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Annual Review of Entomology

David E Dussourd
Plant susceptibility to herbivore attack is determined not just by the suite of defenses present in different tissues of the plant, but also by the capabilities of the herbivore for tolerating, circumventing, or disarming the defenses. This article reviews the elaborate behaviors exhibited by leaf-chewing insects that appear to function specifically to deactivate hostplant defenses. Shortcomings in our understanding and promising areas for future research are highlighted. Behaviors covered include vein cutting, trenching, girdling, leaf clipping, and application of fluids from exocrine glands...
September 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Myron Zalucki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Chelicerate mites diverged from other arthropod lineages more than 400 million years ago and subsequently developed specific and remarkable xenobiotic adaptations. The study of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, for which a high-quality Sanger-sequenced genome was first available, revealed expansions and radiations in all major detoxification gene families, including P450 monooxygenases, carboxyl/cholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases, and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Novel gene families that are not well studied in other arthropods, such as major facilitator family transporters and lipocalins, also reflect the evolution of xenobiotic adaptation...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Kenneth J Linthicum, Seth C Britch, Assaf Anyamba
Rift Valley fever (RVF), an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic infectious viral disease caused by the RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), presents significant threats to global public health and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. RVFV is listed as a select agent with significant potential for international spread and use in bioterrorism. RVFV has caused large, devastating periodic epizootics and epidemics in Africa over the past ∼60 years, with severe economic and nutritional impacts on humans from illness and livestock loss...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Aniek B F Ivens, Christoph von Beeren, Nico Blüthgen, Daniel J C Kronauer
Ant colonies provide well-protected and resource-rich environments for a plethora of symbionts. Historically, most studies of ants and their symbionts have had a narrow taxonomic scope, often focusing on a single ant or symbiont species. Here we discuss the prospects of studying these assemblies in a community ecology context using the framework of ecological network analysis. We introduce three basic network metrics that we consider particularly relevant for improving our knowledge of ant-symbiont communities: interaction specificity, network modularity, and phylogenetic signal...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Christophe Gadenne, Romina B Barrozo, Sylvia Anton
In insects, olfaction plays a crucial role in many behavioral contexts, such as locating food, sexual partners, and oviposition sites. To successfully perform such behaviors, insects must respond to chemical stimuli at the right moment. Insects modulate their olfactory system according to their physiological state upon interaction with their environment. Here, we review the plasticity of behavioral responses to different odor types according to age, feeding state, circadian rhythm, and mating status. We also summarize what is known about the underlying neural and endocrinological mechanisms, from peripheral detection to central nervous integration, and cover neuromodulation from the molecular to the behavioral level...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Jeffrey R Aldrich, Qing-He Zhang
With 6,000 species, Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions, dustywings, and allies) is a relatively small order; however, most larval neuropterans are predacious, often in agricultural systems, lending added importance to this group. Advances in neuropteran phylogeny, most recently through genomic studies, stabilized the nomenclature of this ancestral order of Holometabola, facilitating basic and applied research on these important and interesting insects. The first pheromones for green lacewings (Chrysopidae) have been identified; this, and other research on antlions (Myrmeleontidae), suggests that male-produced long-range pheromones are the norm for the order...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Kun Yan Zhu, Hans Merzendorfer, Wenqing Zhang, Jianzhen Zhang, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan
Chitin is a major component of the exoskeleton and the peritrophic matrix of insects. It forms complex structures in association with different assortments of cuticle and peritrophic matrix proteins to yield biocomposites with a wide range of physicochemical and mechanical properties. The growth and development of insects are intimately coupled with the biosynthesis, turnover, and modification of chitin. The genes encoding numerous enzymes of chitin metabolism and proteins that associate with and organize chitin have been uncovered by bioinformatics analyses...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Christian Nansen, Norman Elliott
Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Steven L Chown, Peter Convey
The Antarctic region comprises the continent, the Maritime Antarctic, the sub-Antarctic islands, and the southern cold temperate islands. Continental Antarctica is devoid of insects, but elsewhere diversity varies from 2 to more than 200 species, of which flies and beetles constitute the majority. Much is known about the drivers of this diversity at local and regional scales; current climate and glacial history play important roles. Investigations of responses to low temperatures, dry conditions, and varying salinity have spanned the ecological to the genomic, revealing new insights into how insects respond to stressful conditions...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Romano Dallai, Marco Gottardo, Rolf Georg Beutel
