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Annual Review of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622090/assembly-and-function-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-s-layer
#1
Dominique Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts...
June 16, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617651/microbiota-therapy-for-clostridium-difficile-and-antibiotic-resistant-enteric-infections
#2
Brittany B Lewis, Eric G Pamer
Bacterial pathogens are increasingly antibiotic resistant, and development of clinically effective antibiotics is lagging. Curing infections increasingly requires antimicrobials that are broader spectrum, more toxic, and more expensive, and mortality attributable to antibiotic-resistant pathogens is rising. The commensal microbiota, comprising microbes that colonize the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, can provide high levels of resistance to infection, and the contributions of specific bacterial species to resistance are being discovered and characterized...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525300/regulation-of-cell-polarity-in-motility-and-cell-division-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#3
Dominik Schumacher, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#4
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504899/metabolic-diversity-and-novelties-in-the-oomycetes
#5
Howard S Judelson
The eukaryotic microbes called oomycetes include many important saprophytes and pathogens, with the latter exhibiting necrotrophy, biotrophy, or obligate biotrophy. Understanding oomycete metabolism is fundamental to understanding these lifestyles. Genome mining and biochemical studies have shown that oomycetes, which belong to the kingdom Stramenopila, secrete suites of carbohydrate- and protein-degrading enzymes adapted to their environmental niches and produce unusual lipids and energy storage compounds...
May 15, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607556/autophagy-evasion-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-subversion-the-yin-and-yang-of-legionella-intracellular-infection
#6
Racquel Kim Sherwood, Craig R Roy
The gram-negative bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila creates a novel organelle inside of eukaryotic host cells that supports intracellular replication. The L. pneumophila-containing vacuole evades fusion with lysosomes and interacts intimately with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although the natural hosts for L. pneumophila are free-living protozoa that reside in freshwater environments, the mechanisms that enable this pathogen to replicate intracellularly also function when mammalian macrophages phagocytose aerosolized bacteria, and infection of humans by L...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607555/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Caitlin A Brennan, Wendy S Garrett
Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607554/riboswitch-mediated-gene-regulation-novel-rna-architectures-dictate-gene-expression-responses
#8
Anna V Sherwood, Tina M Henkin
Riboswitches are RNA elements that act on the mRNA with which they are cotranscribed to modulate expression of that mRNA. These elements are widely found in bacteria, where they have a broad impact on gene expression. The defining feature of riboswitches is that they directly recognize a physiological signal, and the resulting shift in RNA structure affects gene regulation. The majority of riboswitches respond to cellular metabolites, often in a feedback loop to repress synthesis of the enzymes used to produce the metabolite...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607553/evolution-and-ecology-of-actinobacteria-and-their-bioenergy-applications
#9
Gina R Lewin, Camila Carlos, Marc G Chevrette, Heidi A Horn, Bradon R McDonald, Robert J Stankey, Brian G Fox, Cameron R Currie
The ancient phylum Actinobacteria is composed of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse bacteria that help Earth's ecosystems function. As free-living organisms and symbionts of herbivorous animals, Actinobacteria contribute to the global carbon cycle through the breakdown of plant biomass. In addition, they mediate community dynamics as producers of small molecules with diverse biological activities. Together, the evolution of high cellulolytic ability and diverse chemistry, shaped by their ecological roles in nature, make Actinobacteria a promising group for the bioenergy industry...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607552/the-atacama-desert-technical-resources-and-the-growing-importance-of-novel-microbial-diversity
#10
Alan T Bull, Juan A Asenjo, Michael Goodfellow, Benito Gómez-Silva
The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is the oldest and most arid nonpolar environment on Earth. It is a coastal desert covering approximately 180,000 km(2), and together with the greater Atacama region it comprises a dramatically wide range of ecological niches. Long known and exploited for its mineral resources, the Atacama Desert harbors a rich microbial diversity that has only recently been discovered; the great majority of it has not yet been recovered in culture or even taxonomically identified. This review traces the progress of microbiology research in the Atacama and dispels the popular view that this region is virtually devoid of life...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607551/molecular-genetic-analysis-of-chlamydia-species
#11
Barbara S Sixt, Raphael H Valdivia
Species of Chlamydia are the etiologic agent of endemic blinding trachoma, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, significant respiratory pathogens, and a zoonotic threat. Their dependence on an intracellular growth niche and their peculiar developmental cycle are major challenges to elucidating their biology and virulence traits. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in our ability to perform a molecular genetic analysis of Chlamydia species. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains, now available for forward- and reverse-genetic applications, and the introduction of a system for plasmid-based transformation enabling complementation of mutations; expression of foreign, modified, or reporter genes; and even targeted gene disruptions...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607550/metagenomics-and-the-human-virome-in-asymptomatic-individuals
