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Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030998/cis-carotene-biosynthesis-evolution-and-regulation-in-plants-the-emergence-of-novel-signaling-metabolites
#1
REVIEW
Yagiz Alagoz, Pranjali Nayak, Namraj Dhami, Christopher I Cazzonelli
Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments synthesised by plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria as well as some non-photosynthetic bacteria, fungi and insects. Abundant carotenoids found in nature are synthesised via a linear route from phytoene to lycopene after which the pathway bifurcates into cyclised α- and β-carotenes. Plants evolved additional steps to generate a diversity of cis-carotene intermediates, which can accumulate in fruits or tissues exposed to an extended period of darkness. Enzymatic or oxidative cleavage, light-mediated photoisomerization and histone modifications can affect cis-carotene accumulation...
July 18, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030997/active-site-variants-provide-insight-into-the-nature-of-conformational-changes-that-accompany-the-cyclohexanone-monooxygenase-catalytic-cycle
#2
Osei Boakye Fordwour, Kirsten R Wolthers
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases are flavoenzymes that use NADPH and O2 to convert ketones to esters or lactones. A diagnostic feature of BVMO catalysis is the dual role of the pyridine nucleotide: NADPH functions as a reductant of the FAD cofactor and the resulting NADP+ acts to stabilize the ensuing C4a-peroxyflavin intermediate. Using cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9871 as a model system, we investigated the catalytic role of T187 and W490, which hydrogen bond to the phosphate and ribose of the nicotinamide mononucleotide half of NADP(H), respectively...
July 18, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026027/cold-atmospheric-pressure-nitrogen-plasma-induces-the-production-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-and-cell-death-by-increasing-intracellular-calcium-in-hek293t-cells
#3
Katsuya Iuchi, Yukina Morisada, Yuri Yoshino, Takahiro Himuro, Yoji Saito, Tomoyuki Murakami, Hisashi Hisatomi
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) has been emerging as a promising tool for cancer therapy in recent times. In this study, we used a CAP device with nitrogen gas (N2 CAP) and investigated the effect of the N2 CAP on the viability of cultured cells. Moreover, we investigated whether N2 CAP-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in the medium is involved in N2 CAP-induced cell death. Here, we found that the N2 CAP irradiation inhibited cell proliferation in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T and that the N2 CAP induced cell death in an irradiation time- and distance-dependent manner...
July 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026025/diversity-of-structures-catalytic-mechanisms-and-processes-of-cofactor-biosynthesis-of-tryptophylquinone-bearing-enzymes
#4
REVIEW
Erik T Yukl, Victor L Davidson
Tryptophyquinone-bearing enzymes contain protein-derived cofactors formed by posttranslational modifications of Trp residues. Tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) is comprised of a di-oxygenated Trp residue, which is cross-linked to another Trp residue. Cysteine tryptophylquinone (CTQ) is comprised of a di-oxygenated Trp residue, which is cross-linked to a Cys residue. Despite the similarity of these cofactors, it has become evident in recent years that the overall structures of the enzymes that possess these cofactors vary, and that the gene clusters that encode the enzymes are quite diverse...
July 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026026/association-of-ibuprofen-at-the-polar-apolar-interface-of-lipid-membranes
#5
Erika Aloi, Bruno Rizzuti, Rita Guzzi, Rosa Bartucci
Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used to treat inflammatory diseases, and for its analgesic and antipyretic activity. Although operating as a protein inhibitor, it is also known to interact with lipid membranes. We combined calorimetry, electron spin resonance, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared and molecular docking to characterize the interaction of ibuprofen with dimyristyolphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers, as a function of temperature and drug concentration...
July 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016634/myeloperoxidase-promotes-tube-formation-triggers-erk1-2-and-akt-pathways-and-is-expressed-endogenously-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Alia Khalil, Hayfa Medfai, Philippe Poelvoorde, Mohammad Fayyad Kazan, Cedric Delporte, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Yolla El-Makhour, Patrick Biston, Paul Delrée, Bassam Badran, Luc Vanhamme, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
Myeloperoxidase is a member of the mammalian peroxidase family, mainly expressed in the myeloblastic cell lineage. It is considered a major bactericidal agent as it is released in the phagosome where it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species. It is also released in the extracellular spaces including blood where it is absorbed on (lipo)proteins and endothelial cell surface, interfering with endothelial function. We performed RNA sequencing on MPO-treated endothelial cells, analyzed their transcriptome and validated the profile of gene expression by individual qRT-PCR...
