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Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339093/the-proteoglycan-biglycan-mediates-inflammatory-response-by-activating-tlr-4-in-human-chondrocytes-inhibition-by-specific-sirna-and-high-polymerized-hyaluronan
#1
Angela Avenoso, Angela D'Ascola, Michele Scuruchi, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Alberto Calatroni, Antonino Saitta, Salvatore Campo, Giuseppe M Campo
Cartilage degeneration are hallmarks of wear, tear, mechanical and inflammatory damage of the joint cartilage. Tissue degradation as well as compromising the integrity and function of the organ, produces different intermediates, directly able to stimulate further inflammatory effect, therefore, amplifying the inflammation response. Biglycan is a soluble component of the extracellular matrix that is released during tissue injury. It has been reported that released biglycan is an endogenous ligand for TLR-2/4 in some cell type...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339092/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-reveal-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-as-a-specific-client-of-the-peroxiredoxin-ii-chaperone
#2
Sang Pil Lee, Chan Mi Park, Kyung Seok Kim, Eunji Kim, Moonkyung Jeong, Ji-Young Shin, Chul-Ho Yun, Kanghwa Kim, P Boon Chock, Ho Zoon Chae
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) play dual roles as both thiol-peroxidases and molecular chaperones. Peroxidase activity enables various intracellular functions, however, the physiological roles of Prxs as chaperones are not well established. To study the chaperoning function of Prx, we previously sought to identify heat-induced Prx-binding proteins as the clients of a Prx chaperone. By using His-tagged Prx I as a bait, we separated ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) as a heat-induced Prx I binding protein from rat brain crude extracts...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336940/myeloperoxidase-its-role-for-host-defense-inflammation-and-neutrophil-function
#3
REVIEW
Yasuaki Aratani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme-containing peroxidase expressed mainly in neutrophils and to a lesser degree in monocytes. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide and halides, MPO catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The MPO/HOCl system plays an important role in microbial killing by neutrophils. In addition, MPO has been demonstrated to be a local mediator of tissue damage and the resulting inflammation in various inflammatory diseases. These findings have implicated MPO as an important therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory conditions...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331689/baicalin-inhibits-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-through-regulating-ampk-tgf-%C3%AE-smads-signaling-pathway
#4
Yichuan Xiao, Jiantao Ye, Ying Zhou, Junjun Huang, Xiawen Liu, Biyun Huang, Liu Zhu, Bo Wu, Genshui Zhang, Yi Cai
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways. It has been shown that activation of AMPK could inhibit fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, thereby suppressing cardiac fibrosis. Baicalin, the major component found in skullcap, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the effect of baicalin on cardiac fibrosis and the molecular mechanism by which baicalin exerts its anti-fibrotic effects has not been investigated...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331688/coproheme-decarboxylases-phylogenetic-prediction-versus-biochemical-experiments
#5
Vera Pfanzagl, Laurenz Holcik, Daniel Maresch, Giulia Gorgone, Hanna Michlits, Paul G Furtmüller, Stefan Hofbauer
Coproheme decarboxylases (ChdCs) are enzymes responsible for the catalysis of the terminal step in the coproporphyrin-dependent heme biosynthesis pathway. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that the gene encoding for ChdCs is widespread throughout the bacterial world. It is found in monoderm bacteria (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria), diderm bacteria (e. g. Nitrospirae) and also in Archaea. In order to test phylogenetic prediction ChdC representatives from all clades were expressed and examined for their coproheme decarboxylase activity...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325758/mir-186-5p-upregulation-inhibits-proliferation-metastasis-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-colorectal-cancer-cell-by-targeting-zeb1
#6
Jinlei Li, Limin Xia, Zhenhua Zhou, Zhigui Zuo, Chang Xu, Huayu Song, Jianhui Cai
MicroRNA-186-5p (miR-186-5p) is upregulated and exhibits as a crucial oncogene in various human tumors. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of this microRNA on colorectal cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we report that miR-186-5p share a lower expression in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT116, H29, SW620 and LoVo) than in normal colonic epithelial cell line NCM460. MiR-186-5p overexpression inhibits proliferation, metastasis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer cell line LoVo...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317228/functions-and-dysfunctions-of-ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-phosphatase-camkp-ppm1f-and-camkp-n-ppm1e
#7
REVIEW
Atsuhiko Ishida, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Isamu Kameshita
Intracellular signal transduction is built on the basis of the subtle balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP/PPM1F/POPX2) and CaMKP-N (PPM1E/POPX1) are Ser/Thr phosphatases that belong to the PPM (protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent) family. The former was discovered in rat brain as a novel protein phosphatase regulating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), whereas the latter was first identified in human cDNA databases using the rat CaMKP sequence...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317227/prolonged-exposure-to-1-25-oh-2d3-and-high-ionized-calcium-induces-fgf-23-production-in-intestinal-epithelium-like-caco-2-monolayer-a-local-negative-feedback-for-preventing-excessive-calcium-transport
#8
