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Matthew V Pachai, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
Horizontally oriented spatial frequency components are a diagnostic source of face identity information, and sensitivity to this information predicts upright identification accuracy and the magnitude of the face-inversion effect. However, the bandwidth at which this information is conveyed, and the extent to which human tuning matches this distribution of information, has yet to be characterized. We designed a 10-alternative forced choice face identification task in which upright or inverted faces were filtered to retain horizontal or vertical structure...
April 2018: Perception
John W Mullennix, Julien Robinet
The effect of art expertise on viewers' processing of titled visual artwork was examined. The study extended the research of Leder, Carbon, and Ripsas by explicitly selecting art novices and art experts. The study was designed to test assumptions about how expertise modulates context in the form of titles for artworks. Viewers rated a set of abstract paintings for liking and understanding. The type of title accompanying the artwork (descriptive or elaborative) was manipulated. Viewers were allotted as much time as they wished to view each artwork...
April 2018: Perception
Sherryse L Corrow, Andrea Albonico, Jason J S Barton
Adding visual noise to facial images has been used to increase reliance on configural processing. Whether this enhances the ability of tests to diagnose prosopagnosia is not known. We examined 15 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, 13 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, and 38 control subjects with the Cambridge Face Memory Test. We compared their performance on the second phase, without visual noise, and on the third phase, which adds visual noise. We analyzed the results with signal detection theory methods...
March 2018: Perception
Nicholas Watier
Several lines of evidence suggest that angularity and curvilinearity are relied upon to infer the presence or absence of threat. This study examines whether angular shapes are more salient in threatening compared with nonthreatening emotionally neutral faces. The saliency of angular shapes was measured by the amount of local maxima in S(θ), a function that characterizes how the Fourier magnitude spectrum varies along specific orientations. The validity of this metric was tested and supported with images of threatening and nonthreatening real-world objects and abstract patterns that have predominantly angular or curvilinear features (Experiment 1)...
March 2018: Perception
Rolf Nelson, Nicholas Hebda
In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment...
March 2018: Perception
Otmar Bock, Nils Bury
Our perception of the vertical corresponds to the weighted sum of gravicentric, egocentric, and visual cues. Here we evaluate the interplay of those cues not for the perceived but rather for the motor vertical. Participants were asked to flip an omnidirectional switch down while their egocentric vertical was dissociated from their visual-gravicentric vertical. Responses were directed mid-between the two verticals; specifically, the data suggest that the relative weight of congruent visual-gravicentric cues averages 0...
March 2018: Perception
Ryan T Maloney, Colin W G Clifford, Isabelle Mareschal
Motion-defined transparency is the perception of two or more distinct moving surfaces at the same retinal location. We explored the limits of motion transparency using superimposed surfaces of randomly positioned dots defined by differences in motion direction and colour. In one experiment, dots were red or green and we varied the proportion of dots of a single colour that moved in a single direction ('colour-motion coherence') and measured the threshold direction difference for discriminating between two directions...
March 2018: Perception
Sermin Ildirar, Daniel T Levin, Stephan Schwan, Tim J Smith
Previous studies concluded that first-time film viewers often had difficulty integrating shots into a coherent representation of the depicted events in the absence of a familiar action through the film cuts or a salient eye-gazing of a character in the film. In this study, we investigated whether diegetic sound (i.e., sound that seems to originate from the depicted cinematic space) could effectively bridge shots for first-time viewers. Across a range of films, both dialog, and salient environmental sound (e...
March 2018: Perception
Kai Schreiber, Michael Morgan
We investigated the perceptual bias in perceived relative lengths in the Brentano version of the Müller-Lyer arrowheads figure. The magnitude of the bias was measured both under normal whole-figure viewing condition and under an aperture viewing condition, where participants moved their gaze around the figure but could see only one arrowhead at a time through a Gaussian-weighted contrast window. The extent of the perceptual bias was similar under the two conditions. The stimuli were presented on a CRT in a light-proof room with room-lights off, but visual context was provided by a rectangular frame surrounding the figure...
March 2018: Perception
Godai Saito, Jiro Gyoba
We investigated the effect of an observer's hand postures on visual motion perception using the stream/bounce display. When two identical visual objects move across collinear horizontal trajectories toward each other in a two-dimensional display, observers perceive them as either streaming or bouncing. In our previous study, we found that when observers put their palms together just below the coincidence point of the two objects, the percentage of bouncing responses increased, mainly depending on the proprioceptive information from their own hands...
February 2018: Perception
John Eric Steephen, Samyak Raj Mehta, Raju Surampudi Bapi
Feminine facial features enhance the expressive cues associated with happiness but not sadness. This makes a woman look happier than a man even when their smiles have the same intensity. So, to correctly infer the actual happiness of a woman, one would have to subtract the effect of these facial features. We hypothesised that our perceptual system would apply this subtraction for women, but not for men. This implies that this female-specific subtraction would cause one to infer a man to be happier than a woman if both are matched for facial appearance and expression intensity...
