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Experimental Parasitology

Camila Piva Abegg, Ana Paula de Abreu, Juliane Lopes da Silva, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Érika Cristina Ferreira, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis has broad biological and genetic diversity. Remaining to be studied are polymorphisms of the blood forms and metacyclogenesis of different T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs). Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between T. cruzi DTUs, the morphology of blood trypomastigotes, and in vitro metacyclogenesis. T. cruzi strains that pertained to DTUs TcI, TcII, and TcIV from different Brazilian states were used. Parameters that were related to the morphology of eight strains were assessed in thin blood smears that were obtained from mice that were inoculated with blood or culture forms, depending on strain...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Diego Otoniel Ortiz Pérez, Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadúa, José Luis Cruz López, María Eréndira Reyes García, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
The reduction of the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) larvae population in faeces of cattle treated with Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on a farm under an organic production system in Chiapas, Mexico, was assessed. Seventeen Cebu/Swiss crossbreed grazing calves naturally infected with GIN, were randomly distributed into two groups and treated as follows: Group 1, an oral administration of 2 × 10(6)D. flagrans chlamydospores/kg BW, every two days for 30 days; group 2, Control, without any treatment. Results indicated that the epg values in both groups remained similar (p > 0...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Kristina Sumpf, Roswitha Nast, Bryan Downie, Gabriela Salinas, Carsten G K Lüder
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
C E S Carvalho, E P C Sobrinho-Junior, L M Brito, L A D Nicolau, T P Carvalho, A K S Moura, K A F Rodrigues, S M P Carneiro, D D R Arcanjo, A M G L Citó, F A A Carvalho
Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl.) Fr. All., commonly known as "aroeira-do-sertão", is a medicinal plant from Anacardiaceae family. In this study, the chemical composition of M. urundeuva essential oil (MuEO) was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as its anti-Leishmania potential, cytotoxicity, and macrophage activation capability as possible antiprotozoal mechanism of action were assessed. Fourteen compounds were identified, which constituted 94.87% of total oil composition. The most abundant components were monoterpenes (80...
February 8, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Chandrajit Dohutia, Dipak Chetia, Kabita Gogoi, Kishore Sarma
The polyphenolic compound curcumin has been reported for its antimalarial properties in various scientific studies. Plasmodium falciparum ATP6, the parasite orthologue of mammalian sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) has been identified as a key molecular target of both artemisinin and curcumin. The work was thereby undertaken to study the anti-malarial properties of two different series of curcumin analogues based on their docking interactions with PfATP6 and correlating the results with their anti-malarial activity...
February 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Xi Zhang, Jiang Yang Duan, Zhong Quan Wang, Peng Jiang, Ruo Dan Liu, Jing Cui
Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Andreza Veiga, Kelly Albuquerque, Maria Elinete Corrêa, Helliton Brigido, João Silva E Silva, Marliane Campos, Fernando Silveira, Lourivaldo Santos, Maria Dolabela
Virola species have been used in traditional medicine as healing in skin infections. From V. surinanensis oil were isolated several sesquiterpene as the nerolidol which showed activity against species of Leishmania. The current study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicide activity and toxicity of extracts, fractions and surinamesin obtained from leaves of Virola surinamensis. Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, and Methanol extracts were obtained from powder of dry leaves of V. surinamensis. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and increasingly polar gradient...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Manoj Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Subir Karmakar, Joydeep Paul, Sudeshna Sawoo, Hemanta K Majumder, Amit Roy
In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. A dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight per mice on alternate days (5 doses) gives ∼97% protection in both liver and spleen. Moreover, CuSAL potentially inhibits the catalytic activity of LdTOPILS and causes apoptosis of Leishmania parasites through induction of intracellular ROS generation and activation of caspase-like proteases...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Morgana V de Araújo, Cibelle Cabral David, José Clementino Neto, Luiz A P L de Oliveira, Karoline Cristina Jatobá da Silva, Jefferson Miguel Dos Santos, João Kayke S da Silva, Vitória B C de A Brandão, Tania M S Silva, Celso A Camara, Magna S Alexandre-Moreira
Parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans, a disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. In this study was evaluated in vitro leishmanicidal activity of 2-N,N'-dialkylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, covering a series of fourteen 2-N-morpholino-, 2-N-thiomorpholino, 2-N-piperidino, 2-N-(N(4)-methyl)-piperazino naphthoquinones (1a-n) derived from nor-lapachol and lawsone, belong to some other di-alkyaminoderivatives. At the cytotoxicity assay on peritoneal macrophages, the compounds possessing larger alkyl groups and N-methyl-piperazino moiety (1d, 1h, 1i and 1k), showed toxic effects similar to the standard drug used pentamidine...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Veena Sreedharan, K V Bhaskara Rao
In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). In optimization study for protease inhibitor production glucose as carbon source and casein as nitrogen source showed the best activity...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
R H Soliman, O A Ismail, M S Badr, S M Nasr
