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Annals of Botany

Hao Sun, Yaoke Duan, Xiaocui Qi, Liyang Zhang, Heqiang Huo, Haijun Gong
Background and Aims: Silicon has been proven to exert beneficial effects on plant growth and stress tolerance, and silicon accumulation varies among different plant species. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely used dicot model for silicon accumulation, but little is known about the molecular mechanism of its silicon uptake. Previously, we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a silicon influx transporter gene from cucumber. In this study, we cloned a putative silicon efflux transporter gene, CsLsi2, from cucumber and investigated its role in silicon uptake...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Mario Mairal, Juli Caujapé-Castells, Loïc Pellissier, Ruth Jaén-Molina, Nadir Álvarez, Myriam Heuertz, Isabel Sanmartín
Background and Aims: Various studies and conservationist reports have warned about the contraction of the last subtropical Afro-Macaronesian forests. These relict vegetation zones have been restricted to a few oceanic and continental islands around the edges of Africa, due to aridification. Previous studies on relict species have generally focused on glacial effects on narrow endemics; however, little is known about the effects of aridification on the fates of previously widespread subtropical lineages...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jonas Coussement, Michael Henke, Peter Lootens, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Kathy Steppe, Tom De Swaef
Background and Aims: Currently, functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) mostly resort to static descriptions of leaf spectral characteristics, which disregard the influence of leaf physiological changes over time. In many crop species, including soybean, these time-dependent physiological changes are of particular importance as leaf chlorophyll content changes with leaf age and vegetative nitrogen is remobilized to the developing fruit during pod filling. Methods: PROSPECT, a model developed to estimate leaf biochemical composition from remote sensing data, is well suited to allow a dynamic approximation of leaf spectral characteristics in terms of leaf composition...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Noushka Reiter, Ann C Lawrie, Celeste C Linde
Background and Aims : An understanding of mycorrhizal variation, orchid seed germination temperature and the effect of co-occurring plant species could be critical for optimizing conservation translocations of endangered plants with specialized mycorrhizal associations. Methods: Focusing on the orchid Thelymitra epipactoides, we isolated mycorrhizal fungi from ten plants within each of three sites; Shallow Sands Woodland (SSW), Damp Heathland (DH) and Coastal Heathland Scrub (CHS)...
June 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ole Pedersen, Timothy D Colmer, Emilio Garcia-Robledo, Niels P Revsbech
Background and Aims: Leaf tissue CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) shows contrasting dynamics over a diurnal cycle in C3 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants. However, simultaneous and continuous monitoring of pCO2 and pO2 in C3 and CAM plants under the same conditions was lacking. Our aim was to use a new CO2 microsensor and an existing O2 microsensor for non-destructive measurements of leaf pCO2 and pO2 dynamics to compare a C3 and a CAM plant in an aquatic environment. Methods: A new amperometric CO2 microsensor and an O2 microsensor elucidated with high temporal resolution the dynamics in leaf pCO2 and pO2 during light-dark cycles for C3 Lobelia dortmanna and CAM Littorella uniflora aquatic plants...
June 11, 2018: Annals of Botany
Danica E Goggin, Parwinder Kaur, Mechelle J Owen, Stephen B Powles
Background and Aims: Resistance to synthetic auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is increasing in weed populations worldwide, which is of concern given the recent introduction of synthetic auxin-resistant transgenic crops. Due to the complex mode of action of the auxinic herbicides, the mechanisms of evolved resistance remain largely uncharacterized. The aims of this study were to assess the level of diversity in resistance mechanisms in 11 populations of the problem weed Raphanus raphanistrum, and to use a high-throughput, whole-genome transcriptomic analysis on one resistant and one susceptible population to identify important changes in gene expression in response to 2,4-D...
