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Experimental Parasitology

M Montalbano Di Filippo, A Novelletto, D Di Cave, F Berrilli
Naegleria spp. are free-living amoebae belonging to the family Vahlkampfiidae, in the class Heterolobosea. Among the recognized species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while two other species, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria italica, have been reported as pathogenic in experimental animals. Due to the thermotolerance properties of some species, geothermal water sources including hot springs represent suitable habitats for their proliferation. The main aim of this study was a year-round sampling in two geothermal springs in Central Italy, to investigate the presence of Naegleria spp...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Bacterial infections have remained significant despite our advances in the development of a plethora of disinfectants as well as antimicrobial chemotherapy. This is in part due to our incomplete understanding of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens in the environmental and clinical settings. Several lines of evidence suggest that Acanthamoeba is one of the most ubiquitous/resilient protists that also acts as a host/reservoir for pathogenic microbes. Thus targeting the hardy host, which harbour microbial pathogens, offer a potential avenue to counter infection transmission, particularly hospital/community-acquired infections...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Muhammet Karakavuk, Mehmet Aykur, Esra Atalay Şahar, Mehmet Karakuş, Duygu Aldemir, Ömer Döndüren, Hüseyin Gökhan Özdemir, Hüseyin Can, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz, Hande Dağcı, Mert Döşkaya
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Mayara Ribeiro, Priscila Silva Franco, Janice Buiate Lopes-Maria, Mariana Bodini Angeloni, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Angelica de Oliveira Gomes, Andressa Silva Castro, Rafaela José da Silva, Fernanda Chaves de Oliveira, Iliana Claudia Balga Milian, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Francesca Ietta, José Roberto Mineo, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro
Trophoblast infection by Toxoplasma gondii plays a pivotal role in the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. Here, we investigate whether the antibiotic therapy with azithromycin, spiramycin and sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine are effective to control trophoblast infection by two Brazilian T. gondii genotypes, TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2. Two antibiotic protocols were evaluated, as follow: i) pre-treatment of T. gondii-tachyzoites with selected antibiotics prior trophoblast infection and ii) post-treatment of infected trophoblasts...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Jun-Feng Gao, Guo-Hua Liu, Hong Duan, Yuan Gao, Yan Zhang, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Ming Fang, Chun-Ren Wang
Triodontophorus serratus and Triodontophorus nipponicus are two of the most common nematodes inhabiting in the large intestine of horse. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of T. serratus and T. nipponicus have been determined. The mt genomes of T. serratus and T. nipponicus are circular molecules with 13,794 bp and 13,701 bp in size, respectively. These circular mt genomes encode 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. All of these genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangements are consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3-type)...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Chiara Curra, Paul J McMillan, Lefteris Spanos, Vanessa Mollard, Elena Deligianni, Geoffrey McFadden, Leann Tilley, Inga Siden-Kiamos
Actin has important roles in Plasmodium parasites but its exact function in different life stages is not yet fully elucidated. Here we report the localization of ubiquitous actin I in gametocytes of the rodent model parasite P. berghei. Using an antibody specifically recognizing F-actin and deconvolution microscopy we detected actin I in a punctate pattern in gametocytes. 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy which allows sub-diffraction limit imaging resolved the signal into structures of less than 130 nm length...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Bohumil Sak, Anna Jandová, Doležal Karel, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Michael Rost, Milan Olšanský, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Ivona Foitová
The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice...
August 2, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Sutherland K Maciver, Alvaro De Obeso Fernandez Del Valle, Zisis Koutsogiannis
We describe a new species of cyst-producing soil amoeba Vannella pentlandii from course pasture in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. Analysis of the 18S rDNA gene reveals that it belongs to the sub-group within the genus, presently composed of V. placida, V. epipetala and V. fimicola (the PEF group). This group share features such as longitudinal folds/ridges on the lamella (the anterior hyaline region of the trophozoite), stubby floating forms and cyst production. While each PEF species contain cyst producing strains, not all strains within these species do so...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Ines Sifaoui, María Reyes-Batlle, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Carolina Wagner, Olfa Chiboub, Jacqueline De Agustino Rodríguez, Pedro Rocha-Cabrera, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Efficient treatments against Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK), remains until the moment, as an issue to be solved due to the existence of a cyst stage which is highly resistant to most chemical and physical agents. In this study, two antiglaucoma eye drops were tested for their activity against Acanthamoeba. Moreover, this study was based on previous data which gave us evidence of a possible link between the absences of Acanthamoeba at the ocular surface in patients treated with beta blockers for high eye pressure both containing timolol as active principle...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Luce Mengue, Freddie-Jeanne Richard, Yves Caubet, Steven Rolland, Yann Héchard, Ascel Samba-Louaka
Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoeba commonly found in aquatic environment. It feeds on bacteria even if some bacteria resist amoebal digestion. Thus, A. castellanii is described as a Trojan horse able to harbor pathogenic bacteria. L. pneumophila is one of the amoeba-resisting bacteria able to avoid host degradation by phagocytosis and to multiply inside the amoeba. When infecting its host, L. pneumophila injects hundreds of effectors via a type IV secretion system that change physiology of the amoeba to its profit...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Raquel Arruda Sanfelice, Laís Fernanda Machado, Larissa Rodrigues Bosqui, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Gabriela de Alcântara Dalevedo, Dielle Ioris, Guilherme Fonseca Reis, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Juliano Bordignon, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida, Idessania Nazareth Costa
