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Annals of Botany

Daisuke Sugiura, Eriko Betsuyaku, Ichiro Terashima
Background and Aims: Sink-source imbalance could cause an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; soluble sugar and starch) in source leaves. We aimed to clarify interspecific differences in how sink-source imbalance and TNC causes the downregulation of photosynthesis among three legume plants. The TNC in source leaves was altered by short-term manipulative treatments, and its effects on photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated. Methods: Soybean, French bean and azuki bean were grown under high nitrogen availability...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
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November 24, 2018: Annals of Botany
Merten Ehmig, Mario Coiro, H Peter Linder
Background and Aims: Heteroblasty is a non-reversible morphological change associated with life stage change and has been linked to predictable environmental variation. It is present in several clades from mediterranean-type climates, such as African Restionaceae (restios). These have heteroblastic shoots: juvenile shoots are thin, branched and sterile (sterile shoots); adult shoots are thicker and less branched, and bear inflorescences (reproductive shoots). Ten per cent of the restios retain juvenile-like, sterile shoots as adults (neoteny)...
November 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
Michal Bogdziewicz, Josep Maria Espelta, Raul Bonal
Background and Aims: The ability of plants to allocate energy to resistance against herbivores changes with abiotic conditions and thus may vary along geographical clines, with important consequences for plant communities. Seed size is a plant trait potentially influencing plant tolerance to endoparasites, and seed size often varies across latitude. Consequently, plant tolerance to endoparasites may change across geographical clines. Methods: The interaction between Quercus ilex (holm oak) and seed-predating Curculio spp...
November 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Antje Schierholt, Tina Tietz, Gerd Patrick Bienert, Andreas Gertz, Sebastian Miersch, Heiko C Becker
Background and Aims: In oilseed rape (Brassica napus) semi-dwarf hybrid varieties from crosses between bzh dwarf and normal-type lines are of increasing interest. They have improved nitrogen (N) uptake, N-utilization and N-use efficiency compared to normal types. This study aimed to elucidate whether these N-related effects can be explained by the bzh shoot growth-type alone or also by differences in root traits. Methods: Root system size was measured using root electrical capacitance (EC) in field trials with two N levels in two sets of genotypes segregating for the bzh-locus: (1) 108 doubled haploid (DH) test hybrids in two seasons, 2010-2012, and (2) 16 near-isogenic hybrids in the 2016-17 season...
November 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Sebastián Rubio, Ximena Noriega, Francisco J Pérez
Background and Aims: It has been reported that low temperatures (LTs) and the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induce the expression of CBF/DREB1 transcription factors in vegetative tissues and seedlings of Vitis vinifera and Vitis riparia and that foliar applications of ABA to V. vinifera increase the freezing tolerance or cold-hardiness of dormant buds. However, the combined effect of ABA and LTs on the expression of CBF/DREB1 transcription factors and on the acquisition of freezing tolerance in dormant grapevine buds has not been investigated...
November 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Mick E Hanley, Roger W R Shannon, Damien G Lemoine, Bethan Sandey, Philip L Newland, Guy M Poppy
Background and Aims: Seedling herbivory is an important selective filter in many plant communities. The removal of preferred food plants by both vertebrate and, more commonly, invertebrate herbivores can destroy entire seedling cohorts, and consequently dictate plant community assembly. Nevertheless, our understanding of how and why some seedlings are more prone to herbivore attack than their neighbours remains limited. For seedlings, where even minor tissue damage is fatal, avoiding contact with herbivores is probably advantageous and, on this basis, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are strong candidates to fulfil a primary defensive role...
November 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Tomáš Figura, Edita Tylová, Jan Šoch, Marc-André Selosse, Jan Ponert
Background and Aims: Pyroloids, forest sub-shrubs of the Ericaceae family, are an important model for their mixotrophic nutrition, which mixes carbon from photosynthesis and from their mycorrhizal fungi. They have medical uses but are difficult to cultivate ex situ; in particular, their dust seeds contain undifferentiated, few-celled embryos, whose germination is normally fully supported by fungal partners. Their germination and early ontogenesis thus remain elusive. Methods: An optimized in vitro cultivation system of five representatives from the subfamily Pyroloideae was developed to study the strength of seed dormancy and the effect of different media and conditions (including light, gibberellins and soluble saccharides) on germination...
November 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Robert Muscarella, Christine D Bacon, Søren Faurby, Alexandre Antonelli, Søren Munch Kristiansen, Jens-Christian Svenning, Henrik Balslev
Background and Aims: Identifying the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity requires understanding of how evolutionary processes interact with abiotic conditions to structure communities. Edaphic gradients are strongly associated with floristic patterns but, compared with climatic gradients, have received relatively little attention. We asked (1) How does the phylogenetic composition of palm communities vary along edaphic gradients within major habitat types? and (2) To what extent are phylogenetic patterns determined by (a) habitat specialists, (b) small versus large palms, and (c) hyperdiverse genera? Methods: We paired data on palm community composition from 501 transects of 0...
