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Annual Review of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068778/psychology-s-renaissance
#1
Leif D Nelson, Joseph Simmons, Uri Simonsohn
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035692/the-development-of-chronic-physical-aggression-a-bio-psycho-social-model-for-the-next-generation-of-preventive-interventions
#2
Richard E Tremblay, Frank Vitaro, Sylvana M Côté
This review describes a bio-psycho-social approach to understanding and preventing the development of chronic physical aggression. The debate on the developmental origins of aggression has historically opposed genetic and environmental mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that the frequency of physical aggression peaks in early childhood and then decreases until old age. Molecular genetic studies and twin studies have confirmed important genetic influences. However, recent epigenetic studies have highlighted the important role of environments in gene expression and brain development...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035691/how-we-hear-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound
#3
Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#4
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music- its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035689/principles-and-challenges-of-applying-epigenetic-epidemiology-to-psychology
#5
Meaghan J Jones, Sarah R Moore, Michael S Kobor
Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 69 is January 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035688/why-social-relationships-are-important-for-physical-health-a-systems-approach-to-understanding-and-modifying-risk-and-protection
#6
Julianne Holt-Lunstad
Social relationships are adaptive and crucial for survival. This review presents existing evidence that our social connections to others have powerful influences on health and longevity and that lacking social connection qualifies as a risk factor for premature mortality. A systems perspective is presented as a framework by which to move social connection into the realm of public health. Individuals, and health-relevant biological processes, exist within larger social contexts including the family, neighborhood and community, and society and culture...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961060/persuasion-influence-and-value-perspectives-from-communication-and-social-neuroscience
#7
Emily Falk, Christin Scholz
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. Wenext review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961059/gender-stereotypes
#8
Naomi Ellemers
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945979/social-mobilization
#9
Todd Rogers, Noah J Goldstein, Craig R Fox
This article reviews research from several behavioral disciplines to derive strategies for prompting people to perform behaviors that are individually costly and provide negligible individual or social benefits but are meaningful when performed by a large number of individuals. Whereas the term social influence encompasses all the ways in which people influence other people, social mobilization refers specifically to principles that can be used to influence a large number of individuals to participate in an activity...
September 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934586/improving-student-outcomes-in-higher-education-the-science-of-targeted-intervention
#10
Judith M Harackiewicz, Stacy J Priniski
Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892638/ensemble-perception
#11
David Whitney, Allison Yamanashi Leib
To understand visual consciousness, we must understand how the brain represents ensembles of objects at many levels of perceptual analysis. Ensemble perception refers to the visual system's ability to extract summary statistical information from groups of similar objects-often in a brief glance. It defines foundational limits on cognition, memory, and behavior. In this review, we provide an operational definition of ensemble perception and demonstrate that ensemble perception spans across multiple levels of visual analysis, incorporating both low-level visual features and high-level social information...
September 11, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877000/linking-language-and-cognition-in-infancy
#12
Danielle R Perszyk, Sandra R Waxman
Human language, a signature of our species, derives its power from its links to human cognition. For centuries, scholars have been captivated by this link between language and cognition. In this article, we shift this focus. Adopting a developmental lens, we review recent evidence that sheds light on the origin and developmental unfolding of the link between language and cognition in the first year of life. This evidence, which reveals the joint contributions of infants' innate capacities and their sensitivity to experience, highlights how a precocious link between language and cognition advances infants beyond their initial perceptual and conceptual capacities...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876999/how-children-solve-the-two-challenges-of-cooperation
#13
Felix Warneken
In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854001/the-properties-and-antecedents-of-hedonic-decline
#14
Jeff Galak, Joseph P Redden
We review the phenomenon of hedonic decline, whereby repeated exposure to a stimulus typically reduces the hedonic response (e.g., enjoyment). We first discuss the typical trajectory of hedonic decline and the common research paradigms used to study it. We next discuss the most popular theories regarding general mechanisms widely believed to underlie hedonic decline. We then propose a taxonomy to organize these various general theories and to incorporate more recent work on top-down, self-reflective theories...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854000/multistable-perception-and-the-role-of-frontoparietal-cortex-in-perceptual-inference
#15
Jan Brascamp, Philipp Sterzer, Randolph Blake, Tomas Knapen
A given pattern of optical stimulation can arise from countless possible realworld sources, creating a dilemma for vision: What in the world actually gives rise to the current pattern? This dilemma was pointed out centuries ago by the astronomer and mathematician Ibn al-Haytham and was forcefully restated 150 years ago when von Helmholtz characterized perception as unconscious inference. To buttress his contention, von Helmholtz cited multistable perception: recurring changes in perception despite unchanging sensory input...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846500/neuro-cardio-and-immunoplasticity-effects-of-early-adversity
#16
Eric Pakulak, Courtney Stevens, Helen Neville
The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. We emphasize the effects of environmental experiences related to caregiver relationships because it is these experiences, in particular, that shape regulatory and threat response systems in ways that increase vulnerability and may underlie the wide range of poor outcomes associated with early adversity...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841390/attitudes-and-attitude-change
#17
Dolores Albarracin, Sharon Shavitt
This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, the social media, and culture...
August 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#18
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793812/infant-statistical-learning
#19
Jenny R Saffran, Natasha Z Kirkham
Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning)...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793811/cognitive-foundations-of-learning-from-testimony
#20
Paul L Harris, Melissa A Koenig, Kathleen H Corriveau, Vikram K Jaswal
Humans acquire much of their knowledge from the testimony of other people. An understanding of the way that information can be conveyed via gesture and vocalization is present in infancy. Thus, infants seek information from well-informed interlocutors, supply information to the ignorant, and make sense of communicative acts that they observe from a third-party perspective. This basic understanding is refined in the course of development. As they age, children's reasoning about testimony increasingly reflects an ability not just to detect imperfect or inaccurate claims but also to assess what inferences may or may not be drawn about informants given their particular situation...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
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