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General and Comparative Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647319/in-vitro-stimulation-of-vitellogenin-expression-by-insulin-in-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-mediated-through-pi3k-akt-tor-pathway
#1
Xiaoshuai Huang, Biyun Feng, Huiyang Huang, Haihui Ye
Vitellogenin (vtg) synthesis, known as vitellogenesis, is one of most important processes in the ovarian development of oviparous animals. Recently, multiple insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been reported in crustacean species due to the application of transcriptome sequencing. In this context, the present study reports that the addition of an exogenous ILP, bovine insulin, stimulates vtg (termed Sp-vtg) expression in hepatopancreatic explants from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, by in vitro experiments...
June 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647318/expression-of-genes-for-melanotropic-peptides-and-their-receptors-for-morphological-color-change-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#2
Kanta Mizusawa, Yutaka Yamamura, Satoshi Kasagi, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, Akiyoshi Takahashi
To evaluate the association of the melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change, we investigated the effects of changes in background color, between white and black, on xanthophore density in the scales and expression levels of genes for hormonal peptides and corresponding receptors (MCH-R2, MC1R, and MC5R) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The xanthophore density in both dorsal and ventral scales increased after transfer from a white to black background. However, xanthophore density in dorsal scales increased after transfer from a black to white background, and that of ventral scales decreased after transfer from a black-to-black background, which served as the control...
June 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645634/hormonal-behavior-correlates-with-follicular-recruitment-at-mid-gestation-in-the-south-american-plains-vizcacha-lagostomus-maximus-rodentia-caviomorpha
#3
Nicolas Alejandro Fraunhoffer, Federico Jensen, Noelia Leopardo, Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Analía Meilerman Abuelafia, María Beatriz Espinosa, Santiago Elías Charif, Verónica Berta Dorfman, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
In mammals, hormonal regulation during gestation is crucial for embryo implantation and pregnancy success. This regulation is controlled through the level of progesterone (P4) that blocks the activity of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. Previous studies in the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, have shown that the HHG axis activates around mid-gestation, promoting pre-ovulatory follicle formation. However, the characterization of the hormonal dynamics throughout gestation and its ovarian correlation has not been studied in depth...
June 20, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636887/temporal-dynamics-of-the-hpa-axis-linked-to-exploratory-behavior-in-a-wild-european-songbird-parus-major
#4
Alexander T Baugh, Sarah C Davidson, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
Variation in the reactivity of the endocrine stress axis is thought to underlie aspects of persistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality). Previous studies, however, have focused largely on estimating baseline or peak levels of glucocorticoids (CORT), often in captive animals. In contrast, the temporal dynamics of the HPA axis-how quickly it turns on and off, for example-may better indicate how an individual copes with stressors. Moreover, these HPA components might be correlated, thereby representing endocrine suites...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636888/responsiveness-of-pituitary-to-galanin-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle-of-male-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#5
P Pinto, Z Velez, C Sousa, S Santos, A Andrade, M V Alvarado, A Felip, S Zanuy, A V M Canário
The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage...
June 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634083/effects-of-the-soya-isoflavone-genistein-in-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-thyroid-estrogenic-and-metabolic-biomarkers
#6
Carmen Sarasquete, Maria Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan Bosco Ortiz-Delgado
This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634082/cytokine-modulation-by-stress-hormones-and-antagonist-specific-hormonal-inhibition-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-head-kidney-primary-cell-culture
#7
Ali Reza Khansari, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599837/measurement-of-testosterone-and-cortisol-metabolites-and-luteinising-hormone-in-captive-southern-hairy-nosed-wombat-lasiorhinus-latifrons-urine
#8
Z Du, T Keeley, T Janssen, V Nicolson, S D Johnston
This study reports the validation and use of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to measure changes in plasma and urinary luteinizing hormone, testosterone metabolites (UTM) and cortisol metabolites (UCM) in captive southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). GnRH agonist and ACTH agonist challenges were conducted to validate urinary testosterone (male wombat only) and cortisol (male and female wombats) EIAs. Following intra-muscular injection of 8-12μg buserelin (n=4 males), there was a significant increase in both plasma (P<0...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596079/avian-genomics-lends-insights-into-endocrine-function-in-birds
#9
REVIEW
C V Mello, P V Lovell
The genomics era has brought along the completed sequencing of a large number of bird genomes that cover a broad range of the avian phylogenetic tree (>30 orders), leading to major novel insights into avian biology and evolution. Among recent findings, the discovery that birds lack a large number of protein coding genes that are organized in highly conserved syntenic clusters in other vertebrates is very intriguing, given the physiological importance of many of these genes. A considerable number of them play prominent endocrine roles, suggesting that birds evolved compensatory genetic or physiological mechanisms that allowed them to survive and thrive in spite of these losses...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622978/the-evolution-and-nomenclature-of-gnrh-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptide-signaling-systems
#10
REVIEW
Meet Zandawala, Shi Tian, Maurice R Elphick
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622977/evolution-of-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoreceptors-in-vertebrates-adra2d-is-absent-in-mammals-and-crocodiles
#11
Héctor A Céspedes, Kattina Zavala, Michael W Vandewege, Juan C Opazo
Evolutionary studies of genes that have been functionally characterized and whose variation has been associated with pathological conditions represent an opportunity to understand the genetic basis of pathologies. α2-Adrenoreceptors (ADRA2) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that regulate several physiological processes including blood pressure, platelet aggregation, insulin secretion, lipolysis, and neurotransmitter release. This gene family has been extensively studied from a molecular/physiological perspective, yet much less is known about its evolutionary history...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619288/effects-of-exogenous-leptin-on-seasonal-reproductive-responses-to-interacting-environmental-cues-in-female-siberian-hamsters
#12
Allison M Bailey, Sandra J Legan, Vicky J Meretsky, Gregory E Demas
Animals living in temperate climates respond to environmental cues that signal current and future resource availability to ensure that energy resources are available to support reproduction. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) undergo robust gonadal regression in short, winter-like photoperiods as well as in response to mild food restriction in intermediate photoperiods. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether leptin is a relevant metabolic signal in regulating gonadal regression in response to diminishing food availability...
