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Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Daniel Ouedraogo, Jacob Ball, Archana Iyer, Renata A G Reis, Maria Vodovoz, Giovanni Gadda
d-Arginine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaDADH) is a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase, which is part of a novel two-enzyme racemization system that functions to convert d-arginine to l-arginine. PaDADH contains a noncovalently linked FAD that shows the highest activity with d-arginine. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity towards d-amino acids, particularly with cationic and hydrophobic d-amino acids. Biochemical studies have established the structure and the mechanistic properties of the enzyme...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Murielle Lombard, Djemel Hamdane
RNAs molecules fulfill key roles in the expression and regulation of the genetic information stored within the DNA chromosomes. In addition to the four canonical bases, U, C, A and G, RNAs harbor various chemically modified derivatives which are generated post-transcriptionally by specific enzymes acting directly at the polymer level. More than one hundred naturally occurring modified nucleosides have been identified to date, the largest number of which is found in tRNAs and rRNA. This remarkable biochemical process produces widely diversified RNAs further expanding the functional repertoires of these nucleic acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ertugrul Filiz, Recep Vatansever, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Mehmet Emin Uras, Ugur Sen, Naser A Anjum, Eduarda Pereira
This study aimed to improve current understanding on ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL) members, least explored in woody plants such as poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Grey). Herein, seven putative EIL members were identified in P. trichocarpa genome and were roughly annotated either as EIN3-like sequence associated with ethylene pathway or EIL3-like sequences related with sulfur (S)-pathway. Motif-distribution pattern of proteins also corroborated this annotation. They were distributed on six chromosomes (chr1, 3, 4 and 8-10), and were revealed to encode a protein of 509-662 residues with nuclear localization...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
K M Abdullah, Faizan Abul Qais, Iqbal Ahmad, Imrana Naseem
Hyperglycaemia is a key factor for the formation of advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs). Inhibition of glycation may play key role in minimizing the diabetes related complications. We have tried to explore the glucose and methyl glyoxal mediated glycation and antiglycation activity of niacin using human serum albumin as model protein. Protein was incubated with glucose for 28 days at physiological temperature to achieve glycation. Antiglycation activity was evaluated by assessing free lysine, carbonyl content, AGE specific fluorescence...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Federica Piccirilli, Nicoletta Plotegher, Francesco Spinozzi, Luigi Bubacco, Paolo Mariani, Mariano Beltramini, Isabella Tessari, Valeria Militello, Andrea Perucchi, Heinz Wilfried Amenitsch, Enrico Baldassarri, Milos Steinhart, Stefano Lupi, Maria Grazia Ortore
α-synuclein amyloid fibrils are found in surviving neurons of Parkinson's disease affected patients, but the role they play in the disease development is still under debate. A growing number of evidences points to soluble oligomers as the major cytotoxic species, while insoluble fibrillar aggregates could even play a protection role. In this work, we investigate α-synuclein fibrils dissociation induced at high pressure by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Fibrils were produced from wild type α-synuclein and two familial mutants, A30P and A53T...
June 14, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Rivkah Rogawski, Ann McDermott
Magic angle spinning solid state NMR studies of biological macromolecules [1-3] have enabled exciting studies of membrane proteins [4,5], amyloid fibrils [6], viruses, and large macromolecular assemblies [7]. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) provides a means to enhance detection sensitivity for NMR, particularly for solid state NMR, with many recent biological applications and considerable contemporary efforts towards elaboration and optimization of the DNP experiment. This review explores precedents and innovations in biological DNP experiments, especially highlighting novel chemical biology approaches to introduce the radicals that serve as a source of polarization in the DNP experiments...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Robin Teufel
Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Mary J Harner, Luciano Mueller, Kevin J Robbins, Michael D Reily
The use of NMR as a tool to determine 3 dimensional protein solution structures, once a darling of the pharmaceutical industry, has largely given way to study of the interaction of prospective drugs with macromolecular targets. Many of these approaches involve ligand-centered studies, which have the advantage of speed and efficiency, but there are also many approaches that take directly from our learnings in macromolecular NMR and provide greater structural detail yet are still optimized for rapid turn-around of information...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Karnam Shruthi, Singareddy Sreenivasa Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes. Alterations in ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been associated with several degenerative disorders. Hence, in this study, we investigated the status and role of UPS and ER stress in the retina of diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin. Retinal markers, ER stress markers, components of UPS, ERAD, and autophagy were analyzed after 2- and 4-months of diabetes...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Maria Antonietta Vanoni
MICAL (from the Molecule Interacting with CasL) indicates a family of multidomain proteins conserved from insects to humans, which are increasingly attracting attention for their participation in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and, therefore, in the several related key processes in health and disease. MICAL is unique among actin binding proteins because it catalyzes a NADPH-dependent F-actin depolymerizing reaction. This unprecedented reaction is associated with its N-terminal FAD-containing domain that is structurally related to p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, the prototype of aromatic monooxygenases, but catalyzes a strong NADPH oxidase activity in the free state...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ravi P Barnwal, Fan Yang, Gabriele Varani
