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Applied Spectroscopy

Tomas Leffler, Christian Brackmann, Marcus Aldén, Zhongshan Li
Laser-induced photofragmentation fluorescence has been investigated for the imaging of alkali compounds in premixed laminar methane-air flames. An ArF excimer laser, providing pulses of wavelength 193 nm, was used to photodissociate KCl, KOH, and NaCl molecules in the post-flame region and fluorescence from the excited atomic alkali fragment was detected. Fluorescence emission spectra showed distinct lines of the alkali atoms allowing for efficient background filtering. Temperature data from Rayleigh scattering measurements together with simulations of potassium chemistry presented in literature allowed for conclusions on the relative contributions of potassium species KOH and KCl to the detected signal...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Krystal L Sly, John C Conboy
A novel application of second harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) for the direct determination of molecular adsorption and desorption kinetics to a surface is discussed in detail. The surface-specific nature of second harmonic generation (SHG) provides an efficient means to determine the kinetic rates of adsorption and desorption of molecular species to an interface without interference from bulk diffusion, which is a significant limitation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The underlying principles of SHCS for the determination of surface binding kinetics are presented, including the role of optical coherence and optical heterodyne mixing...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Daniel Martin, Alicia G Gonzalvez, Rocio Mateos Medina, Angel González Ureña
This work reports on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the carotenoid Raman signal in several tomato fruits during their postharvest time evolution and ripening. Both resonant (180°) backscattering and polarized (90°) Raman scattering were used to monitor the most prominent bands of carotenoid (lycopene and β-carotene) evolution in different tomato varieties. Relevant findings of the present investigations were that while the depolarization ratio of the ν1 band hardly changed with time, the Raman ν1 band intensity did change showing a similar pattern for all tomatoes investigated...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Jacopo Parravicini, Maurizio Acciarri, Alberto Lomuscio, Matteo Murabito, Alessia Le Donne, Andrea Gasparotto, Simona Binetti
In the thin film solar cells domain, copper indium galium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a material with well-established photovoltaic purpose. Here the presence of a suitable [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) (GGI) in-depth profile has proved to play a key role in the performance of cells. The implementation of a routine method based on reliable but easily available experimental techniques is mandatory to obtain information on the GGI profile of any CIGS layer, in order to achieve high efficiency chalcogenide layers. In this vein, we here propose and systematically test a simple method for the GGI profile determination based on repeated bromine etching of CIGS thin films followed by Raman analysis of the A1 peak position...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Nobutaka Shioya, Takafumi Shimoaka, Richard Murdey, Takeshi Hasegawa
Infrared (IR) p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (pMAIRS) is a powerful tool for analyzing the molecular orientation in an organic thin film. In particular, pMAIRS works powerfully for a thin film with a highly rough surface irrespective of degree of the crystallinity. Recently, the optimal experimental condition has comprehensively been revealed, with which the accuracy of the analytical results has largely been improved. Regardless, some unresolved matters still remain. A structurally isotropic sample, for example, yields different peak intensities in the in-plane and out-of-plane spectra...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Ionela Raluca Comnea-Stancu, Karin Wieland, Georg Ramer, Andreas Schwaighofer, Bernhard Lendl
This work was sparked by the reported identification of man-made cellulosic fibers (rayon/viscose) in the marine environment as a major fraction of plastic litter by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy and library search. To assess the plausibility of such findings, both natural and man-made fibers were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra acquired by transmission microscopy, attenuated total reflection (ATR) microscopy, and ATR spectroscopy were compared. Library search was employed and results show significant differences in the identification rate depending on the acquisition method of the spectra...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Arthur L Miller, Andrew Todd Weakley, Peter R Griffiths, Emanuele G Cauda, Sean Bayman
In order to help reduce silicosis in miners, the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) is developing field-portable methods for measuring airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS), specifically the polymorph α-quartz, in mine dusts. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of end-of-shift measurement of α-quartz using a direct-on-filter (DoF) method to analyze coal mine dust samples deposited onto polyvinyl chloride filters. The DoF method is potentially amenable for on-site analyses, but deviates from the current regulatory determination of RCS for coal mines by eliminating two sample preparation steps: ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the ash prior to quantification by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Patrick D Barnett, S Michael Angel
A spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS) with millimeter-sized optics has been coupled with a standard cell phone camera as a detector for Raman measurements. The SHRS is a dispersive-based interferometer with no moving parts and the design is amenable to miniaturization while maintaining high resolution and large spectral range. In this paper, a SHRS with 2.5 mm diffraction gratings has been developed with 17.5 cm(-1) theoretical spectral resolution. The footprint of the SHRS is orders of magnitude smaller than the footprint of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors typically employed in Raman spectrometers, thus smaller detectors are being explored to shrink the entire spectrometer package...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Anna P M Michel, Jason Kapit
