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Applied Spectroscopy

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November 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Alexander J Makowski, Mathilde Granke, Oscar D Ayala, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Jeffry S Nyman
A decline in the inherent quality of bone tissue is a † Equal contributors contributor to the age-related increase in fracture risk. Although this is well-known, the important biochemical factors of bone quality have yet to be identified using Raman spectroscopy (RS), a nondestructive, inelastic light-scattering technique. To identify potential RS predictors of fracture risk, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to 558 Raman spectra (370-1720 cm(-1)) of human cortical bone acquired from 62 female and male donors (nine spectra each) spanning adulthood (age range = 21-101 years)...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Valentina Crocellà, Elena Groppo, Alessandro Dani, Alberto Castellero, Silvia Bordiga, Stefano Zilio, Agnello De Simone, Paolo Vacca
The functional properties of a new composite material having water vapor getter properties have been investigated by a large arsenal of characterization techniques. The composite system is originated by combining two constituents having very different chemical natures, a magnesium perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2) salt and a polymeric acrylic matrix. In particular, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy have been fundamental to understand the type of interactions between the salt and the matrix in different hydration conditions...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Xueyin Yuan, Robert A Mayanovic
Fitting experimentally measured Raman bands with theoretical model profiles is the basic operation for numerical determination of Raman peak parameters. In order to investigate the effects of peak modeling using various algorithms on peak fitting results, the representative Raman bands of mineral crystals, glass, fluids as well as the emission lines from a fluorescent lamp, some of which were measured under ambient light whereas others under elevated pressure and temperature conditions, were fitted using Gaussian, Lorentzian, Gaussian-Lorentzian, Voigtian, Pearson type IV, and beta profiles...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Dong Yang, Dandan He, Anxiang Lu, Dong Ren, Jihua Wang
The freshness of meat products during storage has received unprecedented attention. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to determine the freshness state of cooked beef during storage and identify the contaminated areas on the surface of spoiled samples. Hyperspectral images of cooked beef were acquired in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm and the freshness state of all samples was divided into three classes (freshness, medium freshness, and spoilage) using the measured total viable count (TVC) of bacteria...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Jinfeng Zhou, Rongwu Wang, Xiongying Wu, Bugao Xu
Cashmere and wool are two protein fibers with analogous geometrical attributes, but distinct physical properties. Due to its scarcity and unique features, cashmere is a much more expensive fiber than wool. In the textile production, cashmere is often intentionally blended with fine wool in order to reduce the material cost. To identify the fiber contents of a wool-cashmere blend is important to quality control and product classification. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable method for estimating fiber contents in wool-cashmere blends based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Olivier Carrivain, Mikael Orain, Nelly Dorval, Celine Morin, Guillaume Legros
Two-photon excitation laser-induced fluorescence of carbon monoxide (CO-LIF) is investigated experimentally in order to determine the applicability of this technique for imaging CO concentration in aeronautical combustors. Experiments are carried out in a high temperature, high-pressure test cell, and in a laminar premixed CH4/air flame. Influence of temperature and pressure on CO-LIF spectra intensity and shape is reported. The experimental results show that as pressure increases, the CO-LIF excitation spectrum becomes asymmetric...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Yuankai Tang, Xiantong Yu, Haifeng Pan, Jinquan Chen, Benjamin Audit, Françoise Argoul, Sanjun Zhang, Jianhua Xu
We numerically studied the optical properties of spherical nanostructures made of an emitter core coated by a silver shell through the generalized Mie theory. When there is a strong coupling between the localized surface plasmon in the metallic shell and the emitter exciton in the core, the extinction spectra exhibit two peaks. Upon adsorption of analytes on these core-shell nanostructures, the intensities of the two peaks change with opposite trends. This property makes them potential sensitive ratiometric sensors...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Ammon Williams, Keith Bryce, Supathorn Phongikaroon
Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) has many advantages-including that it is proliferation resistant. However, as part of the process, special nuclear materials accumulate in the electrolyte salt and present material accountability and safeguards concerns. The main motivation of this work was to explore a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) approach as an online monitoring technique to enhance the material accountability of special nuclear materials in pyroprocessing. In this work, a vacuum extraction method was used to draw the molten salt (CeCl3-GdCl3-LiCl-KCl) up into 4 mm diameter Pyrex tubes where it froze...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Lixia Zhang, Peng Li, Lan Luo, Xiangfeng Bu, Xiaolei Wang, Bing Zhao, Yuan Tian
