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Annals of Botany

Miaomiao Cheng, Peter M Kopittke, Anan Wang, Caixian Tang
Background and Aims: Salt has been shown to affect Cd translocation and accumulation in plants but the associated mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the effects of salt type and concentration on Cd uptake, translocation and accumulation in Carpobrotus rossii. Methods: Plants were grown in nutrient solution with the same Cd concentration or Cd2+ activity in the presence of 25 mm NaNO3, 12.5 mm Na2SO4 or 25 mm NaCl for ≤10 d. Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured and the accumulation of peptides and organic acids, and Cd speciation in plant tissues were analysed...
August 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jeff Ollerton, Sigrid Liede-Schumann, Mary E Endress, Ulrich Meve, André Rodrigo Rech, Adam Shuttleworth, Héctor A Keller, Mark Fishbein, Leonardo O Alvarado-Cárdenas, Felipe W Amorim, Peter Bernhardt, Ferhat Celep, Yolanda Chirango, Fidel Chiriboga-Arroyo, Laure Civeyrel, Andrea Cocucci, Louise Cranmer, Inara Carolina da Silva-Batista, Linde de Jager, Mariana Scaramussa Deprá, Arthur Domingos-Melo, Courtney Dvorsky, Kayna Agostini, Leandro Freitas, Maria Cristina Gaglianone, Leo Galetto, Mike Gilbert, Ixchel González-Ramírez, Pablo Gorostiague, David Goyder, Leandro Hachuy-Filho, Annemarie Heiduk, Aaron Howard, Gretchen Ionta, Sofia C Islas-Hernández, Steven D Johnson, Lize Joubert, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Susan Kephart, Aroonrat Kidyoo, Suzanne Koptur, Cristiana Koschnitzke, Ellen Lamborn, Tatyana Livshultz, Isabel Cristina Machado, Salvador Marino, Lumi Mema, Ko Mochizuki, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Chediel K Mrisha, Evalyne W Muiruri, Naoyuki Nakahama, Viviany Teixeira Nascimento, Clive Nuttman, Paulo Eugenio Oliveira, Craig I Peter, Sachin Punekar, Nicole Rafferty, Alessandro Rapini, Zong-Xin Ren, Claudia I Rodríguez-Flores, Liliana Rosero, Shoko Sakai, Marlies Sazima, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Ching-Wen Tan, Carolina Torres, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Atushi Ushimaru, Milene Faria Vieira, Ana Pía Wiemer, Tadashi Yamashiro, Tarcila Nadia, Joel Queiroz, Zelma Quirino
Background and Aims: Large clades of angiosperms are often characterized by diverse interactions with pollinators, but how these pollination systems are structured phylogenetically and biogeographically is still uncertain for most families. Apocynaceae is a clade of >5300 species with a worldwide distribution. A database representing >10 % of species in the family was used to explore the diversity of pollinators and evolutionary shifts in pollination systems across major clades and regions...
August 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jiao Huang, Li-Qin Yang, Yan Yu, Yan-Mei Liu, Deng-Feng Xie, Juan Li, Xing-Jin He, Song-Dong Zhou
Background and Aims: The role played by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in the organismal diversification and biogeography of plants in the Northern Hemisphere has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Here we use tribe Lilieae (Liliaceae), including primarily temperate and alpine lineages with disjunct distributions in the North Temperate Zone, as a case study to shed light upon these processes. Methods: Using 191 taxa (five outgroup taxa) comprising more than 60 % of extant Lilieae species across the entire geographical range, we analyse phylogenetic relationships based on three plastid markers (matK, rbcL, rpl16) and nuclear ITS...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Marcin Zych, Robert R Junker, Massimo Nepi, Malgorzata Stpiczynska, Barbara Stolarska, Katarzyna Roguz
Background and Aims: In terms of pollination systems, umbellifers (plants of the carrot family, Apiaceae) are regarded as generalists, since their (usually dichogamous) flowers are visited by a wide range of insects representing several taxonomic orders. However, recent analyses of insect effectiveness revealed that these plants may be pollinated effectively by a narrow assemblage of insect visitors. Of particular interest was whether populations of an umbellifer species varied in pollinator assemblages and whether this could lead to local specialization of the pollination system...
