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Behaviour Research and Therapy

Gaëtan Mertens, Senne Braem, Manuel Kuhn, Tina B Lonsdorf, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard
Verbal instructions are a powerful pathway to learn new fear relations, and an important question has been what fear experience can still add to the effect of such instructions. Therefore, in previous studies, we investigated the effects of pairings between conditioned stimuli (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) after CS-US contingency instructions. Although these studies found that CS-US pairings do indeed add to the effects of contingency instructions on subjective, psychophysiological and neural measures of conditioned fear, they also produce increases in US expectancy ratings...
September 8, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Candice M Monson, Norman Shields, Michael K Suvak, Jeanine E M Lane, Philippe Shnaider, Meredith S H Landy, Anne C Wagner, Iris Sijercic, Tasoula Masina, Sonya G Wanklyn, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman
This randomized controlled hybrid implementation/effectiveness trial aimed to compare the impact of three different models of training and consultation by examining the PTSD treatment outcomes achieved by therapists who were learning a front-line recommended psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; Resick, Monson, & Chard, 2017). Therapists (N = 134) were randomized into one of three conditions after attending a standard CPT training workshop: No Consultation with delayed feedback on CPT fidelity, Standard Consultation involving discussion and conceptualization of cases without session audio review, and Consultation Including Audio Review, which included a review of segments of audiorecorded CPT sessions...
August 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Caitlin Hitchcock, Siobhan Gormley, Catrin Rees, Evangeline Rodrigues, Julia Gillard, Inderpal Panesar, Isobel M Wright, Emily Hammond, Peter Watson, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Tim Dalgleish
Successful navigation within the autobiographical memory store is integral to daily cognition. Impairment in the flexibility of memory retrieval can thereby have a detrimental impact on mental health. This randomised controlled phase II exploratory trial (N = 60) evaluated the potential of a novel intervention drawn from basic science - an autobiographical Memory Flexibility (MemFlex) training programme - which sought to ameliorate memory difficulties and improve symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. MemFlex was compared to Psychoeducation (an evidence-based low-intensity intervention) to determine the likely range of effects on a primary cognitive target of memory flexibility at post-intervention, and co-primary clinical targets of self-reported depressive symptoms and diagnostic status at three-month follow-up...
August 29, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Daniel V Zuj, Matthew A Palmer, Gin S Malhi, Richard A Bryant, Kim L Felmingham
Fear reinstatement is one of several paradigms designed to measure fear return following extinction, as a laboratory model for the relapse of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Sleep is a key factor in emotional memory consolidation, and here we examined the relationship between sleep quality and fear reinstatement in PTSD, relative to trauma-exposed and non-exposed controls. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used as a subjective measure of sleep quality, and skin conductance responses (SCR) and unconditioned stimulus (US)-expectancy ratings were used to index threat responses during a differential fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement paradigm...
August 18, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Shanta Dey, Ben R Newell, Michelle L Moulds
In two studies we tested the hypothesis that abstract thinking is linked to decision-making problems in depression. In Study 1, we compared the extent to which high dysphoric (n = 24) and low dysphoric (n = 26) individuals engaged in abstract thinking while completing a decision-making task. As predicted, high dysphoric participants demonstrated more abstract thinking and worse outcomes on decision-making measures indexed before and after they made decisions about both personal and hypothetical scenarios...
