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Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Sheraz Ahmad Bhat, Waseem Feeroze Bhat, Mohammad Afsar, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Bilqees Bano
Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) have recently received extensive attention due to their high reactivity and ability to modify biological substances such as proteins, phospholipids, and DNA. In case of proteins these reactive species mainly react with lysine and arginine residues to form AGEs, oxidative products, and aggregates. Chickpea cystatin (CPC) was incubated with varying concentrations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal which caused, along with altered secondary and tertiary structures, glycation, functional inactivation, altered redox state, cross-linking and high-molecular-mass aggregation...
May 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Gregory G Martin, Drew R Seeger, Avery L McIntosh, Sarah Chung, Sherrelle Milligan, Danilo Landrock, Lawrence J Dangott, Mikhail Y Golovko, Eric J Murphy, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Dysregulation of the hepatic endocannabinoid (EC) system and high fat diet (HFD) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver cytosol contains high levels of two novel endocannabinoid binding proteins-liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) and sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2). While Fabp1 gene ablation significantly increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing EC and sex-dependent response to pair-fed high fat diet (HFD), the presence of SCP-2 complicates interpretation. These issues were addressed by ablating Scp-2/Scp-x in Fabp1 null mice (TKO)...
May 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kin-Hing William Lau, Matilda H-C Sheng
Information about the molecular mechanisms leading to the activation of the osteoclast is relatively limited. While there is compelling evidence that the signaling mechanisms of Src and integrin β3 are essential for osteoclast activation, the regulation of these two signaling mechanisms is not fully understood. In this review, evidence supporting a novel regulatory axis of osteoclast activation that plays an upstream regulatory role in both the Src and integrin β3 signaling during osteoclast activation is discussed...
May 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Nuredin Bakhtiari, Sako Mirzaie, Roohullah Hemmati, Elham Moslemee-Jalalvand, Ali Reza Noori, Jahanfard Kazemi
Ursolic Acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, plays a vital role in aging process. However, the role of UA in the regulation of aging and longevity is still controversial as we have previously demonstrated that UA increases SIRT1 protein level in aged-mice. Here, we reveal that UA directly activates SIRT1 in silico, in vitro and in vivo. We have identified that UA binds to outer surface of SIRT1 and leads to tight binding of substrates to enzyme in comparison with Resveratrol (RSV) and control. Furthermore, our results indicate that UA drives the structure of SIRT1 toward a closed state (an active form of enzyme)...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
A Arreguín, J Ribot, H Musinovic, J von Lintig, A Palou, M L Bonet
We previously showed that vitamin A supplementation in early life impacts white adipose tissue (WAT) biology. We here studied the vitamin's effects on DNA methylation of genes crucial for WAT cell development, determination and metabolism. CpG promoter methylation and mRNA expression of Pparg, Zfp423, Pcna, and Rbp4 was compared in inguinal WAT of 21-day-old rats supplemented during the suckling period with vehicle (controls) or an emulsion of vitamin A as retinyl ester (RE) or β-carotene (BC). The methylation profile of promoters was affected by vitamin A supplementation with pronounced differences between the RE and BC groups...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ruiyan Zhao, Qiyong Liu, Chunxiang Lou
Ovarian cancer is among the most prevalent and lethal types of cancers in women. Several factors such as late diagnosis, unavailability of the reliable biomarkers, frequent relapses and dearth of efficient therapeutic targets form bottleneck in the treatment of ovarian cancers. In this study we investigated the potential of less studied miR-299-3p as the therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The results of the present investigation revealed that miR-299 is significantly upregulated in the ovarian cancers and suppression of its expression inhibits the proliferation by induction of apoptosis as well suppresses migration and invasion of the SKOV3 cancers cells...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Estefanía Anguita, Antonio Villalobo
