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Annual Review of Psychology

Shelley E Taylor, Susan T Fiske
Shelley Taylor's autobiographical interview (conducted by Annual Review of Psychology Editor and long-time collaborator Susan Fiske) touches on some of her favorite ideas. For example, positive illusions: "The traditional textbook definition of mental health included the stipulation that people see the world accurately, and what we were suggesting is that actually, a lot of times, people don't see the world accurately. They see it with a positive spin on it." She also discusses how to found fields (social cognition, health psychology, and social neuroscience) and the challenges of boundary crossing (from social to biological)...
October 3, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Gregory T Smith
Abundant evidence links personality with emotion via coping. Alternatively, personality can be viewed as an emergent property of responses to the experience of emotion. Dispositions to control, approach, escape, and avoid one's emotional experience underlie diverse traits, including positive and negative urgency, trait emotional approach and avoidance, alexithymia, and emotional expressiveness. In this review, we consider the neurobiological underpinnings of these dispositions and the nature (e.g., stability) and adaptiveness of the associated traits...
September 28, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Sarah D Pressman, Brooke N Jenkins, Judith T Moskowitz
Positive affect (PA) is associated with better health across a wide range of physical health outcomes. This review reflects on why the study of PA is an essential component of our understanding of physical health and expands on pathways that connect these two variables. To encourage forward movement in this burgeoning research area, measurement and design issues in the study of PA and health are discussed, as are the connections between PA and a range of different health outcomes. Plausible biological, social, and behavioral pathways that allow for positive feelings to get under the skin and influence physical wellness are detailed and framed in the context of several theoretical models...
September 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Melissa J Sharpe, Thomas Stalnaker, Nicolas W Schuck, Simon Killcross, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Yael Niv
Making decisions in environments with few choice options is easy. We select the action that results in the most valued outcome. Making decisions in more complex environments, where the same action can produce different outcomes in different conditions, is much harder. In such circumstances, we propose that accurate action selection relies on top-down control from the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices over striatal activity through distinct thalamostriatal circuits. We suggest that the prelimbic cortex exerts direct influence over medium spiny neurons in the dorsomedial striatum to represent the state space relevant to the current environment...
September 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Judith A Hall, Terrence G Horgan, Nora A Murphy
The field of nonverbal communication (NVC) has a long history involving many cue modalities, including face, voice, body, touch, and interpersonal space; different levels of analysis, including normative, group, and individual differences; and many substantive themes that cross from psychology into other disciplines. In this review, we focus on NVC as it pertains to individuals and social interaction. We concentrate specifically on (a) the meanings and correlates of cues that are enacted (sent) by encoders and (b) the perception of nonverbal cues and the accuracy of such perception...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Andrew C Cortopassi, Redd Driver, Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman
HIV is transmitted in social and sexual relationships, and HIV transmission risks, as well as protective actions, are evolving as HIV epidemics unfold. The current focus of HIV prevention is centered on antiretroviral medications used to reduce HIV infectiousness in persons already infected with HIV [treatment as prevention (TasP)]. The same medications used to treat infected persons can also be used by uninfected persons as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the infectivity of HIV. Both PrEP and TasP are effective when adherence is high and individuals do not have co-occurring sexually transmitted infections...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Karen E Adolph, Justine E Hoch
Motor development and psychological development are fundamentally related, but researchers typically consider them separately. In this review, we present four key features of infant motor development and show that motor skill acquisition both requires and reflects basic psychological functions. (a) Motor development is embodied: Opportunities for action depend on the current status of the body. (b) Motor development is embedded: Variations in the environment create and constrain possibilities for action. (c) Motor development is enculturated: Social and cultural influences shape motor behaviors...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Richard E Mayer
Visionaries offer strong claims for the educational benefits of computer games, but there is a need to test those claims with rigorous scientific research and ground them in evidence-based theories of how people learn. Three genres of game research are (a) value-added research, which compares the learning outcomes of groups that learn academic material from playing a base version of a game to the outcomes of those playing the same game with one feature added; (b) cognitive consequences research, which compares improvements in cognitive skills of groups that play an off-the-shelf game to the skill improvements of those who engage in a control activity; and (c) media comparison research, which compares the learning outcomes of groups that learn academic material in a game to the outcomes of those who learn with conventional media...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Paul T Costa, Robert R McCrae, Corinna E Löckenhoff
Trait stability and maturation are fundamental principles of contemporary personality psychology and have been shown to hold across many cultures. However, it has proven difficult to move beyond these general findings to a detailed account of trait development. There are pervasive and unexplained inconsistencies across studies that may be due to (a) insufficient attention to measurement error, (b) subtle but age-sensitive differences in alternative measures of the same trait, or (c) different perspectives reflected in self-reports and observer ratings...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Abigail A Marsh
Implicit in the longstanding disagreements about whether humans' fundamental nature is predominantly caring or callous is an assumption of uniformity. This article reviews evidence that instead supports inherent variation in caring motivation and behavior. The continuum between prosocial and antisocial extremes reflects variation in the structure and function of neurohormonal systems originally adapted to motivate parental care and since repurposed to support generalized forms of care. Extreme social behaviors such as extraordinary acts of altruism and aggression can often be best understood as reflecting variation in the neural systems that support care...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Victor S Ferreira
