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Experimental Parasitology

Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, Renata Pimentel Bandeira de Melo, Luiz Daniel de Barros, João Luis Garcia, Müller Ribeiro Andrade, Wagnner José Nascimento Porto, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira, Rinaldo Aparecido Mota
The purpose of this study was to perform genotypic characterization and to evaluate the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from aborted fetuses in an abortion outbreak in goats from northeastern Brazil. Brain samples from 32 fetuses were submitted to mouse bioassay for T. gondii isolation. Two isolates were obtained and subjected to genotypic characterization. Isolate virulence was evaluated using murine model in different doses (from 105 to 101 tachyzoites/mL). In genotyping, both isolates were classified as clonal lineage type II (genotype #1 ToxoDB) and showed to be virulent for mice...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
O Villafraz, R Rondón-Mercado, A J Cáceres, J L Concepción, W Quiñones
T. rangeli epimastigotes contain only a single detectable phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) enzyme in their cytosol. However, analysis of this parasite's recently sequenced genome showed a gene predicted to code for a PGK with the same molecular mass as the natural enzyme, and with a cytosolic localization as well. In this work, we have partially purified the natural PGK from T. rangeli epimastigotes. Furthermore, we cloned the predicted PGK gene and expressed it as a recombinant active enzyme. Both purified enzymes were kinetically characterized and displayed similar substrate affinities, with KmATP values of 0...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Ling-Ling Zhang, Li-Nong Yao, Hua-Liang Chen, Qiao-Yi Lu, Wei Ruan
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax remains a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for people living where it is endemic. Understanding the regional genetic diversity of P. vivax is valuable for studying population dynamics and tracing the origins of parasites. The Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite gene (PvCSP) is highly polymorphic and has been used previously as a marker in P. vivax population studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of the PvCSP, to provide more genetic polymorphism data for further studies on P...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Marina O Cesar, Eliana R Matushima, Ticiana Zwarg, Alice S de Oliveira, Thaís C Sanches, Adriana M Joppert, Lara B Keid, Trícia Maria F S Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, Horwald Alexander Bedoya Llano, Guilherme Konradt, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Fábio Gregori, Luís Fernando P Gondim, Rodrigo M Soares
In a previous study in Brazil, six isolates of Sarcocystis spp. recovered from budgerigars fed sporocysts excreted by opossums of the genus Didelphis were characterized by means of sequencing fragments of gene coding cytochrome B (CYTB), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and surface antigen genes (SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). The isolates shared identical ITS1 and CYTB sequences, but differed at SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4: three allele variants of SAG2, 3 allele variants of SAG3 and 2 allele variants of SAG4 were encountered in three multilocus genotypes (MLGs) (MLG1, MLG2, and MLG3)...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Donglin Yang, Lixia Pan, Zhongzhu Chen, Huihui Du, Bo Luo, Jie Luo, Guoqing Pan
Microsporidia are highly specialized obligate intracellular, spore forming divergent fungi with a wide variety host range that includes most vertebrates and invertebrates. The resistant spores are surrounded by a rigid cell wall which consists of three layers: the electron-lucent chitin and protein inner endospore, the outer-electron-dense and mainly proteinaceous exospore and plasma membrane. Interestingly, microsporidia owns a special invasion organelle, called polar tube, coiled within the interior of the spore wall and attached to anchoring disk at the anterior end of spore...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Irene Malkwitz, Angela Berndt, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
Toxoplasma gondii is known to be able to infect any nucleated cell including immune cells like macrophages. In addition, it is assumed that macrophages serve as trojan horse during distribution in hosts. The underlying causes of parasite host interaction remain yet not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate susceptibility of chicken macrophages to infection with T. gondii and the process of infection in avian cells in comparison to cells of mammalian origin. Primary avian blood monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with tachyzoites of type II (ME49) and III (NED) strains...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nathan H Vande Burgt, Agathe Auer, Annetta Zintl
