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General and Comparative Endocrinology

Jozef Vanden Broeck, Horst-Werner Korf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Krist N Hausken, Timothy J Marquis, Stacia A Sower
All jawed vertebrates have three canonical glycoprotein hormones (GpHs: luteinizing hormone, LH; follicle stimulating hormone, FSH; and thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) with three corresponding GpH receptors (GpH-Rs: LH-R, FSH-R and TSH-R). In contrast, we propose that the jawless vertebrate, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), only has two pituitary glycoprotein hormones, lamprey (l)GpH and l-thyrostimulin, and two functional glycoprotein receptors, lGpH-R I and II. It is not known at this time whether there is a specific receptor for lGpH and l-thyrostimulin, or if both GpHs can differentially activate the lGpH-Rs...
November 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Kenshiro Shikano, Shusuke Taniuchi, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
Recently we discovered a small hypothalamic protein in the chicken, named neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), which is associated with body growth and energy metabolism in birds and rodents. Genome database analysis suggested that the NPGL gene has a paralogous gene in vertebrates, named neurosecretory protein GM (NPGM). However, the biological action of NPGM remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether NPGM affects body growth in chicks. We found that subcutaneous infusion of NPGM for six days increased body mass gain in a dose-dependent manner...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Qu Chen, Liqiong Niu, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress seriously threatens welfare and health in animals and humans. Consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used to mimic chronic stress previously. In order to investigate the effect of chronic stress on hepatic lipids metabolism, in this study, 10 healthy male goats were randomly allocated into two groups, one received a consecutive injection of Dex via intramuscularly for 3 weeks (Dex group), the other received the same volume of saline as the control group (Con group). Hepatic health and triglyceride (TG) metabolism were analyzed and compared between two groups...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maithé Corbani, Rafik Marir, Miguel Trueba, Magda Chafai, Anne Vincent, Amélie M Borie, Michel G Desarménien, Yoichi Ueta, Csaba Tomboly, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Gilles Guillon
It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V1A/V1B receptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective V1B markers. In the present study, we have determined the pharmacological properties of three new potent rat V1B fluorescent ligands and demonstrated that they constitute valuable tools for simultaneous visualization and activation of native V1B receptors in living rat brain tissue...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Rocco V Carsia, Patrick J McIlroy, Henry B John-Alder
Our previous work with adrenocortical cells from several Sceloporus lizard species suggests that gonadal hormones influence the steroidogenic capacity and the sensitivity to ACTH. However, there are discrepancies in these cellular response parameters suggesting that the effects of gonadal hormones on adrenocortical function vary with species, sex, age, season, and environmental/experimental conditions. To gain further insight into these complex interactions, here we report studies on Coleonyx elegans, Eublepharidae (Yucatán Banded Gecko), which is only distantly related to Sceloporus lizards via a basal common ancestor and in captivity, reproduces throughout the year...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
R Medini, M Bhagya, S Samson
Lizards are seasonal breeders. Cyclic reproductive nature makes lizard as a useful model for the study of the reproductively active protein secretions in the epididymis. During breeding season, the epididymides of the lizard secret proteins that mixes with the spermatozoa and create a favourable environment for sperm maturation. In this spectrum, the aim of this study is to identify and characterize proteins which are present in the lumen of the epididymis of the lizard, E. carinata during the active phase of reproduction...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Phoebe D Edwards, Rudy Boonstra
Pregnancy is one of the defining characteristics of placental mammals. Key in the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy are the dynamics of glucocorticoids (GCs) and their binding protein - corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which determines how much of the GCs are free and biologically active. Out of more than 5,000 species of placental mammals in 19 different orders, our understanding of the dynamics of maternal GCs and CBG during pregnancy is largely limited to the detailed study of 3 groups - sheep, laboratory rodents, and humans...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Lan Liu, Yan Chen, Dawei Wang, Ning Li, Cong Guo, Xiaohui Liu
The Dio2/3 gene is related to the photoperiodic response in mammals and plays an important role in the development of gonadal organs and seasonal breeding. Our previous studies have reported synchronous variations in the gonadal mass and photoperiodical transition around the summer solstice in a wild Brandt's vole population, a species with striking seasonal breeding. To investigate the role of the Dio2/3 gene in the control of seasonal breeding in this species, we cloned and characterized its expression levels by high-throughput Real-Time PCR during the period around the summer solstice...
November 15, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Els Lismont, Nele Mortelmans, Heleen Verlinden, Jozef Vanden Broeck
SIFamides (SIFa) are a family of neuropeptides that are highly conserved among arthropods. In insects, this peptide is mainly expressed in four medial interneurons in the pars intercerebralis and affects sexual behavior, sleep regulation and pupal mortality. Furthermore, an influence on the hatching rate has been observed. The first SIFa receptor (SIFR) was pharmacologically characterized in Drosophila melanogaster and is homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) receptor (NPFFR). In this study, we pharmacologically characterized the SIFR of the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris...
November 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
S N Politis, A Servili, D Mazurais, J-L Zambonino-Infante, J J Miest, J Tomkiewicz, I A E Butts
Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of growth, development, and metabolism in vertebrates and influence early life development of fish. TH is produced in the thyroid gland (or thyroid follicles) mainly as T4 (thyroxine), which is metabolized to T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) and T2 (3,5-diiodothyronine) by deiodinase (DIO) enzymes in peripheral tissues. The action of these hormones is mostly exerted by binding to a specific nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (THR). In this study, we i) cloned and characterized thr sequences, ii) investigated the expression pattern of the different subtypes of thrs and dios, and iii) studied how temperature affects the expression of those genes in artificially produced early life history stages of European eel (Anguilla anguilla), reared in different thermal regimes (16, 18, 20 and 22°C) from hatch until first-feeding...
