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Annual Review of Entomology

Michael J Brewer, Frank B Peairs, Norman C Elliott
Aphid invasions of North American cereal crops generally have started with colonization of a new region or crop, followed by range expansion and outbreaks that vary in frequency and scale owing to geographically variable influences. To improve understanding of this process and management, we compare the invasion ecology of and management response to three cereal aphids: sugarcane aphid, Russian wheat aphid, and greenbug. The region exploited is determined primarily by climate and host plant availability. Once an area is permanently or annually colonized, outbreak intensity is also affected by natural enemies and managed inputs, such as aphid-resistant cultivars and insecticides...
October 29, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Lorenza Beati, Hans Klompen
Improved understanding of tick phylogeny has allowed testing of some biogeographical patterns. On the basis of both literature data and a meta-analysis of available sequence data, there is strong support for a Gondwanan origin of Ixodidae, and probably Ixodida. A particularly strong pattern is observed for the genus Amblyomma, which appears to have originated in Antarctica/southern South America, with subsequent dispersal to Australia. The endemic Australian lineages of Ixodidae (no other continent has such a pattern) appear to result from separate dispersal events, probably from Antarctica...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Xue-Xin Chen, Cornelis van Achterberg
The parasitoid wasp family Braconidae is likely the second-most speciesrich family in the animal kingdom. Braconid wasps are widely distributed and often encountered. They constitute one of the principal groups of natural enemies of phytophagous insects, of which many are serious pest species. The enormous biological diversification of braconid wasps has led to many homoplasies, which contributed widely to instabilities in historical classifications. Recent studies using combinations of genetic markers or total mitochondrial genomes allow for better founded groupings and will ultimately lead to a stable classification...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jennifer A Brisson, Hai-Jun Xu
Many insects are capable of developing into either long-winged or shortwinged (or wingless) morphs, which enables them to rapidly match heterogeneous environments. Thus, the wing polymorphism is an adaptation at the root of their ecological success. Wing polymorphism is orchestrated at various levels, starting with the insect's perception of environmental cues, then signal transduction and signal execution, and ultimately the transmitting of signals into physiological adaption in accordance with the particular morph produced...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Paul K Abram, Jacques Brodeur, Alberto Urbaneja, Alejandro Tena
The main modes of action of insect parasitoids are considered to be killing their hosts with egg laying followed by offspring development (reproductive mortality), and adults feeding on hosts directly (host feeding). However, parasitoids can also negatively affect their hosts in ways that do not contribute to current or future parasitoid reproduction (nonreproductive effects). Outcomes of nonreproductive effects for hosts can include death, altered behavior, altered reproduction, and altered development. On the basis of these outcomes and the variety of associated mechanisms, we categorize nonreproductive effects into (a) nonconsumptive effects, (b) mutilation, (c) pseudoparasitism, (d) immune defense costs, and (e) aborted parasitism...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng
The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Hugh M Robertson
The evolutionary origins of the three major families of chemoreceptors in arthropods-the odorant receptor (OR), gustatory receptor (GR), and ionotropic receptor (IR) families-occurred at the base of the Insecta, Animalia, and Protostomia, respectively. Comparison of receptor family sizes across arthropods reveals a generally positive correlation with their widely disparate complexity of chemical ecology. Closely related species reveal the ongoing processes of gene family evolution, including gene duplication, divergence, pseudogenization, and loss, that mediate these larger patterns...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Christopher M Jones, Hazel Parry, Wee Tek Tay, Don R Reynolds, Jason W Chapman
The recent introduction and spread of Helicoverpa armigera throughout South America highlights the invasiveness and adaptability of moths in the Helicoverpa genus. Long-range movement in three key members, H. armigera, H. zea, and H. punctigera, occurs by migration and international trade. These movements facilitate high population admixture and genetic diversity, with important economic, biosecurity, and control implications in today's agricultural landscape. This is particularly true for the spread of resistance alleles to transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that are planted over vast areas to suppress Helicoverpa spp...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Cheryl B Schultz, Nick M Haddad, Erica H Henry, Elizabeth E Crone
The number of insect species at risk of population decline and extinction is increasing rapidly. Yet we know almost nothing about the ecology of these species, except for at-risk butterflies. A growing body of literature shows how butterfly vital rates, including demography and movement, are essential for guiding conservation and recovery. History has shown us that without these data, conservation decisions often weaken, rather than enhance, population viability. This is especially true in changing landscapes...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Christos G Athanassiou, Thomas W Phillips, Waqas Wakil
