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General and Comparative Endocrinology

Daisuke Shimizu, Satoshi Kasagi, Ryota Takeuchi, Tomoki Maeda, Sumihisa Furufuji, Kanta Mizusawa, Tadashi Andoh, Akiyoshi Takahashi
We have previously shown that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was promoted by green light. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether growth-promoting effect of green light can be observed in other flatfishes and to understand the roles of endocrine systems in green light-induced growth. Herein, we demonstrated facilitation of growth by green light in the spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Blue and blue-green light showed potencies that were similar to that of green light, while the potencies of red and white light were equivalent to that of ambient light (control)...
November 9, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Rachael L Sagar, John Cockrem, Matt J Rayner, Margaret C Stanley, Jemma Welch, Brendon J Dunphy
Handling of avian study species is common in ecological research, yet few studies account for the impact of handling in nestlings where exposure to stress may result in negative lifetime fitness consequences. As a result, our understanding of stress reactivity in free-living avian young is limited. In this study we examined the cumulative impact of three levels of research-relevant handling (control, daily and every three days) on the development of the stress response, growth and condition of semi-precocial seabird chicks from near-hatching to near-fledging...
November 9, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Thomas M Galligan, Matthew D Hale, Jessica A McCoy, Dieldrich S Bermudez, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
The thyroid gland is sensitive to steroid hormone signaling, and many thyroid disrupting contaminants also disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis, presenting the possibility that thyroid disruption may occur through altered steroid hormone signaling. To examine this possibility, we studied short-term and persistent impacts of embryonic sex steroid exposure on American alligator thyroid physiology. Alligators from a lake contaminated with endocrine disrupting contaminants (Lake Apopka, FL, USA) have been shown to display characteristics of thyroid and steroid hormone disruption...
November 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Xing Chen, Mingliang Fang, Melissa Chernick, Feng Wang, JingfengYang, Yongli Yu, Na Zheng, Hiroki Teraoka, Satomi Nanba, Takeo Hiraga, David E Hinton, Wu Dong
Thiram, a pesticide in the dithiocarbamate chemical family, is widely used to prevent fungal disease in seeds and crops. Its off-site movement to surface waters occurs and may place aquatic organisms at potential harm. Zebrafish embryos were used for investigation of acute (1 h) thiram exposure (0.001-10 µM) at various developmental stages. Survival decreased at 1 µM and 10 µM and hatching was delayed at 0.1 µM and 1 µM. Notochord curvatures were seen at 0.1 and 1 μM thiram when exposure was initiated at 2 and at 10 hpf...
November 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Haruna Amano, Akihiro Kotake, Naoshi Hiramatsu, Toshiaki Fujita, Takashi Todo, Jun-Ya Aoki, Kiyoshi Soyano, Hirohiko Kagawa, Akihiko Hara
Chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) were developed for each of three subtypes of vitellogenin (VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC) in grey mullet, primarily for use in monitoring estrogenic pollution of the environment. The working range of VtgAa-CLIA and VtgAb-CLIA was from 0.975 to 1000 ng/ml, while that of VtgC-CLIA was from 0.487 to 1000 ng/ml. Each CLIA appeared to be specific to the targeted Vtg subtype. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation in the developed CLIAs were lower than 10%. In male serum, VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC were detected in ranges from 0...
November 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Emile Nibona, Gongyu Xu, Kongyue Wu, Hao Shen, Runshuai Zhang, Xiaomei Ke, Abdullah Al Hafiz, Zequn Wang, Chao Qi, Haobin Zhao
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor2 (Havcr2) also named T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing-3(Tim-3) was initially described as a T helper1-specific cell surface protein, a member of Tim family implicated in the regulating process of adaptive and innate immune responses. Here, medaka (Oryzias latipes) Havcr2 (OlHavcr2) was isolated and characterized. Unlike other Havcr2 proteins, medaka Havcr2 protein (OlHavcr2) possesses two Ig-like domains but lacks cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. RT-PCR results revealed that OlHavcr2 mRNA was expressed strongly in the liver, moderately in the intestine, heart and ovary, and weakly in the muscle, gill, brain, eye, spleen, and testis...
