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Annual Review of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110576/the-emotion-process-event-appraisal-and-component-differentiation
#1
Klaus R Scherer, Agnes Moors
Much emotion research has focused on the end result of the emotion process, categorical emotions, as reported by the protagonist or diagnosed by the researcher, with the aim of differentiating these discrete states. In contrast, this review concentrates on the emotion process itself by examining how (a) elicitation, or the appraisal of events, leads to (b) differentiation, in particular, action tendencies accompanied by physiological responses and manifested in facial, vocal, and gestural expressions, before (c) conscious representation or experience of these changes (feeling) and (d) categorizing and labeling these changes according to the semantic profiles of emotion words...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110575/psychobiological-mechanisms-of-placebo-and-nocebo-effects-pathways-to-improve-treatments-and-reduce-side-effects
#2
Keith J Petrie, Winfried Rief
Placebo effects constitute a major part of treatment success in medical interventions. The nocebo effect also has a major impact, as it accounts for a significant proportion of the reported side effects for many treatments. Historically, clinical trials have aimed to reduce placebo effects; however, currently, there is interest in optimizing placebo effects to improve existing treatments and in examining ways to minimize nocebo effects to improve clinical outcome. To achieve these aims, a better understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo and nocebo response is required...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110574/agency-and-motivation-in-adulthood-and-old-age
#3
Jutta Heckhausen, Carsten Wrosch, Richard Schulz
This review addresses conceptual and empirical research about how individual agency and motivation influences development during adulthood and old age. The major life-span approaches to individual agency and developmental regulation are discussed, with a focus on the motivational theory of life-span development. Developmental agency unfolds through action cycles of pursuing long-term goals for optimal development. Individuals differ in their capacity to regulate their goal engagements effectively within the age-graded structure of opportunities and constraints in their life courses...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089229/gifted-students
#4
Frank C Worrell, Rena F Subotnik, Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Dante D Dixson
Gifted students are individuals who are recognized for performance that is superior to that of their peers. Although giftedness is typically associated with schooling, gifted individuals exist across academic and nonacademic domains. In this review, we begin by acknowledging some of the larger debates in the field of gifted education and provide brief summaries of major conceptual frameworks applied to gifted education, dividing them into three categories: frameworks focused on ability, frameworks focused on talent development, and integrative frameworks...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089228/how-to-do-a-systematic-review-a-best-practice-guide-for-conducting-and-reporting-narrative-reviews-meta-analyses-and-meta-syntheses
#5
Andy P Siddaway, Alex M Wood, Larry V Hedges
Systematic reviews are characterized by a methodical and replicable methodology and presentation. They involve a comprehensive search to locate all relevant published and unpublished work on a subject; a systematic integration of search results; and a critique of the extent, nature, and quality of evidence in relation to a particular research question. The best reviews synthesize studies to draw broad theoretical conclusions about what a literature means, linking theory to evidence and evidence to theory. This guide describes how to plan, conduct, organize, and present a systematic review of quantitative (meta-analysis) or qualitative (narrative review, meta-synthesis) information...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975596/projected-behavioral-impacts-of-global-climate-change
#6
Gary W Evans
The projected behavioral impacts of global climate change emanate from environmental changes including temperature elevation, extreme weather events, and rising air pollution. Negative affect, interpersonal and intergroup conflict, and possibly psychological distress increase with rising temperature. Droughts, floods, and severe storms diminish quality of life, elevate stress, produce psychological distress, and may elevate interpersonal and intergroup conflict. Recreational opportunities are compromised by extreme weather, and children may suffer delayed cognitive development...
July 5, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949728/meanings-and-functions-of-money-in-different-cultural-milieus
#7
Dov Cohen, Faith Shin, Xi Liu
We explore the psychological meanings of money that parallel its economic functions. We explore money's ability to ascribe value, give autonomy, and provide security for the future, and we show how each of these functions may play out differently in different cultural milieus. In particular, we explore the meanings and uses of money across ethnic groups and at different positions on the socioeconomic ladder, highlighting changes over the last 50 years.We examine the dynamics of redistribution between the individual, the family, and the state in different cultures, and we analyze the gendering of money in the world of high finance and in contexts of economic need...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949727/successful-memory-aging
#8
Lars Nyberg, Sara Pudas
For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and stable levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949726/ten-surprising-facts-about-stressful-life-events-and-disease-risk
#9
Sheldon Cohen, Michael L M Murphy, Aric A Prather
After over 70 years of research on the association between stressful life events and health, it is generally accepted that we have a good understanding of the role of stressors in disease risk. In this review, we highlight that knowledge but also emphasize misunderstandings and weaknesses in this literature with the hope of triggering further theoretical and empirical development. We organize this review in a somewhat provocative manner, with each section focusing on an important issue in the literature where we feel that there has been some misunderstanding of the evidence and its implications...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927688/stress-and-obesity
#10
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300688/psychology-science-and-knowledge-construction-broadening-perspectives-from-the-replication-crisis
#11
Patrick E Shrout, Joseph L Rodgers
Psychology advances knowledge by testing statistical hypotheses using empirical observations and data. The expectation is that most statistically significant findings can be replicated in new data and in new laboratories, but in practice many findings have replicated less often than expected, leading to claims of a replication crisis. We review recent methodological literature on questionable research practices, meta-analysis, and power analysis to explain the apparently high rates of failure to replicate. Psychologists can improve research practices to advance knowledge in ways that improve replicability...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300687/introduction
#12
Susan T Fiske, Daniel L Schacter, Shelley E Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068778/psychology-s-renaissance
#13
Leif D Nelson, Joseph Simmons, Uri Simonsohn
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035692/developmental-origins-of-chronic-physical-aggression-a-bio-psycho-social-model-for-the-next-generation-of-preventive-interventions
#14
Richard E Tremblay, Frank Vitaro, Sylvana M Côté
This review describes a bio-psycho-social approach to understanding and preventing the development of chronic physical aggression. The debate on the developmental origins of aggression has historically opposed genetic and environmental mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that the frequency of physical aggression peaks in early childhood and then decreases until old age. Molecular genetic studies and twin studies have confirmed important genetic influences. However, recent epigenetic studies have highlighted the important role of environments in gene expression and brain development...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035691/how-we-hear-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound
#15
Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#16
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music-its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035689/principles-and-challenges-of-applying-epigenetic-epidemiology-to-psychology
#17
Meaghan J Jones, Sarah R Moore, Michael S Kobor
The interplay of genetically driven biological processes and environmental factors is a key driver of research questions spanning multiple areas of psychology. A nascent area of research focuses on the utility of epigenetic marks in capturing this intersection of genes and environment, as epigenetic mechanisms are both tightly linked to the genome and environmentally responsive. Advances over the past 10 years have allowed large-scale assessment of one epigenetic mark in particular, DNA methylation, in human populations, and the examination of DNA methylation is becoming increasingly common in psychological studies...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035688/why-social-relationships-are-important-for-physical-health-a-systems-approach-to-understanding-and-modifying-risk-and-protection
#18
Julianne Holt-Lunstad
Social relationships are adaptive and crucial for survival. This review presents existing evidence indicating that our social connections to others have powerful influences on health and longevity and that lacking social connection qualifies as a risk factor for premature mortality. A systems perspective is presented as a framework by which to move social connection into the realm of public health. Individuals, and health-relevant biological processes, exist within larger social contexts including the family, neighborhood and community, and society and culture...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961060/persuasion-influence-and-value-perspectives-from-communication-and-social-neuroscience
#19
Emily Falk, Christin Scholz
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. We next review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961059/gender-stereotypes
#20
Naomi Ellemers
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
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