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Applied Spectroscopy

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July 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Ariane Maciel Neiva, Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho
Synthetic leather samples from Brazil and Paraguay were evaluated in this study using three spectroscopy techniques: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The obtained information from each technique was separately inspected with principal component analysis (PCA). The concentrations of the elements determined in the synthetic leathers using ICP-OES decreased in the following order: Ca > Cr > Mg > Ba > Pb > Al > Fe > Zn > Sb > Ni with a concentration range below the limit of quantification (<LOQ, case of Ni) to 112 233 mg kg-1 (case of Ca)...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Peter R Griffiths, Brandy Eastman Fries, Andrew T Weakley
It is well known that the antisymmetric stretching (ν3 ) band in the mid-infrared spectra of oxyanion salts is usually very broad, whereas all the other fundamental bands are narrow. In this paper, we propose that the underlying cause of the increased width is the effect of the very high absorption index of this band for samples prepared with a range of particle sizes. When oxyanion salts are ground, the diameter of the resulting particles usually varies from less than 100 nm to about 2 µm. While the peak absorbance of the ν3 band of the smaller particles (diameter < 200 nm) is less than 1, that of the larger particles can be as high as 6...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Xiaodong Wang, Bo Chen, Ling Yao
In the far-ultraviolet (UV) region, optical materials are dispersive and absorbing. The previous successful design method utilized in the visible band should be re-examined. We report on the design and fabrication of a far-UV reflective broadband filter based on dielectric materials lanthanum fluoride (LaF3 ) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2 ). Extended bandwidth technology is utilized in designing this filter. The obtained filter has a high reflectance in the working wavelength range of 140-180 nm, meanwhile, with good suppression in shorter and longer wavelength regions...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Johannes Kiefer, Julia Bartels, Stephen Kroll, Kurosch Rezwan
Ceramic materials find use in many fields including the life sciences and environmental engineering. For example, ceramic membranes have shown to be promising filters for water treatment and virus retention. The analysis of such materials, however, remains challenging. In the present study, the potential of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for characterizing functionalized ceramic membranes for water treatment is evaluated. For this purpose, Raman scattering, infrared (IR) absorption, and solvent infrared spectroscopy (SIRS) were employed...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Karsten Hinrichs, Timur Shaykhutdinov
Infrared techniques enable nondestructive and label-free studies of thin films with high chemical and structural contrast. In this work, we review recent progress and perspectives in the nanoscale analysis of anisotropic materials using an extended version of the atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) technique. This advanced photothermal technique, includes polarization control of the incoming light and bridges the gap in IR spectroscopic analysis of local anisotropic material properties. Such local anisotropy occurs in a wide range of materials during molecular nucleation, aggregation, and crystallization processes...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Naveed Ahmad, Muhammad Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmed, Shaukat Mahmood
Raman spectroscopy as a fast and nondestructive technique has been used to investigate heating effects on Desi ghee during frying/cooking of food for the first time. A temperature in the range of 140-180℃ has been investigated within which Desi ghee can be used safely for cooking/frying without much alteration of its natural molecular composition. In addition, heating effects in case of reuse, heating for different times, and cooking inside pressure cookers are also presented. An excitation laser at 785 nm has been used to obtain Raman spectra and the range of 540-1800 cm-1 is found to contain prominent spectral bands...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Hao Zhang, Shun Wang, Keke Chang, Haifeng Sun, Qingqian Guo, Liuzheng Ma, Yatao Yang, Caihong Zou, Ling Wang, Jiandong Hu
Paper aging and degradation are growing concerns for those who are responsible for the conservation of documents, archives, and libraries. In this study, the paper aging was investigated using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS), where the fluorescence properties of 47 paper samples with different ages were explored. The paper exhibits fluorescence in the blue-green spectral region with two peaks at about 448 nm and 480 nm under the excitation of 405 nm laser. Both fluorescence peaks changed in absolute intensities and thus the ratio of peak intensities was also influenced with the increasing ages...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Hang Wu, Shixiang Wu, Nansheng Qiu, Jian Chang, Rima Bao, Xin Zhang, Nian Liu, Shuai Liu
Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis, a widely used low-temperature thermochronology method, can provide details of the hydrocarbon generation history of source rocks for use in hydrocarbon exploration. The AFT method is based on the annealing behavior of fission tracks generated by 238 U fission in apatite particles during geological history. Due to the cumbersome experimental steps and high expense, it is imperative to find an efficient and inexpensive technique to determinate the annealing degree of AFT...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Undugodage Don Nuwan Perera, Koichi Nishikida, Barry K Lavine
