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General and Comparative Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734797/the-effects-pf-continuously-acoustical-stress-on-cortisol-in-milkfish-chanos-chanos
#1
Chih An Wei, Tzu Hao Lin, Ruo Dong Chen, Yung-Che Tseng, Yi Ta Shao
Strong underwater acoustic noise has been known that may cause hearing loss and actual stress in teleost. However, the long-term physiological effects of relatively quiet but continuously noise on fish were less understood. In present study, milkfish, Chanos chanos, were exposed to the simulated-wind farm noise either quiet (109 dB re 1 μPa / 125.4 Hz; approx. 10-100m distant from the wind farm) or noisy (138 dB re 1 μPa / 125.4 Hz; nearby the wind farm) conditions for 24 hr, 3 days and 1 week. Comparing to the control group (80 dB re 1 μPa / 125...
July 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733229/estrogen-signaling-through-both-membrane-and-nuclear-receptors-in-the-liver-of-fathead-minnow
#2
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, B Sumith Jayasinghe, Kevin J Kroll, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Nancy D Denslow
Estradiol is a potent sex steroid hormone that controls reproduction and other cellular pathways in fish. It is known to regulate important proteins such as vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, and zona radiata proteins that form the eggshell for fish eggs. These proteins are made in the liver and transported out into the blood from where they are taken up into the ovary during oogenesis. Estradiol can exert its influence directly through soluble nuclear receptors (there are three in fish) or indirectly through membrane receptors and a phosphorylation cascade...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733228/progressive-erosion-of-the-relaxin1-gene-in-bovids
#3
Loggan Malone, Juan C Opazo, Peter L Ryan, Federico G Hoffmann
The relaxin/insulin-like (RLN/INSL) gene family is a group of genes that encode peptide hormones involved in a variety of physiological functions related to reproduction. Previous studies have shown that relaxin plays a key role in widening of the pubic bone during labor and in gamete maturation. Because of these functions, studying the evolution of RLN1, the gene encoding for relaxin, is relevant in livestock species, most of which belong in the group Laurasiatheria, which includes cow, pig, horse, goat, and sheep in addition to bats, cetaceans and carnivores...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733227/captivity-influences-immune-responses-stress-endocrinology-and-organ-size-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#4
Ashley C Love, Matthew B Lovern, Sarah E DuRant
Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733226/allatoregulatory-like-systems-and-changes-in-cytosolic-ca-2-modulate-feeding-behaviour-in-hydra
#5
María Eugenia Alzugaray, Jorge Rafael Ronderos
Allatotropin (AT) and allatostatin-C (AST-C) are neuropeptides originally characterized by their ability to modulate the secretion of juvenile hormones in insects. Beyond the allatoregulatory function, these neuropeptides are pleiotropic acting as myoregulators not only in insects, but also in other groups of invertebrates. We have previously proposed the existence of AT and AST-C like systems in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which is a basal group of Metazoa, sharing a common ancestor with Bilateria...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728885/characterization-of-the-neuropeptidome-of-a-southern-ocean-decapod-the-antarctic-shrimp-chorismus-antarcticus-focusing-on-a-new-decapod-itp-like-peptide-belonging-to-the-chh-peptide-family
#6
Jean-Yves Toullec, Erwan Corre, Perrine Mandon, Marcelo Gonzalez-Aravena, Céline Ollivaux, Chi-Ying Lee
As part of the study of the resilience of Antarctic crustaceans to global warming, the shrimp Chorismus antarcticus was subjected to an analysis of global approach using the Next Generation Sequencing Illumina Hi-Seq platform. With this data a detailed study into the principal neuropeptides and neurohormones of this species have been undertaken. Total RNAs from whole animals were enriched with eyestalk extracts to ensure maximum sequencing depth of the different neurohormones and neuropeptides mainly expressed into the X organ-sinus gland complex, which is a major endocrine organ of their synthesis...
