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Experimental Parasitology

Tipparat Thiangtrongjit, Poom Adisakwattana, Yanin Limpanont, Paron Deekumyoy, Supaporn Nuamtanong, Phiraphol Chusongsang, Yupa Chusongsang, Onrapak Reamtong
Schistosomiasis remains a global health problem. In the Mekong river basin, approximately 80,000 people are at risk of infection by Schistosoma mekongi. The parasite's eggs become entrapped in the host's organs and induce massive inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. In addition, egg antigens are important in circumoval precipitin tests (COPTs) and other diagnostic techniques. Little is known regarding the egg proteins of S. mekongi, and so we applied immunoblotting and mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches to study these proteins and their antigenicity...
July 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Qi Liao, Yuwei Zhang, Yuchao Zhu, Jia Chen, Changzheng Dong, Yang Tao, Ai He, Jianfa Liu, Zhongdao Wu
Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease caused by 3 principal species of schistosome. Studies of schistosome transcriptomes have focused on protein-coding transcripts and although miRNAs are attracting increased attention, few reports have concerned the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). These have been shown to play key roles in the regulation of gene expression through interactions with mRNAs, proteins and miRNAs. In this study, we first identified lncRNAs from RNA-seq data in Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum: 3247 and 3033 potential lncRNAs were found in these two species respectively...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Thabet Sakran, Heba M Abdel-Haleem, Mostafa F Eissa, Shrouk E Al-Sayed
This study aimed to induce protective immunity against infection with Sarcocystis muris in experimental mice using β-irradiated sporocysts. Mice were vaccinated with 50 sporocysts of S. muris which were exposed to 1.84 μSv β-irradiation for 2, 4 and 8 h. After challenge infection, different samples were taken for evaluation. Serum and intestinal wash were assayed for IFN-γ and IgA, respectively. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and spleen were investigated for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using immunohistochemistry...
June 28, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nikola Holubová, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Dana Květoňová, Vladimír Hanzal, Dušan Rajský, Michael Rost, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč
Host- and age-specificity of Cryptosporidium avium were studied in 1-, 21- and 365-day-old chickens (Gallus gallus), domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) under experimental conditions. Cryptosporidium avium was not infectious for ring-necked pheasants, but it was infectious for ducks and chickens at all age categories. The course of infection in ducks did not differ among age categories, but 365-day-old chickens had less severe infections than 1- and 21-day-old chickens...
June 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jiřina Růžková, Dana Květoňová, Milan Jirků, Zuzana Lhotská, Christen Rune Stensvold, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková
Blastocystis is a common inhabitant of the human gut, colonizing at least one billion people at a prevalence ranging from <10% to 100% in healthy human populations globally. The majority of carriers remain asymptomatic, suggesting that Blastocystis is largely a commensal, though Blastocystis has also been implicated in disease in some people. However, there are no in vivo model systems in which to experimentally test the impact of Blastocystis on mammalian hosts and the gut ecosystem and determine which factors underlie these variable clinical outcomes...
June 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Karla Acosta-Virgen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Daniel Talamás Lara, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Aaron Martínez-Higuera, Antonio Lazcano, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo, Martha Espinosa-Cantellano
The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has traditionally been reported as lacking peroxisomes, organelles involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. We here report the finding with transmission electron microscopy of an oxidase activity in cytoplasmic vesicles of trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia. These vesicles were positive to 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and to cerium chloride staining. In addition, using bioinformatic tools, two peroxisomal proteins were identified in the G...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Torunn Hjøllo, Eirik Bratland, Hans Steinsland, Matej Radunovic, Nina Langeland, Kurt Hanevik
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: The long-term humoral immune response after a natural giardiasis infection is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal serum IgA and IgG/M responses towards conserved regions of two Giardia variant-specific surface proteins (VSP) and whether these responses differ between Giardia assemblages and durations of infection. METHODS: We recruited thirty Giardia-positive patients, mainly returning travellers, and eighteen healthy adults presumed to be Giardia unexposed...
June 14, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Rachel M Chalmers, Gregorio Pérez-Cordón, Simone M Cacció, Christian Klotz, Lucy J Robertson
Due to the occurrence of genetic recombination, a reliable and discriminatory method to genotype Cryptosporidium isolates at the intra-species level requires the analysis of multiple loci, but a standardised scheme is not currently available. A workshop was held at the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin in 2016 that gathered 23 scientists with appropriate expertise (in either Cryptosporidium genotyping and/or surveillance, epidemiology or outbreaks) to discuss the processes for the development of a robust, standardised, multi-locus genotyping (MLG) scheme and propose an approach...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Shaban Gohardehi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Afsaneh Amouei, Abdolsattar Pagheh, Mitra Sadeghi, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infectious disease. Although most people infected by Toxoplasma gondii are asymptomatic, evidence has suggested that this disease might affect some aspects of a host's behavior and associate with schizophrenia, suicide attempt, changes in various aspects of personality, and poor neurocognitive performance. These associations may play roles in increasing the risk of a number of incidents, such as traffic accidents, among infected people. In this regard, this study aimed to provide summary estimates for the available data on the potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Natállia Alle Parreira, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Marlei Josiele Augusto, Deisy Mara Silva, Cibele Maria Prado, Jorge Elias Júnior, Vanderlei Rodrigues, Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho
Schistosomiasis mansoni is involved in hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. Previous studies proved that blockade of some components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduce liver fibrogenesis. However, the effects of inhibition of early stages of RAS pathway in schistosomal fibrosis have not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the role of different antihypertensive drugs on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis. BALB/c mice (n = 50) weighing 20g were subjected to inoculation of 50 cercariae and submitted to different treatments: aliskiren, 50 mg/kg (n = 10); bradykinin, 2 μg/kg (n = 5); losartan, 10 mg/kg (n = 10); lisinopril 10 mg/kg (n = 5) and control, proportional volume vehicle (n = 5); daily for 14 weeks...
