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Annual Review of Phytopathology

Amanda M V Brown
Some of the most agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) harbor endosymbionts. Extensive work in other systems has shown that endosymbionts can have major effects on host virulence and biology. This review highlights the discovery, development, and diversity of PPN endosymbionts, incorporating inferences from genomic data. Cardinium, reported from five PPN hosts to date, is characterized by its presence in the esophageal glands and other tissues, with a discontinuous distribution across populations, and genomic data suggestive of horizontal gene exchange...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Maria R Rojas, Monica A Macedo, Minor R Maliano, Maria Soto-Aguilar, Juliana O Souza, Rob W Briddon, Lawrence Kenyon, Rafael F Rivera Bustamante, F Murilo Zerbini, Scott Adkins, James P Legg, Anders Kvarnheden, William M Wintermantel, Mysore R Sudarshana, Michel Peterschmitt, Moshe Lapidot, Darren P Martin, Enrique Moriones, Alice K Inoue-Nagata, Robert L Gilbertson
Management of geminiviruses is a worldwide challenge because of the widespread distribution of economically important diseases caused by these viruses. Regardless of the type of agriculture, management is most effective with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that involves measures before, during, and after the growing season. This includes starting with resistant cultivars and virus- and vector-free transplants and propagative plants. For high value vegetables, protected culture (e.g., greenhouses and screenhouses) allows for effective management but is limited owing to high cost...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Teresa E Pawlowska, Maria L Gaspar, Olga A Lastovetsky, Stephen J Mondo, Imperio Real-Ramirez, Evaniya Shakya, Paola Bonfante
Heritable symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria (EB) are transmitted vertically between host generations, are an important source of evolutionary novelties. A primary example of such symbioses is the eukaryotic cell with its EB-derived organelles. Recent discoveries suggest that endosymbiosis-related innovations can be also found in associations formed by early divergent fungi in the phylum Mucoromycota with heritable EB from two classes, Betaproteobacteria and Mollicutes. These symbioses exemplify novel types of host-symbiont interactions...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Wade Elmer, Jason C White
Engineered nanoparticles are materials between 1 and 100 nm and exist as metalloids, metallic oxides, nonmetals, and carbon nanomaterials and as functionalized dendrimers, liposomes, and quantum dots. Their small size, large surface area, and high reactivity have enabled their use as bactericides/ fungicides and nanofertilizers. Nanoparticles can be designed as biosensors for plant disease diagnostics and as delivery vehicles for genetic material, probes, and agrichemicals. In the past decade, reports of nanotechnology in phytopathology have grown exponentially...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Beat Keller, Thomas Wicker, Simon G Krattinger
The gene pool of wheat and its wild and domesticated relatives contains a plethora of resistance genes that can be exploited to make wheat more resilient to pathogens. Only a few of these genes have been isolated and studied at the molecular level. In recent years, we have seen a shift from classical breeding to genomics-assisted breeding, which makes use of the enormous advancements in DNA sequencing and high-throughput molecular marker technologies for wheat improvement. These genomic advancements have the potential to transform wheat breeding in the near future and to significantly increase the speed and precision at which new cultivars can be bred...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
A-K Mahlein, M T Kuska, J Behmann, G Polder, A Walter
Plant disease detection represents a tremendous challenge for research and practical applications. Visual assessment by human raters is time-consuming, expensive, and error prone. Disease rating and plant protection need new and innovative techniques to address forthcoming challenges and trends in agricultural production that require more precision than ever before. Within this context, hyperspectral sensors and imaging techniques-intrinsically tied to efficient data analysis approaches-have shown an enormous potential to provide new insights into plant-pathogen interactions and for the detection of plant diseases...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Julia Bally, Hyungtaek Jung, Cara Mortimer, Fatima Naim, Joshua G Philips, Roger Hellens, Aureliano Bombarely, Michael M Goodin, Peter M Waterhouse
A decade ago, the value of Nicotiana benthamiana as a tool for plant molecular biologists was beginning to be appreciated. Scientists were using it to study plant-microbe and protein-protein interactions, and it was the species of choice with which to activate plasmid-encoded viruses, screen for gene functions with virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and transiently express genes by leaf agroinfiltration. However, little information about the species' origin, diversity, genetics, and genomics was available, and biologists were asking the question of whether N...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jacques Avelino, Clémentine Allinne, Rolando Cerda, Laetitia Willocquet, Serge Savary
Assessment of crop loss due to multiple diseases and pests (D&P) is a necessary step in designing sustainable crop management systems. Understanding the drivers of D&P development and yield loss helps identify leverage points for crop health management. Crop loss assessment is also necessary for the quantification of D&P regulation service to identify promising systems where ecosystem service provision is optimized. In perennial crops, assessment of crop losses due to D&P is difficult, as injuries can affect yield over years...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
K A Garrett, R I Alcalá-Briseño, K F Andersen, C E Buddenhagen, R A Choudhury, J C Fulton, J F Hernandez Nopsa, R Poudel, Y Xing
Plant pathology must address a number of challenges, most of which are characterized by complexity. Network analysis offers useful tools for addressing complex systems and an opportunity for synthesis within plant pathology and between it and relevant disciplines such as in the social sciences. We discuss applications of network analysis, which ultimately may be integrated together into more synthetic analyses of how to optimize plant disease management systems. The analysis of microbiome networks and tripartite phytobiome networks of host-vector-pathogen interactions offers promise for identifying biocontrol strategies and anticipating disease emergence...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Cristina Rosa, Yen-Wen Kuo, Hada Wuriyanghan, Bryce W Falk
The origin of RNA interference (RNAi), the cell sentinel system widely shared among eukaryotes that recognizes RNAs and specifically degrades or prevents their translation in cells, is suggested to predate the last eukaryote common ancestor ( 138 ). Of particular relevance to plant pathology is that in plants, but also in some fungi, insects, and lower eukaryotes, RNAi is a primary and effective antiviral defense, and recent studies have revealed that small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in RNAi play important roles in other plant diseases, including those caused by cellular plant pathogens...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Jiejie Li, Christopher J Staiger