The water-borne protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum forms oocysts that can persist for long periods of time in the environment, even though the sporozoites inside the oocysts may no longer be viable, making it difficult to assess the associated risk of infection. In this study, we compared the ability of various in vitro methods to discriminate viable from non-viable oocysts, including excystation, DAPI/PI staining, RNA FISH, PMA-qPCR and a novel polymer slide adhesion method. With the notable exception of our in vitro excystation protocol, all methods were found to be useful for identifying viable oocysts...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Marianne Lebbad, Jadwiga Winiecka-Krusnell, Mona Insulander, Jessica Beser
Cryptosporidium hominis is considered a strictly human-adapted species, and it is only occasionally diagnosed in animals. However, two variants, C. hominis monkey genotype and C. hominis Ik, were originally described in non-human hosts, monkeys and horses, respectively. During a Swedish national Cryptosporidium study, where all samples were analyzed at the small subunit rRNA and the 60 kDa (gp60) glycoprotein loci, we identified two patients infected with C. hominis monkey genotype (subtype IiA17) and two infected with C...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Alessandra Regina Dhorm Pimentel de Moraes, Guilherme Diniz Tavares, Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha, Eneida de Paula, Selma Giorgio
Plant products are an important source of bioactive agents against parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. Among these products, vegetable oils have gained ground in the pharmaceutical field. Here we report the development of nanoemulsions as a delivery system for copaiba and andiroba oils (nanocopa and nanoandi) in order to test their effects on Leishmania infantum and L. amazonensis. The nanocopa and nanoandi had an average particle size of 76.1 and 88.1, respectively with polydispersity index 0.14 to 0...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
F Dendana, H Trabelsi, S Neiji, H Sellami, S Kammoun, F Cheikhrouhou, F Makni, J Feki, A Ayadi
In the southern Tunisia Oasis, we conducted 211 water with drawals from various water traffic sites. This water is used for agriculture, swimming or various other human activities. Acanthamoeba genus was detected in 82% of collected samples. Sequencing of the amplification products with primers P892C/P892 has allowed us to detect genotypic variation with predominance of T4 genotype (51%) and presence of the genotypes T14, T5, T3, T16, T15, T10, T11, T9 and T7. They T4, T3, T5, T15, T11 and T10 genotypes have a high potential for pathogenicity and a very high degree of virulence due to their production of serine proteases and extracellular cysteine enzymes involved in tissue degradation of the host...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Natália Karla Bellini, Thomás Michelena Santos, Marco Túlio Alves da Silva, Otavio Henrique Thiemann
Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95% of the reported cases. Although being fatal and with potential risks for an increase in the occurrence of the pathogen in populated areas, the organism receives little public health attention. A great underestimation in the number of PAM cases reported is assumed, taking into account the difficulty in obtaining an accurate diagnosis...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Ana Montoya, Guadalupe Miró, José María Saugar, Beatriz Fernández, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Begoña Bailo, Valentina Marino, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Isabel Fuentes
Acanthamoeba spp. is a widespread protozoan that has been isolated from air, dust, soil, water and biological samples. An opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals, it may cause ocular keratitis, encephalitis, and even multisystem disease. The frequency of Acanthamoeba in animals is unknown. The aim of present study was determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in immunocompromised stray cats - animals possibly more likely to harbour the infection given their immunocompromised status and frequenting of contaminated environments...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Saurav Kumar, R P Raman, K Pani Prasad, P P Srivastava, Sanath Kumar, K V Rajendran
Monogenea (gill parasite) is a major problem in aquaculture that reduces the growth of cultured fish and adversely affects the economy. The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of various degrees of Thaparocleidus sp. (dactylogyrids, monogenean) infestation on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A standard cohabitation study, following complete randomized design in triplicate, was conducted to obtain low, moderate and high degrees of infestation in P...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Rita Cardoso, Junhua Wang, Joachim Müller, Sebastian Rupp, Alexandre Leitão, Andrew Hemphill