July 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728884/glucocorticoid-programming-of-neuroimmune-function
#7
REVIEW
David J Walker, Karen A Spencer
Throughout life physiological systems strive to maintain homeostasis and these systems are susceptible to exposure to maternal or environmental perturbations, particularly during embryonic development. In some cases, these perturbations may influence genetic and physiological processes that permanently alter the functioning of these physiological systems; a process known as developmental programming. In recent years, the neuroimmune system has garnered attention for its fundamental interactions with key hormonal systems, such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716505/%C3%AE-methyltyrosine-a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-inhibitor-decreases-stress-response-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Renan Idalencio, Heloísa Helena de Alcantara Barcellos, Fabiana Kalichak, João Gabriel Santos da Rosa, Thiago Acosta Oliveira, Murilo Sander de Abreu, Michele Fagundes, Fernanda Dametto, Letícia Marcheto, Caio Maximino de Oliveira, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos
In this article, we show that the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-Methyl-L-tyrosine (AMPT) decreased the responsiveness of the zebrafish stress axis to an acute stressful challenge. These effects were specific for responses to stimulation, since unstimulated (basal) cortisol levels were not altered by AMPT. Moreover, AMPT decreased the stress response 15 min after stimulation, but not after that time period. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of AMPT on the neuroendocrine axis of adult zebrafish in acute stress responses...
July 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713045/cortisol-elevation-post-hatch-affects-behavioural-performance-in-zebrafish-larvae
#9
Carol Best, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Maternal cortisol is essential for cortisol stress axis development and de novo production of this steroid commences only after hatch in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, very little is known about the effect of elevated cortisol levels, during the critical period of stress axis activation, on larval performance. We tested the hypothesis that elevated cortisol levels post-hatch affect behavioural performance and this is mediated by glucocorticoid receptor activation in zebrafish larvae. The behavioural response included measuring larval activity in response to alternating light and dark cycles, as well as thigmotaxis...
July 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711512/seasonality-in-affective-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Anna Wirz-Justice
Humans retain neurobiological responses to circadian day-night cycles and seasonal changes in daylength in spite of a life-style usually independent of dawn-dusk signals. Seasonality has been documented in many functions, from mood to hormones to gene expression. Research on seasonal affective disorder initiated the first use of timed bright light as therapy, a treatment since extended to non-seasonal major depression and sleep-wake cycle disturbances in many psychiatric and medical illnesses. The growing recognition that sufficient light is important for psychological and somatic well-being is leading to the development of novel lighting solutions in architecture as well as focus on a more conscious exposure to natural daylight...
July 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705731/do-glucocorticoids-mediate-the-link-between-environmental-conditions-and-telomere-dynamics-in-wild-vertebrates-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Frédéric Angelier, David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Olivier Chastel
Following the discoveries of telomeres and of their implications in terms of health and ageing, there has been a growing interest into the study of telomere dynamics in wild vertebrates. Telomeres are repeated sequences of non-coding DNA located at the terminal ends of chromosomes and they play a major role in maintaining chromosome stability. Importantly, telomeres shorten over time and shorter telomeres seem to be related with lower survival in vertebrates. Because of this potential link with longevity, it is crucial to understand not only the ecological determinants of telomere dynamics but also the regulatory endocrine mechanisms that may mediate the effect of the environment on telomeres...
July 10, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697920/higher-plasma-corticosterone-is-associated-with-reduced-costs-of-infection-in-red-winged-blackbirds
#12
Laura A Schoenle, Ivana Schoepf, Nicole M Weinstein, Ignacio T Moore, Frances Bonier
Glucocorticoid hormones allow individuals to rapidly adjust their physiology and behavior to meet the challenges of a variable environment. An individual's baseline concentration of glucocorticoids can reflect shifts in life history stage and resource demands while mediating a suite of physiological and behavioral changes that include immune modulation and resource allocation. Thus, glucocorticoids could facilitate a response to parasites that is optimized for an individual's specific challenges and life history stage...
