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General and Comparative Endocrinology

Kattina Zavala, Michael W Vandewege, Federico G Hoffmann, Juan C Opazo
The study of the evolutionary history of genes related to human disease lies at the interface of evolution and medicine. These studies provide the evolutionary context on which medical researchers should work, and are also useful in providing information to suggest further genetic experiments, especially in model species where genetic manipulations can be made. Here we studied the evolution of the β-adrenoreceptor gene family in vertebrates with the aim of adding an evolutionary framework to the already abundant physiological information...
October 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
D Caldwell Hahn, John C Wingfield, David M Fox, Brian G Walker, Jill E Thomley
In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring...
October 13, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
A Acharjee, R Chaube, K P Joy
The commercial fish spawning inducer Ovaprim (OVP) containing a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue and domperidone (a dopamine receptor-2 antagonist) has been widely used as an effective spawning inducer in artificial breeding of fishes. It induces a preovulatory LH surge resulting in final oocyte maturation (FOM) and ovulation through a mechanism involving a steroidogenic shift to secrete a maturation-inducing steroid (MIS). In the present study, a 0.5μL/g body weight dose of OVP each injected at 0h and 24h intraperitoneally into gravid female catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis resulted in periovulatory changes in gonadotropin (GtH) subunit gene expression and steroid hormone levels...
October 5, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Raju Murugananthkumar, Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Anbazhagan Rajakumar, Hirohiko Kagawa
Gonadal maturation is a critical event wherein gonads, under the influence of several hormones and factors, undergo cyclic morphological and physiological changes to produce functional gametes during the spawning phase. However, artificial induction can be effectively used to advance the maturation of gonad vis-à-vis spawning like behavior in seasonal breeders during the off-breeding season. In the present study, osmotic pumps loaded with 5000IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or saline as control were implanted intraperitoneally for 21days during the pre-spawning phase (May-June) in catfish Clarias batrachus and C...
October 5, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Voravasa Chaiworakul, Sunantha Kosonsiriluk, Laura J Mauro, Mohamed E El Halawani
The mechanism(s) underlying photorefractoriness in temperate zone seasonally breeding birds remains undetermined. Our recent findings reveal a link between the upregulation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) in the premammillary nucleus (PMM) and the state of photorefractoriness. Gonadal steroid levels fluctuate during the breeding season; increasing after gonadal recrudescence and declining sharply once gonadal regression begins. Here, we examined the effect of gonadal steroid withdrawal on the expression of GABAARs in the turkey PMM...
October 4, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sander R Raymaekers, Wout Verbeure, Sita M Ter Haar, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Veerle M Darras
The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excellent model to study developmental neuroplasticity. Despite the demonstrated influence of hormones such as sex steroids on this phenomenon, thyroid hormones (THs) - an important factor in neural development and maturation - have not been studied in this regard. We used in situ hybridization to compare the expression of TH transporters, deiodinases and receptors between both sexes during all phases of song development in male zebra finch...
September 29, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Dan-Dan Guo, Wen-Zhi Guan, Yi-Wen Sun, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Fibroblast growth factor 1 (Fgf1) is known as a mitogenic factor involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation in vertebrates. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two fgf1 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp fgf1a and fgf1b cDNAs are highly divergent, sharing a relatively low amino acid sequence identity of 50%, probably due to fish-specific gene duplication. fgf1a and fgf1b mRNAs were detected in the zygote and expressed throughout embryogenesis...
September 24, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Arun G Jadhao, Claudia Pinelli, Biagio D'Aniello, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
It is well known that the hypothalamic neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role as a primary factor regulating gonadotropin secretion in reproductive processes in vertebrates. The discovery of the presence of a gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the brains of birds has further contributed to our understanding of the reproduction control by the brain. GnIH plays a key role in inhibition of reproduction and acts on the pituitary gland and GnRH neurons via a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPR147)...
September 22, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Roberto Sacchi, Stefano Scali, Marco Mangiacotti, Marco Sannolo, Marco A L Zuffi, Fabio Pupin, Augusto Gentilli, Xavier Bonnet
Sexual steroids influence reproductive behaviours and promote secondary sexual traits. In male lizards, increasing levels of testosterone (T) bolster conspicuous colouration, stimulate territoriality, and trigger antagonistic interactions among rivals. Moreover, in colour polymorphic species, reproductive strategy, aggressiveness and T levels can differ between morphs. Therefore, T level is considered as an important mechanism that regulates the expression of colour polymorphism and sexual behaviours of males...
September 22, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Joanna Czerwinska, Katarzyna Chojnowska, Tadeusz Kaminski, Iwona Bogacka, Nina Smolinska, Barbara Kaminska
Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides acting via two G protein-coupled receptors in mammals: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). In European beavers, which are seasonally breeding animals, the presence and functions of orexins and their receptors remain unknown. Our study aimed to determine the expression of OXR mRNAs and the localization of OXR proteins in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPA/HPG) axes in free-living beavers. The expression of OXR genes (OX1R, OX2R) and proteins was found in all analysed tissues during three periods of beavers' reproductive cycle (April, July, November)...