This comprehensive review of the structure of sperm in all orders of insects evaluates phylogenetic implications, with the background of a phylogeny based on transcriptomes. Sperm characters strongly support several major branches of the phylogeny of insects-for instance, Cercophora, Dicondylia, and Psocodea-and also different infraordinal groups. Some closely related taxa, such as Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Amphiesmenoptera), differ greatly in sperm structure. Sperm characters are very conservative in some groups (Heteroptera, Odonata) but highly variable in others, including Zoraptera, a small and morphologically uniform group with a tremendously accelerated rate of sperm evolution...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
John C Palumbo, Thomas M Perring, Jocelyn G Millar, Darcy A Reed
The painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, native to eastern and southern Africa and Asia, was detected in California in 2008, and it has spread rapidly throughout several southwestern US states. A polyphagous insect, it is particularly damaging to the billion dollar cole crop industry. B. hilaris frequently causes damage when it migrates to newly planted crops from weedy hosts. Feeding produces circular or star-shaped chlorotic lesions that become necrotic, and infested plants may be distorted. Currently, no reliable sampling methods for B...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Sunday Ekesi, Marc De Meyer, Samira A Mohamed, Massimiliano Virgilio, Christian Borgemeister
Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Carla M Sgrò, John S Terblanche, Ary A Hoffmann
Plastic responses figure prominently in discussions on insect adaptation to climate change. Here we review the different types of plastic responses and whether they contribute much to adaptation. Under climate change, plastic responses involving diapause are often critical for population persistence, but key diapause responses under dry and hot conditions remain poorly understood. Climate variability can impose large fitness costs on insects showing diapause and other life cycle responses, threatening population persistence...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Francesco Nazzi, Yves Le Conte
Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasite of Apis mellifera. This review addresses the interactions between the varroa mite, its environment, and the honey bee host, mediated by an impressive number of cues and signals, including semiochemicals regulating crucial steps of the mite's life cycle. Although mechanical stimuli, temperature, and humidity play an important role, chemical communication is the most important channel. Kairomones are used at all stages of the mite's life cycle, and the exploitation of bees' brood pheromones is particularly significant given these compounds function as primer and releaser signals that regulate the social organization of the honey bee colony...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Andrew M Liebhold, Ludek Berec, Eckehard G Brockerhoff, Rebecca S Epanchin-Niell, Alan Hastings, Daniel A Herms, John M Kean, Deborah G McCullough, David M Suckling, Patrick C Tobin, Takehiko Yamanaka
Eradication is the deliberate elimination of a species from an area. Given that international quarantine measures can never be 100% effective, surveillance for newly arrived populations of nonnative species coupled with their eradication represents an important strategy for excluding potentially damaging insect species. Historically, eradication efforts have not always been successful and have sometimes been met with public opposition. But new developments in our understanding of the dynamics of low-density populations, the availability of highly effective treatment tactics, and bioeconomic analyses of eradication strategies offer new opportunities for developing more effective surveillance and eradication programs...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Martin J R Hall, Richard L Wall, Jamie R Stevens
Traumatic myiasis, the parasitic infestation by fly larvae in traumatic lesions of the tissues of living vertebrates, is a serious medical condition in humans and a welfare and economic issue in domestic animals. New molecular studies are providing insights into its evolution and epidemiology. Nevertheless, its incidence in humans is generally underreported, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Myiasis in domestic animals has been studied more extensively, but continuous management is difficult and expensive...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Judith Korb, Jürgen Heinze
Why do most animals live solitarily, while complex social life is restricted to a few cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects? Here, we synthesize concepts and theories in social evolution and discuss its underlying ecological causes. Social evolution can be partitioned into (a) formation of stable social groups, (b) evolution of helping, and (c) transition to a new evolutionary level. Stable social groups rarely evolve due to competition over food and/or reproduction. Food competition is overcome in social insects with central-place foraging or bonanza-type food resources, whereas competition over reproduction commonly occurs because staying individuals are rarely sterile...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Martin C Göpfert, R Matthias Hennig
Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
Zhenyu Li, Xia Feng, Shu-Sheng Liu, Minsheng You, Michael J Furlong
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), costs the Chinese economy US$0.77 billion annually, and considerable research has focused on its biology, ecology, and management. Much of this research has been published locally and is inaccessible outside China. Since 1990 Brassica vegetable production has increased 20-fold and production practices have intensified, but losses continue to increase. Insecticide use is widespread and many DBM populations, particularly in southern provinces, are resistant to multiple compounds...
2016: Annual Review of Entomology
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