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Annals of Botany

Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
Adolfina Savoretti, Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
Background and Aims: Widespread and diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are rare in the fossil record, especially in pre-Cenozoic rocks. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known from compression fossils, which lack detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy significantly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) deposits on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora including numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ján Kovác, Alexander Lux, Marek Vaculík
Background and Aims: Heavy metals induce changes in root metabolism and physiology, which can lead to a complex remodelling of the root system. The final morphological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots exposed to toxic concentrations of the heavy metal (Cu) include root growth inhibition, differentiation of xylem vessels close to the root tip, enhanced suberin lamellae deposition and enhanced lateral root production. Recently, we have found that such changes in root morphology and anatomy are coupled to the formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit (SLAD) very close to the root tip...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Adam Frew, Leslie A Weston, Olivia L Reynolds, Geoff M Gurr
Background: Silicon (Si) is known to have numerous beneficial effects on plants, alleviating diverse forms of abiotic and biotic stress. Research on this topic has accelerated in recent years and revealed multiple effects of Si in a range of plant species. Available information regarding the impact of Si on plant defence, growth and development is fragmented, discipline-specific, and usually focused on downstream, distal phenomena rather than underlying effects. Accordingly, there is a growing need for studies that address fundamental metabolic and regulatory processes, thereby allowing greater unification and focus of current research across disciplines...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
Andrea Schnepf, Daniel Leitner, Magdalena Landl, Guillaume Lobet, Trung Hieu Mai, Shehan Morandage, Cheng Sheng, Mirjam Zörner, Jan Vanderborght, Harry Vereecken
Background and Aims: Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architecture models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system. The root architecture model CRootBox presented here is a flexible framework to model root architecture and its interactions with static and dynamic soil environments...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ming Wang, Neil White, Volker Grimm, Helen Hofman, David Doley, Grant Thorp, Bronwen Cribb, Ella Wherritt, Liqi Han, John Wilkie, Jim Hanan
Background and Aims: Functional-structural plant (FSP) models have been widely used to understand the complex interactions between plant architecture and underlying developmental mechanisms. However, to obtain evidence that a model captures these mechanisms correctly, a clear distinction must be made between model outputs used for calibration and thus verification, and outputs used for validation. In pattern-oriented modelling (POM), multiple verification patterns are used as filters for rejecting unrealistic model structures and parameter combinations, while a second, independent set of patterns is used for validation...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Natalia V Zhukovskaya, Elena I Bystrova, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Victor B Ivanov
Background and Aims: Information on cell cycle duration (T) in the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insight into root growth, development and evolution. We have previously proposed a simple method for evaluating T based on the dynamics of root growth (V), the number of cells in the RAM (Nm) and the length of fully elongated cells (l), which we named the rate-of-cell-production (RCP) method. Here, a global analysis was performed to confirm the reliability of this method in a range of angiosperm species and to assess the advantages of this approach...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Diego F E Escobar, Fernando A O Silveira, Leonor Patricia C Morellato
Background and Aims: The relationship between fruiting phenology and seed dispersal syndrome is widely recognized; however, the interaction of dormancy classes and plant life-history traits in relation to fruiting phenology and seed dispersal is understudied. Here we examined the relationship between fruiting season and seed dormancy and how this relationship is modulated by dormancy classes, dispersal syndromes, seed mass and seed moisture content in a Brazilian savanna (cerrado). Methods: Dormancy classes (non-dormancy and physical, morphological, morphophysiological, physiological and physiophysical dormancy) of 34 cerrado species were experimentally determined...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Nicia E G Junqueira, Bianca Ortiz-Silva, Marcos Vinícius Leal-Costa, Márcio Alves-Ferreira, Hugh G Dickinson, Jane A Langdale, Fernanda Reinert
Background and Aims: Setaria viridis is being promoted as a model C4 photosynthetic plant because it has a small genome (~515 Mb), a short life cycle (~60 d) and it can be transformed. Unlike other C4 grasses such as maize, however, there is very little information about how C4 leaf anatomy (Kranz anatomy) develops in S. viridis. As a foundation for future developmental genetic studies, we provide an anatomical and ultrastructural framework of early shoot development in S. viridis, focusing on the initiation of Kranz anatomy in seed leaves...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Alla N Seleznyova, Jim Hanan
Background and Aims: Transport of carbohydrates and water are essential aspects of plant function. The aim of this study was to develop and test the methods for mechanistic modelling of quasi-stationary coupled phloem/xylem transport in the context of functional-structural plant modelling. Methods: The novelty of this approach is in combining analytical and computational methods. The plant structure is modelled at a metamer level with the internodes represented by conduit elements and the lateral organs represented by sources and sinks...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Dong He, Yongfa Chen, Kangning Zhao, J H C Cornelissen, Chengjin Chu
Background and Aims: How functional traits vary with environmental conditions is of fundamental importance in trait-based community ecology. However, how intraspecific variability in functional traits is connected to species distribution is not well understood. This study investigated inter- and intraspecific variation of a key functional trait, i.e. specific leaf area (leaf area per unit dry mass; SLA), in relation to soil factors and tested if trait variation is more closely associated with specific environmental regimes for low-variability species than for high-variability species...
