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Luciano José Pereira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Perception
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect...
November 29, 2016: Perception
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels...
November 28, 2016: Perception
Keith A May, Benjamin T Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Perception
Christopher A Thorstenson, Adam D Pazda, Andrew J Elliot, David I Perrett
Past research has shown that peripheral and facial redness influences perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. The current research investigated whether a parallel effect is present when women rate men with varying facial redness. In four experiments, women judged the attractiveness of men's faces, which were presented with varying degrees of redness. We also examined perceived healthiness and other candidate variables as mediators of the red-attractiveness effect. The results show that facial redness positively influences ratings of men's attractiveness...
November 24, 2016: Perception
Shelley James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Perception
Brandon J Thomas, Jeffrey B Wagman, Matthew Hawkins, Mark Havens, Michael A Riley
Two experiments were conducted to explore how the calibration of perception of environmental properties taken with reference to an animal and their action capabilities (e.g., affordances) and those that are independent of action capabilities (e.g., metric properties) relate. In both experiments, participants provided reports of the maximum height they could reach above their head with a number of different stick(s) (reach-with-stick height) and the length of those stick(s), a property that is a constituent of reach-with-stick height...
November 17, 2016: Perception
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
As public safety relies on the ability of professionals, such as radiologists and baggage screeners, to detect rare targets, it could be useful to identify predictors of visual search performance. Schwark, Sandry, and Dolgov found that working memory capacity (WMC) predicts hit rate and reaction time in low prevalence searches. This link was attributed to higher WMC individuals exhibiting a higher quitting threshold and increasing the probability of finding the target before terminating search in low prevalence search...
November 17, 2016: Perception
Simona Manescu, Benjhyna Daniel, Renée-Pier Filiou, Franco Lepore, Johannes Frasnelli
INTRODUCTION: Few studies investigated nostril-advantage in chemosensory perception, particularly, in relation to handedness. The aim of the present article was therefore to assess whether trigeminal/olfactory perception is altered by handedness. METHODS: We tested 50 (all right-handed) and 43 (22 left-handed) participants in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. We used binary mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and eucalyptol, in different proportions presented as physical mixtures (the same exact mixture presented birhinally to each nostril) or as a dichorhinic mixtures (different mixtures presented to each nostril)...
November 17, 2016: Perception
Pavel A Orlov, Roman Bednarik
Understanding software engineers' behaviour plays a vital role in the software development industry. It also provides helpful guidelines for teaching and learning. In this article, we conduct a study of the extrafoveal vision and its role in information processing. This is a new perspective on source code comprehension. Despite its major importance, the extrafoveal vision has been largely ignored by previous studies. The available research has been focused entirely on the foveal information processing and the gaze fixation position...
November 4, 2016: Perception
Robert Ramkhalawansingh, Behrang Keshavarz, Bruce Haycock, Saba Shahab, Jennifer L Campos
Previous psychophysical research has examined how younger adults and non-human primates integrate visual and vestibular cues to perceive self-motion. However, there is much to be learned about how multisensory self-motion perception changes with age, and how these changes affect performance on everyday tasks involving self-motion. Evidence suggests that older adults display heightened multisensory integration compared with younger adults; however, few previous studies have examined this for visual-vestibular integration...
October 27, 2016: Perception
Liliana Albertazzi, Luisa Canal, Rocco Micciolo, Fulvio Ferrari, Sebastiano Sitta, Iacopo Hachen
The study analyzes the existence of naturally biased associations in the general population between a series of musical selections and a series of quatrains. Differently from other studies in the field, the association is tested between complex stimuli involving literary texts, which increases the load of the semantic factors. The stimuli were eight quatrains taken from the same poem and eight musical clips taken from a classical musical version of the poem. The experiment was conducted in two phases. First, the participants were asked to rate 10 couples of opposite adjectives on a continuous bipolar scale when reading a quatrain or when listening to a musical clip; then they were asked to associate a given clip directly with the quatrains in decreasing order...
