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Annals of Botany

Iara P Calil, Elizabeth P B Fontes
BACKGROUND: Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Botany
Eva Žižková, Martin Kubeš, Petre I Dobrev, Pavel Přibyl, Jan Šimura, Lenka Zahajská, Lenka Záveská Drábková, Ondřej Novák, Václav Motyka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolism of cytokinins (CKs) and auxins in vascular plants is relatively well understood, but data concerning their metabolic pathways in non-vascular plants are still rather rare. With the aim of filling this gap, 20 representatives of taxonomically major lineages of cyanobacteria and algae from Cyanophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae were analysed for endogenous profiles of CKs and auxins and some of them were used for studies of the metabolic fate of exogenously applied radiolabelled CK, [(3)H]trans-zeatin (transZ) and auxin ([(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)), and the dynamics of endogenous CK and auxin pools during algal growth and cell division...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Jana Sochorová, Olivier Coriton, Alena Kuderová, Jana Lunerová, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Aleš Kovařík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38, oilseed rape) is a relatively recent allotetraploid species derived from the putative progenitor diploid species Brassica rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and Brassica oleracea (CC, 2n = 18). To determine the influence of intensive breeding conditions on the evolution of its genome, we analysed structure and copy number of rDNA in 21 cultivars of B. napus, representative of genetic diversity. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing genomic approaches, Southern blot hybridization, expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
S Negrão, S M Schmöckel, M Tester
BACKGROUND: Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant's physiology, making it difficult to study in toto Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant's response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. SCOPE AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Budiastuti Kurniasih, Hank Greenway, Timothy David Colmer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our aim was to elucidate how plant tissues under a severe energy crisis cope with imposition of high NaCl, which greatly increases ion fluxes and hence energy demands. The energy requirements for ion regulation during combined salinity and anoxia were assessed to gain insights into ion transport processes in the anoxia-tolerant coleoptile of rice. METHODS: We studied the combined effects of anoxia plus 50 or 100 mm NaCl on tissue ions and growth of submerged rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Pavla Satková, Tomáš Starý, Veronika Plešková, Martina Zapletalová, Tomáš Kašparovský, Lucie Činčalová-Kubienová, Lenka Luhová, Barbora Mieslerová, Jaromír Mikulík, Jan Lochman, Marek Petřivalský
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current strategies for increased crop protection of susceptible tomato plants against pathogen infections include treatment with synthetic chemicals, application of natural pathogen-derived compounds or transfer of resistance genes from wild tomato species within breeding programmes. In this study, a series of 45 genes potentially involved in defence mechanisms was retrieved from the genome sequence of inbred reference tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706'...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Botany
Gunnar Keppel, Todd P Robinson, Grant W Wardell-Johnson, Colin J Yates, Kimberly P Van Niel, Margaret Byrne, Antonius G T Schut
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We investigate whether the Porongurups (altitude 655 m) in the SWAFR will provide a refugium for the endemic Ornduffia calthifolia and O. marchantii under forecast climate change. METHODS: We used species distribution modelling based on WorldClim climatic data, 30-m elevation data and a 2-m-resolution LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) to predict current and future distributions of the Ornduffia species at local and regional scales based on 605 field-based abundance estimates...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
Loïc Pagès
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acropetal root branching is a major process which increases the number of growing tips and distributes their growth potential within the whole root system. METHODS: Using a method presented in a recent paper, the defined branching traits were estimated in 140 different species, and the branching patterns of monocots (45 species) and dicots (95 species) were compared. KEY RESULTS: It was checked that the method also applied to monocots (not considered in the previous paper), and that all traits could be estimated in each species...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
Tobias Michael Sandner, Diethart Matthies
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Populations of many hemiparasitic plants are fragmented and threatened by inbreeding depression (ID). In addition, they may also be strongly affected by a lack of suitable host species. However, nothing is known about possible interactive effects of inbreeding and host quality for parasitic plants. Poor host quality represents a special type of biotic stress and the magnitude of ID is often expected to be higher in more stressful environments. METHODS: We studied the effects of inbreeding and the quality of host species for the declining root hemiparasite Rhinanthus alectorolophus Selfed and open-pollinated parasites from two natural populations were grown (1) with 13 potential host species and (2) with 15 four-species mixtures...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
František Zedek, Petr Bureš
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The centromere drive theory explains diversity of eukaryotic centromeres as a consequence of the recurrent conflict between centromeric repeats and centromeric histone H3 (CenH3), in which selfish centromeres exploit meiotic asymmetry and CenH3 evolves adaptively to counterbalance deleterious consequences of driving centromeres. Accordingly, adaptively evolving CenH3 has so far been observed only in eukaryotes with asymmetric meiosis. However, if such evolution is a consequence of centromere drive, it should depend not only on meiotic asymmetry but also on monocentric or holokinetic chromosomal structure...