February 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
A Balzano, K Cufar, G Battipaglia, M Merela, P Prislan, G Aronne, V De Micco
Background and Aims: Mediterranean trees have patterns of cambial activity with one or more pauses per year, leading to intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings. We analysed xylogenesis (January 2015-January 2016) in Pinus pinea L. and Arbutus unedo L., co-occurring at a site on Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy), to identify the cambial productivity and timing of IADF formation. Methods: Dendrochronological methods and quantitative wood anatomy were applied and enabled IADF identification and classification...
February 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Piyal Karunarathne, Mara Schedler, Eric J Martínez, Ana I Honfi, Anastasiia Novichkova, Diego Hojsgaard
Background and Aims: Niche divergence between polyploids and their lower ploidy progenitors is one of the primary mechanisms fostering polyploid establishment and adaptive divergence. However, within-species chromosomal and reproductive variability have usually been neglected in community ecology and biodiversity analyses even though they have been recognized to play a role in the adaptive diversification of lineages. Methods: We used Paspalum intermedium, a grass species with diverging genetic systems (diploidy vs...
February 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Donato Chiatante, Thomas Rost, John Bryant, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Background: The production of a new lateral root from parental root primary tissues has been investigated extensively, and the most important regulatory mechanisms are now well known. A first regulatory mechanism is based on the synthesis of small peptides which interact ectopically with membrane receptors to elicit a modulation of transcription factor target genes. A second mechanism involves a complex cross-talk between plant hormones. It is known that lateral roots are formed even in parental root portions characterized by the presence of secondary tissues, but there is not yet agreement about the putative tissue source providing the cells competent to become founder cells of a new root primordium...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jana Kohanová, Michal Martinka, Marek Vaculík, Philip J White, Marie-Theres Hauser, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0)...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
C Purcell, S P Batke, C Yiotis, R Caballero, W K Soh, M Murray, J C McElwain
Background and Aims: Studies have indicated that plant stomatal conductance (gs) decreases in response to elevated atmospheric CO2, a phenomenon of significance for the global hydrological cycle. However, gs increases across certain CO2 ranges have been predicted by optimization models. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that under certain environmental conditions, gs can increase in response to elevated CO2. Methods: Using (1) an extensive, up-to-date synthesis of gs responses in free air CO2 enrichment (FACE)experiments, (2) in situ measurements across four biomes showing dynamic gs responses to a CO2 rise of ~50 ppm (characterizing the change in this greenhouse gas over the past three decades) and (3) a photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model, it is demonstrated that gs can in some cases increase in response to increasing atmospheric CO2...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Guillaume Besnard, Jean-Frédéric Terral, Amandine Cornille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Corinne Robert, Guillaume Garin, Mariem Abichou, Vianney Houlès, Christophe Pradal, Christian Fournier
Background and Aims: In order to optimize crop management in innovative agricultural production systems, it is crucial to better understand how plant disease epidemics develop and what factors influence them. This study explores how canopy growth, its spatial organization and leaf senescence impact Zymoseptoria tritici epidemics. Methods: We used the Septo3D model, an epidemic model of Septoria tritici blotch (STB) coupled with a 3-D virtual wheat structural plant model (SPM)...
January 24, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jorad de Vries, Erik H Poelman, Niels Anten, Jochem B Evers
Background and Aims: Plants usually compete with neighbouring plants for resources such as light as well as defend themselves against herbivorous insects. This requires investment of limiting resources, resulting in optimal resource distribution patterns and trade-offs between growth- and defence-related traits. A plant's competitive success is determined by the spatial distribution of its resources in the canopy. The spatial distribution of herbivory in the canopy in turn differs between herbivore species as the level of herbivore specialization determines their response to the distribution of resources and defences in the canopy...
January 24, 2018: Annals of Botany
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