November 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Minli Yu, Yali Xu, Ming Li, Dongfeng Li, Yinglin Lu, Debing Yu, Wenxing Du
Bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine-disrupting chemical with weak estrogenic activity affects formation of primordial follicles. This study aimed to identify the potential effects and molecular mechanisms of BPA on meiosis and primordial follicle formation in chickens. The results suggest that the cortical layer was thickened and the number of germ cells that entered into meiosis was increased in BPA-treated ovaries. The percentage of γH2AX-positive cells increased significantly. In addition, up-regulated mRNA expression of meiotic genes, including stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), disrupted meiotic cDNA 1 homologue (Dmc1) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) were observed in BPA-treated ovaries...
November 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Takashi Yada, Miyuki Mekuchi, Nobuhiko Ojima
Immune-endocrine interactions are an important pathogen resistance mechanism in fish. We review the immune-endocrine interactions in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, with special reference to high throughput gene sequencing. These data may be relevant to the significant decrease in the eel harvest in recent years and will aid in the selection of appropriate disease-resistant strains for aquaculture. More than 1,000 sequences that whose expression in elvers responded to air exposure were identified through comprehensive gene expression analysis using next-generation sequencing...
November 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Diana E K Campbell, Valerie S Langlois
Thyroid hormones (THs) and androgens have been shown to be extensively involved in sexual development; however, relatively little is known with regard to TH-related and androgenic actions in sex determination. We first established expression profiles of three sex-determining genes (sf1, dax-1, and sox9) during the embryonic development of Western clawed frogs (Silurana tropicalis). Transcripts of sf1 and sox9 were detected in embryos before the period in which embryonic transcription commences indicating maternal transfer, whereas dax-1 transcripts were not detected until later in development...
October 28, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Stacia A Sower
The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) system, which is specific to vertebrates, is considered to be an evolutionary innovation that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral jawless vertebrates (agnathans) leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions. Along with hagfish, lampreys represent the oldest lineage of vertebrates, agnathans (jawless fish). This review will highlight our discoveries of the major components of the lamprey HP axis. Generally, gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) have one or two hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) while lampreys have three hypothalamic GnRHs...
October 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Wuhong Lv, Pengxin Jiang, Wenqiang Wang, Xiaotong Wang, Kai Wang, Linrui Chang, Yan Fang, Jun Chen
Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays important roles in regulating steroidogenesis and reproductive development of vertebrates. In the present paper, we study function of LH on early ovarian development of orange-spotted grouper by electrotransfer of single-chain LH gene into skeletal muscle for the first time. Short-term and long-term injection experiments were performed in this work, respectively. For short-term injection experiments, fish received one electrotransfer with the plasmid in skeletal muscle, then blood and muscle around the injected area were sampled 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after the injection, mRNA expression levels of LH gene relative to 18S were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays and serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were quantified by ELISA method...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
John C Wingfield, Michaela Hau, P Dee Boersma, L Michael Romero, Nigella Hillgarth, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Peter Wrege, Robert Scheibling, J Patrick Kelley, Brian Walker, Martin Wikelski
El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of 1999. Plasma levels of corticosterone were measured in samples collected at capture (to represent non-stressed baseline) and subsequently up to one hour post-capture to give maximum corticosterone following acute stress, and total amount of corticosterone that the individual was exposed to during the test period (integrated corticosterone)...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yugo Watanabe, Sylvia V H Grommen, Bert De Groef
In chicken, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts as a thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing factor, mediated by the type 2 CRH receptor (CRHR2) on the thyrotropes of the pituitary gland. It is not known whether CRH also controls TSH release in non-precocial avian species that have a different pattern of thyroidal activity during their life cycle. Therefore, we investigated the TSH-releasing capacity of CRH in an altricial species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Cellular localisation of type 1 CRH receptor (CRHR1) and CRHR2 mRNA in the pituitary was determined by in situ hybridisation, combined with immunohistochemical staining of pituitary thyrotropes...
October 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Juan Tian, Kaidi Wang, Xuan Wang, Hua Wen, Huihui Zhou, Chengdong Liu, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Soybean saponin (SA) is known as a major anti-nutritional factor that causes metabolic disturbances and growth reduction in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects were far from fully understood. In particular, the influences of SA on nutrient sensing and downstream metabolic pathways remain largely unexplored. Using zebrafish as an animal model, this study was conducted to examine the phenotypic and molecular responses after dietary SA treatment for 2 weeks. SA at both 5 and 10 g/kg diet levels significantly reduced growth performance and feed efficiency, and damaged the morphology of the intestinal mucosa...
October 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
João C R Cardoso, Rute C Félix, Carina Costa, Pedro F S Palma, Adelino V M Canário, Deborah M Power
In fishes, including the jawless lampreys, the most ancient lineage of extant vertebrates, plasma glucose levels are highly variable and regulation is more relaxed than in mammals. The regulation of glucose and lipid in fishes in common with mammals involves members of the glucagon (GCG)-like family of gastrointestinal peptides. In mammals, four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist. However, in lamprey and other fishes the glucagon-like family evolved differently and they retained additional gene family members (glucagon-related peptide, gcrp and its receptor, gcrpr) that are absent from mammals...
October 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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