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Annals of Botany

Priscila Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro G Fernández de Castro, Jaume Seguí, Anna Traveset, Pedro A Sosa
Background and Aims: Alpine oceanic ecosystems are considered amongst the most ephemeral and restricted habitats, with a biota highly vulnerable to climate changes and disturbances. As an example of an alpine insular endemic, the past and future population genetic structure and diversity, and the future distribution of Viola cheiranthifolia (Violaceae), endemic to Tenerife (Canary Islands), were estimated. The main goals were to predict distribution changes of this alpine oceanic plant under climate change, and to assist in actions for its conservation...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Guillaume G Cossard, Melissa A Toups, John R Pannell
Background and Aims: Sexual dimorphism in morphology, physiology or life history traits is common in dioecious plants at reproductive maturity, but it is typically inconspicuous or absent in juveniles. Although plants of different sexes probably begin to diverge in gene expression both before their reproduction commences and before dimorphism becomes readily apparent, to our knowledge transcriptome-wide differential gene expression has yet to be demonstrated for any angiosperm species...
October 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
N Muñoz-Fambuena, M Nicolás-Almansa, A Martínez-Fuentes, C Reig, D J Iglesias, E Primo-Millo, C Mesejo, M Agustí
Background and Aims: In woody species, the juvenile period maintains the axillary meristems in a vegetative stage, unable to flower, for several years. However, in adult trees, some 1-year-old meristems flower whereas others remain vegetative to ensure a polycarpic growth habit. Both types of trees, therefore, have non-flowering meristems, and we hypothesize that the molecular mechanism regulating flower inhibition in juvenile trees is different from that in adult trees. Methods: In adult Citrus trees, the main endogenous factor inhibiting flower induction is the growing fruit...
October 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Wencai Wang, Tao Wan, Hannes Becher, Alena Kuderova, Ilia J Leitch, Sònia Garcia, Andrew R Leitch, Aleš Kovarík
Introduction: Gnetophytes, comprising the genera Ephedra, Gnetum and Welwitschia, are an understudied, enigmatic lineage of gymnosperms with a controversial phylogenetic relationship to other seed plants. Here we examined the organization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) across representative species. Methods: We applied high-throughput sequencing approaches to isolate and reconstruct rDNA units and to determine their intragenomic homogeneity. In addition, fluorescent in situ hybridization and Southern blot hybridization techniques were used to reveal the chromosome and genomic organization of rDNA...
September 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
Zhengbing Yan, Xinghui Hou, Wenxuan Han, Suhui Ma, Haihua Shen, Yalong Guo, Jingyun Fang
Background and Aims : Plant elemental composition is of fundamental importance for plant growth and metabolic functions. However, knowledge of how multi-elemental stoichiometry responds to varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availabilities remains limited. Methods: We conducted experimental manipulations with nine repeat experiments to investigate the effects of N and P supply on the concentrations and variability of six elements, carbon (C), N, P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
François Vasseur, Kevin Sartori, Etienne Baron, Florian Fort, Elena Kazakou, Jules Segrestin, Eric Garnier, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle
Background and aims: The CSR classification categorizes plants as stress tolerators (S), ruderals (R) and competitors (C). Initially proposed as a general framework to describe ecological strategies across species, this scheme has recently been used to investigate the variation of strategies within species. For instance, ample variation along the S-R axis was found in Arabidopsis thaliana, with stress-tolerator accessions predominating in hot and dry regions, which was interpreted as a sign of functional adaptation to climate within the species...
September 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
Lindsay V Clark, Xiaoli Jin, Karen Koefoed Petersen, Kossanou G Anzoua, Larissa Bagmet, Pavel Chebukin, Martin Deuter, Elena Dzyubenko, Nicolay Dzyubenko, Kweon Heo, Douglas A Johnson, Uffe Jørgensen, Jens Bonderup Kjeldsen, Hironori Nagano, Junhua Peng, Andrey Sabitov, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Stephen P Long, Erik J Sacks
Background and Aims: Miscanthus, a C4 perennial grass native to East Asia, is a promising biomass crop. Miscanthus sacchariflorus has a broad geographic range, is used to produce paper in China and is one of the parents (along with Miscanthus sinensis) of the important biomass species Miscanthus × giganteus. The largest study of M. sacchariflorus population genetics to date is reported here. Methods: Collections included 764 individuals across East Asia. Samples were genotyped with 34 605 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and ten plastid microsatellites, and were subjected to ploidy analysis by flow cytometry...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Timothy J Flowers, Edward P Glenn, Vadim Volkov
Background: Halophytes tolerate external salt concentrations of 200 mm and more, accumulating salt concentrations of 500 mm and more in their shoots; some, recretohalophytes, excrete salt through glands on their leaves. Ions are accumulated in central vacuoles, but the pathway taken by these ions from the outside of the roots to the vacuoles inside the cells is poorly understood. Do the ions cross membranes through ion channels and transporters or move in vesicles, or both? Vesicular transport from the plasma membrane to the vacuole would explain how halophytes avoid the toxicity of high salt concentrations on metabolism...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Xavier Perrier, Christophe Jenny, Frédéric Bakry, Deborah Karamura, Mercy Kitavi, Cécile Dubois, Catherine Hervouet, Gérard Philippson, Edmond De Langhe
Background and Aims: Besides bananas belonging to the AAA triploid Mutika subgroup, which predominates in the Great Lakes countries, other AAA triploids as well as edible AA diploids, locally of considerable cultural weight, are cultivated in East Africa and in the nearby Indian Ocean islands as far as Madagascar. All these varieties call for the genetic identification and characterization of their interrelations on account of their regional socio-economic significance and their potential for banana breeding strategies...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Gunnar Keppel, Gianluigi Ottaviani, Susan Harrison, Grant W Wardell-Johnson, Matteo Marcantonio, Ladislav Mucina
Background: Refugia are island-like habitats that are linked to long-term environmental stability and, as a result, high endemism. Conservation of refugia and endemism hotspots should be based on a deep ecological and evolutionary understanding of their functioning, which remains limited. Although functional traits can provide such insights, a corresponding, coherent framework is lacking. Proposed Framework: Plant communities in refugia and endemism hotspots should, due to long-term environmental stability, display unique functional characteristics linked to distinct phylogenetic patterns...