Like most intracellular pathogens, the apicomplexan parasites Besnoitia besnoiti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum scavenge metabolites from their host cells. Recruitment of the Golgi complex to the vicinity of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) is likely to aid in this process. In this work, we comparatively assessed B. besnoiti, T. gondii and N. caninum infected human retinal pigmented epithelial (hTERT-RPE-1) cells at 24 h post-infection and used antibodies to confirm Golgi ribbon compaction in B. besnoiti, and Golgi ribbon dispersion in T...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
S Hadj Rabia, F Benmoussa, A Benzaid, A Baz
The present preliminary study intends to evaluate the in vitro use of hydatid antigen and their antibodies once labeled with iodine 125(I125 ) and characterized from viewpoint of radiochemical purity and immunoreactivity. Radiolabelled molecules gave satisfactory purity of 94% and 96%-98%, for hydatid antigen and IgG respectively. As regards, the specific activity of these latter, varied between 4.79 and 5.97 μCi/μg. The specificity test of radiolabelled IgG against the hydatid membranes showed a significant recognition that increased proportionally according to the contact surface...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Chun Ying Liu, Hua Na Ren, Yan Yan Song, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Shao Rong Long, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
The aim of this study was to identify the biological characteristics and functions of a putative Trichinella spiralis glutathione S-transferase (TspGST). The results of real-time PCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT) showed that the TspGST gene was expressed at all of T. spiralis different developmental stages (muscle larvae, intestinal infective larvae, adult worms and newborn larvae). When anti-rTspGST serum, mouse infection serum, and pre-immune serum were added to the medium, the inhibition rate of the larvae penetrated into the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was 25...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Viviane Sant' Anna, Marcelle Railbolt, Aleksandra Oliveira-Menezes, Theodora Calogeropoulou, Jairo Pinheiro, Wanderley de Souza
Alkylphospholipid analogs were initially developed as anticancer agents and were later found to antiparasitic activity. Miltefosine is the prototype alkylphosphocholine and is the first oral treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Here we investigated the effects of miltefosine and two ring-substituted alkylphosphocholine derivatives, TCAN26 and TC70, on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of the life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans and infective larvae of the parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Cindy Jazmín Delgado-Galván, Felipe Padilla-Vaca, Fátima Berenice Ramírez Montiel, Ángeles Rangel-Serrano, Itzel Paramo-Pérez, Fernando Anaya Velázquez, B Franco
Entamoeba histolytica genetic organization and genome structure is complex and under intense research. The genome is fully sequenced, and several tools have been developed for the molecular study of this organism. Nevertheless, good protein tracking tags that are easy to measure and image, like the fluorescent proteins are lacking. In this report, we codon-optimized the red fluorescent protein from the coral Discosoma striata (DsRFP) for its use in E. histolytica and demonstrated functionality in vivo. We envision that this protein can be widely used for the development of transcriptional reporter systems and protein-tagging applications...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin, Margarita Bisio, Daniela Marisa Rocco, Jaime Altcheh, María Elisa Solana, Facundo García-Bournissen
Although many Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) strains isolated from a wide range of hosts have been characterized, there is a lack of information about biological features from vertically transmitted strains. We describe the molecular and biological characteristics of the T. cruzi VD strain isolated from a congenital Chagas disease patient. The VD strain was typified as DTU TcVI; in vitro sensitivity to nifurtimox (NFX) and beznidazole (BZ) were 2.88 μM and 6.19 μM respectively, while inhibitory concentrations for intracellular amastigotes were 0...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Débora V C Mendonça, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Ana Maria R S Carvalho, Anna Letícia T Dias, Carolina K Miyazaki, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Bruno M Roatt, Carlos A P Tavares, José Mário Barichello, Mariana C Duarte, Eduardo A F Coelho
Amphotericin B (Amp) has been well-successfully used to treat against Leishmania infection, although high toxicity has been found in patients. In the present study, Amp was administered in Leishmania infantum-infected BALB/c mice by three distinct delivery systems aiming to compare their efficacy against challenge infection, as well as their side effects in a murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) model. This product was administered in a Poloxamer P407 (Pluronic ® F127)-based polymeric micelle system (Amp/M), in the Ambisome ® formulation (Lip-Amp) or in a free format (free Amp)...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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