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Annual Review of Phytopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777926/fatty-acid-and-lipid-mediated-signaling-in-plant-defense
#1
Gah-Hyun Lim, Richa Singhal, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo
Fatty acids and lipids, which are major and essential constituents of all plant cells, not only provide structural integrity and energy for various metabolic processes but can also function as signal transduction mediators. Lipids and fatty acids can act as both intracellular and extracellular signals. In addition, cyclic and acyclic products generated during fatty acid metabolism can also function as important chemical signals. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids and their involvement in pathogen defense...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777925/a-career-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic-memoirs-of-a-molecular-plant-pathologist
#2
Nickolas J Panopoulos
This article recounts the experiences that shaped my career as a molecular plant pathologist. It focuses primarily on technical and conceptual developments in molecular phytobacteriology, shares some personal highlights and untold stories that impacted my professional development, and describes the early years of agricultural biotechnology. Writing this article required reflection on events occurring over several decades that were punctuated by a mid-career relocation across the Atlantic. I hope it will still be useful, informative, and enjoyable to read...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777924/karyotype-variability-in-plant-pathogenic-fungi
#3
Rahim Mehrabi, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Gert H J Kema
Recent advances in genetic and molecular technologies gradually paved the way for the transition from traditional fungal karyotyping to more comprehensive chromosome biology studies. Extensive chromosomal polymorphisms largely resulting from chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) are widely documented in fungal genomes. These extraordinary CRs in fungi generate substantial genome plasticity compared to other eukaryotic organisms. Here, we review the most recent findings on fungal CRs and their underlying mechanisms and discuss the functional consequences of CRs for adaptation, fungal evolution, host range, and pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens in the context of chromosome biology...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645233/adaptation-to-the-host-environment-by-plant-pathogenic-fungi
#4
H Charlotte van der Does, Martijn Rep
Many fungi can live both saprophytically and as endophyte or pathogen inside a living plant. In both environments, complex organic polymers are used as sources of nutrients. Propagation inside a living host also requires the ability to respond to immune responses of the host. We review current knowledge of how plant-pathogenic fungi do this. First, we look at how fungi change their global gene expression upon recognition of the host environment, leading to secretion of effectors, enzymes, and secondary metabolites; changes in metabolism; and defense against toxic compounds...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645232/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-the-plant-microbiota
#5
Stéphane Hacquard, Stijn Spaepen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Paul Schulze-Lefert
The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645231/evolution-of-hormone-signaling-networks-in-plant-defense
#6
Matthias L Berens, Hannah M Berry, Akira Mine, Cristiana T Argueso, Kenichi Tsuda
Studies with model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that phytohormones are central regulators of plant defense. The intricate network of phytohormone signaling pathways enables plants to activate appropriate and effective defense responses against pathogens as well as to balance defense and growth. The timing of the evolution of most phytohormone signaling pathways seems to coincide with the colonization of land, a likely requirement for plant adaptations to the more variable terrestrial environments, which included the presence of pathogens...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637398/what-do-we-know-about-nod-like-receptors-in-plant-immunity
#7
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Peter N Dodds, Maud Bernoux
The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. New discoveries in this expanding field of research provide new elements for our understanding of plant NLR function. But what do we know about plant NLR function today? Genetic, structural, and functional analyses have uncovered a number of commonalities and differences in pathogen recognition strategies as well as how NLRs are regulated and activate defense signaling, but many unknowns remain...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637378/surveillance-to-inform-control-of-emerging-plant-diseases-an-epidemiological-perspective
#8
Stephen Parnell, Frank van den Bosch, Tim Gottwald, Christopher A Gilligan
The rise in emerging pathogens and strains has led to increased calls for more effective surveillance in plant health. We show how epidemiological insights about the dynamics of disease spread can improve the targeting of when and where to sample. We outline some relatively simple but powerful statistical approaches to inform surveillance and describe how they can be adapted to include epidemiological information. This enables us to address questions such as: Following the first report of an invading pathogen, what is the likely incidence of disease? If no cases of disease have been found, how certain can we be that the disease was not simply missed by chance? We illustrate the use of spatially explicit stochastic models to optimize targeting of surveillance and control resources...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637377/the-candidatus-liberibacter-host-interface-insights-into-pathogenesis-mechanisms-and-disease-control
#9
Nian Wang, Elizabeth A Pierson, João Carlos Setubal, Jin Xu, Julien G Levy, Yunzeng Zhang, Jinyun Li, Luiz Thiberio Rangel, Joaquim Martins
"Candidatus Liberibacter" species are associated with economically devastating diseases of citrus, potato, and many other crops. The importance of these diseases as well as the proliferation of new diseases on a wider host range is likely to increase as the insects vectoring the "Ca. Liberibacter" species expand their territories worldwide. Here, we review the progress on understanding pathogenesis mechanisms of "Ca. Liberibacter" species and the control approaches for diseases they cause. We discuss the Liberibacter virulence traits, including secretion systems, putative effectors, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as well as other important traits likely to contribute to disease development, e...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617655/adapted-biotroph-manipulation-of-plant-cell-ploidy
#10
Mary C Wildermuth, Michael A Steinwand, Amanda G McRae, Johan Jaenisch, Divya Chandran