Calcium-mediated signaling and the functionality of Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are two interconnected processes. Activation of these kinases, which are coupled to a series of receptors, mediates Ca2+ mobilization by regulating Ca2+ channels, and the generated Ca2+ signal in turn exerts control on the kinase activity via calmodulin. In this review, we shall cover the regulation of selected processes where crosstalk between the functionality of SFKs and the Ca2+ signal occurs during the lifespan of the cell, when subjected to different extracellular or intracellular stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yuting Fan, Zixin Huang, Chongde Long, Jie Ning, Han Zhang, Xielan Kuang, Qingjiong Zhang, Huangxuan Shen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness during aging. The degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the main pathologic characteristic of AMD. ID2 is a member of the Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID) family and is involved in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, currently the role of ID2 in oxidative injury response in RPE cells remains unknown. Here we showed that oxidative stress increased ID2 expression in RPE cells. Knockdown of ID2 promoted cell apoptosis and increased ROS level in RPE cells that were subjected to oxidative damage...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
A Pérez-Gálvez, A Sánchez-García, J Garrido-Fernández, J J Ríos
Metabolism of the carotenoids in humans is often reserved to bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids in retinoids and oxidative/degradative products arising from enzymatic eccentric cleavage, yielding apo-carotenoids. Nevertheless, additional metabolic routes should be available, and some of the structures of those metabolites have only been anticipated. The identification of carotenoids and their metabolites is commonly performed by HPLC coupled to MS. The acquisition of MS data in different instrumental modes and hardware configurations allows the detailed structural description of the target compound...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Chengli Li, Jun Zhang, Fang Lv, Xingtao Ge, Gang Li
We observed the effects of naringin on bone loss in glucocorticoid-treated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a rat model. The IBD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by administering 5.0% dextran sodium sulfate. Dexamethasone (DEX) and naringin were given at the second week. Blood, colon and bone samples were collected for biomarker assay, histological analysis or microCT analysis. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and malonaldehyde were measured in bone. A significant decrease of procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) level was observed in DEX-treated IBD groups compared with the control (p < 0...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Agnes Keszler, Brian Lindemer, Neil Hogg, Dorothee Weihrauch, Nicole L Lohr
Far red/near infrared (R/NIR) energy is a novel therapy, but its mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Cytochrome c oxidase (Cco) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is considered the primary photoacceptor for R/NIR to photolyze a putative heme nitrosyl in Cco to liberate free nitric oxide (NO). We previously observed R/NIR light directly liberates NO from nitrosylated hemoglobin and myoglobin, and recently suggested S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) may be primary sources of R/NIR-mediated NO...
May 9, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Dariusz M Niedzwiedzki, Robert E Blankenship
The central-cis isomer of the carotenoid peridinin, presumably 13-cis, was separated and studied with spectroscopic methods including static absorption, fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved absorption. The investigations exposed differences in the photophysical properties of this isomer in respect to all-trans peridinin. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of an additional weak absorption band at the long wavelength tail of the main S0 → S2 transition. Modeling of the hypothetical vibronic progression of the S0 → S1 electronic transition demonstrated that this weak band can be associated with a higher (0-2) vibronic band of the transition and that lower vibronic bands have negligible intensities due to a large displacement between the S0 and S1 states energy curves as also suggested by the spectral shape of steady-state fluorescence emission...
May 6, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Binxing Li, Gregory T Rognon, Ty Mattinson, Preejith P Vachali, Aruna Gorusupudi, Fu-Yen Chang, Arunkumar Ranganathan, Kelly Nelson, Evan W George, Jeanne M Frederick, Paul S Bernstein
Carotenoid supplementation can improve human visual performance, but there is still no validated rodent model to test their effects on visual function in laboratory animals. We recently showed that mice deficient in β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) and/or β-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) enzymes can accumulate carotenoids in their retinas, allowing us to investigate the effects of carotenoids on the visual performance of mice. Using OptoMotry, a device to measure visual function in rodents, we examined the effect of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene on visual performance of various BCO knockout mice...