September 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
Yu Wang, Xingliang Duan, Sheng Xu, Ren Wang, Zhaozeng Ouyang, Wenbiao Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Boron is essential for plant growth but hazardous when present in excess. As the antioxidant properties of hydrogen gas (H2) were recently described in plants, oxidative stress induced by excess boron was investigated along with other biological responses during rice (Oryza sativa) seed germination to study the beneficial role of H2 METHODS: Rice seeds were pretreated with exogenous H2 Using physiological, pharmacological and molecular approaches, the production of endogenous H2, growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and relative gene expression in rice were measured under boron stress to investigate mechanisms of H2-mediated boron toxicity tolerance...
September 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
Alex Fajardo, Andrew Siefert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ecologists are increasingly using plant functional traits to predict community assembly, but few studies have linked functional traits to species' responses to fine-scale resource gradients. In this study, it was tested whether saplings of woody species partition fine-scale gradients in light availability based on their leaf mass per area (LMA) in three temperate rain forests and one Mediterranean forest in southern Chile. METHODS: LMA was measured under field conditions of all woody species contained in approx...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Stella M Copeland, Susan P Harrison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soil fertility and topographic microclimate are common determinants of plant species distributions. However, biotic conditions also vary along these abiotic gradients, and may mediate their effects on plants. In this study, we investigated whether soils and topographic microclimate acted directly on the performance of a focal understorey plant, or indirectly via changing biotic conditions. METHODS: We examined direct and indirect relationships between abiotic variables (soil fertility and topographic microclimate) and biotic factors (overstorey and understorey cover, litter depth and mycorrhizal colonization) and the occurrence, density and flowering of a common understorey herb, Trientalis latifolia, in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Abhishek Sadhu, Sreetama Bhadra, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cytological parameters such as chromosome numbers and genome sizes of plants are used routinely for studying evolutionary aspects of polyploid plants. Members of Zingiberaceae show a wide range of inter- and intrageneric variation in their reproductive habits and ploidy levels. Conventional cytological study in this group of plants is severely hampered by the presence of diverse secondary metabolites, which also affect their genome size estimation using flow cytometry...
September 4, 2016: Annals of Botany
Yanjie Liu, Wayne Dawson, Daniel Prati, Emily Haeuser, Yanhao Feng, Mark van Kleunen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is frequently assumed that phenotypic plasticity can be very advantageous for plants, because it may increase environmental tolerance (fitness homeostasis). This should, however, only hold for plastic responses that are adaptive, i.e. increase fitness. Numerous studies have shown shade-induced increases in specific leaf area (SLA), and there is wide consensus that this plastic response optimizes light capture and thus has to be adaptive. However, it has rarely been tested whether this is really the case...
September 4, 2016: Annals of Botany
Luis A J Mur, Catherine Simpson, Aprajita Kumari, Alok Kumar Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
BACKGROUND: Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. The extensive use of artificial N fertilizers has played an important role in the Green Revolution. N assimilation can involve a reductase series ([Formula: see text] → [Formula: see text] → [Formula: see text]) followed by transamination to form amino acids. Given its widespread use, the agricultural impact of N nutrition on disease development has been extensively examined...
September 4, 2016: Annals of Botany
Michael R Britton, James E Watkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organisms often balance among reproduction, growth and survival. When these processes are in competition, selection may act to drive functional dimorphism. Unlike seed plants, ferns use their foliar surfaces for reproduction and carbon fixation. Across species, ferns exhibit a gradient of fertile-sterile dimorphy: from the production of highly reduced fertile fronds (holodimorphic) to no reduction (monomorphic) in laminar area between fronds. Here the physiological impacts of fertile-sterile dimorphy were investigated through a series of observational and experimental field manipulations...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Cécile Julia, Matthias Wissuwa, Tobias Kretzschmar, Kwanho Jeong, Terry Rose
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: In cultivated rice, phosphorus (P) in grains originates from two possible sources, namely exogenous (post-flowering root P uptake from soil) or endogenous (P remobilization from vegetative parts) sources. This study investigates P partitioning and remobilization in rice plants throughout grain filling to resolve contributions of P sources to grain P levels in rice. METHODS: Rice plants (Oryza sativa 'IR64') were grown under P-sufficient or P-deficient conditions in the field and in hydroponics...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
J Sardos, X Perrier, J Doležel, E Hřibová, P Christelová, I Van den Houwe, A Kilian, N Roux
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Junjie Tao, Chao Feng, Bin Ai, Ming Kang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limestone karst areas possess high floral diversity and endemism. The genus Primulina, which contributes to the unique calcicole flora, has high species richness and exhibit specific soil-based habitat associations that are mainly distributed on calcareous karst soils. The adaptive molecular evolutionary mechanism of the genus to karst calcium-rich environments is still not well understood. The Ca(2+)-permeable channel TPC1 was used in this study to test whether its gene is involved in the local adaptation of Primulina to karst high-calcium soil environments...
August 30, 2016: Annals of Botany
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