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Annual Review of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051936/eavesdropping-on-memory
#1
Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051935/adjusting-to-chronic-health-conditions
#2
Vicki S Helgeson, Melissa Zajdel
Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051934/neural-mechanisms-of-selective-visual-attention
#3
Tirin Moore, Marc Zirnsak
Selective visual attention describes the tendency of visual processing to be confined largely to stimuli that are relevant to behavior. It is among the most fundamental of cognitive functions, particularly in humans and other primates for whom vision is the dominant sense. We review recent progress in identifying the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. We discuss evidence from studies of different varieties of selective attention and examine how these varieties alter the processing of stimuli by neurons within the visual system, current knowledge of their causal basis, and methods for assessing attentional dysfunctions...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051933/toward-a-social-psychophysics-of-face-communication
#4
Rachael E Jack, Philippe G Schyns
As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. In the past decade, the emerging field of social psychophysics has developed new methods to address this challenge, with the potential to transfer psychophysical laws of social perception to the digital economy via avatars and social robots...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051932/social-learning-and-culture-in-child-and-chimpanzee
#5
Andrew Whiten
A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732803/gene-%C3%A3-environment-interactions-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-behavior
#6
Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B Binder
Gene-by-environment interactions (G×Es) can provide important biological insights into psychiatric disorders and may consequently have direct clinical implications. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major challenges G×E studies have faced (e.g., difficulties replicating findings and high false discovery rates). In light of these challenges, this review focuses on describing examples in which we might begin to understand G×Es on the molecular, cellular, circuit, and behavioral level and link this interaction to altered risk for the development of psychiatric disorders...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732802/survival-of-the-friendliest-homo-sapiens-evolved-via-selection-for-prosociality
#7
Brian Hare
The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human self-domestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687123/how-power-affects-people-activating-wanting-and-goal-seeking
#8
Ana Guinote
Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687121/the-structure-of-social-cognition-in-ter-dependence-of-sociocognitive-processes
#9
Francesca Happé, Jennifer L Cook, Geoffrey Bird
Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687120/culture-three-ways-culture-and-subcultures-within-countries
#10
Daphna Oyserman
Culture can be thought of as a set of everyday practices and a core theme-individualism, collectivism, or honor-as well as the capacity to understand each of these themes. In one's own culture, it is easy to fail to see that a cultural lens exists and instead to think that there is no lens at all, only reality. Hence, studying culture requires stepping out of it. There are two main methods to do so: The first involves using between-group comparisons to highlight differences and the second involves using experimental methods to test the consequences of disruption to implicit cultural frames...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687119/learning-reward-and-decision-making
#11
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687118/mindfulness-interventions
#12
J David Creswell
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687117/memory-organization-and-control
#13
Howard Eichenbaum
A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and retrieval. Observations about the dialog between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex provide new insights into the operation of the larger brain system that serves memory...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687116/experiments-with-more-than-one-random-factor-designs-analytic-models-and-statistical-power
#14
Charles M Judd, Jacob Westfall, David A Kenny
Traditional methods of analyzing data from psychological experiments are based on the assumption that there is a single random factor (normally participants) to which generalization is sought. However, many studies involve at least two random factors (e.g., participants and the targets to which they respond, such as words, pictures, or individuals). The application of traditional analytic methods to the data from such studies can result in serious bias in testing experimental effects. In this review, we develop a comprehensive typology of designs involving two random factors, which may be either crossed or nested, and one fixed factor, condition...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618945/the-psychology-of-close-relationships-fourteen-core-principles
#15
Eli J Finkel, Jeffry A Simpson, Paul W Eastwick
Relationship science is a theory-rich discipline, but there have been no attempts to articulate the broader themes or principles that cut across the theories themselves. We have sought to fill that void by reviewing the psychological literature on close relationships, particularly romantic relationships, to extract its core principles. This review reveals 14 principles, which collectively address four central questions: (a) What is a relationship? (b) How do relationships operate? (c) What tendencies do people bring to their relationships? (d) How does the context affect relationships? The 14 principles paint a cohesive and unified picture of romantic relationships that reflects a strong and maturing discipline...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687122/numerical-development
#16
Robert S Siegler, David W Braithwaite
In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers, from nonsymbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger whole numbers, and from whole to rational numbers. One reason why this development is important is that precision of numerical magnitude knowledge is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to both whole and rational number arithmetic...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648988/learning-from-errors
#17
Janet Metcalfe
Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors...
September 14, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648987/moving-beyond-correlations-in-assessing-the-consequences-of-poverty
#18
Greg J Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal
In the United States, does growing up in a poor household cause negative developmental outcomes for children? Hundreds of studies have documented statistical associations between family income in childhood and a host of outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Many of these studies have used correlational evidence to draw policy conclusions regarding the benefits of added family income for children, in particular children in families with incomes below the poverty line. Are these conclusions warranted? After a review of possible mechanisms linking poverty to negative childhood outcomes, we summarize the evidence for income's effects on children, paying particular attention to the strength of the evidence and the timing of economic deprivation...
September 14, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648986/interactions-with-robots-the-truths-we-reveal-about-ourselves
#19
Elizabeth Broadbent
In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in health care, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Engineers are trying to build robots that look and behave like humans and thus need comprehensive knowledge not only of technology but also of human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This need is driving engineers to study human behavior toward other humans and toward robots, leading to greater understanding of how humans think, feel, and behave in these contexts, including our tendencies for mindless social behaviors, anthropomorphism, uncanny feelings toward robots, and the formation of emotional attachments...
September 14, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618942/health-behavior-change-moving-from-observation-to-intervention
#20
Paschal Sheeran, William M P Klein, Alexander J Rothman
How can progress in research on health behavior change be accelerated? Experimental medicine (EM) offers an approach that can help investigators specify the research questions that need to be addressed and the evidence needed to test those questions. Whereas current research draws predominantly on multiple overlapping theories resting largely on correlational evidence, the EM approach emphasizes experimental tests of targets or mechanisms of change and programmatic research on which targets change health behaviors and which techniques change those targets...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
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