November 2, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Glancis Luzeena Raja, K Divya Subhashree, Christy Lite, Winkins Santosh, S Barathi
Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Recent studies have reported the endocrine disrupting effects of these chemicals, especially methylparaben. Previously, we have reported the alteration in Vtg gene expression upon exposure to environmentally relevant doses of methylparaben in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. However, studies reporting neurobehavioural outcomes on exposure to methylparaben are limited. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the methylparaben-induced effects on developmental and neurobehavioural endpoints...
November 2, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hai-Jie Zhang, Hua-Jie Xie, Wei Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Ya-Xiong Tao
The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily that plays a critical role in controlling energy balance and metabolism. Although pharmacological characterization of MC3R has been reported previously in several other species, there is no report on the MC3R from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). This ancient species is known as a 'living fossil' and is among the most endangered animals in the world. Giant panda survive on a specialized diet of bamboo despite possessing a typical carnivorous digestive system...
October 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Agnieszka Milon, Piotr Pawlicki, Agnieszka Rak, Ewa Mlyczynska, Bartosz J Płachno, Waclaw Tworzydlo, Ewelina Gorowska-Wojtowicz, Barbara Bilinska, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak
We aim to explore the presence of a novel cell type, telocytes (TCs), in the bank vole testis interstitium following G-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (GPER) signaling withdrawal. In addition, the involvement of interstitial cells in lipid homeostasis was investigated. Bank voles (actively reproducing or regressed) were administered with GPER antagonist (G-15;50 μg/kg bw) injections. To examine TC distribution, ultrastructure, function, and their connotation in the interstitial tissue lipid balance, electron microscopic observations were implemented...
October 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
S M S N Lacerda, E R M Martinez, I L D D Mura, L B Doretto, G M J Costa, M A Silva, M Digmayer, R H Nóbrega, L R França
Spermatogenesis is a process driven by stem cell, where germ cell cycle is under the control of a specific genotype species. Considering that Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) is a Neotropical catfish with great economical importance and useful experimental model, little information is available on basic aspects of its reproductive biology, especially on spermatogenesis. As a result, this study aimed to characterize the male germ cells, estimate the duration of spermatogenesis and evaluate the expression of selected stem cell genes in Jundiá testis...
October 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ashutosh Ranjan, Mayank Choubey, Toshihiko Yada, Amitabh Krishna
Recent studies have revealed nesfatin-1 as a hypothalamic neuropeptide, regulating food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction primarily by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Nesfatin-1 is also localized in several peripheral tissues including testes. However, functional significance of nesfatin-1 in testicular activities is not yet well documented in mammals. Therefore, this study was aimed to elucidate the direct effect of nesfatin-1 on testicular markers for steroid productions, spermatogenesis, metabolic changes and oxidative stress...
October 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maëva Cherif-Feildel, Clothilde Heude Berthelin, Beatrice Adeline, Guillaume Rivière, Pascal Favrel, Kristell Kellner
Insulin Related Peptides (IRPs) belong to the insulin superfamily and possess a typical structure with two chains, B and A, linked by disulphide bonds. As the sequence conservation is usually low between members, IRPs are classified according to the number and position of their disulphide bonds. In molluscan species, the first IRPs identified, named Molluscan Insulin-related Peptides (MIPs), exhibit four disulphide bonds. The genomic and transcriptomic data screening in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusc, Bivalvia) allowed us to identify six IRP sequences belonging to three structural groups...
October 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Keneth Sarpong, Christine L Madliger, Christopher M Harris, Oliver P Love, Stéphanie M Doucet, Pierre-Paul Bitton
The production of high quality secondary sexual traits can be constrained by trade-offs in the allocation of energy and nutrients with other metabolic activities, and is mediated by physiological processes. In birds, the factors influencing male plumage quality have been well studied; however, factors affecting female plumage quality are poorly understood. Furthermore, it remains uncertain which physiological traits mediate the relationship between body condition and ornaments. In this three-year study of after-second-year female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we investigated (1) the relationship between baseline corticosterone near the end of the brood-rearing period (CORTBR ) and feather colour characteristics (hue, saturation, brightness) the following year, and (2) the relationship between baseline corticosterone measured during incubation (CORTI ) and brood rearing (CORTBR ), and feather colour in the same year...