The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is a voracious feeder of stored products and is considered one of the most important quarantine pests globally. Its ability to survive for long periods under extreme conditions facilitates its spread through international commerce, which has led to invasions of new geographic regions. The khapra beetle is an important quarantine pest for many countries, including the major wheat-producing countries the United States, Canada, Russia, and Australia, and has been classified as one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Karl M Glastad, Brendan G Hunt, Michael A D Goodisman
Epigenetic inheritance is fundamentally important to cellular differentiation and developmental plasticity. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of molecular epigenetics in insects. Epigenetic information is passed across cell divisions through the methylation of DNA, the modification of histone proteins, and the activity of noncoding RNAs. Much of our knowledge of insect epigenetics has been gleaned from a few model species. However, more studies of epigenetic information in traditionally nonmodel taxa will help advance our understanding of the developmental and evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance in insects...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Jeremy S Gray, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Annetta Zintl
Babesiosis, caused by piroplasmid protozoans in the genus Babesia, is arguably the most important vector-borne disease of livestock and companion animals and is growing in importance as a zoonosis. Ixodid ticks were identified as vectors more than a hundred years ago, but the particular tick species transmitting some significant pathogens are still unknown. Moreover, it is only recently that the complexity of the pathogen-tick relationship has been revealed as a result of studies enabled by gene expression and RNA interference methodology...
October 1, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Philip J Lester, Jacqueline R Beggs
Three species of Vespula have become invasive in Australia, Hawai'i, New Zealand, and North and South America and continue to spread. These social wasp species can achieve high nest densities, and their behavioral plasticity has led to substantial impacts on recipient communities. Ecologically, they affect all trophic levels, restructuring communities and altering resource flows. Economically, their main negative effect is associated with pollination and the apicultural industry. Climate change is likely to exacerbate their impacts in many regions...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Deborah M Gordon
Nest choice in Temnothorax spp.; task allocation and the regulation of activity in Pheidole dentata, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, and Atta spp.; and trail networks in Monomorium pharaonis and Cephalotes goniodontus all provide examples of correspondences between the dynamics of the environment and the dynamics of collective behavior. Some important aspects of the dynamics of the environment include stability, the threat of rupture or disturbance, the ratio of inflow and outflow of resources or energy, and the distribution of resources...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Nan-Yao Su
The objective of bait application envisioned by early researchers was to eliminate the source of infestation, the colony, but because of the lack of adequate evaluation tools, results of field trials with mirex baits in the 1960s were mostly inconclusive. On-the-ground monitoring stations and markrecapture protocol developed in the 1970s marked the turning point in the field studies of termite baits. Results of field studies with metabolic inhibitors and chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in the 1990s indicated that a bait toxicant has to be slow-acting and nonrepellent, and its lethal time has to be dose independent...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Long Zhang, Michel Lecoq, Alexandre Latchininsky, David Hunter
Locusts and grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) are among the most dangerous agricultural pests. Their control is critical to food security worldwide and often requires governmental or international involvement. Although locust and grasshopper outbreaks are now better controlled and often shorter in duration and reduced in extent, large outbreaks, often promoted by climate change, continue to occur in many parts of the world. While some locust and grasshopper control systems are still curative, the recognition of the damage these pests can cause and the socioeconomic consequences of locust and grasshopper outbreaks have led to an increasing paradigm shift from crop protection to preventive management...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Charles H Calisher, Stephen Higgs
The discovery of an odd virus from hematophagous arthropods 40 years ago by Stollar and Thomas described cell fusing agent virus in cells derived from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Then came the report of Kamiti River virus from Ae. macintoshi in 1999, followed by worldwide reports of the discovery of other viruses of mosquitoes, ticks, and midges that replicate only in arthropods and not in vertebrates or in vertebrate cells. These viruses (now totaling at least 64 published) have genomes analogous to viruses in various families that include arboviruses and nonarboviruses...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
David P Hughes, Frederic Libersat
Insect behavior can be manipulated by parasites, and in many cases, such manipulation involves the central and peripheral nervous system. Neuroparasitology is an emerging branch of biology that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of their host. The diversity of parasites that can manipulate insect behavior ranges from viruses to macroscopic worms and also includes other insects that have evolved to become parasites (notably, parasitic wasps). It is remarkable that the precise manipulation observed does not require direct entry into the insect brain and can even occur when the parasite is outside the body...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Lewis J Wilson, Mary E A Whitehouse, Grant A Herron
The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
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