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Annual Review of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886689/predator-versus-pathogen-how-does-predatory-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-interface-with-the-challenges-of-killing-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-host-setting
#1
David Negus, Chris Moore, Michelle Baker, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. bacteriovorus predation and the physiological properties that would influence its survival in a mammalian host. Bacterial pathogens increasingly display conventional antibiotic resistance by expressing and varying surface and soluble biomolecules...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886688/regulating-bacterial-virulence-with-rna
#2
Juan J Quereda, Pascale Cossart
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulating virulence have been identified in most pathogens. This review discusses RNA-mediated mechanisms exploited by bacterial pathogens to successfully infect and colonize their hosts. It discusses the most representative RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms employed by two intracellular [Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)] and two extracellular (Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial pathogens. We review the RNA-mediated regulators (e...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886687/-fleaing-the-plague-adaptations-of-yersinia-pestis-to-its-insect-vector-that-lead-to-transmission
#3
B Joseph Hinnebusch, Clayton O Jarrett, David M Bland
Interest in arthropod-borne pathogens focuses primarily on how they cause disease in humans. How they produce a transmissible infection in their arthropod host is just as critical to their life cycle, however. Yersinia pestis adopts a unique life stage in the digestive tract of its flea vector, characterized by rapid formation of a bacterial biofilm that is enveloped in a complex extracellular polymeric substance. Localization and adherence of the biofilm to the flea foregut is essential for transmission. Here, we review the molecular and genetic mechanisms of these processes and present a comparative evaluation and updated model of two related transmission mechanisms...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886686/a-life-in-bacillus-subtilis-signal-transduction
#4
James A Hoch
This is a tale of how technology drove the discovery of the molecular basis for signal transduction in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis and in bacterial two-component systems. It progresses from genetics to cloning and sequencing to biochemistry to structural biology to an understanding of how proteins evolve interaction specificity and to identification of interaction surfaces by statistical physics. This is about how the people in my laboratory accomplished this feat; without them little would have been done...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886685/bacterial-cell-size-multifactorial-and-multifaceted
#5
Corey S Westfall, Petra Anne Levin
How cells establish, maintain, and modulate size has always been an area of great interest and fascination. Until recently, technical limitations curtailed our ability to understand the molecular basis of bacterial cell size control. In the past decade, advances in microfluidics, imaging, and high-throughput single-cell analysis, however, have led to a flurry of work revealing size to be a highly complex trait involving the integration of three core aspects of bacterial physiology: metabolism, growth, and cell cycle progression...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886684/elongation-factor-p-and-the-control-of-translation-elongation
#6
Andrei Rajkovic, Michael Ibba
Elongation factor P (EF-P) binds to ribosomes requiring assistance with the formation of oligo-prolines. In order for EF-P to associate with paused ribosomes, certain tRNAs with specific d-arm residues must be present in the peptidyl site, e.g., tRNA(Pro). Once EF-P is accommodated into the ribosome and bound to Pro-tRNA(Pro), productive synthesis of the peptide bond occurs. The underlying mechanism by which EF-P facilitates this reaction seems to have entropic origins. Maximal activity of EF-P requires a posttranslational modification in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886683/neisseria-gonorrhoeae-drug-resistance-mouse-models-and-vaccine-development
#7
Peter A Rice, William M Shafer, Sanjay Ram, Ann E Jerse
Gonorrhea, an obligate human infection, is on the rise worldwide and gonococcal strains resistant to many antibiotics are emerging. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment and prevention, including effective vaccines, are urgently needed. To guide investigation, an experimental model of genital tract infection has been developed in female mice to study mechanisms by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae evades host-derived antimicrobial factors and to identify protective and immunosuppressive pathways. Refinements of the animal model have also improved its use as a surrogate host of human infection and accelerated the testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic compounds against gonococcal infection...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886682/copper-acquisition-and-utilization-in-fungi
#8
Aaron D Smith, Brandon L Logeman, Dennis J Thiele
Fungal cells colonize and proliferate in distinct niches, from soil and plants to diverse tissues in human hosts. Consequently, fungi are challenged with the goal of obtaining nutrients while simultaneously elaborating robust regulatory mechanisms to cope with a range of availability of nutrients, from scarcity to excess. Copper is essential for life but also potentially toxic. In this review we describe the sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms by which fungi acquire, utilize, and control this biochemically versatile trace element...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886681/molecular-evolution-of-antifungal-drug-resistance
#9
Nicole Robbins, Tavia Caplan, Leah E Cowen
The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a leading cause of human mortality. The management of infections caused by these organisms is intimately dependent on the efficacy of antifungal agents; however, fungi that are resistant to these treatments are regularly isolated in the clinic, impeding our ability to control infections. Given the significant impact fungal pathogens have on human health, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern antifungal drug resistance...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886680/outer-membrane-biogenesis
#10
Anna Konovalova, Daniel E Kahne, Thomas J Silhavy