Due to the toxicity of conventional medication in toxoplasmosis, some drugs are being studied for treating this infection, such as statins, especially rosuvastatin compound, which is efficient in inhibiting the initial isoprenoid biosynthesis processes in humans and the parasite. The goal of this study was to assess the activity of rosuvastatin in HeLa cells infected with the RH strain of T. gondii. In the experiment, HeLa cells (1 × 10(5)) were infected with tachyzoites of T. gondii (5 × 10(5)). After the experimental infection, we assessed the number of infected cells and the amount of intracellular tachyzoites...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Noha Madbouly Taha, Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof, Shaimaa H El-Sayed, Azza Ibrahim Younis, Mohamed Sherif Ismail Negm
The present study was conducted on 200 male mice for the detection of the effect of Atorvastatin on Cryptosporidium spp. infection versus the commercially used drug Nitazoxanide in experimentally immunosuppressed mice. Atorvastatin was used alone at low dose (20 mg/kg), high dose (40 mg/kg), and combined with Nitazoxanide (1000 mg/kg) with either the low dose or high dose for five consecutive days. Parasitological assessment of the drug effect was done using Modified Z-N staining of stool samples collected from mice...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Chris Bader, Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai, David E Starling, Douglas E Jones, Matthew T Brewer
Control of parasitic infections may be achieved by eliminating developmental stages present within intermediate hosts, thereby disrupting the parasite life cycle. For several trematodes relevant to human and veterinary medicine, this involves targeting the metacercarial stage found in fish intermediate hosts. Treatment of fish with praziquantel is one potential approach for targeting the metacercaria stage. To date, studies investigating praziquantel-induced metacercarial death in fish rely on counting parasites and visually assessing morphology or movement...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
P Rajiv Gandhi, C Jayaseelan, R Regina Mary, D Mathivanan, S R Suseem
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
S Umair, C L G Bouchet, J S Knight, A Pernthaner, H V Simpson
A 1023 bp full length cDNA encoding Teladorsagia circumcincta GAPDH (TeciGAPDH) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified and its kinetic properties determined. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using helminth GAPDH sequences. The predicted protein consisted of 341 amino acids and was present as a single band of about 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Multiple alignments of the protein sequence of TeciGAPDH with homologues from other helminths showed that the greatest similarity (93%) to the GAPDH of Haemonchus contortus and Dictyocaulus viviparus, 82-86% similarity to the other nematode sequences and 68-71% similarity to cestode and trematode enzymes...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Alicia Costábile, Mónica Marín, Estela Castillo
VAL proteins belong to a diverse superfamily containing the CAP domain, with members described for various eukaryotic organisms, including parasites. They are implicated in diverse biological activities and, as secreted proteins, may be related in host - parasite interactions. For this reason they have been proposed as vaccine candidates against nematode infections. However, little is known about their function in cestodes. In M. corti, four partial cDNA sequences coding for members of the CAP superfamily were previously isolated...
July 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
L Ceballos, C Canton, G Cadenazzi, K Larsen, G Virkel, L Moreno, I Fairweather, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Closantel (CLS) is highly effective against adult liver flukes after its oral or subcutaneous (sc) administration in ruminants. Trans-tegumental diffusion and oral ingestion are the two potential routes available for the entry of drugs into Fasciola hepatica. The work reported here contributes to improve the understanding of CLS pharmacology. The main goals of were: I) to determine the pattern of in vivo CLS accumulation into adult F. hepatica and relevant tissues in CLS-treated sheep; II) to investigate the influence of the physicochemical composition of the incubation medium on the CLS diffusion process into adult F...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Emmanuel Guivier, Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic organisms have to cope with the defences deployed by their hosts and this can be achieved adopting immune evasion strategies or optimal life history traits according to the prevailing pattern of immune-mediated mortality. Parasites often encounter variable immune environments both within and between hosts, promoting the evolution of plastic strategies instead of fixed responses. Here, we explored the plasticity and micro-evolutionary responses of immunomodulatory mechanisms and life history traits to the immune environment provided by the host, using the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Pedro H Doleski, Maura V Ten Caten, Daniela F Passos, Lívia G Castilhos, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa S Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Fernanda F Vogel, Ricardo E Mendes, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan, may cause chronic infection in the brain tissue of the host inducing a systemic pro-inflammatory profile. Chronic infections can induce numerous physiological changes, such as alterations in the immune and oxidative profiles. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound, has shown antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities in recent studies. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of purinergic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum and spleen of mice chronically infected by T...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Touchchapol Mataradchakul, Chairat Uthaipibull, Francois Nosten, Joel Vega-Rodriguez, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, Usa Lek-Uthai
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infection remains a major public health problem, especially along the Thailand border regions. We examined the genetic diversity of this parasite by analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the P. vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene (Pvrom1) in parasites collected from western (Tak province, Thai-Myanmar border) and eastern (Chanthaburi province, Thai-Cambodia border) regions. METHODS: Data were collected by a cross-sectional survey, consisting of 47 and 45 P...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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