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Yoichi Yusa, Natsumi Kumagai
A small number of genes may interact to determine sex, but few such examples have been demonstrated in animals, especially through comprehensive mating experiments. The highly invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is gonochoristic and shows a large variation in brood sex ratio, and the involvement of multiple genes has been suggested for this phenomenon. We conducted mating experiments to determine whether their sex determination involves a few or many genes (i.e., oligogenic or polygenic sex determination, respectively)...
February 26, 2018: Genetica
Yangchun Gao, Shiguo Li, Aibin Zhan
Invasive species cause huge damages to ecology, environment and economy globally. The comprehensive understanding of invasion mechanisms, particularly genetic bases of micro-evolutionary processes responsible for invasion success, is essential for reducing potential damages caused by invasive species. The golden star tunicate, Botryllus schlosseri, has become a model species in invasion biology, mainly owing to its high invasiveness nature and small well-sequenced genome. However, the genome-wide genetic markers have not been well developed in this highly invasive species, thus limiting the comprehensive understanding of genetic mechanisms of invasion success...
February 23, 2018: Genetica
Dan Wang, Lin Zhang, JunFeng Hu, Dianshuai Gao, Xin Liu, Yan Sha
Lipases are physiologically important and ubiquitous enzymes that share a conserved domain and are classified into eight different families based on their amino acid sequences and fundamental biological properties. The Lipase3 family of lipases was reported to possess a canonical fold typical of α/β hydrolases and a typical catalytic triad, suggesting a distinct evolutionary origin for this family. Genes in the Lipase3 family do not have the same functions, but maintain the conserved Lipase3 domain. There have been extensive studies of Lipase3 structures and functions, but little is known about their evolutionary histories...
February 22, 2018: Genetica
Karen M Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen E Tracy, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins in the acquired immune response pathway that often show distinctive selection-driven patterns in wild vertebrate populations. We examined genetic variation and signatures of selection in the MHC class I alpha 1 (A1)- and alpha 2 (A2)-domain encoding exons of two frog congeners [Agalychnis callidryas (n = 20) and A. lemur (n = 20)] from a single locality in Panama. We also investigated how historical demographic processes may have impacted MHC genetic diversity by analyzing a neutral mitochondrial marker...
February 15, 2018: Genetica
Seo-Jin Lee, Mu-Yeong Lee, Liang-Kong Lin, Y Kirk Lin, Yuchun Li, E-Hyun Shin, Sang-Hoon Han, Mi-Sook Min, Hang Lee, Kyung Seok Kim
Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp)...
February 13, 2018: Genetica
Priscila Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pedro Luis Pérez de Paz, Pedro A Sosa
Bethencourtia Choisy ex Link is an endemic genus of the Canary Islands and comprises three species. Bethencourtia hermosae and Bethencourtia rupicola are restricted to La Gomera, while Bethencourtia palmensis is present in Tenerife and La Palma. Despite the morphological differences previously found between the species, there are still taxonomic incongruities in the group, with evident consequences for its monitoring and conservation. The objectives of this study were to define the species differentiation, perform population genetic analysis and propose conservation strategies for Bethencourtia...
February 12, 2018: Genetica
Dong-Hui Yan, Qian Gao, Xiaoming Sun, Xiaoyu Song, Hongchang Li
For matching the new fungal nomenclature to abolish pleomorphic names for a fungus, a genus Pseudocercospora s. str. was suggested to host holomorphic Pseudocercosproa fungi. But the Pseudocercosproa fungi need extra phylogenetic loci to clarify their taxonomy and diversity for their existing and coming species. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures have been promising in charactering species phylogeny in plants, animals and fungi. In present study, a conserved model of ITS2 secondary structures was confirmed on fungi in Pseudocercospora s...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
Kurt Langberg, Matthew Phillips, Olav Rueppell
The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
Ryo Nishijima, Chisa Tanaka, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Cuticular wax on the aerial surface of plants has a protective function against many environmental stresses. The bluish-whitish appearance of wheat leaves and stems is called glaucousness. Most modern cultivars of polyploid wheat species exhibit the glaucous phenotype, while in a wild wheat progenitor, Ae. tauschii, both glaucous and non-glaucous accessions exist. Iw2, a wax inhibitor locus on the short arm of chromosome 2D, is the main contributor to this phenotypic variation in Ae. tauschii, and the glaucous/non-glaucous phenotype of Ae...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
Mariana Cancian, Elgion L S Loreto
The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir...