Schistosoma mansoni causes a major chronic debilitating disease in more than 230 million people around the world. The pathognomonic granuloma is a major cause of the oxidative stress encountered as a consequence of infection not only in the liver, but also in other important organs as spleen, lung, brain and kidney. Resveratrol administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily for two weeks to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni resulted in improvement in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Enzymatic antioxidant profile showed significant modulations in Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and reduced glutathione levels...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Guilherme M do Carmo, Pedro H Doleski, Mariângela F de Sá, Thirssa H Grando, Nathieli B Bottari, Daniela B R Leal, Lucas T Gressler, Luan C Henker, Ricardo E Mendes, Silvia G Monteiro, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of purinergic enzymes in lymphocytes and cardiac tissue of mice experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Twelve female mice were used, divided into two groups (n = 6): uninfected and infected. On day 12 post-infection (PI), the animals were anesthetized and after euthanized, and samples were collected for analyses. Infected mice showed reduction in erythrocyte counts, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, as well as reduced number of total leukocytes in consequence of neutrophilia (P < 0...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Maisa S Fonseca, Marcelo A Comini, Bethânia V Resende, Ana Maria M Santi, Antônio P Zoboli, Douglas S Moreira, Silvane M F Murta
Trypanosomatids present a unique mechanism for detoxification of peroxides that is dependent on trypanothione (bisglutathionylspermidine). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) produce molecules that are direct precursors of trypanothione. In this study, Leishmania guyanensis odc and gsh1 overexpressor cell lines were generated to investigate the contribution of these genes to the trivalent antimony (Sb(III))-resistance phenotype. The ODC- or GSH1-overexpressors parasites presented an increase of two and four-fold in Sb(III)-resistance index, respectively, when compared with the wild-type line...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Deborah Joekel, Peter Deplazes
Comparable with immunocompetent humans, rats are considered highly resistant to Echinococcus multilocularis oncosphere invasion, both in nature and after experimental oral inoculation with eggs. Pharmacological immunosuppression with dexamethasone (DMX) was shown to abrogate the resistance of RccHan™:WIST rats, but due to weight losses >20%, many animals had to be excluded from previous experiments. The optimized DXM (Dexafort, MSD Animal Health, Germany) dosage regime presented in this study (each animal: 750 μg DXM at day -13 and 600 μg DXM at day -9 before inoculation) applied subcutaneously to RccHan™:WIST rats, resulted in weight losses ≤20%, but led to liver alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in all eight inoculated animals...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Gabriela Campigotto, Andréia Volpato, Gabriela M Galli, Patrícia Glombowsky, Matheus D Baldissera, Luiz Claudio Miletti, Antonise M Jaguezeski, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Many reproductive problems has been described in male and female animals infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of vertical (Experiment I) and venereal (Experiment II) transmission of T. evansi in rats experimentally infected. In the experiment I, eight female Wistar rats were used: three animals as negative controls, and five rats were infected by T. evansi on day ten of gestation. Out of these eight females, half puppies were used for molecular analysis (polymerase chain reaction - PCR) for T...
February 2, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Hao Wang, Ming Li, Xiaoxia Zhang, Fang He, Shengbin Zhang, Jiaqing Zhao
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) induced by metacestodes (larval stages) of Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus) represents a severe endemic disease worldwide. Gamma delta (γδ) T cells, one of innate immune cells, play pivotal role in pathogenic infections. However, whether γδ T cells are involved in CE remains unclear. This study firstly investigated the role of peripheral γδ T cells in CE. The results showed that the percentage of peripheral γδ T cells from CE patients was decreased, compared with healthy controls (HC) (p < 0...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
C Rojas-Martínez, R I Rodríguez-Vivas, J V Figueroa Millán, K Y Acosta Viana, E J Gutiérrez Ruiz, J A Álvarez Martínez
This study reports the effect of putrescine addition, either alone or in combination with insulin, transferrin and selenite (ITS), to serum-free Advanced DMEM/F12 (A-DMEM/F12) medium, on the in vitro culture of Babesia bovis and using a perfusion bioreactor to improve efficiency of the process. A B. bovis strain previously adapted to proliferate in serum-free medium (Bbovis-SF) was evaluated using eight increasing concentrations of putrescine. The percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) obtained from cultures supplemented with 0...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Yanyan Cui, Yan Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Shuxuan Cao, Xiaoxing Wang, Yaqun Yan, Changshen Ning
Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Pooja Saraf, E Keats Shwab, Jitender P Dubey, Chunlei Su
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful pathogens on earth, capable of infecting an extremely broad range of mammals and birds and causing potentially fatal disease in humans. The house mouse (Mus musculus) has been used as the primary laboratory animal model for determining the virulence of T. gondii strains. Epidemiological evidence also suggests a potential association between virulence in mice and disease severity in human toxoplasmosis. However, many factors can affect virulence measurements, including route of infection, life stage of the parasite, number of passages of the parasite in mice or cell culture, and the mouse host line used...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Joyce G R Souza, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Juberlan S Garcia, Ana Paula N Gomes, Rosangela Rodrigues-Silva, Arnaldo Maldonado, José Roberto Machado-Silva
Chemotherapy of food-borne trematodes relies on two drugs, praziquantel and tricabendazole, and there is growing interest in finding alternative therapies. Plant oil extracts have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine as sources of bioactive compounds with antiparasitic activity. Species of the genus Echinostoma are used as good models to test effective compounds against food-borne trematodes. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of crude artesunate extracts in vitro on newly excysted metacercariae of Echinostoma paraensei by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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