June 11, 2018: Annals of Botany
Joanna Lusinska, Joanna Majka, Alexander Betekhtin, Karolina Susek, Elzbieta Wolny, Robert Hasterok
Background and Aims: The Brachypodium genus represents a useful model system to study grass genome organization. Palaeogenomic analyses (e.g. Murat F, Armero A, Pont C, Klopp C, Salse J. 2017. Reconstructing the genome of the most recent common ancestor of flowering plants. Nature Genetics49: 490-496) have identified polyploidization and dysploidy as the prime mechanisms driving the diversity of plant karyotypes and nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) crucial for shaping grass chromosomes...
June 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Mark E Olson, Julieta A Rosell, Salvador Muñoz, Matiss Castorena
Background and aims: Corner's rules describe a global spectrum from large-leaved plants with thick, sparingly branched twigs with low-density stem tissues and thick piths to plants with thin, highly branched stems with high-density stem tissues and thin piths. The hypothesis was tested that, if similar crown areas fix similar amounts of carbon regardless of leaf size, then large-leaved species, with their distantly spaced leaves, require higher stem growth rates, lower stem tissue densities and stiffnesses, and therefore thicker twigs...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ze-Yu Tong, Xiang-Ping Wang, Ling-Yun Wu, Shuang-Quan Huang
Backgrounds and Aims: Gain or loss of floral nectar, an innovation in floral traits, has occurred in diverse lineages of flowering plants, but the causes of reverse transitions (gain of nectar) remain unclear. Phylogenetic studies show multiple gains and losses of floral nectar in the species-rich genus Pedicularis. Here we explore how experimental addition of nectar to a supposedly nectarless species, P. dichotoma, influences pollinator foraging behaviour. Methods : The liquid (nectar) at the base of the corolla tube in P...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Marinus L de Jager, Rod Peakall
Background and Aims: Selection exerted by pollinators on flowers is predicted to occur along two distinct axes. While pollinator attraction to flowers is governed by pollinator preferences, pollen transfer efficiency is mediated by the mechanical fit of pollinators to flower morphology. Although pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids is typically underpinned by floral odour, morphological traits are expected to play a vital role in mechanical fit during floral contact with pollinators...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Yongbo Liu, C Neal Stewart, Junsheng Li, Wei Wei
Background and Aims: Since pollen flow or seed dispersal can contribute to transgene persistence in the environment, the sympatric presence of transgenic crops with their wild relatives is an ecological concern. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that proximate growth of a herbivore-resistant Bt crop and wild relatives coupled with the presence of herbivores can increase relative frequency of crop-to-wild transgene flow persistence outside of cultivation. Methods: We conducted a field experiment using insect enclosures with and without herbivores with cultivated Bt-transgenic Brassica napus (Bt OSR) and wild brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in pure and mixed stands...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Thiago J Izzo, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Wesley Dáttilo
Background and Aims: Even when adapted to flooding environments, the spatial distribution, growing strategies and anti-herbivore defences of plants face stressful conditions. Here we describe the effects of flooding on carbon allocation on growth, domatia and leaf production, and the herbivory on the myrmecophyte domatia-bearing Tococa coronata Benth. (Melastomataceae) growing along river banks in the Amazon region. Methods: In an area of 80 000 m2 of riparian forest along the Juruena River we actively searched for individuals of T...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Igor J Chybicki, Andrzej Oleksa
Background and Aims: Dispersal is crucial due to its direct impact on dynamics of a species' distribution as well as having a role in shaping adaptive potential through gene flow. In plants forming scarce and small populations, knowledge about the dispersal process is required to assess the potential for colonizing new habitats and connectivity of present and future populations. This study aimed to assess dispersal potential in Taxus baccata, a dioecious gymnosperm tree with a wide but highly fragmented distribution...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Erik H Murchie, Shawn Kefauver, Jose Luis Araus, Onno Muller, Uwe Rascher, Pádraic J Flood, Tracy Lawson
