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Experimental Parasitology

Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Dana Květoňová, Martin Kváč
Microsporidia are obligate intracellurar unicellular parasite of wide range of vertebrates. Although ingestion or inhalation of microsporidian spores is the main route of infection, assumed vertical transmission was described in some mammals. The present study was focused on proof of vertical transmission in mice under experimental conditions. Mice were infected with E. cuniculi genotype II intraperitoneally after mating, or perorally followed by mating in acute or chronic phase of infection. Fetuses were delivered by Caesarean section or mice were kept up to the parturition...
September 7, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
N Łanocha-Arendarczyk, I Baranowska-Bosiacka, I Gutowska, K Kot, E Metryka, D I Kosik-Bogacka
The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenicity of acanthamoebiasis is an important aspect of the intricate and complex host-parasite relationship. The aim of this experimental study was to determine oxidative stress through the assessment of lipid peroxidation product (LPO) levels and antioxidant defense mechanism in Acanthamoeba spp. lung infections in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. In Acanthamoeba spp. infected immunocompetent mice we noted a significant increase in lung lipid peroxidation products (LPO) at 8 days and 16 days post infection (dpi)...
September 7, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Irina A Orlovskaya, Ludmila B Toporkova, Maria N Lvova, Irina V Sorokina, Aleksey V Katokhin, Galina B Vishnivetskaya, Elena V Goiman, Elena V Kashina, Tatiana G Tolstikova, Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Damira F Avgustinovich
A model of chronic opisthorchiasis combined with social stress is examined; this situation is more likely for humans and animals than a separate impact of the infectious factor. For this purpose, we evaluated the effects of Opisthorchis felineus ("OP" group) and 30-day social stress (confrontations between males, "SS" group) alone and in combination ("OP + SS" group) in inbred C57BL/6 male mice and compared these effects according to the parameters listed below. The animals exposed to neither factor formed the control group ("CON")...
August 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Ju Yeong Kim, Eun-Min Kim, Myung-Hee Yi, Jinyoung Lee, Seogwon Lee, Younjee Hwang, Dongeun Yong, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong
Helminth infection can alleviate immune-mediated disorders such as allergies and autoimmune diseases, by altering the gut microbiome. However, changes in gut microbiome due to intestinal trematodes remain unelucidated. Here, we evaluated the changes in the gut microbiome of ICR mice infected with Metagonimus yokogawai, a hypo-virulent intestinal trematode. Four weeks after infection, mouse cecal content was analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon analysis. Although there was no apparent difference in species richness and diversity, the microbiome composition was different in the infected and control groups...
August 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
R González-Garduño, P Mendoza-de Gives, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, G Torres-Hernández, N F Ojeda-Robertos, J F J Torres-Acosta
The influence of the physiological stage of a Blackbelly flock against natural infection by gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) was investigated. Data on serum and saliva IgA levels and peripheral cellular immune response were recorded in 51 sheep for 6 months. The flock was divided based on their physiological stage as follows: a) pregnant ewes, b) lactating ewes, c) non-pregnant ewes, d) pre-weaning lambs, e) growing lambs and f) replacement sheep. Additionally, sheep were classified based on the parasite infection as stabled or grazing management system as follows: g) non-infected stabled sheep, h) infected and stabled sheep and i) infected grazing sheep...
August 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Neeloo Singh, Indira Singh Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Among different leishmanial infections, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) if not treated is the most severe form with high mortality rates. In India, it is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis is limited due to high toxicity, resistance to existing drugs and increasing cases of Leishmania co-infections. Hence, there is a need to identify novel drug and targets to overcome these hindrances. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs (∼22-24 nucleotide in length) that regulate gene expression in various biological processes...
August 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Franco Bilotto, Luis Alberto Fusé, María Federica Sagües, Lucía Emilia Iglesias, Alicia Silvina Fernández, Sara Zegbi, Inés Guerrero, Carlos Alfredo Saumell
Duddingtonia flagrans is a natural strain of Nematophagous-Fungi isolated around the world. It has demonstrated efficacy and ease of use in laboratory as well as in field conditions. The fungus contributes to the prophylactic control of the worms by reducing the number of L3 on pasture. The aims of this study were to test and analyze the predatory effect of D. flagrans under sunny and shaded conditions on the L3 in the faeces, and to verify the reduction of translation to pasture during summer and winter seasons...
