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Annual Review of Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029590/nutritional-physiology-and-ecology-of-honey-bees
#1
Geraldine A Wright, Susan W Nicolson, Sharoni Shafir
Honey bees feed on floral nectar and pollen that they store in their colonies as honey and bee bread. Social division of labor enables the collection of stores of food that are consumed by within-hive bees that convert stored pollen and honey into royal jelly. Royal jelly and other glandular secretions are the primary food of growing larvae and of the queen but are also fed to other colony members. Research clearly shows that bees regulate their intake, like other animals, around specific proportions of macronutrients...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029589/environmental-adaptations-ecological-filtering-and-dispersal-central-to-insect-invasions
#2
David Renault, Mathieu Laparie, Shannon J McCauley, Dries Bonte
Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992421/functional-hypoxia-in-insects-definition-assessment-and-consequences-for-physiology-ecology-and-evolution
#3
Jon F Harrison, Kendra Greenlee, Wilco C E P Verberk
Insects can experience functional hypoxia, a situation in which O2 supply is inadequate to meet oxygen demand. Assessing when functional hypoxia occurs is complex, because responses are graded, age and tissue dependent, and compensatory. Here, we compare information gained from metabolomics and transcriptional approaches and by manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen. Functional hypoxia produces graded damage, including damaged macromolecules and inflammation. Insects respond by compensatory physiological and morphological changes in the tracheal system, metabolic reorganization, and suppression of activity, feeding, and growth...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977776/anthropogenic-impacts-on-mortality-and-population-viability-of-the-monarch-butterfly
#4
Stephen B Malcolm
Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are familiar herbivores of milkweeds of the genus Asclepias, and most monarchs migrate each year to locate these host plants across North American ecosystems now dominated by agriculture. Eastern migrants overwinter in high-elevation forests in Mexico, and western monarchs overwinter in trees on the coast of California. Both populations face three primary threats to their viability: (a) loss of milkweed resources for larvae due to genetically modified crops, pesticides, and fertilizers; (b) loss of nectar resources from flowering plants; and (c) degraded overwintering forest habitats due to commercially motivated deforestation and other economic activities...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977775/the-psychology-of-superorganisms-collective-decision-making-by-insect-societies
#5
Takao Sasaki, Stephen C Pratt
Under the superorganism concept, insect societies are so tightly integrated that they possess features analogous to those of single organisms, including collective cognition. If so, colony function might fruitfully be studied using methods developed to understand individual animals. Here, we review research that uses psychological approaches to understand decision making by colonies. The application of neural models to collective choice shows fundamental similarities between how brains and colonies balance speed/accuracy trade-offs in decision making...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977774/ecology-worldwide-spread-and-management-of-the-invasive-south-american-tomato-pinworm-tuta-absoluta-past-present-and-future
#6
Antonio Biondi, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Fang-Hao Wan, Nicolas Desneux
The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is native to the eastern Neotropics. After invading Spain in 2006, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato production. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed, but widespread insecticide use has caused selection for insecticide resistances as well as undesirable effects on key beneficial arthropods. Augmentation and conservation biological control relying on omnivorous mirid predators has proved successful for management of T...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968147/insect-borne-plant-pathogens-and-their-vectors-ecology-evolution-and-complex-interactions
#7
Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945976/social-immunity-emergence-and-evolution-of-colony-level-disease-protection
#8
Sylvia Cremer, Christopher D Pull, Matthias A Fürst
Social insect colonies have evolved many collectively performed adaptations that reduce the impact of infectious disease and that are expected to maximize their fitness. This colony-level protection is termed social immunity, and it enhances the health and survival of the colony. In this review, we address how social immunity emerges from its mechanistic components to produce colony-level disease avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. To understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of social immunity, we highlight the need for studies that evaluate the effects of social immunity on colony fitness...
