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General and Comparative Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243886/age-related-nomograms-of-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-levels-in-female-monkeys-comparison-of-rhesus-macaca-mulatta-and-cynomolgus-macaca-fascicularis-monkeys
#1
Hui Long, Yan Wang, Li Wang, Yong Lu, Yanhong Nie, Yijun Cai, Zhen Liu, Miaomiao Jia, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Qiang Sun
AMH is regarded as a promising predictor for ovarian reserve in humans and non-human primate, and widely used in human medicine to predict ovarian response to gonadotropin, menopause and premature ovarian failure. However, large data set on the range of AMH levels in nonhuman primates is still scarce, which limited its applications largely. In this study, age-related AMH nomograms of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) were produced and compared. 219 rhesus and 529 cynomolgus monkeys ranging from infancy to adult were included...
September 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243885/distinct-microrna-and-mrna-responses-elicited-by-ecdysone-diapause-hormone-and-a-diapause-hormone-analog-at-diapause-termination-in-pupae-of-the-corn-earworm-helicoverpa-zea
#2
Julie A Reynolds, Ronald J Nachman, David L Denlinger
Ecdysone, diapause hormone and a diapause hormone analog are all capable of breaking pupal diapause and prompting initiation of adult development in the cotton earworm, Helicoverpa zea. In this study we asked whether these three chemically-distinct diapause terminators elicit the same effect on expression of a collection of microRNAs and transcripts encoding components of the ecdysone signaling pathway. Injection of all three endocrine agents resulted in downregulation of one miRNA, miR-277-3p, a miRNA previously linked to the insulin/FOXO signaling pathway, and all three agents promoted upregulation of spook, a member of the ecdysone biosynthesis pathway, and iswi, an ecdysone-responsive transcript...
September 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244057/bisphenol-a-induced-abnormal-dna-methylation-of-ovarian-steroidogenic-genes-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#3
Ting Zhang, Yongjing Guan, Song Wang, Lihong Wang, Mengqian Cheng, Cong Yuan, Yan Liu, Zaizhao Wang
Bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental endocrine disruptor chemical, disturbs the mRNA expressions of steroidogenic genes and subsequently steroid hormone synthesis in mammals and aquatic species. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms are barely understood, especially in fish. To explore the regulation mechanism, we exposed female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus (G. rarus) to BPA at a nominal concentration of 15 μg/ L for 7 and 14 days in the present study. Results showed significant increase of gonad somatic index (GSI) and serum estradiol (E2) levels in response to BPA at day 14...
September 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244056/physiological-relevance-of-nitric-oxide-in-ovarian-functions-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Poulomi Nath, Sudipta Maitra
Nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen monoxide), a short-lived, free radical carrying an unpaired electron, is one of the smallest molecules synthesized in the biological system. In addition to its role in angiogenesis, neuronal function and inflammatory response, NO has wide-spread significance in regulation of ovarian function in vertebrates. Based on tissue-specific expression, three different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, neuronal (nNOS) or NOS1, inducible (iNOS) or NOS2 and endothelial (eNOS) or NOS3 have been identified...
September 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244055/insights-from-zebrafish-deficiency-models-to-understand-the-impact-of-local-thyroid-hormone-regulator-action-on-early-development
#5
REVIEW
Pieter Vancamp, Anne M Houbrechts, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) stimulate and coordinate a wide range of processes to ensure normal development, mainly by binding of the most active TH 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ) to nuclear receptors resulting in changes in gene transcription. Local TH action is monitored at three distinct levels by different types of regulators: transmembrane transporters (TH influx and efflux), deiodinases (TH activation and inactivation) and nuclear receptors (TH signalling). Since TH regulators are strongly conserved among vertebrate species, the externally and rapidly developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become one of the favourite models to study their role in TH-dependent development...
September 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244054/socially-regulated-estrogen-in-an-eavesdropping-brood-parasite
#6
Kathleen S Lynch, Gulnoza Azieva, Anthony Pellicano
Social regulation of reproductive hormones is a means by which conspecific males and females orchestrate successful reproductive efforts. We investigate whether social cues modify activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the specificity of this response in a social parasite that is known to eavesdrop on the communication signals of other species: the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). Brown-headed cowbirds are obligate brood parasites that do not build nests or care for their own young...
September 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236970/photoperiodic-regulation-of-plasma-gonadotropin-levels-in-previtellogenic-greater-amberjack-seriola-dumerili
#7
Mitsuo Nyuji, Kazuhisa Hamada, Yukinori Kazeto, Miyuki Mekuchi, Koichiro Gen, Kiyoshi Soyano, Koichi Okuzawa
In Seriola species, exposure to a long photoperiod regime is known to induce ovarian development. This study examined photoperiodic effects on pituitary gene expression and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) in previtellogenic greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). The fish were exposed to short (8L:16D) or long (18L:6D) photoperiod. The water temperature was maintained at 22 °C. Compared with the short-photoperiod group, plasma Fsh levels were higher on days 10 and 30 in the long-photoperiod group, but plasma Lh levels did not significantly differ...