May 6, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jie Kang, Zhenhua Jia, Yang Ping, Zengxiang Liu, Xiaohong Yan, Guozhang Xing, Wensheng Yan
The effects of testosterone propionate (TP) on the oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, as well as on mitochondria associated apoptotic signaling, were analyzed in the gastric mucosa in orchiectomized male rats. The present study showed that testosterone deficiency triggered apoptosis by damaging the mitochondrial function (ROS overload generation, membrane potential loss, ATP depletion, etc.), increasing both the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyt c) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Keatisuda Dawut, Sophon Sirisattha, Takashi Hibino, Hakuto Kageyama, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Transmembrane ion transport is a critical process in the cellular response to salt stress. Among the known functional membrane transporters that are involved in the salt stress response, Na+ /H+ antiporters have been extensively studied. These ubiquitous membrane proteins are crucial for salt tolerance and are associated with the regulation of internal pH, cell volume, morphogenesis, and vesicular trafficking. Molecular and functional analyses of Na+ /H+ antiporters have been characterized among taxa but little is known about algal Na+ /H+ antiporters...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Chiasa Uragami, Keisuke Saito, Masayuki Yoshizawa, Péter Molnár, Hideki Hashimoto
The chemical structures of the carotenoid molecules are very simple and one might think that the electronic feature of it is easily predicted. However, it still has so much unknown information except the correlation between the electronic energy state and the length of effective conjugation chain of carotenoids. To investigate the electronic feature of the carotenoids, the most essential method is measuring the optical absorption spectra, but simulating it from the resonance Raman spectra is also the effective way...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
David Vauzour, Simone Corsini, Michael Müller, Jeremy P E Spencer
Flavonoids and their metabolites are well reported to modulate the activation/phosphorylation of various cellular kinases, such as ERK1/2 and JNK, although the mechanism by which they do so is unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of flavanones on the activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 and determine whether this is mediated, in part, by the inhibition of phosphatases. Primary cortical neurons were exposed to physiological concentrations of hesperetin and the phosphorylation status of the kinases PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 and the phosphatases PP2A and PTEN were assessed by immunoblotting after 30 min...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ahsan F Bairam, Mohammed I Rasool, Fatemah A Alherz, Maryam S Abunnaja, Amal A El Daibani, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Ming-Cheh Liu
Sulfoconjugation has been shown to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen (APAP), morphine, tapentadol and O-desmethyl tramadol (O-DMT). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genes on the sulfating activity of SULT1A3 allozymes toward these analgesic compounds. Twelve non-synonymous coding SNPs (cSNPs) of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 were investigated, and the corresponding cDNAs were generated by site-directed mutagenesis...
April 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hongbin Li, Huijuan Shi, Ning Ma, Panpan Zi, Qilong Liu, Rongqing Sun
BML-111 is a lipoxin receptor agonist that plays a vital role on inflammation. MALAT1 is reported to mediate lung injury. ALI rat model was established using the method of venous cannula. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) of rats were isolated using immunomagnetic separation method. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the lung injury degree. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to detect the genes expression. ELIAS was used to determine the level of TNF-α and IL-6...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Nazanin Bohlooli Ghashghaee, King-Lun Li, R John Solaro, Wen-Ji Dong
The C-terminus mobile domain of cTnI (cTnI-MD) is a highly conserved region which stabilizes the actin-cTnI interaction during the diastole. Upon Ca2+ -binding to cTnC, cTnI-MD participates in a regulatory switching that involves cTnI to switch from interacting with actin toward interacting with the Ca2+ -regulatory domain of cTnC. Despite many studies targeting the cTnI-MD, the role of this region in the length-dependent activation of cardiac contractility is yet to be determined. The present study investigated the functional consequences of losing the entire cTnI-MD in cTnI(1-167) truncation mutant, as it was exchanged for endogenous cTnI in skinned rat papillary muscle fibers...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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