July 14, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009782/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-enhances-the-expression-of-mir-150-5p-to-suppress-in-prostate-cancer-progression-by-regulating-map3k12
#7
Jingsong Yu, Yue Feng, Yan Wang, Ruihua An
It has been reported that mircoRNAs (miRNAs) can act as tumor inhibitors in multiple malignant tumors. As a tumor suppressor, miR-150-5p has been reported in some cancers. However, the biological impacts of miR-150-5p in prostate cancer is not fully elaborated. This study aims to explore the biological role and mechanism of miR-150-5p in prostate cancer. The expression level of miR-150-5p was examined with Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, Kaplan Meier analysis revealed that downregulation of miR-150-5p predicted unfavorable prognosis for patients with prostate cancer...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009781/the-role-of-mitochondrial-katp-channel-in-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-uridine-in-endotoxemic-mice
#8
Galina D Mironova, Maxim O Khrenov, Eugenie Iu Talanov, Olga V Glushkova, Svetlana B Parfenyuk, Tatyana V Novoselova, Sergey M Lunin, Natalia V Belosludtseva, Elena G Novoselova, John J Lemasters
In this study, we examined the effects of uridine on plasma cytokine levels, heat shock protein (HSP) 72 expression, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling in spleen lymphocytes after exposure of male BALB/c mice to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were treated with uridine (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection [i.p.]) or saline solution of LPS (2.5 mg/kg, i. p.). Endotoxin increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-6 by 2...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009780/regulation-of-aldose-reductase-activity-by-tubulin-and-phenolic-acid-derivates
#9
Juan F Rivelli, Ana L Ochoa, Verónica S Santander, Ayelen Nigra, Gabriela Previtali, César H Casale
In this work we demonstrate that aldose reductase (AR) interacts directly with tubulin and, was subjected to microtubule formation conditions, enzymatic AR activity increased more than sixfold. Since AR interacts mainly with tubulin that has 3-nitro-tyrosine in its carboxy-terminal, we evaluated whether tyrosine and other phenolic acid derivatives could prevent the interaction tubulin/AR and the enzymatic activation. The drugs evaluated have two characteristics in common: the presence of an aromatic ring and a carboxylic substituent...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006136/effects-of-polyamines-on-cadmium-and-copper-mediated-alterations-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l-seedling-membrane-fluidity
#10
María P Benavides, María D Groppa, Laura Recalde, Sandra V Verstraeten
We investigated if wheat (Wh) and sunflower (Sf) plants watering with 1 mM CdCl2 or CuCl2 for 5-15 d during germination and seedling altered membrane fluidity (MF) of their leaves and roots, and if plant pre-treatment with the polyamines (PAs) putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) or spermine (Spm) prevented those alterations. Cd impaired Wh and Sf growth, while Cu only affected Sf growth. Cu and Cd increased MF of leaves of both plant species, while Cd decreased MF of Sf roots. Plant treatment for 15 d with 0...
July 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006135/ablation-of-carotenoid-cleavage-enzymes-bco1-and-bco2-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-altering-the-farnesoid-x-receptor-mir-34a-sirtuin-1-pathway
#11
Ji Ye Lim, Chun Liu, Kang-Quan Hu, Donald E Smith, Xiang-Dong Wang
β-Carotene-15, 15'-oxygenase (BCO1) and β-carotene-9', 10'-oxygenase (BCO2) are essential enzymes in carotenoid metabolism. While BCO1/BCO2 polymorphisms have been associated with alterations to human and animal carotenoid levels, experimental studies have suggested that BCO1 and BCO2 may have specific physiological functions beyond the cleavage of carotenoids. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ablation of both BCO1/BCO2 in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its underlying molecular mechanism(s)...