June 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Reynaldo Ponce, Nancy León-Janampa, Robert H Gilman, Ruddy Liendo, Elisa Roncal, Sueline Luis, Stefany Quiñones-Garcia, Zach Silverstein, Hector H García, Armando Gonzales, Patricia Sheen, Mirko Zimic, Mónica J Pajuelo
Cysticercosis is a worldwide parasitic disease of humans and pigs principally caused by infection with the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Through the use of the recently-made-available T. solium genome, we identified a gene within a novel 1448 bp ORF that theoretically encodes for a 433 amino acid-long protein and predicted to be an α-enolase closely related to enolases of other flatworms. Additional bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative plasminogen-binding region on this protein, suggesting a potential role for this protein in pathogenesis...
June 7, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Eun-Kyung Moon, Hyun-Seo Choi, Hyun-Hee Kong, Fu-Shi Quan
Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been described as amoebicidal agents acting against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. However, the underlying mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Here, we describe programmed cell death (PCD) in A. castellanii induced by polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and chloroquine. We used four types of amoebicidal agents including 0.02% PHMB, 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate, 100 μM chloroquine, and 100 μM 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile to kill Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
W Zbiba, N Ben Abdesslem
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of AK among microbial keratitis as well as their clinical features and to compare their risk factors to those of other infectious keratitis, over the last five years in a referral center in the region of Cap Bon, Tunisia, North Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of the charts of 230 patients (230 eyes) diagnosed with presumed infectious keratitis between January 2011 and December 2016 at the department of ophthalmology of the university hospital of Nabeul in Tunisia...
May 30, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jian Li, Fen Wang, Chunli Ma, Yuchen Huang, Dian Wang, Dexing Ma
Avian coccidiosis leads to severe economic losses for the global poultry industry. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) of E. tenella (EtAMA1) plays a vital role during invasion of parasites into host cells. In the present study, recombinant live Lactococcus lactis expressing cytoplasmic, secreted and cell wall-anchored EtAMA1 protein were respectively constructed. The three live bacteria were respectively administered orally to SPF chickens (100 μl bacteria containing 5 × 109  CFU per chicken) for three times at 10-day intervals...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Sonya Costa, Cláudia Cavadas, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria do Céu Sousa
Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated...
July 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Madhvi Chahar, Anup Anvikar, Rajnikant Dixit, Neena Valecha
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is sensitive, prompt, high throughput and field deployable technique for nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions. In this study, we have developed and optimized four different visualization methods of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect Pfcrt K76T mutants of P. falciparum and compared their important features for one-pot in-field applications. Even though all the four tested LAMP methods could successfully detect K76T mutants of P...
July 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Wanderley de Souza, Marcia Attias
Scanning electron microscopy has been used to observe and study parasitic protozoa for at least 40 years. However, field emission electron sources, as well as improvements in lenses and detectors, brought the resolution power of scanning electron microscopes (SEM) to a new level. Parallel to the refinement of instruments, protocols for preservation of the ultrastructure, immunolabeling, exposure of cytoskeleton and inner structures of parasites and host cells were developed. This review is focused on protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary relevance, e...
July 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Sophia Malli, Christian Bories, Gilles Ponchel, Philippe M Loiseau, Kawthar Bouchemal
Metronidazole (MTZ) is a 5-nitroimidazole drug used for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitic infection. Aqueous formulations containing MTZ are restricted because apparent solubility in water of this drug is low. In this context, two methylated-β-cyclodextrins (CRYSMEB and RAMEB) were used as a tool to increase apparent solubility of MTZ in water. CRYSMEB was limited by its own solubility in water (15% w/w, 12.59 mM), while RAMEB at a concentration of 40% w/w (300.44 mM) allowed a maximal increase of apparent solubility of MTZ (3...
June 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Hakim Azizi, Hadi Mirzaeei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Ali Bazi, Aliyar Mirzapour, Mehrdad Khatami, Kareem Hatam Nahavandi, Ako Azimi, Hajar Yaghoobi
Toxic effects of available therapeutics are major drawbacks for conventional management approaches in parasitic infections. Vaccines have provided a promising opportunity to obviate such unwanted complications. In present study, we examined immune augmenting capacities of an emerging adjuvant, Naltrexone, against Fasciola hepatica infection in BALB/c mice. Seventy BALB/c mice were divided into five experimental groups (14 mice per group) including 1- control (received PBS), 2- vaccine (immunized with F. hepatica E/S antigens), 3- Alum-vaccine (immunized with Alum adjuvant and E/S antigens), 4- NLT-vaccine (immunized with NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens), and 5- Alum-NLT-vaccine (immunized with mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens)...
June 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mariana Strauss, Jean Henrique S Rodrigues, María Silvina Lo Presti, Paola Carolina Bazán, Alejandra Lidia Báez, Patricia Paglini-Oliva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Juan Manuel Bustamante, Héctor Walter Rivarola
Combination therapies based on the available drugs have been proposed as promising therapeutic alternatives for many diseases. Clomipramine (CLO) has been found to modify the evolution of the experimental infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of benznidazole (BZ) and clomipramine (CLO) against different life-stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and their efficacy in a murine model. Life-stages of T. cruzi, BZ-partially-resistant (Y) strain, were incubated with BZ and CLO and isobolograms and combination index (CI) were obtained...
June 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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