January 19, 2018: Genetica
Yi Xu, Yajun Wu, Jixiang Wu
Genetic association mapping has been widely applied to determine genetic markers favorably associated with a trait of interest and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Many association mapping studies commonly focus on main effects due to intolerable computing intensity. This study aims to select several sets of DNA markers with potential epistasis to maximize genetic variations of some key agronomic traits in barley. By doing so, we integrated a MDR (multifactor dimensionality reduction) method with a forward variable selection approach...
January 18, 2018: Genetica
Zihao Yuan, Wei Huang, Shikai Liu, Peng Xu, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
The inference of historical demography of a species is helpful for understanding species' differentiation and its population dynamics. However, such inference has been previously difficult due to the lack of proper analytical methods and availability of genetic data. A recently developed method called Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) offers the capability for estimation of the trajectories of historical populations over considerable time periods using genomic sequences. In this study, we applied this approach to infer the historical demography of the common carp using samples collected from Europe, Asia and the Americas...
January 3, 2018: Genetica
DaoLiang Lan, XianRong Xiong, WenHui Ji, Jian Li, Tserang-Donko Mipam, Yi Ai, ZhiXin Chai
The yak (Bos grunniens), which is a unique bovine breed that is distributed mainly in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is considered a good model for studying plateau adaptability in mammals. The lungs are important functional organs that enable animals to adapt to their external environment. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the adaptability of yak lungs to harsh plateau environments remains unknown. To explore the unique evolutionary process and genetic mechanism of yak adaptation to plateau environments, we performed transcriptome sequencing of yak and cattle (Bos taurus) lungs using RNA-Seq technology and a subsequent comparison analysis to identify the positively selected genes in the yak...
December 28, 2017: Genetica
Josphat K Saina, Andrew W Gichira, Zhi-Zhong Li, Guang-Wan Hu, Qing-Feng Wang, Kuo Liao
The plant chloroplast (cp) genome is a highly conserved structure which is beneficial for evolution and systematic research. Currently, numerous complete cp genome sequences have been reported due to high throughput sequencing technology. However, there is no complete chloroplast genome of genus Dodonaea that has been reported before. To better understand the molecular basis of Dodonaea viscosa chloroplast, we used Illumina sequencing technology to sequence its complete genome. The whole length of the cp genome is 159,375 base pairs (bp), with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 27,099 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) 87,204 bp, and small single copy (SSC) 17,972 bp...
February 2018: Genetica
Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Alberto Marchal, Nadezda Kosyakova, Thomas Liehr, Vladimir Trifonov, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo
ere, we report that a paragraph from the "Discussion" section of Cioffi et al. (2011; p. 1070, 4th paragraph of column 1) was transcribed (with only minor edits) from an introductory paragraph previously published in Chromosome Research by O'Meally et al.
December 19, 2017: Genetica
Jun He, Jiaqi Xu, Xiao-Lin Wu, Stewart Bauck, Jungjae Lee, Gota Morota, Stephen D Kachman, Matthew L Spangler
SNP chips are commonly used for genotyping animals in genomic selection but strategies for selecting low-density (LD) SNPs for imputation-mediated genomic selection have not been addressed adequately. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the performance of eight LD (6K) SNP panels, each selected by a different strategy exploiting a combination of three major factors: evenly-spaced SNPs, increased minor allele frequencies, and SNP-trait associations either for single traits independently or for all the three traits jointly...
December 14, 2017: Genetica
Jihyun Yu, Bo-Hye Nam, Joon Yoon, Eun Bae Kim, Jung Youn Park, Heebal Kim, Sook Hee Yoon
To explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of endangered fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) within the baleen whale (Mysticeti) lineages, we analyzed 148 published mitochondrial genome sequences of baleen whales. We used a Bayesian coalescent approach as well as Bayesian inferences and maximum likelihood methods. The results showed that the fin whales had a single maternal origin, and that there is a significant correlation between geographic location and evolution of global fin whales. The most recent common female ancestor of this species lived approximately 9...
December 2017: Genetica
James Desaegher, Sophie Nadot, Isabelle Dajoz, Bruno Colas
Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015...
December 2017: Genetica
Peng Chen, Yuqing Han, Chaoying Zhu, Bin Gao, Luzhang Ruan
The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser (AGY)), which lost its "DHU" arm...
December 2017: Genetica
Guillaume Baudouin, Franck Dedeine, Nicolas Bech, Stéphanie Bankhead-Dronnet, Simon Dupont, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères
Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information...
December 2017: Genetica
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