A previously published study featuring an attenuated total reflection (ATR) simulation algorithm that mitigated distortions in ATR spectra was further investigated to evaluate its efficacy to enhance searching of infrared (IR) transmission libraries. In the present study, search prefilters were developed from transformed ATR spectra to identify the assembly plant of a vehicle from ATR spectra of the clear coat layer. A total of 456 IR transmission spectra from the Paint Data Query (PDQ) database that spanned 22 General Motors assembly plants and served as a training set cohort were transformed into ATR spectra by the simulation algorithm...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Martin Ortiz-Morales, Juan Jose Soto-Bernal, Claudio Frausto-Reyes, Sofia E Acosta-Ortiz, Rosario Gonzalez-Mota, Iliana Rosales-Candelas
In order to characterize iron-chromium oxides generated by laser irradiation on the surface of stainless steel plates, an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) near-infrared (NIR) multiwavelength excitation Raman analysis has been performed using both austenitic SS304 and ferritic SS430 stainless steel samples. Raman spectra were obtained using five different excitation wavelengths from blue (455 nm) to NIR (830 nm). These measurements have allowed us to observe and identify four Raman bands, among which two have not been previously observed for iron-chromium oxides, and characterize the existence of different resonant excitation conditions for the different excitation wavelengths...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Miles Jacob Egan, S Michael Angel, Shiv K Sharma
A spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS) is a variant of a Michelson interferometer in which the mirrors of a Michelson are replaced with two stationary diffraction gratings. When light enters the SHRS, it is reflected off of diffraction gratings at frequency-dependent angles that produce crossed wavefronts in space that can be imaged using a plane array detector. The crossed wavefronts, which represent a superposition of interference fringes, are converted to a Raman spectrum upon applying a Fourier transform...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Dongyoung Kim, Jun-Ho Yang, Soojin Choi, Jack J Yoh
Environments affect mineral surfaces, and the surface contamination or alteration can provide potential information to understanding their regional environments. However, when investigating mineral surfaces, mineral and environmental elements appear mixed in data. This makes it difficult to determine their atomic compositions independently. In this research, we developed four analytical methods to distinguish mineral and environmental elements into positive and negative spectra based on depth profiling data using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Shota Ito, Hideki Kandori, Victor A Lorenz-Fonfria
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference absorption spectroscopy is a common method for studying the structural and dynamical aspects behind protein function. In particular, the 2800-1800 cm-1 spectral range has been used to obtain information about internal (deuterated) water molecules, as well as site-specific details about cysteine residues and chemically modified and artificial amino acids. Here, we report on the presence of ghost bands in cryogenic light-induced FT-IR difference spectra of the protein bacteriorhodopsin...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Ilpo Niskanen, Veijo Sutinen, Göran Thungström, Jukka Räty
The refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a medium, which can be used for the identification and purity issues of all media. Here we describe a refractive index measurement technique to determine simultaneously the refractive index of different solid particles by monitoring the transmittance of light from a suspension using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An important feature of the measurement is the liquid evaporation process for the refractive index matching of the solid particle and the immersion liquid; this was realized by using a pair of volatile and non-volatile immersion liquids...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Zhechao Qu, Olav Werhahn, Volker Ebert
The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Alexandr V Romanenko, Sergey V Rashchenko, Sergey V Goryainov, Anna Yu Likhacheva, Andrey V Korsakov
A pressure shift of Raman band of liquid water (H2 O) may be an important tool for measuring residual pressures in mineral inclusions, in situ barometry in high-pressure cells, and as an indicator of pressure-induced structural transitions in H2 O. However, there was no consensus as to how the broad and asymmetric water Raman band should be quantitatively described, which has led to fundamental inconsistencies between reported data. In order to overcome this issue, we measured Raman spectra of H2 O in situ up to 1...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Jesper Borggren, Wubin Weng, Marcus Aldén, Zongshan Li
Diode laser-based two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) thermometry applied to flames of combusting wood pellets is demonstrated. The temperature above burning wood pellets placed in the hot product gas of gallium seeded laminar flames is measured. The calibration-free technique provides spatially resolved temperatures in one dimension with sufficient temporal resolution to resolve all combustion stages of a pellet, even in highly sooting flames. The temperature above a burning pellet was found to decrease due to the release of volatile gases and the accuracy and precision of the technique is assessed at flame temperatures...
June 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Ryley Hill, Kiyoshi W Masui, Douglas Scott
Cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to γ-ray energies...
May 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
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