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Carmel Sofer, Ron Dotsch, Masanori Oikawa, Haruka Oikawa, Daniel H J Wigboldus, Alexander Todorov
Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Hong Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Lun Zhao
Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Sarah V Lipchock, Andrew I Spielman, Julie A Mennella, Corrine J Mansfield, Liang-Dar Hwang, Jennifer E Douglas, Danielle R Reed
We investigated whether the abundance of bitter receptor mRNA expression from human taste papillae is related to an individual's perceptual ratings of bitter intensity and habitual intake of bitter drinks. Ratings of the bitterness of caffeine and quinine and three other bitter stimuli (urea, propylthiouracil, and denatonium benzoate) were compared with relative taste papilla mRNA abundance of bitter receptors that respond to the corresponding bitter stimuli in cell-based assays ( TAS2R4, TAS2R10, TAS2R38, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
J Farley Norman, Olivia C Adkins, Catherine J Dowell, Stevie C Hoyng, Ashley N Gilliam, Lauren E Pedersen
A total of 36 younger (mean age = 21.3 years) and older adults (mean age = 73.8 years) haptically explored plastic copies of naturally shaped objects (bell peppers, Capsicum annuum) one at a time for 7 s each. The participants' task was to then choose which of 12 concurrently visible objects had the same solid shape as the one they felt. The younger and older participants explored the object shapes using either one, three, or five fingers (there were six participants for each combination of number of fingers and age group)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Asifa Majid, Laura Speed, Ilja Croijmans, Artin Arshamian
Olfaction is often viewed as difficult, yet the empirical evidence suggests a different picture. A closer look shows people around the world differ in their ability to detect, discriminate, and name odors. This gives rise to the question of what influences our ability to smell. Instead of focusing on olfactory deficiencies, this review presents a positive perspective by focusing on factors that make someone a better smeller. We consider three driving forces in improving olfactory ability: one's biological makeup, one's experience, and the environment...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Steven Nordin, Lina Aldrin, Anna-Sara Claeson, Linus Andersson
The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valance on perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were either relatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized for exposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposure chamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which they rated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity of symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Cinzia Cecchetto, Raffaella Ida Rumiati, Valentina Parma
Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Richard Schweitzer, Sabrina Trapp, Moshe Bar
Our sense of time is prone to various biases. For instance, one factor that can dilate an event's perceived duration is the violation of predictions; when a series of repeated stimuli is interrupted by an unpredictable oddball. On the other hand, when the probability of a repetition itself is manipulated, predictable conditions can also increase estimated duration. This suggests that manipulations of expectations have different or even opposing effects on time perception. In previous studies, expectations were generated because stimuli were repeated or because the likelihood of a sequence or a repetition was varied...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Anne Schienle, Veronika Schöpf
For the rejection of disgusting and potentially health-threatening food, the sense of smell plays a critical role. We conducted two experiments in order to investigate the role of gender and trait disgust (the temporally stable tendency to experience disgust across different situations) on disgust-related olfactory processing. A total of 40 men and women (Study 1), as well as a group of women divided according to high versus low trait disgust (Study 2, n = 59), were compared with regard to their odor thresholds for carbon disulfide (which smells like spoiled food) and a control stimulus ( n-butanol)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Matthias Hoenen, Oliver T Wolf, Bettina M Pause
The olfactory system and emotional systems are highly intervened and share common neuronal structures. The current study investigates whether emotional (e.g., anger and fear) and physiological (saliva cortisol) stress responses are associated with odor identification ability and hedonic odor judgments (intensity, pleasantness, and unpleasantness). Nineteen men participated in the modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control session (cycling on a stationary bike). The physiological arousal was similar in both sessions...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Shinya Harada, Hiroyuki Mitsudo
Depth contrast is a stereoscopic visual phenomenon in which the slant of an element is affected by that of adjacent elements. Normalization has been proposed to be a possible cause of depth contrast, but it is still unclear how depth contrast involves normalization. To address this issue, we devised stereograms consisting of a vertical test line accompanied by several inducer lines, like a three-dimensional variation of the well-known Müller-Lyer configuration. The inducer lines had horizontal binocular disparities that defined a stereoscopic slant about a horizontal axis with respect to the endpoints of the test line...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Rebecka N Addo, Stefan Wiens, Marie Nord, Maria Larsson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Jennifer L Bittner, Jason M Gold
