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Annual Review of Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#1
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912246/ecoinformatics-big-data-for-agricultural-entomology-pitfalls-progress-and-promise
#2
Jay A Rosenheim, Claudio Gratton
Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860520/social-life-in-arid-environments-the-case-study-of-cataglyphis-ants
#3
Raphaël Boulay, Serge Aron, Xim Cerdá, Claudie Doums, Paul Graham, Abraham Hefetz, Thibaud Monnin
Unlike most desert-dwelling animals, Cataglyphis ants do not attempt to escape the heat; rather, they apply their impressive heat tolerance to avoid competitors and predators. This thermally defined niche has promoted a range of adaptations both at the individual and colony levels. We have also recently discovered that within the genus Cataglyphis there are incredibly diverse social systems, modes of reproduction, and dispersal, prompting the tantalizing question of whether social diversity may also be a consequence of the harsh environment within which we find these charismatic ants...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860523/processionary-moths-and-associated-urtication-risk-global-change-driven-effects
#4
Andrea Battisti, Stig Larsson, Alain Roques
Processionary moths carry urticating setae, which cause health problems in humans and other warm-blooded animals. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa has responded to global change (climate warming and increased global trade) by extending its distribution range. The subfamily Thaumetopoeinae consists of approximately 100 species. An important question is whether other processionary moth species will similarly respond to these specific dimensions of global change and thus introduce health hazards into new areas...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860522/the-ambrosia-symbiosis-from-evolutionary-ecology-to-practical-management
#5
Jiri Hulcr, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ambrosia beetle-fungus farming symbiosis is more heterogeneous than previously thought. There is not one but many ambrosia symbioses. Beetlefungus specificity is clade-dependent and ranges from strict to promiscuous. Each new origin has evolved a new mycangium. The most common relationship with host trees is colonization of freshly dead tissues, but there are also parasites of living trees, vectors of pathogenic fungi, and beetles living in rotten trees with a wood-decay symbiont. Most of these strategies are driven by fungal metabolism whereas beetle ecology is evolutionarily more flexible...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860521/phylogeny-and-evolution-of-lepidoptera
#6
Charles Mitter, Donald R Davis, Michael P Cummings
Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860525/emerging-themes-in-our-understanding-of-species-displacements
#7
Yulin Gao, Stuart R Reitz
The displacement of a species from a habitat by actions of another is the most severe outcome of interspecific interactions. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of (a) ecological mechanisms that lead to displacements, (b) how outcomes of interspecific interactions are affected by the context of where and when they occur, and (c) impacts of displacements. Displacements are likely to escalate as their primary initiating factors-the spread of non-native species and environmental change-continue at unprecedented rates...
November 4, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860524/insect-pathogenic-fungi-genomics-molecular-interactions-and-genetic-improvements
#8
Chengshu Wang, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi play a pivotal role in the regulation of insect populations in nature, and representative species have been developed as promising environmentally friendly mycoinsecticides. Recent advances in the genome biology of insect pathogenic fungi have revealed genomic features associated with fungal adaptation to insect hosts and different host ranges, as well as the evolutionary relationships between insect and noninsect pathogens. By using species in the Beauveria and Metarhizium genera as models, molecular biology studies have revealed the genes that function in fungus-insect interactions and thereby contribute to fungal virulence...
