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General and Comparative Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533170/synchronizing-effects-of-melatonin-on-diurnal-and-circadian-rhythms
#1
REVIEW
Martina Pfeffer, Horst-Werner Korf, Helmut Wicht
In mammals, the rhythmic secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland is driven by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The robust nightly peak of melatonin secretion is an output signal of the circadian clock and is supposed to deliver the circadian message to the whole of the organism. Since the circadian system regulates many behavioral and physiological processes, its disruption by external (shift-work, jet-lag) or internal desynchronization (blindness, aging) causes many different health problems...
May 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#2
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526479/foxo-mediates-the-timing-of-pupation-through-regulating-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#3
Xianyu Lin, Na Yu, Guy Smagghe
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then died at the middle pupal stage...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#4
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502742/seasonal-changes-of-androgen-receptor-estrogen-receptors-and-aromatase-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-wild-male-ground-squirrels-citellus-dauricus-brandt
#5
Fengwei Zhang, Yu Wang, Wentao Han, Junjie Wang, Haolin Zhang, Xia Sheng, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng, Yingying Han
The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder whose annual life cycle can be roughly divided into the breeding season, the post-breeding season and hibernation. Our previous study has reported the seasonal changes in the expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the hypothalamus of male wild ground squirrels. To further seek evidence of seasonal expression of steroid hormone receptors and steroid hormone synthases in other brain regions, we investigated the protein and mRNA expressions of AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom in the hippocampus of the male wild ground squirrels during these different reproductive periods...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502741/high-metabolic-activity-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-not-only-in-young-but-also-in-adult-bone-as-demonstrated-using-a-new-histochemical-detection-protocol
#6
I Piotr Maly, Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is playing a key role in bone calcification, as has been demonstrated in different mammalian species including human and rodents. However, to investigate age-related changes during life history, histochemical demonstration of TNAP is severely hampered, particularly in the elderly, by technical difficulties associated with sectioning calcified tissue. Sufficient fixation must precede decalcification since poorly fixed bone tissue is exposed to the deleterious effects of decalcification reagents...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502740/isolation-of-an-insulin-like-peptide-from-the-asian-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-stephensi-that-acts-as-a-steroidogenic-gonadotropin-across-diverse-mosquito-taxa
#7
Andrew B Nuss, Mark R Brown
Many insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified in insects, yet only a few were isolated in their native form for structural and functional studies. Antiserum produced to ILP3 in Aedes aegypti was used in a radioimmunoassay to monitor the purification of an ILP from heads of adult An. stephensi and recognized the ILP in other immunoassays. The structure of the purified peptide matched that predicted for the ILP3 in this species. The native form stimulated ecdysteroid production by ovaries isolated from non-blood fed females...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495271/the-melanocortin-2-receptor-of-the-rainbow-trout-identifying-a-role-for-critical-positions-in-transmembrane-domain-4-extracellular-loop-2-and-transmembrane-domain-5-in-the-activation-of-rainbow-trout-mc2r
#8
Liang Liang, Perry V Davis, Michael R Dores, Robert M Dores
The activation of either teleost or tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs requires interaction between the HFRW motif and R/KKRRP motif in the primary sequence of ACTH, and two corresponding sites on the melanocortin 2 receptor. While the HFRW contact site on MC2R appears to involve residues in TM2, TM3, and TM6, several studies on human MC2R point to the EC2/TM5 region of MC2R as a possible location for the R/KKRRP contact site. In this study nineteen single-alanine mutants of rainbow trout (rt) MC2R were made beginning at V(153) in TM4, at all positions in EC2 (extracellular loop 2), to F(175) in TM5...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495270/egg-deposition-of-maternal-testosterone-is-primarily-controlled-by-the-preovulatory-peak-of-luteinizing-hormone-in-japanese-quail
#9
Monika Okuliarova, Simone L Meddle, Michal Zeman
Differential transfer of maternal testosterone (T) into egg yolk provides a means of adjusting an offspring's phenotype to ambient environmental conditions. While the environmental and genetic driven variability in yolk T levels is widely described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling ovulatory processes are associated with the regulation of yolk T deposition. Circulatory profiles of luteinizing hormone (LH), T and estradiol levels were analysed during the last 7 h before ovulation in Japanese quail selected for contrasting yolk T concentrations...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495269/identification-of-novel-regulatory-gre-binding-elements-in-the-porcine-ip3r1-gene-promoter-and-their-transcriptional-activation-under-glucocorticoid-stimulation
#10
Jin Chai, Qi Xiong, Dan Wang, Xuebing Wan, Hongdan Niu, Hong Xiang, Huanan Li, Hongshuai Wang, Rong Zheng, Jian Peng, Siwen Jiang
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) is a type of ligand-gated calcium channel that is expressed predominantly in mammalian skeletal muscle, where it acts as a key regulator of calcium homeostasis. In meat, calcium disequilibrium is accompanied by the deterioration of meat quality. Here we show that serum cortisol concentration was higher and the IP3R1 gene expression level increased markedly in pigs exposed to high stress. In porcine primary muscle cells, dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid) increased the protein levels of porcine IP3R1 and GRα, and cell apoptosis, and the specific GRα inhibitor RU486 attenuated these effects...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495268/the-presence-of-vegf-and-notch2-during-preantral-antral-follicular-transition-in-infantile-rats-anatomical-evidence-and-its-implications
#11
Minerva Carolina Torres-Ortiz, Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina, Margarita Gómez-Chavarín, Clara Murcia, Rogelio A Alonso-Morales, Gerardo Perera-Marín
Folliculogenesis is a process that depends on angiogenesis, in which VEGF and Notch signaling pathway members are involved. Although this pathway is present in preantral and antral follicular structures during the second stage of folliculogenesis, this association has not been described. Therefore, this study aimed to identify VEGF and Notch2 in ovary structures of infantile rats after induction of follicular development with a gonadotropin stimulus. In order to explore this possibility we analyzed rat ovary morphology from days 10-25 after birth; subsequently, the transition from preantral follicle to an antral stage was analyzed by the induction of follicular development with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and VEGF and Notch were identified in the rat ovary by fluorescence...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487180/secretoneurin-a-inhibits-aromatase-b-cyp19a1b-expression-in-female-goldfish-carassius-auratus-radial-glial-cells
#12
Dillon F Da Fonte, Lei Xing, Myy Mikwar, Vance L Trudeau
In the teleost brain, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia and are stem-like progenitors that express key steroidogenic enzymes, including the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase B (cyp19a1b). As a result, RGCs are integral to neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis, however little is known about the regulatory factors and signaling mechanisms that control these functions. A potential new role of the secretogranin II-derived neuropeptide secretoneurin A (SNa) in the control of goldfish (Carassius auratus) RGC function is the subject of this study...