September 25, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938083/how-many-species-of-insects-and-other-terrestrial-arthropods-are-there-on-earth
#9
Nigel E Stork
In the last decade, new methods of estimating global species richness have been developed and existing ones improved through the use of more appropriate statistical tools and new data. Taking the mean of most of these new estimates indicates that globally there are approximately 1.5 million, 5.5 million, and 7 million species of beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods, respectively. Previous estimates of 30 million species or more based on the host specificity of insects to plants now seem extremely unlikely...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938082/pseudacteon-phorid-flies-host-specificity-and-impacts-on-solenopsis-fire-ants
#10
Li Chen, Henry Y Fadamiro
Human commerce has resulted in the spread of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis species, worldwide. Six species of parasitic Pseudacteon phorid flies that are highly host specific to the Solenopsis saevissima complex of Solenopsis fire ants have been successfully released in the southern United States. The presence of Pseudacteon phorid flies, in addition to having direct mortality effects on their host ants, modifies foraging behavior and disrupts interspecific competition between host species and other ant species in the community...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#11
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146636/introduction
#12
Subba Reddy Palli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141966/past-present-and-future-of-integrated-control-of-apple-pests-the-new-zealand-experience
#13
REVIEW
James T S Walker, David Maxwell Suckling, C Howard Wearing
This review describes the New Zealand apple industry's progression from 1960s integrated pest control research to today's comprehensive integrated pest management system. With the exception of integrated mite control implemented during the 1980s, pest control on apple crops was dominated by intensive organophosphate insecticide regimes to control tortricid leafrollers. Multiple pest resistances to these insecticides by the 1990s, and increasing consumer demand for lower pesticide residues on fruit, led to the implementation of integrated fruit production...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141965/evolution-of-stored-product-entomology-protecting-the-world-food-supply
#14
REVIEW
David W Hagstrum, Thomas W Phillips
Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141964/spatial-self-organization-of-ecosystems-integrating-multiple-mechanisms-of-regular-pattern-formation
#15
REVIEW
Robert M Pringle, Corina E Tarnita
Large-scale regular vegetation patterns are common in nature, but their causes are disputed. Whereas recent theory focuses on scale-dependent feedbacks as a potentially universal mechanism, earlier studies suggest that many regular spatial patterns result from territorial interference competition between colonies of social-insect ecosystem engineers, leading to hexagonally overdispersed nest sites and associated vegetation. Evidence for this latter mechanism is scattered throughout decades of disparate literature and lacks a unified conceptual framework, fueling skepticism about its generality in debates over the origins of patterned landscapes...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141963/following-the-yellow-brick-road
#16
Charles H Calisher
Charles Calisher was fascinated by microorganisms from the time he was in high school. He attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science (now University of the Sciences) (BS), then University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana (MS), and finally Georgetown University, in Washington, DC (PhD), the latter while employed at a commercial biological house. He was hired by the US Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in Atlanta, Georgia, was transferred to its Fort Collins laboratories in 1973, and retired from there in 1992...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141962/beekeeping-from-antiquity-through-the-middle-ages
#17
REVIEW
Gene Kritsky
Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141961/african-horse-sickness-virus-history-transmission-and-current-status
#18
REVIEW
Simon Carpenter, Philip S Mellor, Assane G Fall, Claire Garros, Gert J Venter
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a lethal arbovirus of equids that is transmitted between hosts primarily by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHSV affects draft, thoroughbred, and companion horses and donkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this review, we examine the impact of AHSV critically and discuss entomological studies that have been conducted to improve understanding of its epidemiology and control. The transmission of AHSV remains a major research focus and we critically review studies that have implicated both Culicoides and other blood-feeding arthropods in this process...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141960/diversity-of-cuticular-micro-and-nanostructures-on-insects-properties-functions-and-potential-applications
#19
REVIEW
Gregory S Watson, Jolanta A Watson, Bronwen W Cribb
Insects exhibit a fascinating and diverse range of micro- and nanoarchitectures on their cuticle. Beyond the spectacular beauty of such minute structures lie surfaces evolutionarily modified to act as multifunctional interfaces that must contend with a hostile, challenging environment, driving adaption so that these can then become favorable. Numerous cuticular structures have been discovered this century; and of equal importance are the properties, functions, and potential applications that have been a key focus in many recent studies...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959639/physicochemical-property-variation-in-spider-silk-ecology-evolution-and-synthetic-production
#20
REVIEW
Sean J Blamires, Todd A Blackledge, I-Min Tso
The unique combination of great stiffness, strength, and extensibility makes spider major ampullate (MA) silk desirable for various biomimetic and synthetic applications. Intensive research on the genetics, biochemistry, and biomechanics of this material has facilitated a thorough understanding of its properties at various levels. Nevertheless, methods such as cloning, recombination, and electrospinning have not successfully produced materials with properties as impressive as those of spider silk. It is nevertheless becoming clear that silk properties are a consequence of whole-organism interactions with the environment in addition to genetic expression, gland biochemistry, and spinning processes...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
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