Audience design refers to the situation in which speakers fashion their utterances so as to cater to the needs of their addressees. In this article, a range of audience design effects are reviewed, organized by a novel cognitive framework for understanding audience design effects. Within this framework, feedforward (or one-shot) production is responsible for feedforward audience design effects, or effects based on already known properties of the addressee (e.g., child versus adult status) or the message (e...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
David M Buss, David P Schmitt
Evolved mate preferences comprise a central causal process in Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Their powerful influences have been documented in all sexually reproducing species, including in sexual strategies in humans. This article reviews the science of human mate preferences and their myriad behavioral manifestations. We discuss sex differences and sex similarities in human sexual psychology, which vary according to short-term and long-term mating contexts. We review context-specific shifts in mating strategy depending on individual, social, and ecological qualities such as mate value, life history strategy, sex ratio, gender economic inequality, and cultural norms...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Ann E Tenbrunsel, McKenzie R Rees, Kristina A Diekmann
This article reviews research on sexual harassment, particularly that pertaining to academia, to understand its underlying causes. Arguing that sexual harassment is an ethical issue, we draw on the field of behavioral ethics to structure our review. We first review ethical climate antecedents at the individual, leader, organizational, and environmental levels and examine their effects on both the occurrence of and responses to sexually harassing behaviors. This discussion is followed by an exploration of research that speaks to the cognitive processes of bounded ethicality-including ethical fading, motivated blindness, and the slippery slope-and their role in facilitating and perpetuating sexual harassment...
August 29, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Patrick Haggard
Volition refers to a capacity for endogenous action, particularly goal-directed endogenous action, shared by humans and some other animals. It has long been controversial whether a specific set of cognitive processes for volition exist in the human brain, and much scientific thinking on the topic continues to revolve around traditional metaphysical debates about free will. At its origins, scientific psychology had a strong engagement with volition. This was followed by a period of disenchantment, or even outright hostility, during the second half of the twentieth century...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Bruce J Ellis, Marco Del Giudice
The assumption that early stress leads to dysregulation and impairment is widespread in developmental science and informs prevailing models (e.g., toxic stress). An alternative evolutionary-developmental approach, which complements the standard emphasis on dysregulation, proposes that early stress may prompt the development of costly but adaptive strategies that promote survival and reproduction under adverse conditions. In this review, we survey this growing theoretical and empirical literature, highlighting recent developments and outstanding questions...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Klaus R Scherer, Agnes Moors
Much emotion research has focused on the end result of the emotion process, categorical emotions, as reported by the protagonist or diagnosed by the researcher, with the aim of differentiating these discrete states. In contrast, this review concentrates on the emotion process itself by examining how (a) elicitation, or the appraisal of events, leads to (b) differentiation, in particular, action tendencies accompanied by physiological responses and manifested in facial, vocal, and gestural expressions, before (c) conscious representation or experience of these changes (feeling) and (d) categorizing and labeling these changes according to the semantic profiles of emotion words...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Keith J Petrie, Winfried Rief
Placebo effects constitute a major part of treatment success in medical interventions. The nocebo effect also has a major impact, as it accounts for a significant proportion of the reported side effects for many treatments. Historically, clinical trials have aimed to reduce placebo effects; however, currently, there is interest in optimizing placebo effects to improve existing treatments and in examining ways to minimize nocebo effects to improve clinical outcome. To achieve these aims, a better understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo and nocebo response is required...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Jutta Heckhausen, Carsten Wrosch, Richard Schulz
This review addresses conceptual and empirical research about how individual agency and motivation influences development during adulthood and old age. The major life-span approaches to individual agency and developmental regulation are discussed, with a focus on the motivational theory of life-span development. Developmental agency unfolds through action cycles of pursuing long-term goals for optimal development. Individuals differ in their capacity to regulate their goal engagements effectively within the age-graded structure of opportunities and constraints in their life courses...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Frank C Worrell, Rena F Subotnik, Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Dante D Dixson
Gifted students are individuals who are recognized for performance that is superior to that of their peers. Although giftedness is typically associated with schooling, gifted individuals exist across academic and nonacademic domains. In this review, we begin by acknowledging some of the larger debates in the field of gifted education and provide brief summaries of major conceptual frameworks applied to gifted education, dividing them into three categories: frameworks focused on ability, frameworks focused on talent development, and integrative frameworks...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Andy P Siddaway, Alex M Wood, Larry V Hedges
Systematic reviews are characterized by a methodical and replicable methodology and presentation. They involve a comprehensive search to locate all relevant published and unpublished work on a subject; a systematic integration of search results; and a critique of the extent, nature, and quality of evidence in relation to a particular research question. The best reviews synthesize studies to draw broad theoretical conclusions about what a literature means, linking theory to evidence and evidence to theory. This guide describes how to plan, conduct, organize, and present a systematic review of quantitative (meta-analysis) or qualitative (narrative review, meta-synthesis) information...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
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