In this paper, a facile large-scale preparation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) substrates for the determination of Rhodamine B (RhB) based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) has been developed. The morphology, structure, and properties of as-prepared Ag NWs are characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Ag NWs were assembled onto glass slides through a self-assembly method. Moreover, in our experiment, as-prepared Ag NWs@glass were used as a SERRS substrate to detect RhB at the excitation wavelength of 532 nm...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Erik A Taylor, Ashley A Lloyd, Carolina Salazar-Lara, Eve Donnelly
Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging techniques can be used to characterize bone composition. In this study, our objective was to validate the Raman mineral:matrix ratios (ν1 PO4:amide III, ν1 PO4:amide I, ν1 PO4:Proline + hydroxyproline, ν1 PO4:Phenylalanine, ν1 PO4:δ CH2 peak area ratios) by correlating them to ash fraction and the IR mineral:matrix ratio (ν3 PO4:amide I peak area ratio) in chemical standards and native bone tissue. Chemical standards consisting of varying ratios of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, as well as bone tissue from humans, sheep, and mice, were characterized with confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and gravimetric analysis...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Aaron Millan-Oropeza, Rolando Rebois, Michelle David, Fathi Moussa, Alexandre Dazzi, Jean Bleton, Marie-Joelle Virolle, Ariane Deniset-Besseau
There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Brian J Sobieski, Isao Noda, John F Rabolt, D Bruce Chase
In this work, we describe polymer-solvent interactions in biosynthesized and biodegradable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate- co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHx) and the atactic homopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (a-PHB), which were studied both as neat polymers and in solutions of chloroform and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). Specifically, infrared frequency shifts of the carbonyl band were observed in semi-crystalline PHBHx, but not in a-PHB, because it cannot form the helical conformation required for crystallization...
October 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Justin M Reynard, Nathan S Van Gorder, Frank V Bright
We report on gaseous analyte-induced photoluminescence (PL) quenching of porous silicon, as-prepared (ap-pSi) and oxidized (ox-pSi). By using steady-state and emission wavelength-dependent time-resolved intensity luminescence measurements in concert with a global analysis scheme, we find that the analyte-induced quenching is best described by a three-component static quenching model. In the model, there are blue, green, and red emitters (associated with the nanocrystallite core and surface trap states) that each exhibit unique analyte-emitter association constants and these association constants are a consequence of differences in the pSi surface chemistries...
September 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Andrew Johnston, Keith Rogers
The effect of moderate temperatures (25-75 ℃) on latent fingerprints over a five-hour period was examined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The aim of the study was to detect changes in IR spectra due to any changes in fingerprint chemistry; these results were then compared to pure compounds found in sebum that was subjected to 75 ℃ for 5 h. Latent fingerprints deposited on CaF2 microscope slides and placed on a Peltier pump heating stage showed that higher temperatures significantly reduced the quantity of sebaceous compounds after 5 h, whereas temperatures below 45 ℃ had little effect on the quantity of these compounds over the same time period...
September 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Saranjam Khan, Rahat Ullah, Asifullah Khan, Anabia Sohail, Noorul Wahab, Muhammad Bilal, Mushtaq Ahmed
This work presents the evaluation of Raman spectroscopy using random forest (RF) for the analysis of dengue fever in the infected human sera. A total of 100 dengue suspected blood samples, collected from Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, have been used in this study. Out of these samples, 45 were dengue-positive based on immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. For highlighting the spectral differences between normal and infected samples, an effective machine learning system is developed that automatically learns the pattern of the shift in spectrum for the dengue compared to normal cases and thus is able to predict the unknown class based on the known example...
September 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Martha Z Vardaki, Hannah Sheridan, Nicholas Stone, Pavel Matousek
This study demonstrates experimentally a method to enable prediction of depth of a chemical species buried in a turbid medium by using transmission Raman spectroscopy alone. The method allows the prediction of the depth of a single, chemically distinct layer within a turbid matrix by performing two measurements, with and without a beam enhancing element, or "photon diode." The samples employed consisted of two different polymers, of total thickness 3.6 mm, whose optical properties are loosely relevant to pharmaceutical applications...
August 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Joseph P Smith, Frank C Smith, Joshua Ottaway, Alexandra E Krull-Davatzes, Bruce M Simonson, Billy P Glass, Karl S Booksh
The high-pressure, α-PbO2-structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO2-II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO2-II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO2-II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO2-II...
August 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
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