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Annual Review of Phytopathology

Jacques Avelino, Clémentine Allinne, Rolando Cerda, Laetitia Willocquet, Serge Savary
Assessment of crop loss due to multiple diseases and pests (D&P) is a necessary step in designing sustainable crop management systems. Understanding the drivers of D&P development and yield loss helps identify leverage points for crop health management. Crop loss assessment is also necessary for the quantification of D&P regulation service to identify promising systems where ecosystem service provision is optimized. In perennial crops, assessment of crop losses due to D&P is difficult, as injuries can affect yield over years...
July 11, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
K A Garrett, R I Alcalá-Briseño, K F Andersen, C E Buddenhagen, R A Choudhury, J C Fulton, J F Hernandez Nopsa, R Poudel, Y Xing
Plant pathology must address a number of challenges, most of which are characterized by complexity. Network analysis offers useful tools for addressing complex systems and an opportunity for synthesis within plant pathology and between it and relevant disciplines such as in the social sciences. We discuss various applications of network analysis, which ultimately may be integrated together into more synthetic analyses of how to optimize plant disease management systems. The analysis of microbiome networks and tripartite phytobiome networks of host-vector-pathogen interactions offers promise for identifying biocontrol strategies and anticipating disease emergence...
July 6, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Cristina Rosa, Yen-Wen Kuo, Hada Wuriyanghan, Bryce W Falk
The origin of RNA interference (RNAi), the cell sentinel system widely shared among eukaryotes that recognizes RNAs and specifically degrades or prevents their translation in cells, is suggested to predate the last eukaryote common ancestor (138). Of particular relevance to plant pathology is that in plants, but also in some fungi, insects, and lower eukaryotes, RNAi is a primary and effective antiviral defense, and recent studies have revealed that small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in RNAi play important roles in other plant diseases, including those caused by cellular plant pathogens...
July 6, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jiejie Li, Christopher J Staiger
The plant cytoskeleton is a dynamic framework of cytoplasmic filaments that rearranges as the needs of the cell change during growth and development. Incessant turnover mechanisms allow these networks to be rapidly redeployed in defense of host cytoplasm against microbial invaders. Both chemical and mechanical stimuli are recognized as danger signals to the plant, and these are perceived and transduced into cytoskeletal dynamics and architecture changes through a collection of well-recognized, previously characterized players...
July 5, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Paulo Cezar Ceresini, Vanina Lilián Castroagudín, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues, Jonas Alberto Rios, Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Silvino Intra Moreira, Eduardo Alves, Daniel Croll, João Leodato Nunes Maciel
The devastating wheat blast disease first emerged in Brazil in 1985. The disease was restricted to South America until 2016, when a series of grain imports from Brazil led to a wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh. Wheat blast is caused by Pyricularia graminis-tritici (Pygt), a species genetically distinct from the Pyricularia oryzae species that causes rice blast. Pygt has high genetic and phenotypic diversity and a broad host range that enables it to move back and forth between wheat and other grass hosts. Recombination is thought to occur mainly on the other grass hosts, giving rise to the highly diverse Pygt population observed in wheat fields...
July 5, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Thorsten Langner, Sophien Kamoun, Khaoula Belhaj
Genome editing by sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has revolutionized biology by enabling targeted modifications of genomes. Although routine plant genome editing emerged only a few years ago, we are already witnessing the first applications to improve disease resistance. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 has democratized the use of genome editing in plants thanks to the ease and robustness of this method. Here, we review the recent developments in plant genome editing and its application to enhancing disease resistance against plant pathogens...
July 5, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Angus J Carnegie, Geoff S Pegg
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a globally invasive neotropical rust of the Myrtaceae that came into international prominence following extensive damage to exotic Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, myrtle rust established in Hawaii (USA), and over the past 12 years has spread from the Americas into Asia, the Pacific, and South Africa. Myrtle rust was detected in Australia in 2010, and the response and ultimately unsuccessful eradication attempt was a lesson to those concerned about the threat of exotic pests and diseases to Australia's environment...