July 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
F Dendana, H Trabelsi, S Neji, H Sellami, S Kammoun, F Makni, J Feki, F Cheikhrouhou, A Ayadi
Free living amoebas (FLA) are opportunistic pathogen found in different water sources in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of free living amoeba in different samples of domestic water reserves (DWR) in Sfax region from Tunisia. It was a prospective study dealing with 486 water samples collected from different DWR. After filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar and the FLA were detected and strained with Giesma, Trichrome and red nuclear stain for morphological and morphotypic studies...
July 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Damien Costa, Romy Razakandrainibe, Marc Sautour, Stéphane Valot, Louise Basmaciyan, Gilles Gargala, Denis Lemeteil, Loïc Favennec, Frédéric Dalle
Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease in children and immunodeficient individuals. In 2006, a national network was set up on the surveillance of human cryptosporidiosis in France. Since January 2015, the 41 tertiary care hospitals and the 3 private laboratories of the French National Network on the surveillance of human cryptosporidiosis have been able to declare confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis online. Between 2015 and 2017, 210 cases of cryptosporidiosis were declared in immunodeficient patients in France; Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis represented 66% and 22% of cases, respectively...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jay S Hanas, James R Hocker, Govindan Ramajayam, Vasudevan Prabhakaran, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Anna Oommen, Josephine J Manoj, Michael P Anderson, Douglas A Drevets, Hélène Carabin
Neurocysticercosis is associated with epilepsy in pig-raising communities with poor sanitation. Current internationally recognized diagnostic guidelines for neurocysticercosis rely on brain imaging, a technology that is frequently not available or not accessible in areas endemic for neurocysticercosis. Minimally invasive and low-cost aids for diagnosing neurocysticercosis epilepsy could improve treatment of neurocysticercosis. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which patients with neurocysticercosis epilepsy, epilepsy of unknown etiology, idiopathic headaches and among different types of neurocysticercosis lesions could be distinguished from each other based on serum mass profiling...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites, which are able to infect a wide range of animals, including humans. Four genotypes of Encephalitozoon cuniculi have been found to date. The different courses of microsporidiosis described in humans, which are dependent on immunological status of the host and genotype of E. cuniculi, have been successfully imitated in murine models. In the present study, we quantified the microsporidial burden in individual organs of a murine experimental model, using qPCR and we compared the parasitic load of two genotypes of E...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Andreza Rochelle do Vale Morais, André Leandro Silva, Sandrine Cojean, Kaluvu Balaraman, Christian Bories, Sébastien Pomel, Gillian Barratt, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Philippe M Loiseau
Amphotericin B (AmB) is effective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but the renal toxicity of the conventional form, mixed micelles with deoxycholate (M-AmB), is often dose-limiting, while the less toxic lipid-based formulations such as AmBisome® are very expensive. Two different strategies to improve the therapeutic index of AmB with inexpensive ingredients were evaluated on this work: (i) the heat treatment of the commercial formulation (H-AmB) and (ii) the preparation of an AmB-loaded microemulsion (ME-AmB)...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Fabiane Knepper Zehetmeyr, Maria Antonieta Machado Pereira da Silva, Karine Massia Pereira, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Wilson Cunico, José Coan Campos, Daniela Pires Gouvea, Patrícia da Silva Nascente, Silvia de Oliveira Hübner, Geonir Machado Siqueira
Although there is a variety of biological activity reports regarding compounds derived from thiazolidin-4-ones, no data related to ovicidal activity against trematodes, particularly Fasciola hepatica are available. Since there are reports about anthelmintic resistance in F. hepatica, new drugs are required. Thus, this study evaluated ovicidal action in vitro against F. hepatica eggs in two systematic series of thiazolidin-4-ones: 2-aryl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)thiazolidin-4-ones (1a-h) and 2-aryl-3-(3-morpholinopropyl)thiazolidin-4-ones (2a-h) at different concentrations (20, 2, 0...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Sirin Salma Sultana, Joydip Ghosh, Sondipon Chakraborty, Debarati Mukherjee, Somaditya Dey, Suvadip Mallick, Aritri Dutta, Soumitra Paloi, Somanjana Khatua, Tanmoy Dutta, Soumen Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Acharya, Narayan Ghorai, Chiranjib Pal
