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Annual Review of Phytopathology

A Deleris, T Halter, L Navarro
Detection of plant and animal pathogens triggers a massive transcriptional reprogramming, which is directed by chromatin-based processes, and ultimately results in antimicrobial immunity. Although the implication of histone modifications in orchestrating biotic stress-induced transcriptional reprogramming has been well characterized, very little was known, until recently, about the role of DNA methylation and demethylation in this process. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the dynamics and biological relevance of DNA methylation and demethylation in plant immunity against nonviral pathogens...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
André Drenth, David I Guest
The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Robert R Martin, Fiona Constable, Ioannis E Tzanetakis
Producers worldwide need access to the best plant varieties and cultivars available to be competitive in global markets. This often means moving plants across international borders as soon as they are available. At the same time, quarantine agencies are tasked with minimizing the risk of introducing exotic pests and pathogens along with imported plant material, with the goal to protect domestic agriculture and native fauna and flora. These two drivers, the movement of more plant material and reduced risk of pathogen introduction, are at odds...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jesse Poland, Jessica Rutkoski
Breeding for disease resistance is a central focus of plant breeding programs, as any successful variety must have the complete package of high yield, disease resistance, agronomic performance, and end-use quality. With the need to accelerate the development of improved varieties, genomics-assisted breeding is becoming an important tool in breeding programs. With marker-assisted selection, there has been success in breeding for disease resistance; however, much of this work and research has focused on identifying, mapping, and selecting for major resistance genes that tend to be highly effective but vulnerable to breakdown with rapid changes in pathogen races...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Steven A Whitham, Mingsheng Qi, Roger W Innes, Wenbo Ma, Valéria Lopes-Caitar, Tarek Hewezi
Soybean hosts a wide variety of pathogens that cause significant yield losses. The importance of soybean as a major oilseed crop has led to research focused on its interactions with pathogens, such as Soybean mosaic virus, Pseudomonas syringae, Phytophthora sojae, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, and Heterodera glycines. Pioneering work on soybean's interactions with these organisms, which represent the five major pathogen groups (viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes), has contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence and immunity...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Tania Y Toruño, Ioannis Stergiopoulos, Gitta Coaker
Plants possess large arsenals of immune receptors capable of recognizing all pathogen classes. To cause disease, pathogenic organisms must be able to overcome physical barriers, suppress or evade immune perception, and derive nutrients from host tissues. Consequently, to facilitate some of these processes, pathogens secrete effector proteins that promote colonization. This review covers recent advances in the field of effector biology, focusing on conserved cellular processes targeted by effectors from diverse pathogens...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Andrew O Jackson, Zhenghe Li
Twenty years ago, breakthroughs for reverse genetics analyses of negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses were achieved by devising conditions for generation of infectious viruses in susceptible cells. Recombinant strategies have subsequently been engineered for members of all vertebrate NSR virus families, and research arising from these advances has profoundly increased understanding of infection cycles, pathogenesis, and complexities of host interactions of animal NSR viruses. These strategies also permitted development of many applications, including attenuated vaccines and delivery vehicles for therapeutic and biotechnology proteins...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Arjen Biere, Aska Goverse
Plants are important mediators of interactions between aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) pathogens, arthropod herbivores, and nematodes (phytophages). We highlight recent progress in our understanding of within- and cross-compartment plant responses to these groups of phytophages in terms of altered resource dynamics and defense signaling and activation. We review studies documenting the outcome of cross-compartment interactions between these phytophage groups and show patterns of cross-compartment facilitation as well as cross-compartment induced resistance...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
William E Fry
New tools have revealed that migrations of Phytophthora infestans have been a dominant feature of the population biology of this pathogen for the past 50 years, and maybe for the past 170 years. We now have accurate information on the composition of many P. infestans populations. However, migration followed by selection can lead and has led to dramatically rapid changes in populations over large regions. Except for the highlands of central Mexico, many populations of P. infestans have probably been in flux over the past several decades...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Gregory S Gilbert, Ingrid M Parker