June 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602789/age-associated-and-deslorelin-induced-declines-in-serum-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-concentrations-in-female-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#13
Ned J Place, Adrienne E Crosier, Pierre Comizzoli, Jennifer B Nagashima, Holly Haefele, Anne Schmidt-Küntzel, Laurie L Marker
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is widely used in human medicine to non-invasively estimate the size of the ovarian follicle reserve and to predict the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation in the context of assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., IVF). These applications of AMH testing have recently expanded to non-human mammals, with production animals, such as cows, goats and sheep being the primary focus of AMH research. However, few investigations have involved exotic species, and in particular carnivores...
June 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596078/identification-of-an-oxytocinase-vasopressinase-like-leucyl-cystinyl-aminopeptidase-lnpep-in-teleost-fish-and-evidence-for-hypothalamic-mrna-expression-linked-to-behavioral-social-status
#14
Emma A Elkins, Kayla A Walti, Kathryn E Newberry, Sean C Lema
The vasotocin/vasopressin and isotocin/mesotocin/oxytocin family of nonapeptides regulate social behaviors and physiological functions associated with reproductive physiology and osmotic balance. While experimental and correlative studies provide evidence for these nonapeptides as modulators of behavior across all classes of vertebrates, mechanisms for nonapeptide inactivation in regulating these functions have been largely overlooked. Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) - also known as vasopressinase, oxytocinase, placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) - is a membrane-bound zinc-dependent metalloexopeptidase enzyme that inactivates vasopressin, oxytocin, and select other cyclic polypeptides...
June 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579335/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-the-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-receptor-isoforms-from-mamestra-brassicae
#15
József Fodor, J Joe Hull, Gabriella Köblös, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Tamás Szlanka, Adrien Fónagy
In most moth species, including Mamestra brassicae, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) regulates pheromone production. Generally, PBAN acts directly on the pheromone gland (PG) cells via its specific G protein-coupled receptor (i.e. PBANR) with Ca(2+) as a second messenger. In this study, we identified cDNAs encoding three variants (A, B and C) of the M. brassicae PBANR (Mambr-PBANR). The full-length coding sequences were transiently expressed in cultured Trichoplusia ni cells and Sf9 cells for functional characterization...
June 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577898/the-nexus-of-hair-corticosterone-level-immunocompetence-metabolic-rates-and-overwinter-survival-in-the-root-vole-microtus-oeconomus
#16
Aneta Książek, Karol Zub, Paulina A Szafrańska, Monika Wieczorek, Marek Konarzewski
Although corticosterone (CORT) regulates many physiological mechanisms, the associations between CORT levels, immunocompetence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival have not been examined. Here, we studied individual variation in CORT level extracted from hair, immunocompetence quantified as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels (NAbs), along with the resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus...
May 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577897/time-as-tyrant-the-minute-hour-and-day-make-a-difference-for-corticosterone-concentrations-in-wild-nestlings
#17
Amy E M Newman, Helmi Hess, Bradley K Woodworth, D Ryan Norris
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been studied extensively in adults, but the HPA axis in early life is not well characterized, and there is an immense amount of unexplained variation in glucocorticoid levels during early life, especially in wild animals. To characterize population-wide natural variation in early-life HPA axis function, we compared plasma corticosterone levels (at baseline and after 30min acute restraint-stress) from seven-day-old nestlings (n=123) from a free-living, marked population of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis)...
May 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576420/effects-of-dietary-arachidonic-acid-on-the-reproductive-physiology-of-female-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-l
#18
Birgitta Norberg, Lene Kleppe, Eva Andersson, Anders Thorsen, Grethe Rosenlund, Kristin Hamre
The present study was designed to investigate potential effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) on the reproductive physiology of female Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Two-year old Atlantic cod of both sexes were equally distributed into eight sea cages after completion of their first spawning in May 2005. Four experimental groups were established and fed diets with different levels of ARA corresponding to 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% of total fatty acid. Ovarian growth and development was documented every month. Fatty acid composition was analysed in ovaries, liver and plasma at the beginning of the experiment, one month prior to spawning, and in spent fish, one month after spawning was completed...
May 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559207/corticosterone-regulation-in-house-sparrows-invading-senegal
#19
Lynn B Martin, Holly J Kilvitis, Massamba Thiam, Daniel R Ardia
What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc...
May 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554734/effects-of-chronic-intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-neurosecretory-protein-gl-on-body-mass-and-food-and-water-intake-in-chicks
#20
Kenshiro Shikano, Masaki Kato, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, Daichi Matsuura, Keiko Masuda, Tetsuya Tachibana, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
Recently, we discovered a novel cDNA encoding the precursor of a small secretory protein, neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), in the chicken mediobasal hypothalamus. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NPGL was produced in the infundibular and medial mammillary nuclei of the mediobasal hypothalamus, with immunoreactive fibers also detected in the hypothalamus and the median eminence. As it is known that these regions are involved in feeding behavior in chicks, we surveyed the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NPGL on feeding behavior and body mass for a period of two weeks...
May 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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