The presence of symmetric properties in a stimulus has been shown to often exert an influence on perception and information processing. Investigations into symmetry have given rise to the notion that it is processed easily and efficiently by the human visual system. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to actually measure symmetry's role in the efficiency of information use. We explored the impact of symmetry on the perception of human faces, a domain where it has been thought to play a particularly important role...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Lenka Martinec Nováková, Dagmar Plotěná, Jan Havlíček
As previously suggested, preferences for kin body odor might undergo an adaptive change over the course of puberty in order to avoid potential inbreeding, resulting in aversion to body odor of the opposite-gender kin as individuals mature sexually. However, studies based on mutual body odor aversion are rather inconclusive. We therefore investigated whether children's reports of individuals smelling good or bad differed as a function of age and pubertal status. We asked 219 children (94 male) aged 10 to 15 years to assess their pubertal development using a standardized measure and to name individuals they thought smelled good or bad...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Aaron Jacobson, Erin Green, Lori Haase, Jacquelyn Szajer, Claire Murphy
Age affects the human taste system at peripheral and central levels. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors (e.g., abdominal obesity and hypertension) that co-occur, increase with age, and heighten risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive decline. Little is known about how age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger state interact to influence how the brain processes information about taste. We investigated brain activation during the hedonic evaluation of a pleasant, nutritive stimulus (sucrose) within regions critical for taste, homeostatic energy regulation, and reward, as a function of the interactions among age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger condition...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Emily Black, Jennifer L Stevenson, Joel P Bish
The global precedence effect is a phenomenon in which global aspects of visual and auditory stimuli are processed before local aspects. Individuals with musical experience perform better on all aspects of auditory tasks compared with individuals with less musical experience. The hemispheric lateralization of this auditory processing is less well-defined. The present study aimed to replicate the global precedence effect with auditory stimuli and to explore the lateralization of global and local auditory processing in individuals with differing levels of musical experience...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Alessio Liberati, Roberta Fadda, Giuseppe Doneddu, Sara Congiu, Marco A Javarone, Tricia Striano, Alessandro Chessa
This study investigated social visual attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and with typical development (TD) in the light of Brockmann and Geisel's model of visual attention. The probability distribution of gaze movements and clustering of gaze points, registered with eye-tracking technology, was studied during a free visual exploration of a gaze stimulus. A data-driven analysis of the distribution of eye movements was chosen to overcome any possible methodological problems related to the subjective expectations of the experimenters about the informative contents of the image in addition to a computational model to simulate group differences...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Adam Palanica, Roxane J Itier
Previous research has shown that gaze direction can only be accurately discriminated within parafoveal limits (∼5° eccentricity) along the horizontal visual field. Beyond this eccentricity, head orientation seems to influence gaze discrimination more than iris cues. The present study examined gaze discrimination performance in the upper visual field (UVF) and lower visual field (LVF), and whether head orientation affects gaze judgments beyond parafoveal vision. Direct and averted gaze faces, in frontal and deviated head orientations, were presented for 150 ms along the vertical meridian while participants maintained central fixation during gaze discrimination judgments...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Hiroshi Ono, Linda Lillakas
We examined Brewster's perceptual phenomenon that is produced by the same binocularly equivalent proximal stimulus as Wheatstone's stereogram. We then constructed and observed the perceptual effect created by another distal stimulus that also created an equivalent binocular proximal stimulus. All three stimulus situations produced the appearance of a tilted line in the median plane which is consistent with Hering's rule that the average of the two local signs and binocular eye position determine visual direction...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Sanne Boesveldt, Kees de Graaf
Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food...
January 1, 2017: Perception
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