July 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
Emma L Dalziell, Carol C Baskin, Jerry M Baskin, Renee E Young, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
Background and Aims : Substantial evidence supports the hypothesis that morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) is the basal kind of seed dormancy in the angiosperms. However, only physiological dormancy (PD) is reported in seeds of the ANA-grade genus Nymphaea. The primary aim of this study was to determine the kind of dormancy in seeds of six species of Nymphaea from the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Methods: The effects of temperature, light and germination stimulants on germination were tested on multiple collections of seeds of N...
July 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
Makiko Kosugi, Fumino Maruo, Takeshi Inoue, Norio Kurosawa, Akinori Kawamata, Hiroyuki Koike, Yasuhiro Kamei, Sakae Kudoh, Satoshi Imura
Background and Aims: All photosynthetic organisms are faced with photoinhibition, which would lead to death in severe environments. Because light quality and light intensity fluctuate dynamically in natural microenvironments, quantitative and qualitative analysis of photoinhibition is important to clarify how this environmental pressure has impacted ecological behaviour in different organisms. Methods: We evaluated the wavelength dependency of photoinactivation to photosystem II (PSII) of Prasiola crispa (green alga), Umbilicaria decussata (lichen) and Ceratodon purpureus (bryophyte) harvested from East Antarctica...
July 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
P-O Cheptou
Background and Aims: As a major evolutionary transition in seed plants, the evolution of plant mating systems has been much debated in evolutionary ecology. Over the last 10 years, well-established patterns of evolution have emerged. On the one hand, experimental studies have shown that self-fertilization is likely to evolve in a few generations (microevolution) as a response to rapid environmental change (e.g. pollinator decline), eventually rescuing a population. On the other, phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that repeated evolution towards self-fertilization (macroevolution) leads to a higher risk of lineage extinction and is thus likely to be disadvantageous in the long term...
July 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Theresa N Wang, Marie R Clifford, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Jens C Johnson, Jeffrey A Riffell, Verónica S Di Stilio
Background and Aims: Growing experimental evidence that floral scent is a key contributor to pollinator attraction supports its investigation as a component of the suite of floral traits that result from pollinator-mediated selection. Yet, the fate of floral scent during the transition out of biotic into abiotic pollination has rarely been tested. In the case of wind pollination, this is due not only to its rarer incidence among flowering plants compared with insect pollination, but also to the scarcity of systems amenable to genus-level comparisons...
July 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Filipe G C M da Costa, Denise E Klein, C Thomas Philbrick, Claudia P Bove
Background and Aims: The presence, location and morphology of silica bodies are informative anatomical characters in angiosperms, mainly in Poales. In Podostemaceae, a strictly aquatic family, these structures are mentioned frequently, but there is limited insight into their location and morphological features. In the present study we focused on describing and analysing the morphological diversity of silica bodies in leaves of neotropical Podostemaceae at the intra- and interspecific levels to determine their taxonomic and phylogenetic relevance...
July 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Patrik Mráz, Pavel Zdvorák
Background and Aims: Apomixis or asexual seed reproduction is a key evolutionary mechanism in certain angiosperms providing them with reproductive assurance and isolation. Nevertheless, the frequency of apomixis is largely unknown, especially in groups with autonomous apomixis such as the diploid-polyploid genus Hieracium. Methods: Using flow cytometric analyses, we determined the ploidy level and reproductive pathways (sexual vs. apomictic) for 7616 seeds originating from 946 plants belonging to >50 taxa sampled at 130 sites across Europe...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Amy L Parachnowitsch, Jessamyn S Manson, Nina Sletvold
Background: Floral nectar is an important determinant of plant-pollinator interactions and an integral component of pollination syndromes, suggesting it is under pollinator-mediated selection. However, compared to floral display traits, we know little about the evolutionary ecology of nectar. Combining a literature review with a meta-analysis approach, we summarize the evidence for heritable variation in nectar traits and link this variation to pollinator response and plant fitness. We further review associations between nectar traits and floral signals and discuss them in the context of honest signalling and targets of selection...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Raquel Salvador-Guirao, Patricia Baldrich, Shiho Tomiyama, Yue-Ie Hsing, Kazunori Okada, Blanca San Segundo
Background and Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression via sequence-specific cleavage or translational repression of target transcripts. They are transcribed as long single-stranded RNA precursors with unique stem-loop structures that are processed by a DICER-Like (DCL) ribonuclease, typically DCL1, to produce mature miRNAs. Although a plethora of miRNAs have been found to be regulated by pathogen infection in plants, the biological function of most miRNAs remains largely unknown...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Roman Hobza, Vojtech Hudzieczek, Zdenek Kubat, Radim Cegan, Boris Vyskot, Eduard Kejnovsky, Bohuslav Janousek
