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Annals of Botany

Tessa Albrecht, Cristiana T Argueso
BACKGROUND: Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. SCOPE: We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Jiancheng Song, Ondrej Novak, Paula E Jameson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed is a source of carbohydrate and protein for the developing plant. By studying pea seeds inoculated by the cytokinin-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus fascians, we sought to determine the impact of both an epiphytic (avirulent) strain and a pathogenic strain on source-sink activity within the cotyledons during and following germination. METHODS: Bacterial spread was monitored microscopically, and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation and response regulator gene family members, along with expression of family members of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP genes - gene families identified initially in pea by transcriptomic analysis...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Alyssa B Stewart, Michele R Dudash
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sympatric plant species that share pollinators potentially compete for pollination and risk interspecific pollen transfer, but this competition can be minimized when plant species place pollen on different areas of the pollinator's body. Multiple studies have demonstrated strong differential pollen placement by sympatric plant species under laboratory conditions; however, field evidence collected in natural settings is less common. Furthermore, it is unknown whether precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body remains constant throughout the foraging period, or if such patterns become diffused over time (e...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
H Sofia Pereira, Margarida Delgado, Wanda Viegas, João M Rato, Augusta Barão, Ana D Caperta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rye supernumerary (B) chromosomes have an accumulation mechanism involving the B subtelomeric domain highly enriched in D1100- and E3900-related sequences. In this work, the effects of heat stress during the early stages of male meiosis in 0B and +B plants were studied. METHODS: In-depth cytological analyses of chromatin structure and behaviour were performed on staged rye meiocytes utilizing DAPI, fluorescence in situ hybridization and 5-methylcytosine immune labelling...
November 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Erin E Shortlidge, Sarah M Eppley, Hans Kohler, Todd N Rosenstiel, Gustavo E Zúñiga, Angélica Casanova-Katny
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and many biotic communities inhabiting this dynamic region are responding to these well-documented climatic shifts. Yet some of the most prevalent organisms of terrestrial Antarctica, the mosses, and their responses to warming have been relatively overlooked and understudied. In this research, the impacts of 6 years of passive warming were investigated using open top chambers (OTCs), on moss communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica...
October 29, 2016: Annals of Botany
Iara P Calil, Elizabeth P B Fontes
BACKGROUND: Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Botany
Eva Žižková, Martin Kubeš, Petre I Dobrev, Pavel Přibyl, Jan Šimura, Lenka Zahajská, Lenka Záveská Drábková, Ondřej Novák, Václav Motyka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolism of cytokinins (CKs) and auxins in vascular plants is relatively well understood, but data concerning their metabolic pathways in non-vascular plants are still rather rare. With the aim of filling this gap, 20 representatives of taxonomically major lineages of cyanobacteria and algae from Cyanophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae were analysed for endogenous profiles of CKs and auxins and some of them were used for studies of the metabolic fate of exogenously applied radiolabelled CK, [(3)H]trans-zeatin (transZ) and auxin ([(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)), and the dynamics of endogenous CK and auxin pools during algal growth and cell division...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Jana Sochorová, Olivier Coriton, Alena Kuderová, Jana Lunerová, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Aleš Kovařík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38, oilseed rape) is a relatively recent allotetraploid species derived from the putative progenitor diploid species Brassica rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and Brassica oleracea (CC, 2n = 18). To determine the influence of intensive breeding conditions on the evolution of its genome, we analysed structure and copy number of rDNA in 21 cultivars of B. napus, representative of genetic diversity. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing genomic approaches, Southern blot hybridization, expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
S Negrão, S M Schmöckel, M Tester
BACKGROUND: Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant's physiology, making it difficult to study in toto Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant's response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. SCOPE AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Budiastuti Kurniasih, Hank Greenway, Timothy David Colmer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our aim was to elucidate how plant tissues under a severe energy crisis cope with imposition of high NaCl, which greatly increases ion fluxes and hence energy demands. The energy requirements for ion regulation during combined salinity and anoxia were assessed to gain insights into ion transport processes in the anoxia-tolerant coleoptile of rice. METHODS: We studied the combined effects of anoxia plus 50 or 100 mm NaCl on tissue ions and growth of submerged rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Pavla Satková, Tomáš Starý, Veronika Plešková, Martina Zapletalová, Tomáš Kašparovský, Lucie Činčalová-Kubienová, Lenka Luhová, Barbora Mieslerová, Jaromír Mikulík, Jan Lochman, Marek Petřivalský
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current strategies for increased crop protection of susceptible tomato plants against pathogen infections include treatment with synthetic chemicals, application of natural pathogen-derived compounds or transfer of resistance genes from wild tomato species within breeding programmes. In this study, a series of 45 genes potentially involved in defence mechanisms was retrieved from the genome sequence of inbred reference tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706'...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Botany