May 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483475/dual-action-of-neuro-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-male-sexual-behavior
#13
Charlotte Anne Cornil, Catherine de Bournonville
Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment...
May 5, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479084/the-presence-of-an-insulin-like-androgenic-gland-factor-iag-and-insulin-like-peptide-binding-protein-ilpbp-in-the-ovary-of-the-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-and-their-roles-in-ovarian-development
#14
Xiaoshuai Huang, Haihui Ye, J Sook Chung
Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) that is produced by the male androgenic gland (AG), plays a role in sexual differentiation and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics in decapod crustaceans. With an earlier finding of IAG expression in a female Callinectes sapidus ovary, we aimed to examine a putative role of IAG during the ovarian development of this species. To this end, the full-length cDNA sequence of the ovarian CasIAG (termed CasIAG-ova) has been isolated. The predicted mature peptide sequence of CasIAG-ova is identical to that of the IAG from the AG, except in their signal peptide regions...
May 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479083/zip9-a-novel-membrane-androgen-receptor-and-zinc-transporter-protein
#15
Peter Thomas, Aubrey Converse, Håkan A Berg
Rapid, androgen actions initiated at the cell surface have been reported in a variety of vertebrate cells, including several macrophage and prostate cancer cell lines that lack the nuclear androgen receptor. However, until recently the identity of the novel membrane androgen receptor (mAR) mediating these nonclassical androgen actions remained unknown. In 2014, a novel mAR unrelated to nuclear androgen receptors was identified in Atlantic croaker ovaries as the zinc transporter protein, ZIP9. ZIP9 is one of the 14 members of the ZIP (ZRT-and Irt-like Protein, SLC39A) family that regulates zinc homeostasis by transporting zinc across cell and organelle membranes into the cytoplasm...
May 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457648/circulating-testosterone-and-its-feather-gene-expression-of-receptors-and-metabolic-enzymes-in-relation-to-melanin-based-coloration-in-the-barn-owl
#16
Paul Béziers, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Céline Simon, Alexandre Roulin
Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, if the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone or if genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the covariation between melanism and testosterone we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis...
April 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450143/crosstalk-between-nuclear-and-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Shannon N Romano, Daniel A Gorelick
In 2005, two groups independently discovered that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 binds estradiol in cultured cells and, in response, initiates intracellular signaling cascades Revankar et al. (2005), Thomas et al. (2005). GPR30 is now referred to as GPER, the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor Prossnitz and Arterburn (2015). While studies in animal models are illuminating GPER function, there is controversy as to whether GPER acts as an autonomous estrogen receptor in vivo, or whether GPER interacts with nuclear estrogen receptor signaling pathways in response to estrogens...
April 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438528/molecular-characterization-of-kiss2-receptor-and-in-vitro-effects-of-kiss2-on-reproduction-related-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#18
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its receptor, KissR (previously known as GPR54), play a critical role in the control of reproduction and puberty onset in mammals. Additionally, a number of studies have provided evidence of the existence of multiple Kiss/KissR systems in teleosts, but the physiological relevance and functions of these kisspeptin forms (Kiss1 and Kiss2) still remain to be investigated. To this end, we examined the direct actions of Kiss2 on hypothalamic functions in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
April 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434873/editorial
#19
EDITORIAL
Deborah M Power, Mark Sheridan, Robert M Dores
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427902/effects-of-different-green-light-intensities-on-the-growth-performance-and-endocrine-properties-of-barfin-flounder-verasper-moseri
#20
Akiyoshi Takahashi, Satoshi Kasagi, Naoto Murakami, Sumihisa Furufuji, Shigeto Kikuchi, Kanta Mizusawa, Tadashi Andoh
We previously reported that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was effectively stimulated by the green light compared to the blue and red lights. Herein, we report the effects of different green light intensities on the growth and endocrine system of the fish. Fish were reared in a dark room with light from a light-emitting diode (LED) at a peak wavelength of 518nm under controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5h, light:dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light) with three levels of photon flux density (PFD)-2 (low), 7 (medium), or 21 (high) μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at the water surface...
April 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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