July 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003876/structural-and-enzymatic-properties-of-mammalian-d-glutamate-cyclase
#12
Masumi Katane, Makoto Ariyoshi, Shuhei Tateishi, Sachi Koiwai, Kaoruko Takaku, Kenichiro Nagai, Kazuki Nakayama, Yasuaki Saitoh, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masae Sekine, Masashi Mita, Kenji Hamase, Satoaki Matoba, Hiroshi Homma
D-Glutamate cyclase (DGLUCY) is a unique enzyme that reversibly converts free D-glutamate to 5-oxo-D-proline and H2 O. Mammalian DGLUCY is highly expressed in the mitochondrial matrix in the heart, and its downregulation disrupts D-glutamate and/or 5-oxo-D-proline levels, contributing to the onset and/or exacerbation of heart failure. However, detailed characterisation of DGLUCY has not yet been performed. Herein, the structural and enzymatic properties of purified recombinant mouse DGLUCY were examined. The results revealed a dimeric oligomerisation state, and both D-glutamate-to-5-oxo-D-proline and 5-oxo-D-proline-to-D-glutamate reactions were catalysed in a stereospecific manner...
July 9, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003875/relationships-of-carotenoid-related-gene-expression-and-serum-cholesterol-and-lipoprotein-levels-to-retina-and-brain-lutein-deposition-in-infant-rhesus-macaques-following-6-months-of-breast-feeding-or-formula-feeding
#13
Sookyoung Jeon, Martha Neuringer, Matthew J Kuchan, John W Erdman
The purpose of this study was to investigate if the enhanced bioaccumulation of lutein in retina and brain of breastfed, compared to formula-fed, infant monkeys was associated with higher levels of serum total and HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, or mRNA/protein expression of carotenoid-related genes. Newborn rhesus macaques were either breastfed, fed a carotenoid-supplemented formula, or fed an unsupplemented formula for 6 months (n = 8, 8, 7). Real-time qPCR and western blotting were performed in two brain regions [occipital cortex (OC); cerebellum (CB)] and two retina regions [macular retina (MR); peripheral retina (PR)]...
July 9, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018019/substitutions-of-a-buried-glutamate-residue-hinder-the-conformational-change-in-horse-liver-alcohol-dehydrogenase-and-yield-a-surprising-complex-with-endogenous-3-dephosphocoenzyme-a
#14
Yun Ho Kim, David S Gogerty, Bryce V Plapp
Glu-267 is highly conserved in alcohol dehydrogenases and buried as a negatively-charged residue in a loop of the NAD coenzyme binding domain. Glu-267 might have a structural role and contribute to a rate-promoting vibration that facilitates catalysis. Substitutions of Glu-267 with histidine or asparagine residues increase the dissociation constants for the coenzymes (NAD+ by ∼40-fold, NADH by ∼200-fold) and significantly decrease catalytic efficiencies by 16-1200-fold various substrates and substituted enzymes...
July 7, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990480/transformation-of-naturally-occurring-3r-3-r-6-r-lutein-and-its-fatty-acid-esters-to-3r-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-and-3r-6-r-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin
#15
Frederick Khachik
The objective of this study was to develop straightforward processes that could be applied to the large-scale production of β-cryptoxanthin in an attempt to facilitate investigation of its biological activity. An oleoresin obtained from crude extracts of marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta) with approximately 24% total lutein fatty acid ester content was directly used as starting material for partial synthesis of (3 R)-β-cryptoxanthin under mild reaction conditions at ambient temperature. Therefore, acid-catalyzed deoxygenation of lutein esters from marigold oleoresin followed by hydrogenation in the presence of catalytic amount of platinum (Pt) supported on alumina (5%) at ambient temperature gave a mixture of (3 R)-β-cryptoxanthin fatty acid esters (major) and (3R,6'R)-α-cryptoxanthin fatty acid esters (minor)...