October 27, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Katie B Needham, Christy Bergeon Burns, Jessica L Graham, Carolyn M Bauer, Jeffrey D Kittilson, Ellen D Ketterson, Thomas Hahn, Timothy J Greives
Mechanisms related to seasonal reproductive timing in vertebrates have received far more study in males than in females, despite the fact that female timing decisions dictate when rearing of offspring will occur. Production and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to secrete gonadotropins, initiating the beginning stages of gonadal recrudescence and production of the sex steroids, testosterone and estradiol, which are necessary to prime the liver for secretion of yolk precursors in breeding female birds...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
The brain has traditionally been considered to be a target site of peripheral steroid hormones.On the other hand, extensive studies over the past thirty years have demonstrated that the brain is a site of biosynthesis of several steroids. Such steroids synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the brain are called neurosteroids. To investigate the biosynthesis and biological actions of neurosteroids in the brain, data on the regio- and temporal-specific synthesis of neurosteroids are needed. In the mid 1990s, the Purkinje cell, an important cerebellar neuron, was discovered as a major cell producing neurosteroids in the brain of vertebrates...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
T M Houslay, R L Earley, A J Young, A J Wilson
The vertebrate stress response enables individuals to react to and cope with environmental challenges. A crucial aspect of the stress response is the elevation of circulating glucocorticoids. However, continued activation of the stress response under repeated exposure to stressors can be damaging to fitness. Under certain circumstances it may therefore be adaptive to habituate to repeated exposures to a particular stressor by reducing the magnitude of any associated release of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigate whether Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) habituate to repeated exposure to a mild stressor, using a waterborne hormone sampling approach that has previously been shown to elicit a stress response in small fish...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Qiuyue Chen, Jingde Duan, Haizhen Wu, Jianbo Li, Yunliang Jiang, Hui Tang, Xianyao Li, Li Kang
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) has been identified in the ovaries of vertebrate species, and this decapeptide is a key regulator of reproductive functions. However, its biological action and regulatory mechanism in the chicken ovary remain to be characterized. In this study, the expression of GnRH-I gene in chicken hypothalamus and ovaries at different developmental stages and different sizes of follicles was investigated, and the effect of GnRH-I mRNA on chicken follicular cells was analyzed in vitro...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yongjian He, Jie Yang, Shaowen Huang, Ruijing Liu, Huan Liu, Dongdong Zheng, Qingyi Huang, Yichao Yang, Chunhong Liu
Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that can lead to thyroid disruption. We explored NP-induced toxicity in the rat thyroid and evaluated the mitigating effects of mulberry crude extract (MCE) on NP toxicity. First, we aimed to evaluate NP-induced thyroid disruption by dosing Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with NP (0, 30, 90, or 270 mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days. Second, we aimed to determine whether MCE had a detoxifying effect on NP-induced thyroid disruption by dosing SD rats with NP (270 mg/kg body weight) or/and MCE (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Lan Hai-Nan, Liu Hui-Lin, Zhang Zi-Qi, Luo Gan, Fu Xue-Qi, Zheng Xin
Twenty kilodalton human growth hormone (20K-GH) is the second most abundant GH isoform after the twenty-two kilodalton human growth hormone (22 K-GH) isoform. 20K-GH exhibits similar but not identical physiological activities as that of 22K-GH. The cell behaviour of 22K-GH has been extensively studied, but little or no information has been reported regarding 20K-GH. Here, we focussed on the internalization of 20K-GH. We found that the internalization of 20K-GH is rapid and occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Shayan Abtahi, Erin Howell, Jack T Salvucci, Joshua M R Bastacky, David P Dunn, Paul J Currie
In the current study we investigated the interaction of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin signaling in the control of metabolic function. We first demonstrated that acylated ghrelin injected directly into the PVN reliably altered the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. All testing was carried out during the initial 2 h of the nocturnal cycle using an indirect open circuit calorimeter. Results indicated that acylated ghrelin induced a robust increase in RER representing a shift toward enhanced carbohydrate oxidation and reduced lipid utilization...
October 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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