Background: The evolution of dioecious plants is occasionally accompanied by the establishment of sex chromosomes: both XY and ZW systems have been found in plants. Structural studies of sex chromosomes are now being followed up by functional studies that are gradually shedding light on the specific genetic and epigenetic processes that shape the development of separate sexes in plants. Scope: This review describes sex determination diversity in plants and the genetic background of dioecy, summarizes recent progress in the investigation of both classical and emerging model dioecious plants and discusses novel findings...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kathleen M Kay, Aubrey M Zepeda, Robert A Raguso
Background and Aims: Under a widely accepted model of pollinator-driven speciation, geographic variation in pollinator assemblage drives floral divergence and automatically causes reproductive isolation. Yet it is unclear whether divergent floral adaptation initially confers strong reproductive isolation, or whether that comes at later stages of speciation and requires other forms of reproductive isolation. This study uses a pair of recently diverged, interfertile and parapatric species in the genus Clarkia to determine whether adaptation to hawkmoths, a novel pollinator functional group, would automatically confer floral isolation upon sympatric contact...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Cui Li, Peng Wang, Antony van der Ent, Miaomiao Cheng, Haibo Jiang, Thea Lund Read, Enzo Lombi, Caixian Tang, Martin D de Jonge, Neal W Menzies, Peter M Kopittke
Background and Aims: The pathways whereby foliar-applied nutrients move across the leaf surface remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the pathways by which foliar-applied Zn moves across the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaf surface, considering the potential importance of the cuticle, stomata and trichomes. Methods: Using synchrotron-based X-ray florescence microscopy and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), the absorption of foliar-applied ZnSO4 and nano-ZnO were studied in sunflower...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Joo Yeol Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Jihye Jung, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Choong-Min Ryu
Background and Aims: Sound is omnipresent in nature. Recent evidence supports the notion that naturally occurring and artificially generated sound waves induce inter- and intracellular changes in plants. These changes, in turn, lead to diverse physiological changes, such as enhanced biotic and abiotic stress responses, in both crops and model plants. Methods: We previously observed delayed ripening in tomato fruits exposed to 1 kHz sound vibrations for 6 h. Here, we evaluated the molecular mechanism underlying this delaying fruit ripening by performing RNA-sequencing analysis of tomato fruits at 6 h, 2 d, 5 d and 7 d after 1 kHz sound vibration treatment...
July 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Daisuke Tsugama, Shenkui Liu, Kaien Fujino, Tetsuo Takano
Background and Aims: VIP1 is a bZIP transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. VIP1 and its close homologues transiently accumulate in the nucleus when cells are exposed to hypo-osmotic and/or mechanical stress. Touch-induced root bending is enhanced in transgenic plants overexpressing a repression domain-fused form of VIP1 (VIP1-SRDXox), suggesting that VIP1, possibly with its close homologues, suppresses touch-induced root bending. The aim of this study was to identify regulators of these functions of VIP1 in mechanical stress responses...
July 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Agata Leszczuk, Monika Chylinska, Artur Zdunek
Background and Aims: Changes in the arrangement of cell wall components determine cell wall properties (integrity, stiffness), thereby affecting the macro-scale properties of fruits, which are important for consumers and industry. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous components of the plant cell, in which they have various functions. Currently, AGPs are considered to be one of the less well-known, enigmatic proteoglycans, a consequence of their heterogeneous structure and unclear mechanism of activity...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jurene E Kemp, Nicola G Bergh, Muri Soares, Allan G Ellis
Background and Aims: As most plants rely on pollination for persistence in communities, pollination interactions should be important determinants of plant community assembly. Here, trait and phylogenetic null modelling approaches were combined with pollinator interaction networks to elucidate the processes structuring flower colour assembly patterns in Asteraceae communities in Namaqualand, South Africa. Methods: Plant species were assigned to flower colour pattern categories (CPCs) that incorporate the complexity of the bulls-eye colour pattern, using pollinator vision models...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Yanfeng Hu, Jia You, Jisheng Li, Congli Wang
Background and Aims: Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.) are microscopic roundworms with a wide host range causing great economic losses worldwide. Understanding how metabolic pathways function within the plant upon RKN infection will provide insight into the molecular aspects of plant-RKN interactions. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the key regulatory enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), is involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses and pathogenesis...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
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