With the recent development of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) comes the possibility of targeting absorption bands of several gases, including sulfur dioxide (SO2). SO2 has strong absorption bands in the 300 nm spectral region. The low cost and small size of DUV LEDs, coupled with their spectral coverage, makes them viable sources for new gas sensors. Here, we demonstrate the capability to use absorption spectroscopy with a balanced detection scheme using a 300 nm DUV LED source for SO2 detection at concentrations ranging from less than 1 ppm to 50 ppm...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Petr Fomin, Dmitry Zhelondz, Christian Kargel
For the production of high-quality parts from recycled plastics, a very high purity of the plastic waste to be recycled is mandatory. The incorporation of fluorescent tracers ("markers") into plastics during the manufacturing process helps overcome typical problems of non-tracer based optical classification methods. Despite the unique emission spectra of fluorescent markers, the classification becomes difficult when the host plastics exhibit (strong) autofluorescence that spectrally overlaps the marker fluorescence...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Hirofumi Seki, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Takuma Kobayashi, Tsunenobu Kimoto, Yukihiro Ozaki
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were measured for thermal oxides with different electrical properties grown on 4H-SiC substrates. The peak frequency of the transverse optical (TO) phonon mode was blue-shifted by 5 cm(-1) as the oxide-layer thickness decreased to 3 nm. The blue shift of the TO mode indicates interfacial compressive stress in the oxide. Comparison of data for the oxide on a SiC substrate with that for similar oxides on a Si substrate implies that the peak shift of the TO mode at the SiO2/SiC interface is larger than that of SiO2/Si, which suggests that the interfacial stress for the oxide on the SiC substrate is larger than that on the Si substrate...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Nobutaka Shioya, Shingo Norimoto, Naoki Izumi, Miyako Hada, Takafumi Shimoaka, Takeshi Hasegawa
Infrared (IR) p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (pMAIRS) is a useful spectroscopic tool for revealing the molecular anisotropic structure in a thin film, which is used for the molecular orientation analysis of many functionalized organic thin films. Infrared pMAIRS provides both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) vibrational mode spectra, which are influenced by the choice of the angles of incidence, i.e., angle set. To obtain quantitatively reliable pMAIRS spectra, therefore, the optimal angle set must be revealed...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh, Sonja Pratzler, Olav Werhahn, Volker Ebert
We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H2O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H2O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM)...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Murugesan Balamurugan, Jyisy Yang
In this work, a simple method via decoration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on electrospun polycarbonate nanofibers (PCNFs) was proposed to prepare highly sensitive three-dimensional (3D) substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. The method proposed in this work gave a high sensitive Ag@PCNFs substrate, which resulted from a successful production of high surface area of PCNFs with a high efficiency in the decoration of AgNPs. To produce PCNFs suitable for SERS application, parameters in fabrication of PCNFs were systematically examined and correlated with their corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Zhenyu Lu, Stephanie A DeJong, Brianna M Cassidy, Raymond G Belliveau, Michael L Myrick, Stephen L Morgan
Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) was used to detect blood stains based on signature protein absorption in the mid-IR region, where intensity changes in the spectrum can be related to blood concentration. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied for multivariate calibrations of IR spectra of blood dilutions on four types of fabric (acrylic, nylon, polyester, and cotton). Gap derivatives (GDs) were applied as a preprocessing technique to optimize the performance of calibration models...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Logan S Marcus, Ellen L Holthoff, Paul M Pellegrino
Detection and identification of unknown and possibly hazardous materials is a vital area of research to which infrared (IR) spectroscopy is ideally suited. Infrared absorption spectra can be measured with many sensing paradigms of which photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a sensitive and flexible variant. The flexibility of PAS allows for the construction of narrowly tailored spectroscopic sensors that are designed for specific tasks. We discuss the evaluation of an interferometric PAS sensor by the measurement of common explosive hazards from a standoff distance of 1 m...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Sara Signorelli, Salvatore Cannistraro, Anna Rita Bizzarri
The intrinsically disordered protein p53 has attracted a strong interest for its important role in genome safeguarding and potential therapeutic applications. However, its disordered character makes difficult a full characterization of p53 structural architecture. A deep knowledge of p53 structural motifs could significantly help the understanding of its functional properties, in connection with its complex binding network. We have applied Raman spectroscopy to investigate the structural composition and the conformational heterogeneity of both full-length p53 and its DNA binding domain (DBD), in different solvent environments...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Claudio Arias, Stefano Bani, Fiorenzo Catalli, Giulia Lorenzetti, Emanuela Grifoni, Stefano Legnaioli, Stefano Pagnotta, Vincenzo Palleschi
The "Monetiere" of Florence hosts the most important collection of Etruscan coins in the world. In the framework of the longstanding collaboration between the Monetiere and the Applied Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory in Pisa, the Etruscan gold coin collection of the museum was studied. The measurements were performed at the Monetiere, using a portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument. The quantitative determination of the gold alloys used for the realization of the coins was obtained applying the fundamental parameters method to the XRF spectra; as a result, using the self-organizing maps method, we were able to classify the coins in four main groups...
May 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Bader A Alfarraj, Chet R Bhatt, Fang Yu Yueh, Jagdish P Singh
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines...
April 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
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