September 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195026/immunomodulation-by-testosterone-and-corticosterone-in-toads-experimental-evidences-from-transdermal-application
#8
Carla Bonetti Madelaire, Bruna de Oliveira Cassettari, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Androgens and glucocorticoids play important roles in vertebrate's reproduction and display complex immunomodulatory functions that may affect survival. In anurans, testosterone and corticosterone are correlated to sexual behavior, reproduction, and immune function. Male toads (Rhinella jimi) were treated with acute doses of testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT) and immune variables (plasma bacterial killing ability [BKA], swelling after phytohemagglutinin [PHA] injection and the time point of maximum PHA swelling response) were measured...
September 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195025/testis-structure-spermatogonial-niche-and-sertoli-cell-efficiency-in-neotropical-fish
#9
REVIEW
Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva, Maira da Silva Rodrigues, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega
Neotropical icthyofauna represents one of the most diverse and extreme ecosystems in the world. Likewise, reproduction showed enormous diversity with different reproductive systems, modes and behavior. On the other hand, information on Neotropical fish species, in particular on male reproductive physiology is restricted to few species. This mini-review aimed to compile the existing information on spermatogenesis of Neotropical teleosts focusing on testis structure, spermatogonial niche and Sertoli cell efficiency...
September 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195024/angiopoietin-expression-in-ovine-corpora-lutea-during-the-luteal-phase-effects-of-nutrition-arginine-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone
#10
Aykut Gram, Dale A Redmer, Mariusz P Kowalewski, Sheri T Dorsam, Veselina Valkov, Prajakta Warang, Arshi Reyaz, Casie S Bass, Samantha L Kaminski, Anna T Grazul-Bilska
The aim of this study was to evaluate angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor 2 (TIE2) expression in the corpora lutea (CL) of FSH-treated, or non-treated sheep administered arginine (Arg) or vehicle (saline, Sal), and fed a control (C), excess (O) or restricted (U) diet. Ewes from each dietary group were treated with Arg or Sal (experiment 1), and with FSH (experiment 2). Luteal tissues were collected at the early-, mid- and/or late-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Protein and mRNA expression was determined using immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively...
September 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195023/melanin-concentrating-hormone-is-a-major-substance-mediating-light-wavelength-dependent-skin-color-change-in-larval-zebrafish
#11
Kanta Mizusawa, Satoshi Kasagi, Akiyoshi Takahashi
Melanosome dispersion is important for protecting the internal organs of fish against ultraviolet light, especially in transparent larvae with underdeveloped skin. Melanosome dispersion leads to dark skin color in dim light. Melanosome aggregation, on the other hand, leads to pale skin color in bright light. Both of these mechanisms are therefore useful for camouflage. In this study, we investigated a hormone thought to be responsible for the light wavelength-dependent response of melanophores in zebrafish larvae...
September 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189192/changes-in-mrna-abundance-of-insulin-like-growth-factors-in-the-brain-and-liver-of-a-tropical-damselfish-chrysiptera-cyanea-in-relation-to-seasonal-and-food-manipulated-reproduction
#12
Angka Mahardini, Chihiro Yamauchi, Yuki Takeuchi, Dinda Rizky, Hiroki Takekata, Akihiro Takemura
Food availability can become a factor driving the reproductive activity of tropical fish, particularly when primary production within their habitats fluctuates with tropical monsoons. The present study examined the involvement of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in controlling the reproduction of the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, a reef-associated damselfish that is capable of manipulating its reproductive activity based on food availability. We cloned and characterized the cDNAs of igf1 and igf2 and determined their transcript levels in relation to seasonal and food-manipulated reproduction...
September 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189191/identifying-neuropeptide-gpcrs-in-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-by-combinatorial-bioinformatics-analysis
#13
Chenchang Bao, Yanan Yang, Chaoshu Zeng, Huiyang Huang, Haihui Ye
Neuropeptides, ubiquitous signaling molecules, commonly achieve their signaling function via interaction with cell membrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In recent years, in the midst of the rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology, the amount of available information on encoded neuropeptides and their GPCRs sequences have increased dramatically. The repertoire of neuropeptides has been determined in many crustaceans, including the commercially important mud crab, Scylla paramamosain; however, determination of GPCRs is known to be more difficult and usually requires in vitro binding tests...
September 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172709/molecular-evolution-of-prolactin-in-chiroptera-accelerated-evolution-and-a-large-insertion-in-vespertilionid-bats
#14
Michael Wallis
Pituitary prolactin (PRL) shows an episodic pattern of evolution in mammals, with a slow underlying rate (near stasis) and periods of rapid change in some groups. PRL evolution in bats, the second most speciose mammalian order, has not previously been studied, and is examined here. Slow basal evolution of PRL is seen in some bats, particularly megabats, but in most microbat groups evolution of PRL is more rapid. Accelerated evolution of PRL is particularly notable in the family Vespertilionidae, where analysis of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions indicates that it reflects adaptive evolution/positive selection...