Diverse plant biotrophs that establish a sustained site of nutrient acquisition induce localized host endoreduplication. Endoreduplication is a process by which cells successively replicate their genomes without mitosis, resulting in an increase in nuclear DNA ploidy. Elevated ploidy is associated with enhanced cell size, metabolic capacity, and the capacity to differentiate. Localized host endoreduplication induced by adapted plant biotrophs promotes biotroph colonization, development, and/or proliferation...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617654/function-discovery-and-exploitation-of-plant-pattern-recognition-receptors-for-broad-spectrum-disease-resistance
#11
Freddy Boutrot, Cyril Zipfel
Plants are constantly exposed to would-be pathogens and pests, and thus have a sophisticated immune system to ward off these threats, which otherwise can have devastating ecological and economic consequences on ecosystems and agriculture. Plants employ receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to monitor their apoplastic environment and detect non-self and damaged-self patterns as signs of potential danger. Plant PRRs contribute to both basal and non-host resistances, and treatment with pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by plant PRRs induces both local and systemic immunity...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613977/the-scientific-economic-and-social-impacts-of-the-new-zealand-outbreak-of-bacterial-canker-of-kiwifruit-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae
#12
Joel L Vanneste
The introduction of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) severely damaged the New Zealand kiwifruit industry, which in 2010 was based on only two cultivars. Despite an extraordinarily quick and strong response by industry, government, and scientists to minimize the economic and social impacts, the economic consequences of this outbreak were severe. Although our understanding of Psa epidemiology and control methods increased substantively over the past six years, the kiwifruit industry largely recovered because of the introduction of a less-susceptible yellow-fleshed cultivar...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598721/iron-and-immunity
#13
Eline H Verbon, Pauline L Trapet, Ioannis A Stringlis, Sophie Kruijs, Peter A H M Bakker, Corné M J Pieterse
Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of iron homeostasis is a major strategy in host-pathogen interactions. Plants use iron-withholding strategies to reduce pathogen virulence or to locally increase iron levels to activate a toxic oxidative burst. Some plant pathogens counteract such defenses by secreting iron-scavenging siderophores that promote iron uptake and alleviate iron-regulated host immune responses...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590879/tritrophic-interactions-microbe-mediated-plant-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#14
Ikkei Shikano, Cristina Rosa, Ching-Wen Tan, Gary W Felton
It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590878/tick-tock-circadian-regulation-of-plant-innate-immunity
#15
Hua Lu, C Robertson McClung, Chong Zhang
Many living organisms on Earth have evolved the ability to integrate environmental and internal signals to determine time and thereafter adjust appropriately their metabolism, physiology, and behavior. The circadian clock is the endogenous timekeeper critical for multiple biological processes in many organisms. A growing body of evidence supports the importance of the circadian clock for plant health. Plants activate timed defense with various strategies to anticipate daily attacks of pathogens and pests and to modulate responses to specific invaders in a time-of-day-dependent manner (gating)...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590877/genome-evolution-of-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#16
Taisei Kikuchi, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, John T Jones
Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590876/cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-rapidly-increasing-global-distribution-etiology-epidemiology-and-management
#17
Aviv Dombrovsky, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Roger A C Jones
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was first described in 1935 infecting cucumber, making it one of the first plant viruses to be studied. Its initial distribution occurred out of England to other countries. This was followed by its distribution from England and these other countries to additional countries. This process increased slowly between 1935 and 1985, faster between 1986 and 2006, and rapidly between 2007 and 2016. The discovery that it diminished cucurbit fruit yields and quality, especially of watermelon, prompted a substantial research effort in worst-affected countries...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525309/from-chaos-to-harmony-responses-and-signaling-upon-microbial-pattern-recognition
#18
Xiao Yu, Baomin Feng, Ping He, Libo Shan
Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are detected as nonself by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Microbial invasions often trigger the production of host-derived endogenous signals referred to as danger- or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are also perceived by PRRs to modulate PTI responses. Collectively, PTI contributes to host defense against infections by a broad range of pathogens. Remarkable progress has been made toward demonstrating the cellular and physiological responses upon pattern recognition, elucidating the molecular, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of PRR activation, and dissecting the complex signaling networks that orchestrate PTI responses...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#19
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in free-living prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525307/exploiting-genetic-information-to-trace-plant-virus-dispersal-in-landscapes
#20
Coralie Picard, Sylvie Dallot, Kirstyn Brunker, Karine Berthier, Philippe Roumagnac, Samuel Soubeyrand, Emmanuel Jacquot, Gaël Thébaud
During the past decade, knowledge of pathogen life history has greatly benefited from the advent and development of molecular epidemiology. This branch of epidemiology uses information on pathogen variation at the molecular level to gain insights into a pathogen's niche and evolution and to characterize pathogen dispersal within and between host populations. Here, we review molecular epidemiology approaches that have been developed to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes. In particular, we highlight how virus molecular epidemiology, nourished with powerful sequencing technologies, can provide novel insights at the crossroads between the blooming fields of landscape genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary epidemiology...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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