The current study was designed to assess the anti-leishmanial effect of a semi-purified fraction of wild mushroom Grifola frondosa against Leishmania donovani, in vitro. A total of five extracts from three wild mushrooms [Grifola frondosa (family, Meripilaceae) Laetiporus sulphurous (family, Polyporaceae) and Meripilus giganteus (family, Meripilaceae) were explored for novel anti-leishmanial leads against promastigotes. The ethanol extract of G. frondosa was selected as the most efficient against L. donovani promastigotes (IC50 : 93...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Veronika L Zinsser, Ciara Cox, Margaret McAuley, Elizabeth M Hoey, Alan Trudgett, David J Timson
Galactokinase catalyses the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of galactose. A galactokinase-like sequence was identified in a Fasciola hepatica EST library. Recombinant expression of the corresponding protein in Escherichia coli resulted in a protein of approximately 50 kDa. The protein is monomeric, like galactokinases from higher animals, yeasts and some bacteria. The protein has no detectable enzymatic activity with galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine as a substrate. However, it does bind to ATP. Molecular modelling predicted that the protein adopts a similar fold to galactokinase and other GHMP kinases...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Bushra Bilal, M Kamran Azim
Parasitic nematodes infect more than two billion people worldwide particularly in developing countries. We previously reported nematicidal activity of natural honey using model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, characterization of nematicidal effects of natural honey and its glycoproteins has been carried out. Chromatographically separated honey glycoproteins showed potent anti-C. elegans activity (LD50  = 100 ng proteins/μL). Honey glycoproteins with molecular masses of ∼260 kD and ∼160 kD comprised of 'major royal jelly protein-1'-containing complexes...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Amina M Ibrahim, Samah I Ghoname
Controlling of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails by plant molluscicides is the cornerstone in treating schistosomiasis in Egypt. The objective of this study is, to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of the aqueous leaves extract of Anagallis arvensis against B. alexandrina snails. The present results showed that this aqueous extract was lethal for B. alexandrina snails at (LC50 37.9 mg/l; LC90 48.3 mg/l), and caused reduction in survival; reproductive rates and hormonal activity (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)) of these snails...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
J C Aguiar, J Mittmann, P C Caetano, L Raniero
The cross-reaction in the diagnosis results is a serious problem, leading to an incorrect treatment and several injuries to patients. The Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi belong to the genus Trypanosoma, but the Trypanosoma rangeli is a non-pathogenic parasite to humans. While Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, which affects circa 2-3 million people and more than 6000 deaths annually in Brazil. The Leishmania chagasi causes infectious disease known as visceral leishmaniasis...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Bahareh Mirzaalizadeh, Mehdi Sharif, Ahmad Daryani, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Mehryar Zargari, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Zahra Mirabediny, Monireh Golpour, Mahbobeh Montazeri
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. However, this treatment presents several adverse side effects; Thus, new drugs with lower toxicities are urgently needed. In this study the anti-T. gondii activity of A. vera and Eucalyptus extracts were evaluated in vitro using a MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and in vivo by measuring the survival rates of mice infected with 2 × 103 tachyzoites of RH strain of T...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
A-Young Kang, A-Young Park, Ho-Joon Shin, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Sutherland K Maciver, Suk-Yul Jung
Amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans and other animals. In humans they most frequently infect the eye causing a sight threatening infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), and also cause an often fatal encephalitis (GAE). A mannose-binding protein (MBP) has been identified as being important for Acanthamoeba infection especially in AK. This lectin has previously been characterized from Acanthamoeba castellanii as consisting of multiple 130 kDa subunits. MBP expression correlates with pathogenic potential and is expressed in a number of Acanthamoeba species...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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