September 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jinlong Dong, Stephen Grylls, James Hunt, Roger Armstrong, Emmanuel Delhaize, Caixian Tang
Background and Aims: Soil acidity currently limits root growth and crop production in many regions, and climate change is leading to uncertainties regarding future food supply. However, it is unknown how elevated CO2 (eCO2) affects the performance of wheat crops in acid soils under field conditions. We investigated the effects of eCO2 on plant growth and yield of three pairs of near-isogenic hexaploid wheat lines differing in alleles of aluminium-resistant genes TaALMT1 (conferring root malate efflux) and TaMATE1B (conferring citrate efflux)...
September 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Brian A Atkinson, Camila Martínez, William L Crepet
Background and aims: The asterids (>80 000 extant species) appear in the fossil record with considerable diversity near the Turonian-Coniacian boundary (~90 Ma; Late Cretaceous) and are strongly represented in the earliest diverging lineage, Cornales. These early asterid representatives have so far been reported from western North America and eastern Asia. In this study, we characterize a new cornalean taxon based on charcoalified fruits from the upper Turonian of eastern North America, a separate landmass from western North America at the time, and identify early palaeobiogeographical patterns of Cornales during the Cretaceous...
September 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
Amelia Merced, Karen S Renzaglia
Background and Aims: In seed plants, stomata regulate CO2 acquisition and water relations via transpiration, while minimizing water loss. Walls of guard cells are strong yet flexible because they open and close the pore by changing shape over the substomatal cavity. Pectins are necessary for wall flexibility and proper stomata functioning. This study investigates the differences in pectin composition in guard cells of two taxa that represent key lineages of plants with stomata: Arabidopsis, an angiosperm with diurnal stomatal activity, and Phaeoceros, a bryophyte that lacks active stomatal movement...
September 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Qian Zhang, Renske E Onstein, Stefan A Little, Hervé Sauquet
Background and Aims: Although dioecy, which characterizes only 6 % of angiosperm species, has been considered an evolutionary dead end, recent studies have demonstrated that this is not necessarily the case. Moraceae (40 genera, 1100 spp., including Ficus, 750 spp.) are particularly diverse in breeding systems (including monoecy, gynodioecy, androdioecy and dioecy) and thus represent a model clade to study macroevolution of dioecy. Methods: Ancestral breeding systems of Ficus and Moraceae were inferred...
September 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kangshan Mao, Markus Ruhsam, Yazhen Ma, Sean W Graham, Jianquan Liu, Philip Thomas, Richard I Milne, Peter M Hollingsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Daniela Scaccabarozzi, Salvatore Cozzolino, Lorenzo Guzzetti, Andrea Galimberti, Lynne Milne, Kingsley W Dixon, Ryan D Phillips
Background and Aims: While there is increasing recognition of Batesian floral mimicry in plants, there are few confirmed cases where mimicry involves more than one model species. Here, we test for pollination by mimicry in Diuris (Orchidaceae), a genus hypothesized to attract pollinators via mimicry of a range of co-occurring pea plants (Faboideae). Methods: Observations of pollinator behaviour were made for Diuris brumalis using arrays of orchid flowers. An analysis of floral traits in the co-flowering community and spectral reflectance measurements were undertaken to test if Di...
August 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Margaux Even, Marine Sabo, Delong Meng, Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Wieland Fricke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Bartosz J Plachno, Malgorzata Stpiczynska, Piotr Swiatek, Hans Lambers, Vitor F O Miranda, Francis J Nge, Piotr Stolarczyk, Gregory R Cawthray
Background and Aims: Bird pollination is rare among species in the genus Utricularia, and has evolved independently in two lineages of this genus. In Western Australia, the Western Spinebill, Acanthorhynchus superciliosus, visits flowers of Utricularia menziesii (section Pleiochasia: subgenus Polypompholyx). This study aimed to examine the micromorphology of U. menziesii flowers to assess traits that might be linked to its pollination strategy. Methods: Light microscopy, histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were used...
August 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Emiliano Mora-Carrera, Miguel Castañeda-Zárate, Juan Fornoni, Karina Boege, César A Domínguez
Background and Aims: Enantiostyly is a reproductive system with heteromorphic flowers characterized by asymmetrical deflection of the style, either to the left or to the right of the floral axis. There are two types of enantiostyly. In monomorphic enantiostyly, plants produce the two types of flowers in the same individual. Dimorphic enantiostyly is restricted to only seven species and their populations consist of individuals producing either the right or the left flower type. It is hypothesized that the dimorphic form is derived from monomorphic ancestors because it functions as an outcrossing mechanism...
August 29, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kamaljit S Bawa, Tenzing Ingty, Liam J Revell, K N Shivaprakash
Background and Aims: Kin selection theory predicts that a parent may minimize deleterious effects of competition among seeds developing within ovaries by increasing the genetic relatedness of seeds within an ovary. Alternatively, the number of developing seeds could be reduced to one or a few. It has also been suggested that single or few seeded fruits may be correlated with small flowers, and multi-ovulate ovaries or many seeded fruits may be associated with large flowers with specialized pollination mechanisms...
August 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
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