#12
Nicolás Rascovan, Raja Duraisamy, Christelle Desnues
High-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized how we think about viruses. Investigators can now go beyond pathogenic viruses and have access to the thousands of viruses that inhabit our bodies without causing clinical symptoms. By studying their interactions with each other, with other microbes, and with host genetics and immune systems, we can learn how they affect health and disease. This article reviews current knowledge of the composition and diversity of the human virome in physiologically healthy individuals...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607549/feedback-control-of-two-component-regulatory-systems
#13
Eduardo A Groisman
Two-component systems are a dominant form of bacterial signal transduction. The prototypical two-component system consists of a sensor that responds to a specific input(s) by modifying the output of a cognate regulator. Because the output of a two-component system is the amount of phosphorylated regulator, feedback mechanisms may alter the amount of regulator, and/or modify the ability of a sensor or other proteins to alter the phosphorylation state of the regulator. Two-component systems may display intrinsic feedback whereby the amount of phosphorylated regulator changes under constant inducing conditions and without the participation of additional proteins...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482744/staphylococcus-aureus-rnaiii-and-its-regulon-link-quorum-sensing-stress-responses-metabolic-adaptation-and-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression
#14
Delphine Bronesky, Zongfu Wu, Stefano Marzi, Philippe Walter, Thomas Geissmann, Karen Moreau, François Vandenesch, Isabelle Caldelari, Pascale Romby
Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is one of the main intracellular effectors of the quorum-sensing system. It is a multifunctional RNA that encodes a small peptide, and its noncoding parts act as antisense RNAs to regulate the translation and/or the stability of mRNAs encoding transcriptional regulators, major virulence factors, and cell wall metabolism enzymes. In this review, we explain how regulatory proteins and RNAIII are embedded in complex regulatory circuits to express virulence factors in a dynamic and timely manner in response to stress and environmental and metabolic changes...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482743/the-modern-synthesis-in-the-light-of-microbial-genomics
#15
Austin Booth, Carlos Mariscal, W Ford Doolittle
We review the theoretical implications of findings in genomics for evolutionary biology since the Modern Synthesis. We examine the ways in which microbial genomics has influenced our understanding of the last universal common ancestor, the tree of life, species, lineages, and evolutionary transitions. We conclude by advocating a piecemeal toolkit approach to evolutionary biology, in lieu of any grand unified theory updated to include microbial genomics.
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482742/biological-diversity-and-molecular-plasticity-of-fic-domain-proteins
#16
Alexander Harms, Frédéric V Stanger, Christoph Dehio
The ubiquitous proteins with FIC (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) domains use a conserved enzymatic machinery to modulate the activity of various target proteins by posttranslational modification, typically AMPylation. Following intensive study of the general properties of FIC domain catalysis, diverse molecular activities and biological functions of these remarkably versatile proteins are now being revealed. Here, we review the biological diversity of FIC domain proteins and summarize the underlying structure-function relationships...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482741/insights-into-the-coral-microbiome-underpinning-the-health-and-resilience-of-reef-ecosystems
#17
David G Bourne, Kathleen M Morrow, Nicole S Webster
Corals are fundamental ecosystem engineers, creating large, intricate reefs that support diverse and abundant marine life. At the core of a healthy coral animal is a dynamic relationship with microorganisms, including a mutually beneficial symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) and enduring partnerships with an array of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, protistan, and viral associates, collectively termed the coral holobiont. The combined genomes of this coral holobiont form a coral hologenome, and genomic interactions within the hologenome ultimately define the coral phenotype...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482740/lessons-from-digestive-tract-symbioses-between-bacteria-and-invertebrates
#18
Joerg Graf
In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482739/-per-chlorate-in-biology-on-earth-and-beyond
#19
Matthew D Youngblut, Ouwei Wang, Tyler P Barnum, John D Coates
Respiration of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] was only recognized in the last 20 years, yet substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the underlying metabolisms. Although it was once considered solely anthropogenic, pervasive natural sources, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial, indicate an ancient (per)chlorate presence across our solar system. These discoveries stimulated interest in (per)chlorate microbiology, and the application of advanced approaches highlights exciting new facets...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482738/genomics-of-natural-populations-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
J Ross Fitzgerald, Matthew T G Holden
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
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