Mayuree Rodrat, Kannikar Wongdee, Nattapon Panupinthu, Jirawan Thongbunchoo, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Overdose of oral calcium supplement and excessive intestinal calcium absorption can contribute pathophysiological conditions, e.g., nephrolithiasis, vascular calcification, dementia, and cardiovascular accident. Since our previous investigation has indicated that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 could abolish the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]-enhanced calcium absorption, we further hypothesized that FGF-23 produced locally in the enterocytes might be part of a local negative feedback loop to regulate calcium absorption...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305053/structure-kinetics-molecular-and-redox-properties-of-a-cytosolic-and-developmentally-regulated-fungal-catalase-peroxidase
#9
Vanessa Vega-García, Adelaida Díaz-Vilchis, Juan-Pablo Saucedo-Vázquez, Alejandro Solano-Peralta, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Wilhelm Hansberg
CAT-2, a cytosolic catalase-peroxidase (CP) from Neurospora crassa, which is induced during asexual spore formation, was heterologously expressed and characterized. CAT-2 had the Met-Tyr-Trp adduct required for catalase activity. Its KM for H2O2 was micromolar for peroxidase and millimolar for catalase activity. A Em = -158 mV reduction potential value was obtained and the Soret band shift suggested a mixture of low and high spin ferric iron. CAT-2 EPR spectrum at 10 K indicated an axial and a rhombic component...
January 2, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305052/progress-curve-analysis-of-the-kinetics-of-slow-binding-anticancer-drug-inhibitors-of-the-20s-proteasome
#10
Brian B Hasinoff
Bortezomib, carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and delanzomib are anticancer drugs that target the proteasomal system. Carfilzomib and oprozomib are epoxyketones that form an irreversible covalent bond with the 20S proteasome, whereas bortezomib, ixazomib, and delanzomib are boronic acids that form slowly reversible adducts. The binding kinetics of some of these drugs have either not been well characterized, or have been studied under a variety of different conditions. Utilizing a fluorogenic substrate the kinetics of the slow-binding inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like proteasomal activity of human 20S proteasome was determined under a standard set of conditions in order to compare the kinetic and equilibrium properties of these drugs...
January 2, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288638/a-single-amino-acid-residue-regulates-the-substrate-affinity-and-specificity-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#11
Hajime J Yuasa, Mayumi Sugiura, Terue Harumoto
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme-containing enzyme that catalyses the oxidative cleavage of L-Trp. The ciliate Blepharisma stoltei has four IDO genes (IDO-I, -II, -III and -IV), which seem to have evolved via two sequential gene duplication events. Each IDO enzyme has a distinct enzymatic property, where IDO-III ha-s a high affinity for L-Trp, whereas the affinity of the other three isoforms for L-Trp is low. IDO-I also exhibits a significant catalytic activity with another indole compound: 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP)...
December 27, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288053/the-histidine-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-binds-to-the-highly-thermostable-regulator-of-sigma-d-protein-rsd-and-its-isolated-helical-fragments
#12
José L Neira, Felipe Hornos, Concetta Cozza, Ana Cámara-Artigas, Olga Abián, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy
The phosphotransferase system (PTS) controls the preferential use of sugars in bacteria and it is also involved in other processes, such as chemotaxis. It is formed by a protein cascade in which the first two proteins are general (namely, EI and HPr) and the others are sugar-specific permeases. The Rsd protein binds specifically to the RNA polymerase (RNAP) σ70 factor. We first characterized the conformational stability of Escherichia coli Rsd. And second, we delineated the binding regions of Streptomyces coelicolor, HPrsc, and E...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288052/hydrophobic-interactions-of-sucralose-with-protein-structures
#13
Nimesh Shukla, Enrico Pomarico, Cody J S Hecht, Erika A Taylor, Majed Chergui, Christina M Othon
Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that appears to destabilize protein native structures. This is in direct contrast to the bio-preservative nature of its natural counterpart, sucrose, which enhances the stability of biomolecules against environmental stress. We have further explored the molecular interactions of sucralose as compared to sucrose to illuminate the origin of the differences in their bio-preservative efficacy. We show that the mode of interactions of sucralose and sucrose in bulk solution differ subtly through the use of hydration dynamics measurement and computational simulation...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288051/acceleration-of-amyloid-fibril-formation-by-carboxyl-terminal-truncation-of-human-serum-amyloid-a
#14
Masafumi Tanaka, Toru Kawakami, Nozomi Okino, Kaoru Sasaki, Kiwako Nakanishi, Hiroka Takase, Toshiyuki Yamada, Takahiro Mukai
Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of AA amyloidosis. Although the full-length SAA is 104 amino acids long, the C-terminal-truncated SAA lacking mainly residues 77-104 is predominantly deposited in AA amyloidosis. Nevertheless, the amyloid fibril formation of such truncated forms of human SAA has never been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of C-terminal truncation on amyloid fibril formation of human SAA induced by heparan sulfate (HS). Circular dichroism (CD) measurements demonstrated that the C-terminal truncation induces a reduced α-helical structure of the SAA molecule...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277370/improved-rate-of-substrate-oxidation-catalyzed-by-genetically-engineered-myoglobin
#15
Subhash Chand, Sriparna Ray, Eranda Wanigasekara, Poonam Yadav, Joshua A Crawford, Daniel W Armstrong, Krishnan Rajeshwar, Brad S Pierce
This study showcases the potential of unnatural amino acids to enable non-natural functions when incorporated in the protein scaffold of heme metalloproteins. For this purpose, a genetically-engineered myoglobin (Mb) mutant was created by incorporating redox-active 3-amino-l-tyrosine (NH2Tyr) into its active site, replacing the distal histidine (H64) with NH2Tyr. In peroxide-shunt assays, this variant exhibits an increased rate of turnover for thioanisole and benzaldehyde oxidation as compared to the wild-type (WT) Mb...
