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Liliana Albertazzi, Luisa Canal, Rocco Micciolo, Fulvio Ferrari, Sebastiano Sitta, Iacopo Hachen
The study analyzes the existence of naturally biased associations in the general population between a series of musical selections and a series of quatrains. Differently from other studies in the field, the association is tested between complex stimuli involving literary texts, which increases the load of the semantic factors. The stimuli were eight quatrains taken from the same poem and eight musical clips taken from a classical musical version of the poem. The experiment was conducted in two phases. First, the participants were asked to rate 10 couples of opposite adjectives on a continuous bipolar scale when reading a quatrain or when listening to a musical clip; then they were asked to associate a given clip directly with the quatrains in decreasing order...
October 21, 2016: Perception
Sophie L Cronin, Morgan L Spence, Paul A Miller, Derek H Arnold
Facial appearance can be altered, not just by restyling but also by sensory processes. Exposure to a female face can, for instance, make subsequent faces look more masculine than they would otherwise. Two explanations exist. According to one, exposure to a female face renormalizes face perception, making that female and all other faces look more masculine as a consequence-a unidirectional effect. According to that explanation, exposure to a male face would have the opposite unidirectional effect. Another suggestion is that face gender is subject to contrastive aftereffects...
October 17, 2016: Perception
Yanna Ren, Weiping Yang, Kohei Nakahashi, Satoshi Takahashi, Jinglong Wu
Although neuronal studies have shown that audiovisual integration is regulated by temporal factors, there is still little knowledge about the impact of temporal factors on audiovisual integration in older adults. To clarify how stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual stimuli modulates age-related audiovisual integration, 20 younger adults (21-24 years) and 20 older adults (61-80 years) were instructed to perform an auditory or visual stimuli discrimination experiment. The results showed that in younger adults, audiovisual integration was altered from an enhancement (AV, A ± 50 V) to a depression (A ± 150 V)...
October 16, 2016: Perception
Sophia C Poletti, Elisabeth Michel, Thomas Hummel
BACKGROUND: Repeated short-term exposure to odors is known to improve olfaction in patients with acquired olfactory dysfunction. The aim was to find out whether differences in molecular weight of odors used for olfactory training influences olfaction. We hypothesized a greater improvement following training with light weight molecule (LWM) odors. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in patients with posttraumatic (PTOL) and postviral olfactory loss (PVOL)...
October 4, 2016: Perception
Dina Devyatko, L Gregory Appelbaum, Stephen R Mitroff
Several striking visual phenomena involve a physically present stimulus that alternates between being perceived and being "invisible." For example, motion-induced blindness, the Troxler effect, and perceptual filling-in all consist of subjective alternations where an item repeatedly changes from being seen to unseen. In the present study, we explored whether these three specific visual phenomena share any commonalities in their alternation rates and patterns to better understand the mechanisms of each. Data from 69 individuals revealed moderate to strong correlations across the three phenomena for the number of perceptual disappearances and the accumulated duration of the disappearances...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The stream-bounce effect refers to a bistable motion stimulus that is interpreted as two targets either "streaming" past or "bouncing" off one another, and the manipulations that bias responses. Directional bias, according to Bertenthal et al., is an account of the effect proposing that low-level motion integration promotes streaming, and its disruption leads to bouncing, and it is sometimes cited either directly in a bottom-up fashion or indirectly under top-down control despite Sekuler and Sekuler finding evidence inconsistent with it...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Shiori Nakano, Saho Ayabe-Kanamura
When we sequentially evaluate the characteristics of sensory stimuli, our evaluation of a current stimulus is influenced by those preceding it. One such effect is called hedonic contrast, whereby stimuli are rated more negatively (negative contrast) or positively (positive contrast) if they are preceded by more or less pleasant stimuli. The present study investigated the characteristics of hedonic contrast for olfaction and compared these characteristics with those of a more oft-studied modality, vision. The results from two experiments indicated that both positive and negative contrasts occurred in the sequential rating of picture pleasantness, whereas only negative contrast occurred for olfactory ratings...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Sarah J Bayless, Alistair J Harvey
The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Valter Prpic, Riccardo Luccio
The solitaire illusion is an illusion of numerosity proposed by Frith and Frith. In the original version, an apparent number of elements was determined by the spatial arrangement of two kinds of elements (black and white marbles). In our study, an auditory version of the solitaire illusion was demonstrated. Participants were asked to judge if they perceived more drum or piano sounds. When half of the piano tones were perceived as lower in pitch than a drum sound and the other half higher, piano tones appeared to be arranged in small units, leading to numerosity underestimation...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Christina J Howard, Robert Wilding, Duncan Guest
There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The audiovisual stream-bounce effect refers to the resolution of ambiguous motion sequences as streaming or bouncing depending on the presence or absence of a sound. We used a novel experimental design and signal detection theory (SDT) to determine its sensory or decisional origins. To account for issues raised by Witt et al. on the interpretation of SDT results, we devised a pure signal detection (as opposed to signal discrimination) paradigm and measured participants' sensitivity and criterion when detecting a weak tone concurrent with objectively streaming or bouncing visual displays...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Emmanuelle Courtiol, Donald A Wilson
Olfactory perception and its underlying neural mechanisms are not fixed, but rather vary over time, dependent on various parameters such as state, task, or learning experience. In olfaction, one of the primary sensory areas beyond the olfactory bulb is the piriform cortex. Due to an increasing number of functions attributed to the piriform cortex, it has been argued to be an associative cortex rather than a simple primary sensory cortex. In fact, the piriform cortex plays a key role in creating olfactory percepts, helping to form configural odor objects from the molecular features extracted in the nose...