July 5, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Britt Koskella, Tiffany B Taylor
Plant-associated bacteria face multiple selection pressures within their environments and have evolved countless adaptations that both depend on and shape bacterial phenotype and their interaction with plant hosts. Explaining bacterial adaptation and evolution therefore requires considering each of these forces independently as well as their interactions. In this review, we examine how bacteriophage viruses (phages) can alter the ecology and evolution of plant-associated bacterial populations and communities...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Amy O Charkowski
Bacterial soft rot is a disease complex caused by multiple genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with Dickeya and Pectobacterium being the most widely studied soft-rot bacterial pathogens. In addition to soft rot, these bacteria also cause blackleg of potato, foot rot of rice, and bleeding canker of pear. Multiple Dickeya and Pectobacterium species cause the same symptoms on potato, complicating epidemiology and disease resistance studies. The primary pathogen species present in potato-growing regions differs over time and space, further complicating disease management...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
N J Hawkins, B A Fraaije
The evolution of resistance poses an ongoing threat to crop protection. Fungicide resistance provides a selective advantage under fungicide selection, but resistance-conferring mutations may also result in fitness penalties, resulting in an evolutionary trade-off. These penalties may result from the functional constraints of an evolving target site or from the resource allocation costs of overexpression or active transport. The extent to which such fitness penalties are present has important implications for resistance management strategies, determining whether resistance persists or declines between treatments, and for resistance risk assessments for new modes of action...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Liangsheng Xu, Guoqing Liu, Daohong Jiang, Weidong Chen
Oxalic acid production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has long been associated with virulence. Research involving UV-induced, genetically undefined mutants that concomitantly lost oxalate accumulation, sclerotial formation, and pathogenicity supported the conclusion that oxalate is an essential pathogenicity determinant of S. sclerotiorum. However, recent investigations showed that genetically defined mutants that lost oxalic acid production but accumulated fumaric acid could cause disease on many plants and substantiated the conclusion that acidic pH, not oxalic acid per se, is the necessary condition for disease development...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Danny L Coyne, Laura Cortada, Jonathan J Dalzell, Abiodun O Claudius-Cole, Solveig Haukeland, Nessie Luambano, Herbert Talwana
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region beset with challenges, not least its ability to feed itself. Low agricultural productivity, exploding populations, and escalating urbanization have led to declining per capita food availability. In order to reverse this trend, crop production systems must intensify, which brings with it an elevated threat from pests and diseases, including plant-parasitic nematodes. A holistic systems approach to pest management recognizes disciplinary integration. However, a critical under-representation of nematology expertise is a pivotal shortcoming, especially given the magnitude of the threat nematodes pose under more intensified systems...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Freddy Monteiro, Marc T Nishimura
Plants employ a diverse intracellular system of NLR (nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) innate immune receptors to detect pathogens of all types. These receptors represent valuable agronomic traits that plant breeders rely on to maximize yield in the face of devastating pathogens. Despite their importance, the mechanistic underpinnings of NLR-based disease resistance remain obscure. The rapidly increasing numbers of plant genomes are revealing a diverse array of NLR-type immune receptors. In parallel, mechanistic studies are describing diverse functions for NLR immune receptors...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Anne Sicard, Adam R Zeilinger, Mathieu Vanhove, Tyler E Schartel, Dylan J Beal, Matthew P Daugherty, Rodrigo P P Almeida
The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa re-emerged as a plant pathogen of global importance in 2013 when it was first associated with an olive tree disease epidemic in Italy. The current threat to Europe and the Mediterranean basin, as well as other world regions, has increased as multiple X. fastidiosa genotypes have now been detected in Italy, France, and Spain. Although X. fastidiosa has been studied in the Americas for more than a century, there are no therapeutic solutions to suppress disease development in infected plants...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Paul D Peterson
The Barberry Eradication Program was an unprecedented federal and state cooperative plant disease control campaign between 1918 and the late 1970s to remove common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), the alternate host of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, from the major centers of wheat production in the United States. Eradication of barberry has been credited with helping to reduce stem rust of wheat to a minor problem in the United States by the end of the campaign. The Barberry Eradication Program has also been viewed as a model for successful eradication based on its robust leadership, effective publicity and public cooperation, forceful quarantine laws, and adaptive eradication methods and procedures employed in its field operations...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jeongmin Choi, William Summers, Uta Paszkowski
Most land plants engage in mutually beneficial interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the fungus providing phosphate and nitrogen in exchange for fixed carbon. During presymbiosis, both organisms communicate via oligosaccharides and butenolides. The requirement for a rice chitin receptor in symbiosis-induced lateral root development suggests that cell division programs operate in inner root tissues during both AM and nodule symbioses. Furthermore, the identification of transcription factors underpinning arbuscule development and degeneration reemphasized the plant's regulatory dominance in AM symbiosis, with degeneration temporally linked to ceasing fungal phosphate delivery...
June 1, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
George W Sundin, Nian Wang
Antibiotics have been used for the management of relatively few bacterial plant diseases and are largely restricted to high-value fruit crops because of the expense involved. Antibiotic resistance in plant-pathogenic bacteria has become a problem in pathosystems where these antibiotics have been used for many years. Where the genetic basis for resistance has been examined, antibiotic resistance in plant pathogens has most often evolved through the acquisition of a resistance determinant via horizontal gene transfer...
June 1, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Scott M Leisner, James E Schoelz
The first bacterial and viral avirulence (avr) genes were cloned in 1984. Although virus and bacterial avr genes were physically isolated in the same year, the questions associated with their characterization after discovery were very different, and these differences had a profound influence on the narrative of host-pathogen interactions for the past 30 years. Bacterial avr proteins were subsequently shown to suppress host defenses, leading to their reclassification as effectors, whereas research on viral avr proteins centered on their role in the viral infection cycle rather than their effect on host defenses...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E Hartmann, Jessica L Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll
Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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