August 17, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Dorina Winter, Leah Steeb, Cornelia Herbert, Constantine Sedikides, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-esteem, the global attitude towards one's self, is low in persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This may be partially due to the ways these persons protect or enhance the self. A case in point is self-positivity, the association of positive rather than negative events, experiences, and objects with the self. Self-esteem and self-positivity may result from either conscious or non-conscious processes. We examined whether low self-esteem is related to low self-positivity in BPD, and whether their covariation is contingent upon conscious processing...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
David Bakker, Nikolaos Kazantzis, Debra Rickwood, Nikki Rickard
Many smartphone applications (apps) for mental health (MHapps) are available to the public. However, few have been the subject of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), and the change processes that are hypothesized to mediate claimed effects have not been previously studied. This RCT compared the efficacy of three publicly available MHapps to a waitlist control condition in a community sample, in which no MHapp was provided. The three MHapps included cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) toolkit app MoodKit, mood tracking app MoodPrism, and CBT strategy app MoodMission...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Katherine Lucas, Camilla C Luck, Ottmar V Lipp
Although contemporary treatments for anxiety disorders are very efficient in reducing anxiety, return of fear after successful treatment is common which signifies a need for interventions that have a more enduring outcome. A recent laboratory study suggested that novelty-facilitated extinction, a simple modification of standard extinction which involves presenting a novel non-aversive stimulus during extinction, prevents spontaneous recovery, one laboratory analogue of return of fear. The current study assessed whether novelty-facilitated extinction can also prevent reinstatement, a second laboratory analogue of return of fear...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Timo Skodzik, Marijke Hannah Adelt, Viktoria Anna Nossek, Sascha Tobias Kuck, Thomas Ehring
Worry is a verbal and abstract thought activity with only little mental imagery involved. It has been shown that this processing bias leads to hampered emotional processing of worry topics so that worry is maintained in the long run. However, there is some evidence that mental imagery during worrying has the opposite effect: It leads to stronger emotional reactions than verbal thoughts and thereby fosters emotional processing of worry topics. In the present study, we examined whether training mental imagery reduces pathological worry...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Anna R Gai, Julia Y Gorday, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide is more highly stigmatized than most mental health conditions; however, no interventions have aimed to modify the stigma of suicide in the general population. This study tested the efficacy of two brief web-based interventions-psychoeducation and interpersonal exposure-in reducing suicide-related stigma in a student/community sample. A sample of 266 adults completed baseline measures of suicide-related stigma, were randomized into one of three conditions (psychoeducation, interpersonal exposure, control), in which they browsed an assigned website for twenty minutes, and completed post-intervention and one-month follow-up stigma measures...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sarah A Bilsky, Renee M Cloutier, Teah-Marie Bynion, Matthew T Feldner, Ellen W Leen-Feldner
A large body of work links parental sick role reinforcement behavior to adolescent panic vulnerability. To date, however, little work has examined the role of the adolescent in this process. The current study addressed this gap in the literature, using a novel method to experimentally test the impact of adolescent anxiety during a straw-breathing task on parental propensity to engage in sick role reinforcement behavior. An unselected sample of 51 early adolescents (26 female, 10-14 years) and their parents participated in the study...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
Though exercise is associated with emotional health, it remains unclear what psychological processes account for this relationship. The present study explores emotional recovery from and responses to stress as links. It extends prior research by exploring whether poor response tendencies, such as a ruminative response style, could mediate the relationship between regular exercise and clinical symptoms, and whether acute exercise facilitates emotional recovery from a stressor in a heterogeneous sample comprising sedentary as well as active individuals and those reporting mood and anxiety symptoms...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mirjana Majdandžić, Wieke de Vente, Cristina Colonnesi, Susan M Bögels
Recent theories propose that (especially fathers') challenging parenting behavior (CPB) serves to reduce offspring's anxiety development, and that fearful children are more susceptible to parenting. Using a longitudinal design we explored whether more CPB (and less overprotection) of both parents, (1) separately, (2) relatively, and (3) jointly predicts less anxiety in early childhood, and (4) whether child fearful temperament moderates these relations. Participants were 132 couples with their first-born child...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Amanda A Uliaszek, Kevin Hamdullahpur, Carla D Chugani, Tayyab Rashid
The present study examined mechanisms of change in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills group and positive psychotherapy (PPT) group intervention, two treatments that have previously been shown to be effective at reducing symptoms of BPD and depression over a 12-week treatment protocol within the context of a college counseling center (Uliaszek et al., 2016). The present study is secondary data analysis of that trial. We hypothesized that change in dysfunctional coping skills use would be a specific mechanism for DBT, while change in functional coping skills use and therapeutic alliance would be mechanisms of change for both treatments...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sheila A M Rauch, Catherine Koola, Loren Post, Carly Yasinski, Seth D Norrholm, Kathryn Black, Barbara O Rothbaum
Recent research emphasizes emotional engagement and between-session extinction, but no longer within-session extinction, as the primary mechanisms underlying exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD. No previous studies have examined change in subjective units of distress (SUDS) in virtual reality exposure (VRE) for PTSD despite its potential facilitation of engagement (see McLay et al., 2012; Reger & Gahm, 2008). Using in session data from Rothbaum et al. (2014) we examined patterns of within- and between-session SUDS change in veterans receiving VRE for PTSD augmented by d-cycloserine, alprazolam, or placebo...