September 21, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ishfaq Ali, Shobha Bhargava
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as a novel peptide to antagonize various physiological consequences of stress within a mammalian brain. Hypoxia induced neuropeptide Y release in mammalian systems is well established. However, the possible role of NPY in regulating the effects of oxygen variation in lower vertebrates has not been investigated. We have studied the distribution and neuro-anatomical expression of NPY in the brain of Euphlyctus cyanophlyctus tadpoles, exposed to normal and reduced oxygen levels using immunohistochemistry...
September 20, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maryline C Bossus, Rebecca J Bollinger, P Justin Reed, Christian K Tipsmark
Several gill claudin (Cldn) tight junction proteins in Japanese medaka are regulated by salinity (cldn10 paralogs and cldn28b), while others are constitutively expressed (cldn27a, cldn28a and cldn30c). The role of the endocrine system in this regulation has yet to be understood. The in vitro effects of cortisol and prolactin on cldn expression in gill explant cultures were investigated in medaka. ncc2b and cftr were used as markers of specific ionocytes associated with freshwater- and seawater-acclimation, respectively...
September 20, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
A M Joshi, N V Wadekar, N P Gramapurohit
Prey-predator interactions have been studied extensively in terms of morphological and behavioural responses of prey to predation risk using diverse model systems. However, the underlying physiological changes associated with morphological, behavioural or life historical responses have been rarely investigated. Herein, we studied the effect of chronic predation risk on larval growth and metamorphosis of Hylarana indica and the underlying physiological changes in prey tadpoles. In the first experiment, tadpoles were exposed to a caged predator from Gosner stage 25-42 to record growth and metamorphosis...
September 20, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Shunyu Gao, Jiannan Zhang, Chen He, Fengyan Meng, Guixian Bu, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors and its ligands, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are suggested to regulate many physiological processes including food intake in birds. However, our knowledge regarding this avian NPY system remains rather limited. Here, we examined the tissue expression of NPY, PYY and PP and the gene structure, expression and signaling of three NPY receptors (cY1, cY4 and cY6) in chickens. The results showed that 1) NPY is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundance noted in the hypothalamus via quantitative real-time PCR, whereas PYY is highly expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and various brain regions, and PP is expressed almost exclusively in the pancreas; 2) cY1, cY4 and cY6 contain novel non-coding exon(s) at their 5'-UTR; 3) The wide tissue distribution of cY1 and cY4 and cY6 were detected in chickens by quantitative real-time PCR and their expression is controlled by the promoter near exon 1, which displays strong promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 4) Monitored by luciferase reporter assays, activation of cY1 and cY4 expressed in HEK293 cells by chicken NPY1-36, PYY1-37, and PP1-36 treatment inhibits cAMP/PKA and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, while cY6-expressing cells show little response to peptide treatment, indicating that cY1 and cY4, and not cY6, can transmit signals in vitro...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ewa Ocłoń, Agnieszka Leśniak-Walentyn, Gili Solomon, Michal Shpilman, Anna Hrabia, Arieh Gertler
Recombinant chicken prolactin, expressed in Escherichia coli as an unfolded protein, was successfully refolded and purified to homogeneity as a monomeric protein. Its biological activity was evidenced by its ability to interact with rabbit prolactin receptor extracellular domain and stimulate prolactin receptor-mediated proliferation in three cell types possessing mammalian prolactin receptors. Chicken prolactin activity in those assays was 20-100-fold lower than that of mammalian lactogenic hormones, likely due to lower affinity for mammalian prolactin receptors and not to improper refolding, because in two homologous bioassays, chicken prolactin activity was equal to or higher than that of ovine prolactin and the CD spectra of chicken and human prolactin were almost identical...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
F Espigares, A Rocha, A Gómez, M Carrillo, S Zanuy
The onset of puberty is characterized by activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. However, the molecular and endocrine mechanism involved in the process of puberty and the influence of environmental conditions, such as photoperiod signalling, are not well understood in fish. In this study, 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to photoperiod manipulation in combination with size-sorting. Two treatment groups, a puberty accelerating photoperiod (AP) group and a continuous light (LL) group, were studied from August to February...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
S Imbrogno, R Mazza, C Pugliese, M Filice, T Angelone, Y P Loh, B Tota, M C Cerra
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). Proteolytic cleavage in the C terminus of CgA generates a 2.9kDa peptide named serpinin (Serp; Ala26Leu) that can be modified at its N terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pGlu-Serp). In the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanism. Accordingly, Serp and pGlu-Serp were proposed as novel myocardial sympatho-adrenergic modulators in mammals...
September 12, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Dilip Mukherjee, Suravi Majumder, Sujata Roy Moulik, Puja Pal, Shreyasi Gupta, Payel Guha, Dhynendra Kumar
Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway...
September 8, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
P S Kulkarni, N P Gramapurohit
Corticosterone (CORT), a principal glucocorticoid in amphibians, is known to regulate diverse physiological processes including growth and metamorphosis of anuran tadpoles. Environmental stressors activate the neuroendocrine stress axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, HPI) leading to an acute increase in CORT, which in turn, helps in coping with particular stress. However, chronic increase in CORT can negatively affect other physiological processes such as growth and metamorphosis. Herein, we studied the effect of exogenous CORT on larval growth, antipredator behaviour and metamorphic traits of Hylarana indica...
September 6, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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