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Shinyoung Jung, Yosun Yoon, Suk Won Han
People's attention is well attracted to stimuli matching their working memory. This memory-driven attentional capture has been demonstrated in simplified and controlled laboratory settings. The present study investigated whether working memory contents capture attention in a setting that closely resembles real-world environment. In the experiment, participants performed a task of searching for a target object in real-world indoor scenes, while maintaining a visual object in working memory. To create a setting similar to real-world environment, images taken from IKEA®'s online catalogue were used...
July 29, 2018: Perception
Xiaomei Zhou, Claire M Matthews, Kristen A Baker, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults' ability to match identity in images of unfamiliar faces is impaired for other- compared with own-race faces; their ability to match identity in images of familiar faces is independent of face race. Exposure to within-person variability in appearance plays a key role in face learning. Past research suggests that children need exposure to higher levels of variability than adults to learn a new face-a difference that has been attributed to experience. We predicted that adults' limited experience with other-race faces would result in their needing exposure to higher levels of variability when learning other- compared with own-race faces...
August 2018: Perception
Di Zhang, Vincent Nourrit, Jean-Louis De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye
Random-dot stereograms have been widely used to explore the neural mechanisms underlying binocular vision. Although they are a powerful tool to stimulate motion-in-depth (MID) perception, published results report some difficulties in the capacity to perceive MID generated by random-dot stereograms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the performance of MID perception could be improved using an appropriate stimulus design. Sixteen inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. A training session was carried out to improve the accuracy of MID detection before the experiment...
July 2018: Perception
Ömer Dağlar Tanrıkulu, Vicky Froyen, Jacob Feldman, Manish Singh
Standard accounts of accretion/deletion of texture treat it as a definite cue to depth ordering: The accreting/deleting surface is interpreted as being behind the adjoining surface. Froyen, Feldman, and Singh showed that accretion/deletion can also, under certain circumstances, be perceived as a 3D column rotating in front, with the accretion/deletion explained by self-occlusion. These displays differ from traditional accretion/deletion displays in a number of factors, including the presence of figure/ground cues, accretion/deletion on both sides of boundaries, and in the number of distinct regions...
July 2018: Perception
Daiki Yamasaki, Kiyofumi Miyoshi, Christian F Altmann, Hiroshi Ashida
In spite of accumulating evidence for the spatial rule governing cross-modal interaction according to the spatial consistency of stimuli, it is still unclear whether 3D spatial consistency (i.e., front/rear of the body) of stimuli also regulates audiovisual interaction. We investigated how sounds with increasing/decreasing intensity (looming/receding sound) presented from the front and rear space of the body impact the size perception of a dynamic visual object. Participants performed a size-matching task (Experiments 1 and 2) and a size adjustment task (Experiment 3) of visual stimuli with increasing/decreasing diameter, while being exposed to a front- or rear-presented sound with increasing/decreasing intensity...
July 2018: Perception
Lindsey M Shain, J Farley Norman
An experiment required younger and older adults to estimate coherent visual motion direction from multiple motion signals, where each motion signal was locally ambiguous with respect to the true direction of pattern motion. Thus, accurate performance required the successful integration of motion signals across space (i.e., accurate performance required solution of the aperture problem) . The observers viewed arrays of either 64 or 9 moving line segments; because these lines moved behind apertures, their individual local motions were ambiguous with respect to direction (i...
July 2018: Perception
Yuki Kobayashi, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Studies on brightness and lightness that employed luminance gradients (i.e., glare stimuli) have suggested that we can perceive luminosity even when the brightness target is darker than white. Although such studies had great impact on research in luminosity perception, whether the whiteness threshold in glare stimuli was lower or higher than the luminosity threshold remained unclear. This study indicated that it is higher than the luminosity threshold, confirming the existence of glowing gray. Moreover, we measured the luminance gradients' effect on whiteness perception but found no significant effect...
July 2018: Perception
Nicholas J Wade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Perception
Matteo Valsecchi, Natale Stucchi, Lisa Scocchia
We investigated how the approximate perceived numerosity of ensembles of visual elements is modulated by the numerosity of previously viewed ensembles depending on whether the first ensemble is held in visual working memory or not. We show that the numerosity of the previously seen ensemble has a repulsive effect, that is, a stimulus with high numerosity induces an underestimation of the following one and vice versa. This repulsive effect is present regardless of whether the first stimulus is memorized or not...