August 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145237/social-environment-affects-central-distribution-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-peromyscus-californicus
#15
Michael G Ruscio, S Bradley King, Serena-Kaye Kinley-Cooper, Greer McKendrick
Social environment has well-established effects on an animal's social behavior and associated neuroendocrine responses. The presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in limbic system brain regions is related to the expression of a variety of social, reproductive and aggressive behaviors. We hypothesized that alterations to the social environment, specifically social isolation, would cause changes in ERα throughout the limbic system. The number of ERα immunoreactive (ERα-ir) cells within specific limbic system brain regions was quantified in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), isolated or same sex pair-housed for 4 or 24 days...
August 23, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145236/quantification-of-plasma-corticosterone-in-juvenile-farmed-saltwater-crocodiles-crocodylus-porosus-using-current-australian-code-of-practice-guidelines
#16
Sally R Isberg, John W Finger, Peter C Thomson
Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) across three size categories (hatchlings, grower and harvest-size) were repeatedly blood sampled on two farms in the Northern Territory, Australia to determine reference plasma corticosterone (CORT; crocodilian stress hormone) levels. The mean CORT values for hatchlings (<1 year old), growers (1-3 years) and harvest-size individuals (2 + years) were 1.65 ± 0.15 ng/ml, 2.73 ± 0.21 ng/ml and 2.19 ± 0.16 ng/ml, respectively. No inter-farm differences within the hatchling or harvest-size crocodiles were detected, but growers on Farm 2 had significantly lower plasma CORT than those on Farm 1...
August 23, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144443/different-roles-of-camp-pka-and-pkc-signaling-in-regulating-progesterone-and-pge-2-levels-in-immortalized-rat-granulosa-cell-cultures
#17
Ala Nemer, Abed N Azab, Gilad Rimon, Sergio Lamprecht, David Ben-Menahem
Follicular cells from various species secrete steroids and prostaglandins, which are crucial for reproduction, in response to gonadotropins. Here, we examined prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) secretion from immortalized rat granulosa cells derived from preovulaotry follicles expressing the rat follicle stimulating hormone receptor (denoted as FSHR cells) that produce progesterone in response to gonadotropins. The cells were stimulated with a) pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG; a rat FSH receptor agonist), b) activators of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway (forskolin and a cell permeable cAMP analog Dibutyryl-cAMP (DB-cAMP)) and c) protein kinase C (PKC) (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate; TPA), alone and in combination for 24 h...
August 22, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125573/influence-of-temperature-size-and-confinement-on-testosterone-and-corticosterone-levels-in-breeding-male-spined-toads-bufo-spinosus
#18
François Brischoux, Olivier Lourdais, Alexandre Boissinot, Frédéric Angelier
Winter breeding amphibians opportunistically engage in reproductive behaviour when environmental conditions become favourable. In such explosive breeding systems, males strongly compete for reproductive females. Although most research has been oriented on species in which males use mating calls to attract females, many high-density explosive breeding amphibians do not rely on mating calls. In such systems, larger and stronger males are thought to have significant advantages to access reproductive females. Testosterone (T) is expected to increase with the physical attributes that facilitate access to females, while increased corticosterone levels (CORT) are needed to sustain the energetic requirements associated with mating behaviour...
August 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125572/expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-its-receptor-in-preovulatory-follicles-and-in-the-corpus-luteum-in-the-bitch
#19
Orsolya Balogh, Linda Müller, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski, Iris M Reichler
In the bitch, ovarian follicular and corpus luteum (CL) development and function are regulated by gonadotropins as well as local factors, the role of which is especially important during the early CL phase of relative gonadotrophic independence. We assumed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has a paracrine/autocrine regulatory role in ovarian follicular and luteal function in the dog. To address our hypothesis, we studied gene and protein expression of IGF1 and its receptor (IGF1R) in preovulatory follicles and in the CL of pregnant and non-pregnant dogs, and following antigestagen (aglepristone, progesterone receptor blocker) treatment in mid-gestation...
August 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016628/survival-and-reproductive-costs-of-repeated-acute-glucocorticoid-elevations-in-a-captive-wild-animal
#20
K J MacLeod, M J Sheriff, D C Ensminger, D A S Owen, T Langkilde
Organisms are continuously encountering both predictable and unpredictable ecological stressors within their environment. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (stress) axis is a fundamental process allowing animals to cope with and respond to such encounters. A main consequence of HPA axis activation is the release of glucocorticoid hormones. Although short-term glucocorticoid elevations lead to changes in physiological and behavioral processes that are often adaptive, our understanding of fitness consequences of repeated acute elevations in glucocorticoid hormones over a longer time period is largely lacking...
August 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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