November 4, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813666/tephritid-integrative-taxonomy-where-we-are-now-with-a-focus-on-the-resolution-of-three-tropical-fruit-fly-species-complexes
#9
Mark K Schutze, Massimiliano Virgilio, Allen Norrbom, Anthony R Clarke
Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813665/the-impact-of-trap-type-and-design-features-on-survey-and-detection-of-bark-and-woodboring-beetles-and-their-associates-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Jeremy D Allison, Richard A Redak
A large literature on the survey and detection of forest Coleoptera and their associates exists. Identification of patterns in the effect of trap types and design features among guilds and families of forest insects would facilitate the optimization and development of intercept traps for use in management programs.Wereviewed the literature on trapping bark and woodboring beetles and their associates and conducted meta-analyses to examine patterns in effects across guilds and families; we observed the following general patterns: (a) Panel traps were superior to multiple-funnel traps, (b) bark beetles and woodborers were captured in higher numbers in traps treated with a surface treatment to make them slippery than untreated traps, (c) panel and multiple-funnel traps equipped with wet cups outperformed traps with dry cups, (d) black traps were superior to white and clear traps, and (e) purple traps were as good as or superior to green traps for Agrilus spp...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813664/habitat-management-to-suppress-pest-populations-progress-and-prospects
#11
Geoff M Gurr, Steve D Wratten, Douglas A Landis, Minsheng You
Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813663/impacts-of-insect-herbivores-on-plant-populations
#12
Judith H Myers, Rana M Sarfraz
Apparent feeding damage by insects on plants is often slight. Thus, the influences of insect herbivores on plant populations are likely minor. The role of insects on host-plant populations can be elucidated via several methods: stage-structured life tables of plant populations manipulated by herbivore exclusion and seed-addition experiments, tests of the enemy release hypothesis, studies of the effects of accidentally and intentionally introduced insect herbivores, and observations of the impacts of insect species that show outbreak population dynamics...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813669/micrornas-and-the-evolution-of-insect-metamorphosis
#13
Xavier Belles
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a number of processes associated with metamorphosis, either in the less modified hemimetabolan mode or in the more modified holometabolan mode. The miR-100/let-7/miR-125 cluster has been studied extensively, especially in relation to wing morphogenesis in both hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. Other miRNAs also participate in wing morphogenesis, as well as in programmed cell and tissue death, neuromaturation, neuromuscular junction formation, and neuron cell fate determination, typically during the pupal stage of holometabolan species...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813668/learning-in-insect-pollinators-and-herbivores
#14
Patricia L Jones, Anurag A Agrawal
The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813667/neuropeptides-as-regulators-of-behavior-in-insects
#15
Liliane Schoofs, Arnold De Loof, Matthias Boris Van Hiel
Neuropeptides are by far the largest and most diverse group of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms. They are ancient molecules important in regulating a multitude of processes. Their small proteinaceous character allowed them to evolve and radiate quickly into numerous different molecules. On average, hundreds of distinct neuropeptides are present in animals, sometimes with unique classes that do not occur in distantly related species. Acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, or growth factors, they are extremely diverse and are involved in controlling growth, development, ecdysis, digestion, diuresis, and many more physiological processes...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649317/behavioral-sabotage-of-plant-defenses-by-insect-folivores
#16
David E Dussourd
Plant susceptibility to herbivore attack is determined not just by the suite of defenses present in different tissues of the plant, but also by the capabilities of the herbivore for tolerating, circumventing, or disarming the defenses. This article reviews the elaborate behaviors exhibited by leaf-chewing insects that appear to function specifically to deactivate hostplant defenses. Shortcomings in our understanding and promising areas for future research are highlighted. Behaviors covered include vein cutting, trenching, girdling, leaf clipping, and application of fluids from exocrine glands...
September 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982445/foreword
#17
Myron Zalucki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982444/the-molecular-evolution-of-xenobiotic-metabolism-and-resistance-in-chelicerate-mites
#18
Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Chelicerate mites diverged from other arthropod lineages more than 400 million years ago and subsequently developed specific and remarkable xenobiotic adaptations. The study of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, for which a high-quality Sanger-sequenced genome was first available, revealed expansions and radiations in all major detoxification gene families, including P450 monooxygenases, carboxyl/cholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases, and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Novel gene families that are not well studied in other arthropods, such as major facilitator family transporters and lipocalins, also reflect the evolution of xenobiotic adaptation...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982443/rift-valley-fever-an-emerging-mosquito-borne-disease
#19
Kenneth J Linthicum, Seth C Britch, Assaf Anyamba
Rift Valley fever (RVF), an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic infectious viral disease caused by the RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), presents significant threats to global public health and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. RVFV is listed as a select agent with significant potential for international spread and use in bioterrorism. RVFV has caused large, devastating periodic epizootics and epidemics in Africa over the past ∼60 years, with severe economic and nutritional impacts on humans from illness and livestock loss...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982442/studying-the-complex-communities-of-ants-and-their-symbionts-using-ecological-network-analysis
#20
Aniek B F Ivens, Christoph von Beeren, Nico Blüthgen, Daniel J C Kronauer
Ant colonies provide well-protected and resource-rich environments for a plethora of symbionts. Historically, most studies of ants and their symbionts have had a narrow taxonomic scope, often focusing on a single ant or symbiont species. Here we discuss the prospects of studying these assemblies in a community ecology context using the framework of ecological network analysis. We introduce three basic network metrics that we consider particularly relevant for improving our knowledge of ant-symbiont communities: interaction specificity, network modularity, and phylogenetic signal...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
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