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Nicholas Hon, Syaheed B Jabar
Rare or low prevalence targets are detected less well than counterparts that occur with higher probability. It stands to reason, though, that before such a deficit is apparent, information about a given target's probability of occurrence must be apprehended. In this study, we investigated how much target experience is necessary for target probabilities to be fully acquired and established within mental task representations. A central finding was that different target probability values required approximately the same amount of target sampling to learn...
July 2018: Perception
Christopher Tyler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Perception
Alison Campbell, James W Tanaka
The face-inversion effect is the finding that picture-plane inversion disproportionately impairs face recognition compared to object recognition and is now attributed to greater orientation-sensitivity of holistic processing for faces but not common objects. Yet, expert dog judges have showed similar recognition deficits for inverted dogs and inverted faces, suggesting that holistic processing is not specific to faces but to the expert recognition of perceptually similar objects. Although processing changes in expert object recognition have since been extensively documented, no other studies have observed the distinct recognition deficits for inverted objects-of-expertise that people as face experts show for faces...
June 2018: Perception
Kimberly Meier, Marita Partanen, Deborah Giaschi
It has been suggested that slow and medium-to-fast speeds of motion may be processed by at least partially separate mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the cortical areas activated during motion-defined form and global motion tasks as a function of speed, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed discrimination tasks with random dot stimuli at high coherence, at coherence near their own thresholds, and for random motion. Stimuli were moving at 0.1 or 5 deg/s. In the motion-defined form task, lateral occipital complex, V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus showed greater activation by high or near-threshold coherence than by random motion stimuli; V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus demonstrated greater activation for 5 than 0...
June 2018: Perception
Catherine L Reed, Cindy M Bukach, Matthew Garber, Daniel N McIntosh
Researchers have sought to understand the specialized processing of faces and bodies in isolation, but recently they have considered how face and body information interact within the context of the whole body. Although studies suggest that face and body information can be integrated, it remains an open question whether this integration is obligatory and whether contributions of face and body information are symmetrical. In a selective attention task with whole-body stimuli, we focused attention on either the face or body and tested whether variation in the irrelevant part could be ignored...
June 2018: Perception
Bastian Jaeger, Fieke M A Wagemans, Anthony M Evans, Ilja van Beest
People make trait inferences based on facial appearance, and these inferences guide social approach and avoidance. Here, we investigate the effects of textural features on trait impressions from faces. In contrast to previous work, which exclusively manipulated skin smoothness, we manipulated smoothness and the presence of skin blemishes independently (Study 1) and orthogonally (Study 2). We hypothesized that people are particularly sensitive to skin blemishes because blemishes potentially indicate poor health and the presence of an infectious disease...
June 2018: Perception
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Perception
Shaziela Ishak, Andrea Bubka, Frederick Bonato
Sensory conflict theories of motion sickness (MS) assert that symptoms may result when incoming sensory inputs (e.g., visual and vestibular) contradict each other. Logic suggests that attenuating input from one sense may reduce conflict and hence lessen MS symptoms. In the current study, it was hypothesized that attenuating visual input by blocking light entering the eye would reduce MS symptoms in a motion provocative environment. Participants sat inside an aircraft cockpit mounted onto a motion platform that simultaneously pitched, rolled, and heaved in two conditions...
May 2018: Perception
Myron Tsikandilakis, Peter Chapman
The biological preparedness model suggests that survival-related visual cues elicit physiological changes without awareness to enable us to respond to our environment. Previous studies have reported some evidence for this effect. In the current article, we argue that this evidence is subject to methodological confounds. These include the use of a universal masked presentation threshold, the employment of hit rates (HRs) to measure meta-awareness, and the assertion of overall guess-level target detection using nonsignificance...
April 2018: Perception
Kyle E Mathewson
Many individuals cannot at first see two ambiguous figures as different interpretations simultaneously, even with effort. Here in a large sample replication, we find that the phrase "duck eats rabbit" allows those who could not see a duck and rabbit side by side to do so. In a second experiment, we show that a relational phrase "next to" that does not disambiguate the spatial position interpretation does not similarly allow the duck to be seen next to the rabbit, supporting the proposal that top-down semantic-framing can influence perception of ambiguous figures...
April 2018: Perception
Robin S S Kramer, Michael G Reynolds
Research has systematically examined how laboratory participants and real-world practitioners decide whether two face photographs show the same person or not using frontal images. In contrast, research has not examined face matching using profile images. In Experiment 1, we ask whether matching unfamiliar faces is easier with frontal compared with profile views. Participants completed the original, frontal version of the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and also an adapted version where all face pairs were presented in profile...
