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Annals of Botany

Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Chris J Blackman, Sean M Gleason, Alicia M Cook, Yvonne Chang, Claire A Laws, Mark Westoby
Background and Aims: The structural properties of leaf venation and xylem anatomy strongly influence leaf hydraulics, including the ability of leaves to maintain hydraulic function during drought. Here we examined the strength of the links between different leaf venation traits and leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (expressed as P50leaf by rehydration kinetics) in a diverse group of 26 woody angiosperm species, representing a wide range of leaf vulnerabilities, from four low-nutrient sites with contrasting rainfall across eastern Australia...
April 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Stefano Del Duca, Giampiero Cai
Background and Aims: Pollen tubes are rapidly growing, photosynthetically inactive cells that need high rates of energy to support growth. Energy can derive from internal and external storage sources. The lack of carbon sources can cause various problems during pollen tube growth, which in turn could affect the reproduction of plants. Methods: We analysed the effects of energy deficiency on the development of Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes by replacing sucrose with glycerol in the growth medium...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Oleg V Ivanov, Elena V Maslova, Michael S Ignatov
Background and Aims: Protosphagnalean mosses constitute the largest group of extinct mosses of still uncertain affinity. Having the general morphology of the Bryopsida, some have leaves with an areolation pattern characteristic of modern Sphagna. This study describes the structure and variation of these patterns in protosphagnalean mosses and provides a comparison with those of modern Sphagna. Methods: Preparations of fossil mosses showing preserved leaf cell structure were obtained by dissolving rock, photographed, and the resulting images were transformed to graphical format and analysed with Areoana computer software...
April 11, 2018: Annals of Botany
Phi-Yen Le, Hyung-Woo Jeon, Min-Ha Kim, Eung-Jun Park, Hyoshin Lee, Indeok Hwang, Kyung-Hwan Han, Jae-Heung Ko
Background and Aims: Anisotropic cell elongation depends on cell wall relaxation and cellulose microfibril arrangement. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular function of AtDICE1 encoding a novel transmembrane protein involved in anisotropic cell elongation in Arabidopsis. Methods: Phenotypic characterizations of transgenic Arabidopsis plants mis-regulating AtDICE1 expression with different pharmacological treatments were made, and biochemical, cell biological and transcriptome analyses were performed...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Miroslava Rakocevic, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga
Background and Aims: Dynamics in branch and leaf growth parameters, such as the phyllochron, duration of leaf expansion, leaf life span and bud mortality, determine tree architecture and canopy foliage distribution. We aimed to estimate leaf growth parameters in adult Arabica coffee plants based on leaf supporter axis order and position along the vertical profile, considering their modifications related to seasonal growth, air [CO2] and water availability. Methods: Growth and mortality of leaves and terminal buds of adult Arabica coffee trees were followed in two independent field experiments in two sub-tropical climate regions of Brazil, Londrina-PR (Cfa) and Jaguariúna-SP (Cwa)...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kodjo Tondjo, Loïc Brancheriau, Sylvie Sabatier, Adzo Dzifa Kokutse, Kouami Kokou, Marc Jaeger, Philippe de Reffye, Thierry Fourcaud
Background and aims: For a given genotype, the observed variability of tree forms results from the stochasticity of meristem functioning and from changing and heterogeneous environmental factors affecting biomass formation and allocation. In response to climate change, trees adapt their architecture by adjusting growth processes such as pre- and neoformation, as well as polycyclic growth. This is the case for the teak tree. The aim of this work was to adapt the plant model, GreenLab, in order to take into consideration both these processes using existing data on this tree species...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
Estefanía Montero, Ana Marta Francisco, Enrique Montes, Ana Herrera
Background and Aims: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be induced by salinity, thus conferring the plant higher water-use efficiency. Talinum triangulare does not frequently encounter salt in its natural habitat but is cultivated in soils that may become salinized. Here we examined whether plants of T. triangulare can grow in saline soils and show salt-induced CAM. Methods: Leaf gas exchange, carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C), nocturnal acid accumulation (ΔH+), water relations, photosynthetic pigment and mineral contents, leaf anatomy and growth were determined in greenhouse in plants irrigated with 0, 150, 300 and 400 mm NaCl...
March 26, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jing-Zhi Gong, Qiu-Jie Li, Xi Wang, Yue-Ping Ma, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Liang Zhao, Zhao-Yang Chang, Louis Ronse De Craene
Background and Aims: Camptotheca is endemic to China and there are limited data about the breeding system and morphogenesis of the flowers. Camptotheca is thought to be related to Nyssa and Davidia in Nyssaceae, which has sometimes been included in Cornaceae. However, molecular phylogenetic studies confirmed the inclusion of Camptotheca in Nyssaceae and its exclusion from Cornaceae. The aim of this study was to reveal developmental features of the inflorescence and flowers in Camptotheca to compare with related taxa in Cornales...