November 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
W Scott Armbruster, Juliet A Wege
Background and Aims: The Berg hypothesis proposes that specialized-flower traits experience stronger stabilizing selection than non-floral structures and predicts that variation in specialized-flower traits will be mostly uncorrelated with variation in non-floral traits. Similarly, adaptive-accuracy theory predicts lower variation (as a proportion of the mean) in floral traits than in non-floral ones. Both hypotheses can be extended to comparisons between floral traits, where different parts of the flower can be expected to experience different strengths of stabilizing selection, resulting in contrasting patterns of variation...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Carlos García-Verdugo, Juli Caujapé-Castells, Mario Mairal, Pedro Monroy
Background and Aims: Archipelagos provide a valuable framework for investigating phenotypic evolution under different levels of geographical isolation. Here, we analysed two co-distributed, widespread plant lineages to examine if incipient island differentiation follows parallel patterns of variation in traits related to dispersal and colonization. Methods: Twenty-one populations of two anemochorous Canarian endemics, Kleinia neriifolia and Periploca laevigata, were sampled to represent mainland congeners and two contrasting exposures across all the main islands...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kate E Wulf, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Background: The presence of a polar auxin transport stream has long been correlated with the differentiation and patterning of vascular cells across vascular plants. As our understanding of auxin transport and vascular development has grown, so too has evidence for the correlation between these processes. However, a clear understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving this correlation has not been elucidated. Scope: This article examines the hypothesis that canalization via polar auxin transport regulates vascular reconnection and patterning in the stem after wounding or grafting...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hiroshi S Ishii, Masahiro X Kubota, Shohei G Tsujimoto, Gaku Kudo
Background and Aims: Flower colour plays a major role in the attraction and decision-making of pollinators. Different functional groups of pollinators tend to prefer different flower colours, and therefor may lead to different flower colour compositions among different communities depending on the visual system of the dominant pollinators. However, few studies have investigated the linkage between pollinator fauna and flower colour composition in natural communities, a theme we explored in the present study...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Sean Swift, Sherilyn Munroe, Chaewon Im, Laura Tipton, Nicole A Hynson
Background and Aims: For symbiotic organisms, their colonization and spread across remote oceanic islands should favour generalists. Plants that form obligate symbiotic associations with microbes dominate island ecosystems, but the relationship between island inhabitance and symbiotic specificity is unclear, especially in the tropics. To fill this gap, we examined the mycorrhizal specificity of the Hawaiian endemic orchid Anoectochilus sandvicensis across multiple populations encompassing its entire geographic distribution...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Susana Magallón, Luna L Sánchez-Reyes, Sandra L Gómez-Acevedo
Background and Aims: As angiosperms became one of the megadiverse groups of macroscopic eukaryotes, they forged modern ecosystems and promoted the evolution of extant terrestrial biota. Unequal distribution of species among lineages suggests that diversification, the process that ultimately determines species richness, acted differentially through angiosperm evolution. Methods: We investigate how angiosperms became megadiverse by identifying the phylogenetic and temporal placement of exceptional radiations, by combining the most densely fossil-calibrated molecular clock phylogeny with a Bayesian model that identifies diversification shifts among evolutionary lineages and through time...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Botany
Tongtong Yu, David T W Tzeng, Ran Li, Jianye Chen, Silin Zhong, Daqi Fu, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Hongliang Zhu
Background and Aims: In recent years, increasing numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in humans, animals and plants, and several of them have been shown to play important roles in diverse biological processes. However, little work has been performed on the regulation mechanism of lncRNA biogenesis and expression, especially in plants. Compared with studies of tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) target coding genes, there are few reports on its relationship to non-coding RNAs...
October 29, 2018: Annals of Botany
Diane R Campbell, Paula Sosenski, Robert A Raguso
Background and Aims: Flowers emit a wide range of volatile compounds which can be critically important to interactions with pollinators or herbivores. Yet most studies of how the environment influences plant volatiles focus on leaf emissions, with little known about abiotic sources of variation in floral volatiles. Understanding phenotypic plasticity in floral volatile emissions has become increasingly important with globally increasing temperatures and changes in drought frequency and severity...
October 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
Zhong Xiang Cheah, Peter M Kopittke, Stephen M Harper, Tim J O'Hare, Peng Wang, David J Paterson, Martin D de Jonge, Michael J Bell
Background and Aims: Understanding the spatial distribution of inorganic nutrients within edible parts of plant products helps biofortification efforts to identify and focus on specific uptake pathways and storage mechanisms. Methods: Kernels of sweetcorn (Zea mays) variety 'High zeaxanthin 103146' and maize inbred line 'Thai Floury 2' were harvested at two different maturity stages, and the distributions of K, P, S, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn were examined in situ using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy...
October 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
F J Ruiz-Ruano, B Navarro-Domínguez, J P M Camacho, M A Garrido-Ramos
Background and Aims: Vandenboschia speciosa is a highly vulnerable fern species, with a large genome (10.5 Gb). Haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes are perennial, can reproduce vegetatively, and certain populations are composed only of independent gametophytes. These features make this fern a good model: (1) for high-throughput analysis of satellite DNA (satDNA) to investigate possible evolutionary trends in satDNA sequence features; (2) to determine the relative contribution of satDNA and other repetitive DNAs to its large genome; and (3) to analyse whether the reproduction mode or phase alternation between long-lasting haploid and diploid stages influences satDNA abundance or divergence...
October 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
Gancho T Slavov, Christopher L Davey, Maurice Bosch, Paul R H Robson, Iain S Donnison, Ian J Mackay
Background: Miscanthus has potential as a biomass crop but the development of varieties that are consistently superior to the natural hybrid M. × giganteus has been challenging, presumably because of strong G × E interactions and poor knowledge of the complex genetic architectures of traits underlying biomass productivity and climatic adaptation. While linkage and association mapping studies are starting to generate long lists of candidate regions and even individual genes, it seems unlikely that this information can be translated into effective marker-assisted selection for the needs of breeding programmes...
October 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
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