October 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sahaj Kang, Bram Vervliet, Iris M Engelhard, Eva A M van Dis, Muriel A Hagenaars
Exposure-based therapies are effective for anxiety disorders, but relapse remains a problem. One explanation might be that exposure therapy reduces threat expectancy but not related feelings of unpleasantness (negative valence of the conditioned stimulus; CS+), which may promote return of threat expectancy and associated fear. Laboratory research has indeed shown that fear extinction leaves negative valence of the conditioned stimulus (CS+) intact. Here, we tested whether adding positive consequences to the CS+ during extinction, a procedure known as counterconditioning, would change the valence of the CS+ and thereby prevent return of threat expectancy...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Laura D Crocker, Sarah M Jurick, Kelsey R Thomas, Amber V Keller, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Briana Boyd, Carie Rodgers, Elizabeth W Twamley, Amy J Jak
Although trauma-focused treatment, including Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), effectively reduces PTSD symptoms, treatment dropout, nonresponse, and relapse are substantial. Executive functioning (EF) is essential to engage the cognitive skills involved in CPT (e.g., inhibiting/evaluating distorted thoughts, flexibly generating alternative thoughts). It was hypothesized that worse baseline EF would be associated with reduced CPT completion and responsivity. Seventy-four Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans with PTSD and history of mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury were randomized to either standard CPT or modified CPT that included cognitive rehabilitation strategies (SMART-CPT)...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Lea Schemer, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Johanna M Doerr, Nadine Skoluda, Urs M Nater, Winfried Rief, Julia A Glombiewski
Our aim was to evaluate isolated elements of psychological pain treatments and explore treatment effects on biological stress markers. We employed a single-case experimental design with multiple baselines. Matching pairs of twelve participants (chronic low back pain >6 months; elevated pain-related fear) were randomly assigned to graded in vivo exposure (EXP) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a yoked design. Primary assessments were taken during baseline (7-26 days), treatment (23-44 days) and at 6-months follow-up (11-30 days) including changes in pain symptoms, disability, pain-related fear, acceptance, body confidence, self-efficacy, and positive thoughts...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
M Alexandra Kredlow, Scott P Orr, Michael W Otto
Over a dozen studies have examined the efficacy of post-retrieval extinction (PRE) in healthy adults in the fear conditioning laboratory, with a recent meta-analysis reporting an overall small-moderate effect on attenuating the return of fear compared to standard extinction. The current study was designed to extend PRE effects to a mixed sample of healthy and anxious individuals, explore potential moderators, and examine the benefit of PRE for a memory conditioned over multiple days. Healthy (n = 49) and anxious (n = 43) adults received either one day of acquisition followed by PRE, one day of acquisition followed by extinction, or three days of acquisition followed by PRE...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tobias Teismann, Julia Brailovskaia, Christina Totzeck, Andre Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
Positive mental health has been shown to predict remission from anxiety disorders in community samples. However, it is unclear, whether positive mental health is also predictive of symptom severity and remission from anxiety disorders in patients receiving exposure therapy. A total of 130 adult outpatients suffering from panic disorder, agoraphobia, or specific phobia received manualized exposure-therapy. Positive mental health was considered as a predictor of symptom severity and remission at the post-treatment assessment and at the follow-up assessment six months after treatment termination - controlling for depression, anxiety, anxiety cognitions, bodily sensations, number of treatment sessions, age and gender...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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