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690050/editorial-of-the-international-symposium-on-comparative-endocrinology-and-integrative-physiology-ceip-2015
#13
EDITORIAL
M C Subhash Peter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694056/the-involvement-of-rhopr-crf-dh-in-feeding-and-reproduction-in-the-blood-gorging-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#14
Shirin Mollayeva, Ian Orchard, Angela B Lange
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging insect and a vector for human Chagas disease. The insect transmits the disease following feeding, when it excretes urine and feces contaminated with the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. A corticotropin-releasing factor-like peptide acts as a diuretic hormone in R. prolixus (Rhopr-CRF/DH); however, its distribution throughout the insect's central nervous system (CNS) and the expression of its receptor in feeding-related tissue as well as the female reproductive system suggests a multifaceted role for the hormone beyond that of diuresis...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694055/estrogen-regulated-expression-of-cyp19a1a-and-cyp19a1b-genes-in-swim-up-fry-of-labeo-rohita
#15
Shreyasi Gupta, Sujata Roy Moulik, Puja Pal, Suravi Majumder, Sumana Das, Payel Guha, Subir Kumar Juin, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi, Dilip Mukherjee
P450 aromatase is the terminal enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway and catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The expression of cyp19a1 genes in brain and gonad of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita swim-up fry was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain-reaction. Results demonstrated that cyp19a1b and cyp19a1a predominate in brain and gonad respectively. Treatment of fry with an aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 6 days attenuated brain cyp19a1b expression, but not cyp19a1a of gonad. Fadrozole also attenuated brain aromatase activity...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694054/pancreatic-pyy-but-not-ppy-expression-is-responsive-to-short-term-nutritional-state-and-the-pancreas-constitutes-the-major-site-of-pyy-mrna-expression-in-chickens
#16
Angus M A Reid, Peter W Wilson, Sarah D Caughey, Laura M Dixon, Rick B D'Eath, Victoria Sandilands, Timothy Boswell, Ian C Dunn
PP-fold peptides such as peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) are known to play key roles in vertebrate energy homeostasis. Until recently, no gene sequence was available for avian PYY and therefore a gap in knowledge of regulation of its expression exists in avian species. Here we further evidence the mRNA sequence for chicken PYY and show that the pancreas is the major site of its mRNA expression, with a secondary peak of expression around the distal jejunum, in contrast to mammals where the large intestine is the major site of PYY expression...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694053/biased-signaling-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-from-a-chemokine-receptor-ccr7-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Astrid Sissel Jørgensen, Mette M Rosenkilde, Gertrud M Hjortø
Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and their associated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) work in a concerted manner to govern immune cell positioning in time and space. Promiscuity of both ligands and receptors, but also biased signaling within the chemokine system, adds to the complexity of how the cell-based immune system is controlled. Bias comes in three forms; ligand-, receptor- and tissue-bias. Biased signaling is increasingly being recognized as playing an important role in contributing to the fine-tuned coordination of immune cell chemotaxis...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694052/group-housing-during-adolescence-has-long-term-effects-on-the-adult-stress-response-in-female-but-not-male-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#18
Michael G Emmerson, Karen A Spencer
Adolescent social interactions can have long-term effects on physiological responses to stressors in later-life. A larger adolescent group size can result in higher stressor-induced secretion of glucocorticoids in adulthood. The effect may be due to a socially-mediated modulation of gonadal hormones, e.g. testosterone. However, group size (number of animals) has been conflated with social density (space per animal). Therefore it is hard to determine the mechanisms through which adolescent group size can affect the stress response...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690049/initial-validation-of-blubber-cortisol-and-progesterone-as-indicators-of-stress-response-and-maturity-in-an-otariid-the-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#19
Nicole E Beaulieu-McCoy, Kathryn K Sherman, Marisa L Trego, Daniel E Crocker, Nicholas M Kellar
Chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. The use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. We measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, stranded in San Diego County and those incidentally killed in the California drift gillnet fishery. We also measured progesterone concentrations to assess female reproductive status and, in males, as a potential secondary measure of adrenal steroid production...
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673514/kisspeptins-and-their-receptors-in-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-of-odonthestes-bonariensis-their-relationship-with-gametogenesis-along-the-reproductive-cycle
#20
M Oswaldo Tovar Bohórquez, Alejandro S Mechaly, Mariano Elisio, Tomás Chalde, Luis F Canosa, Leandro A Miranda, Gustavo M Somoza
In vertebrates, the reproduction is controlled by the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis and kisspeptin has emerged as a key player of this axis. In this study, we analyzed changes in the expression levels of kiss1, kiss2, and their receptors, kissr2 and kissr3 during gametogenesis in the BPG axis of feral Odontesthes bonariensis. In females, levels of brain kiss1 showed an increase at final maturation (Fm), while kiss2 levels were shown to be high at primary growth (Pg) stage, with no differences in the expression of their receptors...
June 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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