Background: Photosynthesis underpins plant productivity and yet is notoriously sensitive to small changes in environmental conditions, meaning that quantitation in nature across different time scales is not straightforward. The 'dynamic' changes in photosynthesis (i.e. the kinetics of the various reactions of photosynthesis in response to environmental shifts) are now known to be important in driving crop yield. Scope: It is known that photosynthesis does not respond in a timely manner, and even a small temporal 'mismatch' between a change in the environment and the appropriate response of photosynthesis toward optimality can result in a fall in productivity...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Li Jiang, Haimei Cao, Ziping Chen, Changxuan Liu, Shuqing Cao, Zhaojun Wei, Yi Han, Qiuchen Gao, Weiyan Wang
Background and Aims: Excess selenium (Se) is toxic to plants, but relatively little is known about the regulatory mechanism of plant Se tolerance. This study explored the role of the TPS22 gene in Se tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods: Arabidopsis wild type and XVE mutant seeds were grown on half-strength MS media containing Na2SeO3 for screening of the Se-tolerant mutant tps22. The XVE T-DNA-tagged genomic sequence in tps22 was identified by TAIL-PCR. The TPS22 gene was transformed into the mutant tps22 and wild type plants using the flower infiltration method...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Juannan Zhou, Michele R Dudash, Elizabeth A Zimmer, Charles B Fenster
Background and Aims: Population genetic structures and patterns of gene flow of interacting species provide important insights into the spatial scale of their interactions and the potential for local co-adaptation. We analysed the genetic structures of the plant Silene stellata and the nocturnal moth Hadena ectypa. Hadena ectypa acts as one of the important pollinators of S. stellata as well as being an obligate seed parasite on the plant. Although H. ectypa provides a substantial pollination service to S...
May 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Margaux Even, Marine Sabo, Delong Meng, Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Wieland Fricke
Background and Aims: Night-time transpiration accounts for a considerable amount of water loss in crop plants. Despite this, there remain many questions concerning night-time transpiration - its biological function, regulation and response to stresses such as salinity. The aim of the present study was to address these questions on 14- to 18-d-old, hydroponically grown barley plants. Methods: Plants were either stressed for the last 4-7 d prior to, and during subsequent continuous (24 h), diurnal gravimetric transpiration analyses; or subjected to salt stress just before analyses; or stressed for 4-7 d and then transferred to control medium before analyses...
May 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Zhun Mao, Yan Wang, M Luke McCormack, Nick Rowe, Xiaobao Deng, Xiaodong Yang, Shangwen Xia, Jérôme Nespoulous, Roy C Sidle, Dali Guo, Alexia Stokes
Background and Aims: Root mechanical traits, including tensile strength (Tr), tensile strain (εr) and modulus of elasticity (Er), are key functional traits that help characterize plant anchorage and the physical contribution of vegetation to landslides and erosion. The variability in these traits is high among tree fine roots and is poorly understood. Here, we explore the variation in root mechanical traits as well as their underlying links with morphological (diameter), architectural (topological order) and anatomical (stele and cortex sizes) traits...
May 26, 2018: Annals of Botany
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Background and Aims: Over very short spatial scales, the habitat of a species can differ in multiple abiotic and biotic factors. These factors may impose natural selection on several traits and can cause genetic differentiation within a population. We studied multivariate genetic differentiation in a plant species of a sand dune landscape by linking environmental variation with differences in genotypic trait values and gene expression levels to find traits and candidate genes of microgeographical adaptation...
May 26, 2018: Annals of Botany
Renata Retkute, Alexandra J Townsend, Erik H Murchie, Oliver E Jensen, Simon P Preston
Background and Aims: Diurnal changes in solar position and intensity combined with the structural complexity of plant architecture result in highly variable and dynamic light patterns within the plant canopy. This affects productivity through the complex ways that photosynthesis responds to changes in light intensity. Current methods to characterize light dynamics, such as ray-tracing, are able to produce data with excellent spatio-temporal resolution but are computationally intensive and the resulting data are complex and high-dimensional...
May 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
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