September 28, 2016: Perception
Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch
We investigated recognition of familiar and unfamiliar own- and other-race faces across natural variability in appearance. Participants sorted 20 photographs of each of two identities into piles such that each pile contained all photographs of a single identity. The other-race effect was limited to unfamiliar faces. When faces were unfamiliar, participants perceived more identities when sorting other-race races; when faces were familiar, participants made two piles for both own- and other-race faces. Our work calls for rethinking the concept of the other-race effect...
September 28, 2016: Perception
Antti Knaapila, Auri Raittola, Mari Sandell, Baoru Yang
Our aim was to explore factors potentially associated with subjective (self-rated) and objective (measured using the Sniffin' Sticks Extended test) olfactory performance in the general population without olfactory disorders. We studied associations between olfactory performance and how important odors were in determining liking for new places, things, and people (measured using the Affective Impact of Odor scale) and the average annoyance caused by odors in 117 adults (83 women, 34 men; age 18-69 years, mean age 32 years)...
September 28, 2016: Perception
Luigi Burigana, Michele Vicovaro
Bayesian modeling has gained a conspicuous position in contemporary perceptual psychology. It can be examined from two viewpoints: a formal one, concerning the logical attributes of and the algebraic operations on the components of the models, and a substantive one, concerning the empirical meaning of those components. We maintain that, while there is homogeneity between Bayesian models of visual perception in their formal setup, remarkable differences can be found in their substantive aspect, that is, how the question "Where do probabilities come from?" is answered when designing the models...
September 26, 2016: Perception
Theodore E Parks
A proposed "bottom-up" explanation for the time-course of certain illusory figures is found wanting.
September 15, 2016: Perception
Jan B Deręgowski, Benjamin W Tatler
Monocular depth cues can lead not only to illusory depth in two-dimensional patterns but also to perspective reversals in three-dimensional objects. When a viewer perceptually inverts (reverses) a three-dimensional object, stimuli on the inner surfaces of that object also invert. However, the perceptual fate of anything occurring within the space that is enclosed by the walls of a perceptually reversible object is unknown. In the present study, perceptions of the relative vertical heights of stimuli within a truncated pyramidal chute were compared for stimuli placed laterally, on the inner surface of the chute, or centrally, suspended within the volume enclosed by the chute...
September 10, 2016: Perception
Sergey I Bozhevolnyi
The Poggendorff illusion in its classical form of parallel lines interrupting a transversal is viewed from the perspective of being related to the everyday experience of observing the light refraction in water. It is argued that if one considers a transversal to be a light ray in air and the parallel lines to form an occluding strip of a medium with the refractive index being between that of air and water, then one should be able to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for most of the features associated with the Poggendorff illusion...
August 24, 2016: Perception
J Farley Norman, Olivia C Adkins, Stevie C Hoyng, Catherine J Dowell, Lauren E Pedersen, Ashley N Gilliam
The ability of 26 younger (mean age was 22.5 years) and older adults (mean age was 72.6 years) to haptically perceive material properties was evaluated. The participants manually explored (for 5 seconds) 42 surfaces twice and placed each of these 84 experimental stimuli into one of seven categories: paper, plastic, metal, wood, stone, fabric, and fur/leather. In general, the participants were best able to identify fur/leather and wood materials; in contrast, recognition performance was worst for stone and paper...
August 9, 2016: Perception
Emily Hielscher, Doug Mahar
C-tactile (CT) afferent fibers are optimally stimulated by slow gentle stroking, and an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between stroking velocity and pleasantness ratings of this type of touch. This study investigated whether an additional and potentially important variable, touch avoidance, interacts with this relationship. While a typical U-shaped velocity-pleasantness relationship was expected, those high in touch avoidance were expected to rate CT-targeted touch (1-10 cm/s) as less pleasant than those low in touch avoidance...
August 9, 2016: Perception
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