July 2018: Perception
Nicholas Hon, Syaheed B Jabar
Rare or low prevalence targets are detected less well than counterparts that occur with higher probability. It stands to reason, though, that before such a deficit is apparent, information about a given target's probability of occurrence must be apprehended. In this study, we investigated how much target experience is necessary for target probabilities to be fully acquired and established within mental task representations. A central finding was that different target probability values required approximately the same amount of target sampling to learn...
July 2018: Perception
Christopher Tyler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Perception
Susan Hayes, Nick Rheinberger, Meagan Powley, Tricia Rawnsley, Linda Brown, Malcolm Brown, Karen Butler, Ann Clarke, Stephen Crichton, Maggie Henderson, Helen McCosker, Ann Musgrave, Joyce Wilcock, Darren Williams, Karin Yeaman, T S Zaracostas, Adam C Taylor, Gordon Wallace
An artist-led exploration of portrait accuracy and likeness involved 12 Artists producing 12 portraits referencing a life-size 3D print of the same Sitter. The works were assessed during a public exhibition, and the resulting likeness assessments were compared to portrait accuracy as measured using geometric morphometrics (statistical shape analysis). Our results are that, independently of the assessors' prior familiarity with the Sitter's face, the likeness judgements tended to be higher for less morphologically accurate portraits...
June 2018: Perception
Alison Campbell, James W Tanaka
The face-inversion effect is the finding that picture-plane inversion disproportionately impairs face recognition compared to object recognition and is now attributed to greater orientation-sensitivity of holistic processing for faces but not common objects. Yet, expert dog judges have showed similar recognition deficits for inverted dogs and inverted faces, suggesting that holistic processing is not specific to faces but to the expert recognition of perceptually similar objects. Although processing changes in expert object recognition have since been extensively documented, no other studies have observed the distinct recognition deficits for inverted objects-of-expertise that people as face experts show for faces...
June 2018: Perception
Kimberly Meier, Marita Partanen, Deborah Giaschi
It has been suggested that slow and medium-to-fast speeds of motion may be processed by at least partially separate mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the cortical areas activated during motion-defined form and global motion tasks as a function of speed, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed discrimination tasks with random dot stimuli at high coherence, at coherence near their own thresholds, and for random motion. Stimuli were moving at 0.1 or 5 deg/s. In the motion-defined form task, lateral occipital complex, V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus showed greater activation by high or near-threshold coherence than by random motion stimuli; V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus demonstrated greater activation for 5 than 0...
June 2018: Perception
Catherine L Reed, Cindy M Bukach, Matthew Garber, Daniel N McIntosh
Researchers have sought to understand the specialized processing of faces and bodies in isolation, but recently they have considered how face and body information interact within the context of the whole body. Although studies suggest that face and body information can be integrated, it remains an open question whether this integration is obligatory and whether contributions of face and body information are symmetrical. In a selective attention task with whole-body stimuli, we focused attention on either the face or body and tested whether variation in the irrelevant part could be ignored...
June 2018: Perception
Bastian Jaeger, Fieke M A Wagemans, Anthony M Evans, Ilja van Beest
People make trait inferences based on facial appearance, and these inferences guide social approach and avoidance. Here, we investigate the effects of textural features on trait impressions from faces. In contrast to previous work, which exclusively manipulated skin smoothness, we manipulated smoothness and the presence of skin blemishes independently (Study 1) and orthogonally (Study 2). We hypothesized that people are particularly sensitive to skin blemishes because blemishes potentially indicate poor health and the presence of an infectious disease...
June 2018: Perception
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Perception
Shaziela Ishak, Andrea Bubka, Frederick Bonato
Sensory conflict theories of motion sickness (MS) assert that symptoms may result when incoming sensory inputs (e.g., visual and vestibular) contradict each other. Logic suggests that attenuating input from one sense may reduce conflict and hence lessen MS symptoms. In the current study, it was hypothesized that attenuating visual input by blocking light entering the eye would reduce MS symptoms in a motion provocative environment. Participants sat inside an aircraft cockpit mounted onto a motion platform that simultaneously pitched, rolled, and heaved in two conditions...
May 2018: Perception
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