March 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
T Vidal, C Gigot, C de Vallavieille-Pope, L Huber, S Saint-Jean
Background and Aims: Growing cultivars differing by their disease resistance level together (cultivar mixtures) can reduce the propagation of diseases. Although architectural characteristics of cultivars are little considered in mixture design, they could have an effect on disease, in particular through spore dispersal by rain splash, which occurs over short distances. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of plant height of wheat cultivars in mixtures on splash dispersal of Zymoseptoria tritici, which causes septoria tritici leaf blotch...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Biva Aryal, Wataru Shinohara, Mie N Honjo, Hiroshi Kudoh
Background and Aims: An altitudinal gradient of leaf wettability is often observed between and within species. To understand its functional significance, positional variation of leaf surfaces within plants should be taken into account. In rosette-forming plants, rosette leaves are near the ground and their adaxial surfaces are exposed, whereas cauline leaves are lifted from the ground throughout the reproductive season, and their abaxial surfaces are more exposed. Here, we investigated leaf wettability of cauline and rosette leaves of Arabidopsis halleri subsp...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Daniel Tran, Aurélien Dauphin, Patrice Meimoun, Takashi Kadono, Hieu T H Nguyen, Delphine Arbelet-Bonnin, Tingting Zhao, Rafik Errakhi, Arnaud Lehner, Tomonori Kawano, François Bouteau
Background and Aims: Methanol is a volatile organic compound released from plants through the action of pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which demethylesterify cell wall pectins. Plant PMEs play a role in developmental processes but also in responses to herbivory and infection by fungal or bacterial pathogens. However, molecular mechanisms that explain how methanol could affect plant defences remain poorly understood. Methods: Using cultured cells and seedlings from Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco BY2 expressing the apoaequorin gene, allowing quantification of cytosolic Ca2+, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe (CLA, Cypridina luciferin analogue) and electrophysiological techniques, we followed early plant cell responses to exogenously supplied methanol applied as a liquid or as volatile...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Rachel L Vannette, Tadashi Fukami
Background and Aims: Flowers can be highly variable in nectar volume and chemical composition, even within the same plant, but the causes of this variation are not fully understood. One potential cause is nectar-colonizing bacteria and yeasts, but experimental tests isolating their effects on wildflowers are largely lacking. This study examines the effects of dominant species of yeasts and bacteria on the hummingbird-pollinated shrub, Mimulus aurantiacus, in California. Methods: Wildflowers were inoculated with field-relevant titres of either the yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii or the bacterium Neokomagataea sp...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Xiao Fang Zhu, Xu Sheng Zhao, Qi Wu, Ren Fang Shen
Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-studied phytohormone demonstrated to be involved in sub-sets of stress responses in plants, such as iron (Fe) deficiency and phosphorus (P) deficiency in Arabidopsis. However, whether ABA is involved in P deficiency in rice has not been frequently studied. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism underlying ABA-aggravated P deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa). Results: P deficiency decreased ABA accumulation rapidly (within 1 h) in the roots...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Megan A Martinez, Eric J Baack, Stephen M Hovick, Kenneth D Whitney
Background and Aims: Genome size is hypothesized to affect invasiveness in plants. Key evidence comes from a previous study of invasive eastern North American populations of the grass Phalaris arundinacea: invasive genotypes with smaller genomes had higher growth rates, and genome sizes were smaller in the invasive vs. native range. This study aimed to re-investigate those patterns by examining a broader range of North American populations and by employing the modern best-practice protocol for plant genome size estimation in addition to the previously used protocol...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
Juan M Losada, Andrew B Leslie
Background and Aims: Form and function relationships in plant reproductive structures have long fascinated biologists. Although the intricate associations between specific pollinators and reproductive morphology have been widely explored among animal-pollinated plants, the evolutionary processes underlying the diverse morphologies of wind-pollinated plants remain less well understood. Here we study how this diversity may have arisen by focusing on two conifer species in the pine family that have divergent reproductive cone morphologies at pollination...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Romain Lehnebach, Robert Beyer, Véronique Letort, Patrick Heuret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Fang Hui, Jinyu Zhu, Pengcheng Hu, Lei Meng, Binglin Zhu, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Yuntao Ma
Background and Aims: Global agriculture is facing the challenge of a phenotyping bottleneck due to large-scale screening/breeding experiments with improved breeds. Phenotypic analysis with high-throughput, high-accuracy and low-cost technologies has therefore become urgent. Recent advances in image-based 3D reconstruction offer the opportunity of high-throughput phenotyping. The main aim of this study was to quantify and evaluate the canopy structure of plant populations in two and three dimensions based on the multi-view stereo (MVS) approach, and to monitor plant growth and development from seedling stage to fruiting stage...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jean-François Barczi, Hervé Rey, Sébastien Griffon, Christophe Jourdan
Background and Aims: Many studies exist in the literature dealing with mathematical representations of root systems, categorized, for example, as pure structure description, partial derivative equations or functional-structural plant models. However, in these studies, root architecture modelling has seldom been carried out at the organ level with the inclusion of environmental influences that can be integrated into a whole plant characterization. Methods: We have conducted a multidisciplinary study on root systems including field observations, architectural analysis, and formal and mathematical modelling...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Botany
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
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