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Kyle E Mathewson
Many individuals cannot at first see two ambiguous figures as different interpretations simultaneously, even with effort. Here in a large sample replication, we find that the phrase "duck eats rabbit" allows those who could not see a duck and rabbit side by side to do so. In a second experiment, we show that a relational phrase "next to" that does not disambiguate the spatial position interpretation does not similarly allow the duck to be seen next to the rabbit, supporting the proposal that top-down semantic-framing can influence perception of ambiguous figures...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Robin S S Kramer, Michael G Reynolds
Research has systematically examined how laboratory participants and real-world practitioners decide whether two face photographs show the same person or not using frontal images. In contrast, research has not examined face matching using profile images. In Experiment 1, we ask whether matching unfamiliar faces is easier with frontal compared with profile views. Participants completed the original, frontal version of the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and also an adapted version where all face pairs were presented in profile...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Valentina Parma, Stephanie Macedo, Marta Rocha, Laura Alho, Jacqueline Ferreira, Sandra C Soares
Conditions during information encoding and retrieval are known to influence the sensory material stored and its recapitulation. However, little is known about such processes in olfaction. Here, we capitalized on the uniqueness of body odors (BOs) which, similar to fingerprints, allow for the identification of a specific person, by associating their presentation to a negative or a neutral emotional context. One hundred twenty-five receivers (68 F) were exposed to a male BO while watching either criminal or neutral videos (encoding phase) and were subsequently asked to recognize the target BO within either a congruent or an incongruent visual context (retrieval phase)...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Louise O'Hare, Federica Menchinelli, Simon J Durrant
Migraine groups show differences in motion perception compared with controls, when tested in between migraine attacks (interictally). This is thought to be due to an increased susceptibility to stimulus degradation (multiplicative internal noise). Fluctuations in alpha-band oscillations are thought to regulate visual perception, and so differences could provide a mechanism for the increased multiplicative noise seen in migraine. The aim of this article was to characterise resting-state alpha-band oscillations (between 8 and 12 Hz) in the visual areas of the brain in migraine and control groups...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Matthew V Pachai, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
Horizontally oriented spatial frequency components are a diagnostic source of face identity information, and sensitivity to this information predicts upright identification accuracy and the magnitude of the face-inversion effect. However, the bandwidth at which this information is conveyed, and the extent to which human tuning matches this distribution of information, has yet to be characterized. We designed a 10-alternative forced choice face identification task in which upright or inverted faces were filtered to retain horizontal or vertical structure...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Sherysse L Corrow, Andrea Albonico, Jason J S Barton
Adding visual noise to facial images has been used to increase reliance on configural processing. Whether this enhances the ability of tests to diagnose prosopagnosia is not known. We examined 15 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, 13 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, and 38 control subjects with the Cambridge Face Memory Test. We compared their performance on the second phase, without visual noise, and on the third phase, which adds visual noise. We analyzed the results with signal detection theory methods...
January 1, 2018: Perception
John W Mullennix, Julien Robinet
The effect of art expertise on viewers' processing of titled visual artwork was examined. The study extended the research of Leder, Carbon, and Ripsas by explicitly selecting art novices and art experts. The study was designed to test assumptions about how expertise modulates context in the form of titles for artworks. Viewers rated a set of abstract paintings for liking and understanding. The type of title accompanying the artwork (descriptive or elaborative) was manipulated. Viewers were allotted as much time as they wished to view each artwork...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Nicholas Watier
Several lines of evidence suggest that angularity and curvilinearity are relied upon to infer the presence or absence of threat. This study examines whether angular shapes are more salient in threatening compared with nonthreatening emotionally neutral faces. The saliency of angular shapes was measured by the amount of local maxima in S(θ), a function that characterizes how the Fourier magnitude spectrum varies along specific orientations. The validity of this metric was tested and supported with images of threatening and nonthreatening real-world objects and abstract patterns that have predominantly angular or curvilinear features (Experiment 1)...
January 1, 2018: Perception
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Perception
Alexandra Bagaïni, Graham Hole
Observers can extract the mean identity from a set of faces and falsely recognise it as a genuine set member. The current experiment demonstrated that this 'perceptual averaging' also occurs with vertically stretched faces. On each trial, participants decided whether a target face was present in a preceding set of four faces. In the control condition, the faces were all normally proportioned; in the stretched set condition, the face sets were stretched but the targets were normal; and in the stretched target condition, the face sets were normal but the targets were stretched...
September 2017: Perception
Peter Ulric Tse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Perception
Brandon Mader, Martin S Banks, Hany Farid
The past two decades have seen remarkable advances in photo-realistic rendering of everything from inanimate objects to landscapes, animals, and humans. We previously showed that despite these tremendous advances, human observers remain fairly good at distinguishing computer-generated from photographic images. Building on these results, we describe a series of follow-up experiments that reveal how to improve observer performance. Of general interest to anyone performing psychophysical studies on Mechanical Turk or similar platforms, we find that observer performance can be significantly improved with the proper incentives...
September 2017: Perception
Kathleen Kang, Laura Anthoney, Peter Mitchell
Being able to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is of great importance to social development. However, we still know surprisingly little about children's developing ability to interpret emotions that are expressed dynamically, naturally, and subtly, despite real-life expressions having such appearance in the vast majority of cases. The current research employs a new technique of capturing dynamic, subtly expressed natural emotional displays (happy, sad, angry, shocked, and disgusted). Children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (and adults) were systematically able to discriminate each emotional display from alternatives in a five-way choice...
September 2017: Perception
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