October 21, 2016: Perception
Sophie L Cronin, Morgan L Spence, Paul A Miller, Derek H Arnold
Facial appearance can be altered, not just by restyling but also by sensory processes. Exposure to a female face can, for instance, make subsequent faces look more masculine than they would otherwise. Two explanations exist. According to one, exposure to a female face renormalizes face perception, making that female and all other faces look more masculine as a consequence-a unidirectional effect. According to that explanation, exposure to a male face would have the opposite unidirectional effect. Another suggestion is that face gender is subject to contrastive aftereffects...
October 17, 2016: Perception
Yanna Ren, Weiping Yang, Kohei Nakahashi, Satoshi Takahashi, Jinglong Wu
Although neuronal studies have shown that audiovisual integration is regulated by temporal factors, there is still little knowledge about the impact of temporal factors on audiovisual integration in older adults. To clarify how stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual stimuli modulates age-related audiovisual integration, 20 younger adults (21-24 years) and 20 older adults (61-80 years) were instructed to perform an auditory or visual stimuli discrimination experiment. The results showed that in younger adults, audiovisual integration was altered from an enhancement (AV, A ± 50 V) to a depression (A ± 150 V)...
October 16, 2016: Perception
Sophia C Poletti, Elisabeth Michel, Thomas Hummel
BACKGROUND: Repeated short-term exposure to odors is known to improve olfaction in patients with acquired olfactory dysfunction. The aim was to find out whether differences in molecular weight of odors used for olfactory training influences olfaction. We hypothesized a greater improvement following training with light weight molecule (LWM) odors. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in patients with posttraumatic (PTOL) and postviral olfactory loss (PVOL)...
October 4, 2016: Perception
Dina Devyatko, L Gregory Appelbaum, Stephen R Mitroff
Several striking visual phenomena involve a physically present stimulus that alternates between being perceived and being "invisible." For example, motion-induced blindness, the Troxler effect, and perceptual filling-in all consist of subjective alternations where an item repeatedly changes from being seen to unseen. In the present study, we explored whether these three specific visual phenomena share any commonalities in their alternation rates and patterns to better understand the mechanisms of each. Data from 69 individuals revealed moderate to strong correlations across the three phenomena for the number of perceptual disappearances and the accumulated duration of the disappearances...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The stream-bounce effect refers to a bistable motion stimulus that is interpreted as two targets either "streaming" past or "bouncing" off one another, and the manipulations that bias responses. Directional bias, according to Bertenthal et al., is an account of the effect proposing that low-level motion integration promotes streaming, and its disruption leads to bouncing, and it is sometimes cited either directly in a bottom-up fashion or indirectly under top-down control despite Sekuler and Sekuler finding evidence inconsistent with it...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Shiori Nakano, Saho Ayabe-Kanamura
When we sequentially evaluate the characteristics of sensory stimuli, our evaluation of a current stimulus is influenced by those preceding it. One such effect is called hedonic contrast, whereby stimuli are rated more negatively (negative contrast) or positively (positive contrast) if they are preceded by more or less pleasant stimuli. The present study investigated the characteristics of hedonic contrast for olfaction and compared these characteristics with those of a more oft-studied modality, vision. The results from two experiments indicated that both positive and negative contrasts occurred in the sequential rating of picture pleasantness, whereas only negative contrast occurred for olfactory ratings...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Sarah J Bayless, Alistair J Harvey
The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Valter Prpic, Riccardo Luccio
The solitaire illusion is an illusion of numerosity proposed by Frith and Frith. In the original version, an apparent number of elements was determined by the spatial arrangement of two kinds of elements (black and white marbles). In our study, an auditory version of the solitaire illusion was demonstrated. Participants were asked to judge if they perceived more drum or piano sounds. When half of the piano tones were perceived as lower in pitch than a drum sound and the other half higher, piano tones appeared to be arranged in small units, leading to numerosity underestimation...
October 3, 2016: Perception
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