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of RNA, because many biologically important RNAs have conformationally flexible structures, which makes them difficult to crystallize. Functional, independently folded RNA domains, range in size between simple stem-loops of as few as 10-20 nucleotides, to 50-70 nucleotides, the size of tRNA and many small ribozymes, to a few hundred nucleotides, the size of more complex RNA enzymes and of the functional domains of non-coding transcripts...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Lei Zhuang, Beat Trueb
FGFRL1 is a transmembrane receptor that can induce the fusion of CHO cells to multinucleated syncytia. This cell fusion activity has been attributed to the extracellular Ig3 domain of the receptor. We investigated how the fusogenic activity evolved during the evolution of animals. We found that the Ig3 domain from humans, mice, chicken and fish stimulates fusion of CHO cells, while the Ig3 domain from lancelet and sea urchin does not. It is therefore conceivable that the fusogenic activity of FGFRL1 developed during the evolution of vertebrates...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Quantil M Melendez, Sreevidhya T Krishnaji, Catherine J Wooten, Dayami Lopez
Heart disease ends the life of more people than any other disease in the United States. High levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol cause heart diseases by increasing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK9) indirectly regulates plasma LDL levels by controlling the LDL receptor expression at the plasma membrane. PCSK9 also appears to modulate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. The magnitude of PCSK9's involvement in the onset of these metabolic abnormalities appears to be associated with age, sex, and ethnic background...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Sarah E Lang, Tamara K Stevenson, Tabea M Schatz, Brandon J Biesiadecki, Margaret V Westfall
Increased protein kinase C (PKC) activity is associated with heart failure, and can target multiple cardiac troponin I (cTnI) residues in myocytes, including S23/24, S43/45 and T144. In earlier studies, cTnI-S43D and/or -S45D augmented S23/24 and T144 phosphorylation, which suggested there is communication between clusters. This communication is now explored by evaluating the impact of phospho-mimetic cTnI S43/45D combined with S23/24D (cTnIS4D) or T144D (cTnISDTD). Gene transfer of epitope-tagged cTnIS4D and cTnISDTD into adult cardiac myocytes progressively replaced endogenous cTnI...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hong-Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Guo Zhang, Zhen Zhou, Guang-Yuan Du, Hu Li, Xiao-Ying Yu, Ying-Hui Huang
Considerable evidence has shown that autophagy has an important role in HIV-1 infection. However, it is still unknown whether metabolism-regulated autophagy pathway is involved in Tat-mediated HIV-1 transactivation. This study demonstrated that treatment of Tat in TZM-bl cells significantly down-regulated protein levels of Beclin-1, Atg-5, Atg-7, and LC3B-II and up-regulated of p62 levels. Blockage of autophagy enhanced Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation in TZM-bl cells. Moreover, we found that Tat activated the Akt/mTOR and inhibited AMPK signaling pathway that was related to its up-regulation of PKM2 expression...
June 2, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jian He, Fei Wang, Peng Zhang, Wenjiong Li, Jing Wang, Jinglong Li, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen
The myogenesis of skeletal muscle has several stages, including satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, fusion and specific muscle formation. Recent studies have shown that myomaker, a muscle-specific transmembrane protein, was critical for myoblasts fusion. However, the regulatory mechanism of myomaker and its effects on myogenesis remain elusive. In this study, miR-491 was identified as a post-transcriptional regulator of myomaker, which binds specifically to its 3' untranslated region leading to its down-regulation...
June 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yves-Henri Sanejouand
The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed at least 50 million people. The reasons why this pandemic was so deadly remain largely unknown [9]. However, It has been shown that the 1918 viral hemagglutinin allows to reproduce the hallmarks of the illness observed during the original pandemic [11]. Thanks to the wealth of hemagglutinin sequences accumulated over the last decades, amino-acid substitutions that are found in the 1918-1919 sequences but rare otherwise can be identified with high confidence. Noteworthy, Gly 188, which is located within a key motif of the receptor binding site, has never been observed again in sequences of human viruses of subtype H1...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Christopher J Thibodeaux, Hung-Wen Liu
The chemical versatility of the flavin coenzyme is nearly unparalleled in enzyme catalysis. An interesting illustration of this versatility can be found in the reaction catalyzed by the type II isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) - an enzyme that interconverts the two essential isoprene units (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate) that are needed to initiate the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids. Over the past decade, a variety of biochemical, spectroscopic, structural and mechanistic studies of IDI-2 have provided mounting evidence that the flavin coenzyme of IDI-2 acts in a most unusual manner - as an acid/base catalyst to mediate a 1,3-proton addition/elimination reaction...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
David Ban, Colin A Smith, Bert L de Groot, Christian Griesinger, Donghan Lee
Protein function can be modulated or dictated by the amplitude and timescale of biomolecular motion, therefore it is imperative to study protein dynamics. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique capable of studying timescales of motion that range from those faster than molecular reorientation on the picosecond timescale to those that occur in real-time. Across this entire regime, NMR observables can report on the amplitude of atomic motion, and the kinetics of atomic motion can be ascertained with a wide variety of experimental techniques from real-time to milliseconds and several nanoseconds to picoseconds...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Graham R Moran, Matthew R Hoag
Within the last two years catalytic substrates for renalase have been identified, some 10 years after its initial discovery. 2- and 6-dihydronicotinamide (2- and 6-DHNAD) isomers of β-NAD(P)H (4-dihydroNAD(P)) are rapidly oxidized by renalase to form β-NAD(P)(+). The two electrons liberated are then passed to molecular oxygen by the renalase FAD cofactor forming hydrogen peroxide. This activity would appear to serve an intracellular detoxification/metabolite repair function that alleviates inhibition of primary metabolism dehydrogenases by 2- and 6-DHNAD molecules...
May 27, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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