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Genetica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429244/fluctuating-asymmetry-of-meristic-traits-an-isofemale-line-analysis-in-an-invasive-drosophilid-zaprionus-indianus
#1
Lilian Madi-Ravazzi, Luis Fernando Segala, Vincent Debat, Jean R David
Metric (e.g., body size) and meristic (e.g., bristle number) traits are of general use in quantitative genetic studies, and the phenotypic variance is subdivided into a genetic and a non-genetic environmental component. The non-genetic variance may have two origins: a common garden effect between individuals and a developmental instability within the same individual. Developmental instability may be studied by considering the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) between the two sides of the body. The isofemale line technique is a convenient method for investigating the architecture of natural populations but has been rarely implemented for investigating FA...
April 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424974/transposable-elements-in-the-anopheles-funestus-transcriptome
#2
Rita D Fernández-Medina, Claudia M A Carareto, Cláudio J Struchiner, José M C Ribeiro
Transposable elements (TEs) are present in most of the eukaryotic genomes and their impact on genome evolution is increasingly recognized. Although there is extensive information on the TEs present in several eukaryotic genomes, less is known about the expression of these elements at the transcriptome level. Here we present a detailed analysis regarding the expression of TEs in Anopheles funestus, the second most important vector of human malaria in Africa. Several transcriptionally active TE families belonging both to Class I and II were identified and characterized...
April 19, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421323/gene-expression-nucleotide-composition-and-codon-usage-bias-of-genes-associated-with-human-y-chromosome
#3
Monisha Nath Choudhury, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position...
April 18, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389974/lmi1-like-genes-involved-in-leaf-margin-development-of-brassica-napus
#4
Xiyuan Ni, Han Liu, Jixiang Huang, Jianyi Zhao
In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions...
April 7, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315980/an-overview-of-cytogenetics-of-the-tribe-meliponini-hymenoptera-apidae
#5
REVIEW
Mara Garcia Tavares, Denilce Meneses Lopes, L A O Campos
The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera...
March 18, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314965/genetic-analyses-using-gge-model-and-a-mixed-linear-model-approach-and-stability-analyses-using-ammi-bi-plot-for-late-maturity-alpha-amylase-activity-in-bread-wheat-genotypes
#6
Golam Rasul, Karl D Glover, Padmanaban G Krishnan, Jixiang Wu, William A Berzonsky, Bourlaye Fofana
Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271308/genetic-structure-of-a-regionally-endangered-orchid-the-dark-red-helleborine-epipactis-atrorubens-at-the-edge-of-its-distribution
#7
Hilde Hens, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Kadri Tali, Petr Efimov, Alexey V Kravchenko, Laura Kvist
The genetic structure and diversity of species is determined by both current population dynamics and historical processes. Population genetic structure at the edge of the distribution is often expected to differ substantially from populations at the centre, as these edge populations are often small and fragmented. In addition, populations located in regions that have experienced repeated glaciations throughout the Pleistocene, may still carry imprints from the genetic consequences of frequent distribution shifts...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271307/the-role-of-ecological-factors-in-determining-phylogeographic-and-population-genetic-structure-of-two-sympatric-island-skinks-plestiodon-kishinouyei-and-p-stimpsonii
#8
Kazuki Kurita, Mamoru Toda
We conducted comparative phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii, two sympatric skinks endemic to islands in the southern Ryukyus, to explore different factors that have influenced population structure. Previous phylogenetic studies using partial mitochondrial DNA indicate similar divergence times from their respective closest relatives, suggesting that differences in population structure are driven by intrinsic attributes of either species rather than the common set of extrinsic factors that both presumably have been exposed to throughout their history...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243829/meiotic-pairing-as-an-indicator-of-genome-composition-in-polyploid-prairie-cordgrass-spartina-pectinata-link
#9
Jeffrey W Bishop, Sumin Kim, María B Villamil, D K Lee, A Lane Rayburn
The existence of neopolyploidy in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) has been documented. The neohexaploid was discovered coexisting with tetraploids in central Illinois, and has been reported to exhibit competitiveness in the natural environment. It is hypothesized that the natural tetraploid cytotype produced the hexaploid cytotype via production of unreduced gametes. Meiosis I chromosome pairing was observed in tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60), and octoploid (2n = 8x = 80) accessions and the percentage of meiotic abnormality was determined...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238053/a-possible-genetic-basis-for-vulnerability-in-euphydryas-maturna-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#10
Katalin Pecsenye, Andrea Tóth, Judit Bereczki, Zoltán Varga
Nearly all of the known populations of Scarce Fritillary, Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus, 1758), are declining in Western and Central Europe. In order to identify the possible reasons for its vulnerability we surveyed the population genetics of this butterfly species using multi-locus genotype data. Females of our target species lay lots of eggs in one or two batches only and pre-hibernation caterpillars live and feed gregariously in a nest. As a consequence, a random unfavourable event can eliminate most offspring of a particular female resulting in a strong genetic drift effect combined with inbreeding...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238052/estimation-of-loci-involved-in-non-shattering-of-seeds-in-early-rice-domestication
#11
Ryo Ishikawa, Akinori Nishimura, Than Myint Htun, Ryo Nishioka, Yumi Oka, Yuki Tsujimura, Chizuru Inoue, Takashige Ishii
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233217/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-the-zombi-pea-vigna-vexillata-l-a-rich-gene-pool-based-on-ssr-marker-analysis
#12
Sujinna Dachapak, Prakit Somta, Supalak Poonchaivilaisak, Tarika Yimram, Peerasak Srinives
