrack
Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development...
October 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035703/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effects-of-an-anxiety-sensitivity-intervention-on-insomnia-symptoms-replication-and-extension
#16
Nicole A Short, Joseph W Boffa, Savannah King, Brian J Albanese, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms...
October 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033097/a-systematic-review-of-the-inclusion-of-mechanisms-of-action-in-nih-funded-intervention-trials-to-improve-medication-adherence
#17
Donald Edmondson, Louise Falzon, Kevin J Sundquist, Jacob Julian, Laura Meli, Jennifer A Sumner, Ian M Kronish
Medication nonadherence contributes to morbidity/mortality, but adherence interventions yield small and inconsistent effects. Understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation and maintenance of adherence could improve interventions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) support adherence research, but it is unclear whether existing NIH-funded research incorporates mechanisms. We conducted a systematic review to determine the proportion of NIH-funded adherence trials that have tested hypothesized mechanisms of intervention effects...
October 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106898/dismantling-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-creation-and-validation-of-8-week-focused-attention-and-open-monitoring-interventions-within-a-3-armed-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Willoughby B Britton, Jake H Davis, Eric B Loucks, Barnes Peterson, Brendan H Cullen, Laura Reuter, Alora Rando, Hadley Rahrig, Jonah Lipsky, Jared R Lindahl
BACKGROUND: While mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) employ two distinct practices, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM), the integrated delivery of these practices in MBIs precludes understanding of their practice-specific effects or mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study is to isolate hypothesized active ingredients and practice-specific mechanistic target engagement by creating structurally equivalent interventions that differ only by the active ingredient (meditation practice) offered and to test whether the hypothesized components differentially engage the mechanistic targets that they are purported to engage...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050636/targeting-self-regulation-to-promote-health-behaviors-in-children
#19
Alison L Miller, Ashley N Gearhardt, Emily M Fredericks, Benjamin Katz, Lilly Fink Shapiro, Kelsie Holden, Niko Kaciroti, Richard Gonzalez, Christine Hunter, Julie C Lumeng
Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031538/everyday-stress-response-targets-in-the-science-of-behavior-change
#20
Joshua M Smyth, Martin J Sliwinski, Matthew J Zawadzki, Stacey B Scott, David E Conroy, Stephanie T Lanza, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Jinhyuk Kim, Robert S Stawski, Catherine M Stoney, Orfeu M Buxton, Christopher N Sciamanna, Paige M Green, David M Almeida
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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