July 7, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991441/differential-inhibitory-effect-of-a-pyrazolopyran-compound-on-human-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-amino-acid-complexes
#16
Angela Tramonti, Alessandro Paiardini, Alessio Paone, Amani Bouzidi, Giorgio Giardina, Giulia Guiducci, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Serena Rinaldo, Lee McDermott, Javier A Menendez, Roberto Contestabile, Francesca Cutruzzolà
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a pivotal enzyme in one-carbon metabolism that catalyses the reversible conversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate into glycine and methylenetetrahydrofolate. It exists in cytosolic (SHMT1) and mitochondrial (SHMT2) isoforms. Research on one-carbon metabolism in cancer cell lines has shown that SHMT1 preferentially catalyses serine synthesis, whereas in mitochondria SHMT2 is involved in serine breakdown. Recent research has focused on the identification of inhibitors that bind at the folate pocket...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969582/nano-sized-ca125-antigen-glycocamouflage-mucin-extracellular-vesicles-alliance-to-watch
#17
Ninoslav Mitić, Maja Kosanović, Bojana Milutinović, Sanja Goč, Danilo Mladenović, Ivana Grubiša, Miroslava Janković
Mucin 16 (MUC16) is a transmembrane type mucin and its released extracellular portion is designated as CA125 antigen. It is considered to be part of a supramolecular glycoprotein complex having a complicated epitope map and extreme structural heterogeneity. Starting from the initial transmembrane localization of MUC16/CA125 antigen and its alternative routes of release by shedding or putative secretion, CA125 antigen from human amniotic fluid soluble and extracellular vesicles (EVs)-containing fractions were characterized aiming at the possible glycosylation-associated mode of distribution as a factor contributing to the reported conflicting structural data...
June 30, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963999/dibutyryl-camp-or-interleukin-6-induced-astrocytic-differentiation-enhances-mannose-binding-lectin-mbl-associated-serine-protease-masp-1-3-expression-in-c6-glioma-cells
#18
Valentina Pagliara, Maddalena Parafati, Annagrazia Adornetto, Misti C White, Mariorosario Masullo, Maurizio Grimaldi, Rosaria Arcone
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-Associated Serine Proteases (MASP)-1 and 3, key enzymes in the lectin complement pathway of innate immune response, are also expressed in glioma cell lines. We investigated MASP-1 and MASP-3 expression during dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)- or Interleukin-6 (rIL-6)-induced astrocytic differentiation of C6 glioma cells. Our results demonstrate that C6 cells express basal levels of MASP-1 and MASP-3 and following exposure to dbcAMP or IL-6, a consistent MASP-1 and MASP-3 mRNA up-regulation was found, with a behaviour similar to that showed by the fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
June 28, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958897/intestinal-%C3%AE-carotene-bioconversion-in-humans-is-determined-by-a-new-single-sample-plasma-isotope-ratio-method-and-compared-with-traditional-and-modified-area-under-the-curve-methods
#19
Jennifer L Ford, Michael H Green, Joanne B Green, Anthony Oxley, Georg Lietz
The vitamin A value (bioefficacy) of provitamin A carotenoids is determined by absorption of the carotenoid (bioavailability) and its subsequent conversion to retinol (bioconversion). Here we show that a single plasma sample collected 6 h after ingesting a test dose of stable isotope-labeled β-carotene can estimate intestinal bioconversion of β-carotene from the ratio of retinyl esters to retinyl esters plus β-carotene. Plasma isotope ratio predictions of bioconversion ranged from 51 to 93% (mean 77%) for 45 healthy young adults with low vitamin A stores...
June 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958896/effects-of-mir-200b-3p-inhibition-on-the-trpc6-and-bk-ca-channels-of-podocytes
#20
Hongqiang Yin, Xiaochen Zhang, Kai Li, Zhigui Li, Zhuo Yang
Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) and large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (BKCa ), two of the key ion channels for blood filtration function of podocytes, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that miR-200 b plays an important role in regulating the biological processes of podocytes. In this study, we aimed to examine whether there was a relationship between miR-200 b-3p and the two ion channels. It was suggested that miR-200 b-3p down-regulation inhibited the currents of TRPC6 and BKCa channels...
June 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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