December 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277369/implication-of-altered-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-er-stress-in-the-muscle-atrophy-of-diabetic-rats
#16
S Sreenivasa Reddy, Karnam Shruthi, Y Konda Prabhakar, Gummadi Sailaja, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is adversely affected in type-1 diabetes, and excessively stimulated ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be a leading cause of muscle wasting or atrophy. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in muscle atrophy of type-1 diabetes is not known. Hence, we investigated the role of UPS and ER stress in the muscle atrophy of chronic diabetes rat model. METHODS: Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley rats and were sacrificed 2- and 4-months thereafter to collect gastrocnemius muscle...
December 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273433/membrane-damaging-activities-of-mannosylated-ovalbumin-are-involved-in-its-antibacterial-action
#17
Yi-Jun Shi, Ren-Tsung Wang, Yu-Hui Chu, Ying-Jung Chen, Ching-Chia Tang, Yaw-Syan Fu, Yuan-Chin Lee, Liang-Jun Wang, Chia-Hui Huang, Long-Sen Chang
Mannosylated ovalbumin (Man-OVA) prepared by modification of carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-mannopyranoside shows an increase of net positive charge, which may enhance its binding to bacterial membrane. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether Man-OVA exerts antibacterial activity on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus via membrane-perturbing effect. Man-OVA inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, whereas ovalbumin (OVA) did not show any antibacterial activity. Moreover, Man-OVA induced an increase in the membrane permeability of E...
December 19, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273432/the-alpha-helix-1-from-the-first-conserved-region-of-hiv1-gp120-is-reconstructed-in-the-short-nq21-peptide
#18
Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva, Ekaterina Yurievna Kahanouskaya, Yulia Anatolyevna Rudnichenko, Hanna Vitalyevna Bandarenka, Alexander Migranovich Arutyunyan, Kseniya Victorovna Girel, Nadia Vladimirovna Khinevich, Alexander Leonidovich Ksenofontov, Larisa Valentinovna Kordyukova
Investigations of short peptides that can be used in the next phase of synthetic HIV1 vaccine development are an urgent goal, as well as investigations of peptides that can be used in immunological tests with the aim to check the titer of antibodies against the alpha helix 1 from the first conserved region of HIV1 gp120 that are known to cause antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The aim of this work was to study the structure of the NQ21 peptide corresponding to the less mutable part of the first conserved region of HIV1 gp120 (residues 94-114)...
December 19, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258861/intraspecific-variation-of-centruroides-sculpturatus-scorpion-venom-from-two-regions-of-arizona
#19
Edson Norberto Carcamo-Noriega, Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Ashlee Rowe, Selene Jocelyn Uribe-Romero, Baltazar Becerril, Lourival Domingos Possania
This study investigated geographic variability in the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus scorpions from different biotopes. Venom from scorpions collected from two different regions in Arizona; Santa Rita Foothills (SR) and Yarnell (Yar) were analyzed. We found differences between venoms, mainly in the two most abundant peptides; SR (CsEv2e and CsEv1f) and Yar (CsEv2 and CsEv1c) identified as natural variants of CsEv1 and CsEv2. Sequence analyses of these peptides revealed conservative amino acid changes between variants, which may underlie biological activity against arthropods...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248443/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-three-terpene-synthases-from-unripe-fruit-of-black-pepper-piper-nigrum
#20
Zhehao Jin, Moonhyuk Kwon, Ah-Reum Lee, Dae-Kyun Ro, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul, Soo-Un Kim
To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo...
December 14, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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