February 2018: Perception
Jelmer P De Vries, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Ignace T C Hooge, Frans A J Verstraten
Several models of selection in search predict that saccades are biased toward conspicuous objects (also referred to as salient objects). Indeed, it has been demonstrated that initial saccades are biased toward the most conspicuous candidate. However, in a recent study, no such bias was found for the second saccade, and it was concluded that the attraction of conspicuous elements is limited to only short-latency initial saccades. This conclusion is based on only a single feature manipulation (orientation contrast) and conflicts with the prediction of influential salience models...
February 2018: Perception
Marlena L Itz, Stefan R Schweinberger, Jürgen M Kaufmann
The role of second-order configuration-that is, metric distances between individual features-for familiar face recognition has been the subject of debate. Recent reports suggest that better face recognition abilities coincide with a weaker reliance on shape information for face recognition. We examined contributions of second-order configuration to familiar face repetition priming by manipulating metric distances between facial features. S1 comprised familiar face primes as either: unaltered, with increased or decreased interocular distance, with increased or decreased distance between nose and mouth; or a different familiar face (unprimed)...
February 2018: Perception
Noreen O'Sullivan, Christophe de Bezenac, Andrea Piovesan, Hannah Cutler, Rhiannon Corcoran, David Fenyvesi, Marco Bertamini
The experience of seeing one's own face in a mirror is a common experience in daily life. Visual feedback from a mirror is linked to a sense of identity. We developed a procedure that allowed individuals to watch their own face, as in a normal mirror, or with specific distortions (lag) for active movement or passive touch. By distorting visual feedback while the face is being observed on a screen, we document an illusion of reduced embodiment. Participants made mouth movements, while their forehead was touched with a pen...
February 2018: Perception
Rongjuan Zhu, Yangmei Luo, Xuqun You, Ziyu Wang
The associations between number and space have been intensively investigated. Recent studies indicated that this association could extend to more complex tasks, such as mental arithmetic. However, the mechanism of arithmetic-space associations in mental arithmetic was still a topic of debate. Thus, in the current study, we adopted an eye-tracking technology to investigate whether spatial bias induced by mental arithmetic was related with spatial attention shifts on the mental number line or with semantic link between the operator and space...
February 2018: Perception
Candace E Peacock, Filiz Gözenman
Given adaptation changes perceptual experience, it probably shapes long-term memory (LTM). Across four experiments, participants were adapted to strongly gendered (male, female: Experiments 1 and 2) or aged faces (old, young: Experiments 3 and 4) before LTM encoding and later completed an LTM test in which the encoded faces were morphed with the opposite end of the relevant continuum. At retrieval, participants judged whether probe faces were more or less male or female or young or old than when presented during encoding...
February 2018: Perception
Saki Takao, Aiko Murata, Katsumi Watanabe
A person's direction of gaze (and visual attention) can be inferred from the direction of the parallel shift of the eyes. However, the direction of gaze is ambiguous when there is a misalignment between the eyes. The use of schematic drawings of faces in a previous study demonstrated that gaze-cueing was equally effective, even when one eye looked straight and the other eye was averted. In the current study, we used more realistic computer-generated face models to re-examine if the diverging direction of the eyes affected gaze-cueing...
February 2018: Perception
Shinya Harada, Hiroyuki Mitsudo
Slant contrast refers to a stereoscopic phenomenon in which the perceived slant of a test object is affected by the disparity of a surrounding inducer object. Slant contrast has been proposed to involve cue conflict, but it is unclear whether this idea is useful in explaining slant contrast at short stimulus presentations (<1 s). We measured both slant contrast and perceived inducer slant while varying the presentation duration (100-800 ms) of stereograms with several spatial configurations. In three psychophysical experiments, we found that (a) both slant contrast and perceived inducer slant increased as a function of stimulus duration, and (b) slant contrast was relatively stable across different test and inducer shapes at each short stimulus duration, whereas perceived inducer slant increased when cue conflict was reduced...
February 2018: Perception
Catherine L Reed, Cindy M Bukach, Matthew Garber, Daniel N McIntosh
Researchers have sought to understand the specialized processing of faces and bodies in isolation, but recently they have considered how face and body information interact within the context of the whole body. Although studies suggest that face and body information can be integrated, it remains an open question whether this integration is obligatory and whether contributions of face and body information are symmetrical. In a selective attention task with whole-body stimuli, we focused attention on either the face or body and tested whether variation in the irrelevant part could be ignored...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Bastian Jaeger, Fieke M A Wagemans, Anthony M Evans, Ilja van Beest
People make trait inferences based on facial appearance, and these inferences guide social approach and avoidance. Here, we investigate the effects of textural features on trait impressions from faces. In contrast to previous work, which exclusively manipulated skin smoothness, we manipulated smoothness and the presence of skin blemishes independently (Study 1) and orthogonally (Study 2). We hypothesized that people are particularly sensitive to skin blemishes because blemishes potentially indicate poor health and the presence of an infectious disease...
January 1, 2018: Perception
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