The hallmark of gram-negative bacteria and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts is the presence of an outer membrane. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, the outer membrane is a unique asymmetric lipid bilayer with lipopolysaccharide in the outer leaflet. Integral transmembrane proteins assume a β-barrel structure, and their assembly is catalyzed by the heteropentameric Bam complex containing the outer membrane protein BamA and four lipoproteins, BamB-E. How the Bam complex assembles a great diversity of outer membrane proteins into a membrane without an obvious energy source is a particularly challenging problem, because folding intermediates are predicted to be unstable in either an aqueous or a hydrophobic environment...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886679/microbial-expansins
#11
Daniel J Cosgrove
Expansins are small proteins that loosen plant cell walls and cellulosic materials without lytic activity. First discovered in plants, expansin genes are found in the genomes of numerous bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in pathogenic and mutualistic patterns, as well as in microbes that feed on plant debris. Horizontal gene transfer from plants to microbes and between microbes accounts for expansins' irregular taxonomic distribution. Expansins facilitate plant colonization by Bacillus, Clavibacter, and Trichoderma species, a list likely to grow as knowledge of microbial expansin function deepens...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886678/introduction
#12
Susan Gottesman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731847/the-colorful-world-of-extracellular-electron-shuttles
#13
Nathaniel R Glasser, Scott H Saunders, Dianne K Newman
Descriptions of the changeable, striking colors associated with secreted natural products date back well over a century. These molecules can serve as extracellular electron shuttles (EESs) that permit microbes to access substrates at a distance. In this review, we argue that the colorful world of EESs has been too long neglected. Rather than simply serving as a diagnostic attribute of a particular microbial strain, redox-active natural products likely play fundamental, underappreciated roles in the biology of their producers, particularly those that inhabit biofilms...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731846/present-and-future-of-culturing-bacteria
#14
Jörg Overmann, Birte Abt, Johannes Sikorski
The cultivation of bacteria is highly biased toward a few phylogenetic groups. Many of the currently underexplored bacterial lineages likely have novel biosynthetic pathways and unknown biochemical features. New cultivation concepts have been developed based on an improved understanding of the ecology of previously not-cultured bacteria. Particularly successful were improved media that mimic the natural types and concentrations of substrates and nutrients, high-throughput cultivation techniques, and approaches that exploit biofilm formation and bacterial interactions...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731845/rho-protein-roles-and-mechanisms
#15
Pallabi Mitra, Gairika Ghosh, Md Hafeezunnisa, Ranjan Sen
At the end of the multistep transcription process, the elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) is dislodged from the DNA template either at specific DNA sequences, called the terminators, or by a nascent RNA-dependent helicase, Rho. In Escherichia coli, about half of the transcription events are terminated by the Rho protein. Rho utilizes its RNA-dependent ATPase activities to translocate along the mRNA and eventually dislodges the RNAP via an unknown mechanism. The transcription elongation factor NusG facilitates this termination process by directly interacting with Rho...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701066/the-cell-wall-of-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-biosynthesis-organization-immune-response-and-virulence
#16
Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais, Georgios Chamilos
More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697671/bacterial-membranes-structure-domains-and-function
#17
Henrik Strahl, Jeff Errington
The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of roughly equal proportions of lipids and proteins. The main lipid components are phospholipids, which vary in acyl chain length, saturation, and branching and carry head groups that vary in size and charge. Phospholipid variants determine membrane properties such as fluidity and charge that in turn modulate interactions with membrane-associated proteins. We summarize recent advances in understanding bacterial membrane structure and function, focusing particularly on the possible existence and significance of specialized membrane domains...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697670/germination-of-spores-of-the-orders-bacillales-and-clostridiales
#18
Peter Setlow, Shiwei Wang, Yong-Qing Li
Dormant Bacillales and Clostridiales spores begin to grow when small molecules (germinants) trigger germination, potentially leading to food spoilage or disease. Germination-specific proteins sense germinants, transport small molecules, and hydrolyze specific bonds in cortex peptidoglycan and specific proteins. Major events in germination include (a) germinant sensing; (b) commitment to germinate; (c) release of spores' depot of dipicolinic acid (DPA); (d) hydrolysis of spores' peptidoglycan cortex; and (e) spore core swelling and water uptake, cell wall peptidoglycan remodeling, and restoration of core protein and inner spore membrane lipid mobility...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697667/evolutionary-trajectories-to-antibiotic-resistance
#19
Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I Andersson
The ability to predict the evolutionary trajectories of antibiotic resistance would be of great value in tailoring dosing regimens of antibiotics so as to maximize the duration of their usefulness. Useful prediction of resistance evolution requires information about (a) the mutation supply rate, (b) the level of resistance conferred by the resistance mechanism, (c) the fitness of the antibiotic-resistant mutant bacteria as a function of drug concentration, and (d) the strength of selective pressures. In addition, processes including epistatic interactions and compensatory evolution, coselection of drug resistances, and population bottlenecks and clonal interference can strongly influence resistance evolution and thereby complicate attempts at prediction...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657888/the-rnai-universe-in-fungi-a-varied-landscape-of-small-rnas-and-biological-functions
#20
Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M Ruiz-Vázquez
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
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