Gunnar Keppel, Todd P Robinson, Grant W Wardell-Johnson, Colin J Yates, Kimberly P Van Niel, Margaret Byrne, Antonius G T Schut
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We investigate whether the Porongurups (altitude 655 m) in the SWAFR will provide a refugium for the endemic Ornduffia calthifolia and O. marchantii under forecast climate change. METHODS: We used species distribution modelling based on WorldClim climatic data, 30-m elevation data and a 2-m-resolution LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) to predict current and future distributions of the Ornduffia species at local and regional scales based on 605 field-based abundance estimates...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
Loïc Pagès
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acropetal root branching is a major process which increases the number of growing tips and distributes their growth potential within the whole root system. METHODS: Using a method presented in a recent paper, the defined branching traits were estimated in 140 different species, and the branching patterns of monocots (45 species) and dicots (95 species) were compared. KEY RESULTS: It was checked that the method also applied to monocots (not considered in the previous paper), and that all traits could be estimated in each species...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
Tobias Michael Sandner, Diethart Matthies
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Populations of many hemiparasitic plants are fragmented and threatened by inbreeding depression (ID). In addition, they may also be strongly affected by a lack of suitable host species. However, nothing is known about possible interactive effects of inbreeding and host quality for parasitic plants. Poor host quality represents a special type of biotic stress and the magnitude of ID is often expected to be higher in more stressful environments. METHODS: We studied the effects of inbreeding and the quality of host species for the declining root hemiparasite Rhinanthus alectorolophus Selfed and open-pollinated parasites from two natural populations were grown (1) with 13 potential host species and (2) with 15 four-species mixtures...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
František Zedek, Petr Bureš
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The centromere drive theory explains diversity of eukaryotic centromeres as a consequence of the recurrent conflict between centromeric repeats and centromeric histone H3 (CenH3), in which selfish centromeres exploit meiotic asymmetry and CenH3 evolves adaptively to counterbalance deleterious consequences of driving centromeres. Accordingly, adaptively evolving CenH3 has so far been observed only in eukaryotes with asymmetric meiosis. However, if such evolution is a consequence of centromere drive, it should depend not only on meiotic asymmetry but also on monocentric or holokinetic chromosomal structure...
September 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
Yu Wang, Xingliang Duan, Sheng Xu, Ren Wang, Zhaozeng Ouyang, Wenbiao Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Boron is essential for plant growth but hazardous when present in excess. As the antioxidant properties of hydrogen gas (H2) were recently described in plants, oxidative stress induced by excess boron was investigated along with other biological responses during rice (Oryza sativa) seed germination to study the beneficial role of H2 METHODS: Rice seeds were pretreated with exogenous H2 Using physiological, pharmacological and molecular approaches, the production of endogenous H2, growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and relative gene expression in rice were measured under boron stress to investigate mechanisms of H2-mediated boron toxicity tolerance...
September 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
Alex Fajardo, Andrew Siefert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ecologists are increasingly using plant functional traits to predict community assembly, but few studies have linked functional traits to species' responses to fine-scale resource gradients. In this study, it was tested whether saplings of woody species partition fine-scale gradients in light availability based on their leaf mass per area (LMA) in three temperate rain forests and one Mediterranean forest in southern Chile. METHODS: LMA was measured under field conditions of all woody species contained in approx...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
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November 2016: Annals of Botany
Stella M Copeland, Susan P Harrison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soil fertility and topographic microclimate are common determinants of plant species distributions. However, biotic conditions also vary along these abiotic gradients, and may mediate their effects on plants. In this study, we investigated whether soils and topographic microclimate acted directly on the performance of a focal understorey plant, or indirectly via changing biotic conditions. METHODS: We examined direct and indirect relationships between abiotic variables (soil fertility and topographic microclimate) and biotic factors (overstorey and understorey cover, litter depth and mycorrhizal colonization) and the occurrence, density and flowering of a common understorey herb, Trientalis latifolia, in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA...
November 2016: Annals of Botany
Abhishek Sadhu, Sreetama Bhadra, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cytological parameters such as chromosome numbers and genome sizes of plants are used routinely for studying evolutionary aspects of polyploid plants. Members of Zingiberaceae show a wide range of inter- and intrageneric variation in their reproductive habits and ploidy levels. Conventional cytological study in this group of plants is severely hampered by the presence of diverse secondary metabolites, which also affect their genome size estimation using flow cytometry...
November 2016: Annals of Botany
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