An explicit phylogenetic perspective provides useful tools for phytopathology and plant disease ecology because the traits of both plants and microbes are shaped by their evolutionary histories. We present brief primers on phylogenetic signal and the analytical tools of phylogenetic ecology. We review the literature and find abundant evidence of phylogenetic signal in pathogens and plants for most traits involved in disease interactions. Plant nonhost resistance mechanisms and pathogen housekeeping functions are conserved at deeper phylogenetic levels, whereas molecular traits associated with rapid coevolutionary dynamics are more labile at branch tips...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Kazuhiro Ishibashi, Masayuki Ishikawa
Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Taiyun Wei, Yi Li
Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Alexander Schouten
Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Marie-Agnès Jacques, Matthieu Arlat, Alice Boulanger, Tristan Boureau, Sébastien Carrère, Sophie Cesbron, Nicolas W G Chen, Stéphane Cociancich, Armelle Darrasse, Nicolas Denancé, Marion Fischer-Le Saux, Lionel Gagnevin, Ralf Koebnik, Emmanuelle Lauber, Laurent D Noël, Isabelle Pieretti, Perrine Portier, Olivier Pruvost, Adrien Rieux, Isabelle Robène, Monique Royer, Boris Szurek, Valérie Verdier, Christian Vernière
How pathogens coevolve with and adapt to their hosts are critical to understanding how host jumps and/or acquisition of novel traits can lead to new disease emergences. The Xanthomonas genus includes Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria that collectively infect a broad range of crops and wild plant species. However, individual Xanthomonas strains usually cause disease on only a few plant species and are highly adapted to their hosts, making them pertinent models to study host specificity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular basis of host specificity in the Xanthomonas genus, with a particular focus on the ecology, physiology, and pathogenicity of the bacterium...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
John Fosu-Nyarko, Michael G K Jones
Root lesion nematodes (RLNs) are one of the most economically important groups of plant nematodes. As migratory endoparasites, their presence in roots is less obvious than infestations of sedentary endoparasites; nevertheless, in many instances, they are the major crop pests. With increasing molecular information on nematode parasitism, available data now reflect the differences and, in particular, similarities in lifestyle between migratory and sedentary endoparasites. Far from being unsophisticated compared with sedentary endoparasites, migratory endoparasites are exquisitely suited to their parasitic lifestyle...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jie Zhao, Meinan Wang, Xianming Chen, Zhensheng Kang
Cereal rusts, caused by obligate and biotrophic fungi in the genus Puccinia, are important diseases that threaten world food security. With the recent discovery of alternate hosts for the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis), all cereal rust fungi are now known to be heteroecious, requiring two distinct plant species serving as primary or alternate hosts to complete their sexual life cycle. The roles of the alternate hosts in disease epidemiology and pathogen variation vary greatly from species to species and from region to region because of different climatic and cropping conditions...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Rebecca Nelson
Many plants, both in nature and in agriculture, are resistant to multiple diseases. Although much of the plant innate immunity system provides highly specific resistance, there is emerging evidence to support the hypothesis that some components of plant defense are relatively nonspecific, providing multiple disease resistance (MDR). Understanding MDR is of fundamental and practical interest to plant biologists, pathologists, and breeders. This review takes stock of the available evidence related to the MDR hypothesis...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Lin Huang, Dina Raats, Hanan Sela, Valentina Klymiuk, Gabriel Lidzbarsky, Lihua Feng, Tamar Krugman, Tzion Fahima
The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Elizabeth T Borer, Anna-Liisa Laine, Eric W Seabloom
Plant disease arises from the interaction of processes occurring at multiple spatial and temporal scales. With new tools such as next-generation sequencing, we are learning about the diversity of microbes circulating within and among plant populations and often coinhabiting host individuals. The proliferation of pathogenic microbes depends on single-species dynamics and multispecies interactions occurring within and among host cells, the spatial organization and genetic landscape of hosts, the frequency and mode of transmission among hosts and host populations, and the abiotic environmental context...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Massimo Turina, Richard Kormelink, Renato O Resende
During the past three decades, the economic impact of tospoviruses has increased, causing high yield losses in a variety of crops and ornamentals. Owing to the difficulty in combating thrips vectors with insecticides, the best way to limit/prevent tospovirus-induced diseases involves a management strategy that includes virus resistance. This review briefly presents current tospovirus taxonomy, diversity, molecular biology, and cytopathology as an introduction to a more extensive description of the two main resistance genes employed against tospoviruses: the Sw5 gene in tomato and the Tsw in pepper...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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