April 2018: Perception
Valentina Parma, Stephanie Macedo, Marta Rocha, Laura Alho, Jacqueline Ferreira, Sandra C Soares
Conditions during information encoding and retrieval are known to influence the sensory material stored and its recapitulation. However, little is known about such processes in olfaction. Here, we capitalized on the uniqueness of body odors (BOs) which, similar to fingerprints, allow for the identification of a specific person, by associating their presentation to a negative or a neutral emotional context. One hundred twenty-five receivers (68 F) were exposed to a male BO while watching either criminal or neutral videos (encoding phase) and were subsequently asked to recognize the target BO within either a congruent or an incongruent visual context (retrieval phase)...
April 2018: Perception
Louise O'Hare, Federica Menchinelli, Simon J Durrant
Migraine groups show differences in motion perception compared with controls, when tested in between migraine attacks (interictally). This is thought to be due to an increased susceptibility to stimulus degradation (multiplicative internal noise). Fluctuations in alpha-band oscillations are thought to regulate visual perception, and so differences could provide a mechanism for the increased multiplicative noise seen in migraine. The aim of this article was to characterise resting-state alpha-band oscillations (between 8 and 12 Hz) in the visual areas of the brain in migraine and control groups...
April 2018: Perception
Matthew V Pachai, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
Horizontally oriented spatial frequency components are a diagnostic source of face identity information, and sensitivity to this information predicts upright identification accuracy and the magnitude of the face-inversion effect. However, the bandwidth at which this information is conveyed, and the extent to which human tuning matches this distribution of information, has yet to be characterized. We designed a 10-alternative forced choice face identification task in which upright or inverted faces were filtered to retain horizontal or vertical structure...
April 2018: Perception
John W Mullennix, Julien Robinet
The effect of art expertise on viewers' processing of titled visual artwork was examined. The study extended the research of Leder, Carbon, and Ripsas by explicitly selecting art novices and art experts. The study was designed to test assumptions about how expertise modulates context in the form of titles for artworks. Viewers rated a set of abstract paintings for liking and understanding. The type of title accompanying the artwork (descriptive or elaborative) was manipulated. Viewers were allotted as much time as they wished to view each artwork...
April 2018: Perception
Sherryse L Corrow, Andrea Albonico, Jason J S Barton
Adding visual noise to facial images has been used to increase reliance on configural processing. Whether this enhances the ability of tests to diagnose prosopagnosia is not known. We examined 15 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, 13 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, and 38 control subjects with the Cambridge Face Memory Test. We compared their performance on the second phase, without visual noise, and on the third phase, which adds visual noise. We analyzed the results with signal detection theory methods...
March 2018: Perception
Nicholas Watier
Several lines of evidence suggest that angularity and curvilinearity are relied upon to infer the presence or absence of threat. This study examines whether angular shapes are more salient in threatening compared with nonthreatening emotionally neutral faces. The saliency of angular shapes was measured by the amount of local maxima in S(θ), a function that characterizes how the Fourier magnitude spectrum varies along specific orientations. The validity of this metric was tested and supported with images of threatening and nonthreatening real-world objects and abstract patterns that have predominantly angular or curvilinear features (Experiment 1)...
March 2018: Perception
Rolf Nelson, Nicholas Hebda
In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment...
March 2018: Perception
Otmar Bock, Nils Bury
Our perception of the vertical corresponds to the weighted sum of gravicentric, egocentric, and visual cues. Here we evaluate the interplay of those cues not for the perceived but rather for the motor vertical. Participants were asked to flip an omnidirectional switch down while their egocentric vertical was dissociated from their visual-gravicentric vertical. Responses were directed mid-between the two verticals; specifically, the data suggest that the relative weight of congruent visual-gravicentric cues averages 0...
March 2018: Perception
Ryan T Maloney, Colin W G Clifford, Isabelle Mareschal
Motion-defined transparency is the perception of two or more distinct moving surfaces at the same retinal location. We explored the limits of motion transparency using superimposed surfaces of randomly positioned dots defined by differences in motion direction and colour. In one experiment, dots were red or green and we varied the proportion of dots of a single colour that moved in a single direction ('colour-motion coherence') and measured the threshold direction difference for discriminating between two directions...
March 2018: Perception
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