Zombi pea (Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich) is an underutilized legume species and a useful gene source for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, although there is little understanding on its genetic diversity and structure. In this study, 422 (408 wild and 14 cultivated) accessions of zombi pea from diverse origins (201 from Africa, 126 from America, 85 from Australia, 5 from Asia and 5 from unknown origin) were analyzed with 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to determine its genetic diversity and genetic structure...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204905/transcriptome-assembly-and-identification-of-genes-and-snps-associated-with-growth-traits-in-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#13
Shengjie Li, Hao Liu, Junjie Bai, Xinping Zhu
Growth is one of the most crucial economic traits of all aquaculture species, but the molecular mechanisms involved in growth of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to screen growth-related genes of M. salmoides by RNA sequencing and identify growth-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers through a growth association study. The muscle transcriptomes of fast- and slow-growing largemouth bass were obtained using the RNA-Seq technique. A total of 54,058,178 and 54,742,444 qualified Illumina read pairs were obtained for the fast-growing and slow-growing groups, respectively, giving rise to 4,865,236,020 and 4,926,819,960 total clean bases, respectively...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185042/phylogenomic-relationship-of-feijoa-acca-sellowiana-o-berg-burret-with-other-myrtaceae-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences
#14
Lilian de Oliveira Machado, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Valdir Marcos Stefenon, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Rubens Onofre Nodari
Given their distribution, importance, and richness, Myrtaceae species comprise a model system for studying the evolution of tropical plant diversity. In addition, chloroplast (cp) genome sequencing is an efficient tool for phylogenetic relationship studies. Feijoa [Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret; CN: pineapple-guava] is a Myrtaceae species that occurs naturally in southern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Feijoa is known for its exquisite perfume and flavorful fruits, pharmacological properties, ornamental value and increasing economic relevance...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161823/phylogeography-of-littorina-sitkana-in-the-northwestern-pacific-ocean-evidence-of-eastward-trans-pacific-colonization-after-the-last-glacial-maximum
#15
Noriko Azuma, Nadezhda I Zaslavskaya, Tomoyasu Yamazaki, Takahiro Nobetsu, Susumu Chiba
We investigated genetic diversity and population structure of the Sitka periwinkle Littorina sitkana along the coastlines of the northwestern Pacific (NWP) to evaluate the possibility of trans-Pacific colonization of this species from the NWP to the northeastern Pacific (NEP) after the Last Glacial Maximum. We sampled L. sitkana from 32 populations in the NWP, and sequenced a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b oxidase gene for population genetic analyses. The results were compared with those of previous reports from the NEP...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154959/differential-sexual-survival-of-drosophila-melanogaster-on-copper-sulfate
#16
Michael A Balinski, Ronny C Woodruff
Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO4, even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160169/complete-mitochondrial-genome-from-south-american-catfish-pseudoplatystoma-reticulatum-eigenmann-eigenmann-and-its-impact-in-siluriformes-phylogenetic-tree
#17
Luciana Cristine Vasques Villela, Anderson Luis Alves, Eduardo Sousa Varela, Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi, Poliana Fernanda Giachetto, Naiara Milagres Augusto da Silva, Josi Margarete Ponzetto, Samuel Rezende Paiva, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano
The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region...
February 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160168/cystic-fibrosis-in-afro-brazilians-xk-haplotypes-analysis-supports-the-european-origin-of-p-f508del-mutation
#18
D A S de Souza, F R Faucz, R B de Alexandre, M A Santana, E L S de Souza, F J C Reis, L Pereira-Ferrari, V S Sotomaior, L Culpi, J A Phillips, S Raskin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, being the p.F508del the most frequent mutation. Also, a nearby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) named XK (KM19 and XV2C) is non-randomly associated with specific CF alleles. Our aim was to analyze the occurrence of the p.F508del mutation and XK haplotypes in Afro-Brazilians CF patients and controls, since these data is available for the other two main ethnic groups found in Brazil (Euro-Brazilians and Brazilian Amerindians), contributing for the whole comprehension of these haplotypes in the Brazilian population...
February 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120213/genetic-characterization-of-residual-triatoma-infestans-populations-from-brazil-by-microsatellite
#19
Carlota Josefovicz Belisário, Grasielle Caldas D'Avila Pessoa, Eduardo Melos Silva, Aline Cristine Luiz Rosa, Rafaela Elias Ferreira, Cleonara Bedin, Tania Wilhelms, Fernanda de Mello, Helder Silveira Coutinho, Eduardo Lins Oyama Fonseca, Roberto Fonseca Dos Santos, Vera Lucia Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues, João Carlos Pinto Dias, Liléia Diotaiuti
In spite of long-term efforts to eliminate Triatoma infestans (Klug 1834) from Brazil, residual foci still persist in the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. Data on the genetic variability and structuring of these populations are however lacking. Using nine microsatellite loci, we characterized one residual T. infestans population from Bahia and four from Rio Grande do Sul, and compared them with bugs originally from an older focus in São Paulo; 224 bugs were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 11...
February 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108874/surviving-in-isolation-genetic-variation-bottlenecks-and-reproductive-strategies-in-the-canarian-endemic-limonium-macrophyllum-plumbaginaceae
#20
Ares Jiménez, Barbara Weigelt, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, Juli Caujapé-Castells, José María Fernández-Palacios, Elena Conti
Oceanic archipelagos are typically rich in endemic taxa, because they offer ideal conditions for diversification and speciation in isolation. One of the most remarkable evolutionary radiations on the Canary Islands comprises the 16 species included in Limonium subsection Nobiles, all of which are subject to diverse threats, and legally protected. Since many of them are single-island endemics limited to one or a few populations, there exists a risk that a loss of genetic variation might limit their long-term survival...
February 2017: Genetica
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