The plant cytoskeleton is a dynamic framework of cytoplasmic filaments that rearranges as the needs of the cell change during growth and development. Incessant turnover mechanisms allow these networks to be rapidly redeployed in defense of host cytoplasm against microbial invaders. Both chemical and mechanical stimuli are recognized as danger signals to the plant, and these are perceived and transduced into cytoskeletal dynamics and architecture changes through a collection of well-recognized, previously characterized players...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Paulo Cezar Ceresini, Vanina Lilián Castroagudín, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues, Jonas Alberto Rios, Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Silvino Intra Moreira, Eduardo Alves, Daniel Croll, João Leodato Nunes Maciel
The devastating wheat blast disease first emerged in Brazil in 1985. The disease was restricted to South America until 2016, when a series of grain imports from Brazil led to a wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh. Wheat blast is caused by Pyricularia graminis-tritici ( Pygt), a species genetically distinct from the Pyricularia oryzae species that causes rice blast. Pygt has high genetic and phenotypic diversity and a broad host range that enables it to move back and forth between wheat and other grass hosts...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Thorsten Langner, Sophien Kamoun, Khaoula Belhaj
Genome editing by sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has revolutionized biology by enabling targeted modifications of genomes. Although routine plant genome editing emerged only a few years ago, we are already witnessing the first applications to improve disease resistance. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 has democratized the use of genome editing in plants thanks to the ease and robustness of this method. Here, we review the recent developments in plant genome editing and its application to enhancing disease resistance against plant pathogens...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Angus J Carnegie, Geoff S Pegg
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a globally invasive neotropical rust of the Myrtaceae that came into international prominence following extensive damage to exotic Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, myrtle rust established in Hawaii (USA), and over the past 12 years has spread from the Americas into Asia, the Pacific, and South Africa. Myrtle rust was detected in Australia in 2010, and the response and ultimately unsuccessful eradication attempt was a lesson to those concerned about the threat of exotic pests and diseases to Australia's environment...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Britt Koskella, Tiffany B Taylor
Plant-associated bacteria face multiple selection pressures within their environments and have evolved countless adaptations that both depend on and shape bacterial phenotype and their interaction with plant hosts. Explaining bacterial adaptation and evolution therefore requires considering each of these forces independently as well as their interactions. In this review, we examine how bacteriophage viruses (phages) can alter the ecology and evolution of plant-associated bacterial populations and communities...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Amy O Charkowski
Bacterial soft rot is a disease complex caused by multiple genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with Dickeya and Pectobacterium being the most widely studied soft-rot bacterial pathogens. In addition to soft rot, these bacteria also cause blackleg of potato, foot rot of rice, and bleeding canker of pear. Multiple Dickeya and Pectobacterium species cause the same symptoms on potato, complicating epidemiology and disease resistance studies. The primary pathogen species present in potato-growing regions differs over time and space, further complicating disease management...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
N J Hawkins, B A Fraaije
The evolution of resistance poses an ongoing threat to crop protection. Fungicide resistance provides a selective advantage under fungicide selection, but resistance-conferring mutations may also result in fitness penalties, resulting in an evolutionary trade-off. These penalties may result from the functional constraints of an evolving target site or from the resource allocation costs of overexpression or active transport. The extent to which such fitness penalties are present has important implications for resistance management strategies, determining whether resistance persists or declines between treatments, and for resistance risk assessments for new modes of action...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Liangsheng Xu, Guoqing Li, Daohong Jiang, Weidong Chen
Oxalic acid production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has long been associated with virulence. Research involving UV-induced, genetically undefined mutants that concomitantly lost oxalate accumulation, sclerotial formation, and pathogenicity supported the conclusion that oxalate is an essential pathogenicity determinant of S. sclerotiorum. However, recent investigations showed that genetically defined mutants that lost oxalic acid production but accumulated fumaric acid could cause disease on many plants and substantiated the conclusion that acidic pH, not oxalic acid per se, is the necessary condition for disease development...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Danny L Coyne, Laura Cortada, Johnathan J Dalzell, Abiodun O Claudius-Cole, Solveig Haukeland, Nessie Luambano, Herbert Talwana
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region beset with challenges, not least its ability to feed itself. Low agricultural productivity, exploding populations, and escalating urbanization have led to declining per capita food availability. In order to reverse this trend, crop production systems must intensify, which brings with it an elevated threat from pests and diseases, including plant-parasitic nematodes. A holistic systems approach to pest management recognizes disciplinary integration. However, a critical under-representation of nematology expertise is a pivotal shortcoming, especially given the magnitude of the threat nematodes pose under more intensified systems...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Freddy Monteiro, Marc T Nishimura
Plants employ a diverse intracellular system of NLR (nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) innate immune receptors to detect pathogens of all types. These receptors represent valuable agronomic traits that plant breeders rely on to maximize yield in the face of devastating pathogens. Despite their importance, the mechanistic underpinnings of NLR-based disease resistance remain obscure. The rapidly increasing numbers of plant genomes are revealing a diverse array of NLR-type immune receptors. In parallel, mechanistic studies are describing diverse functions for NLR immune receptors...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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