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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438522/detection-of-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-conjunctival-swabs-of-cats-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#1
Julia Cristina Benassi, Graziella U Benvenga, Helena Lage Ferreira, Vanessa F Pereira, Lara B Keid, Rodrigo Soares, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira
Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a method that permits quantitative analysis of a large number of samples, resulting in more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible measurements of specific DNA present in the sample...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438521/modified-dot-elisa-for-diagnosis-of-human-trichinellosis
#2
Eman E Taher, Eman M H Méabed, Dina M H El Akkad, Nancy O Kamel, Maha A Sabry
This study aimed to modify Dot-Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis and to compare its performance with indirect ELISA and Western-blot assay (EITB). A total of 175 human serum samples were enrolled in the study. Indirect ELISA was used for the primary diagnosis. EITB versus fractionated 1st larval stage excretory-secretory antigens (TL-1 ESA) revealed three specific protein fractions at MW of 45, 50, and 55 kilo Dalton (kDa). Dot-ELISA was performed in two ways...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433562/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-khawia-sinensis-belongs-among-platyhelminths-cestodes
#3
Yan Feng, Han-Li Feng, Yi-Hui Fang, Ying-Bing Su
Khawia sinensis is an important species in freshwater fish causing considerable economic losses to the breeding industry. This is the first mt genome of a caryophyllidean cestode characterised. The entire mt genome of K. sinensis is 13,759 bp in length. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the K. sinensis mt genome is the same as other tapeworms, however, the incomplete stop codon (A) is more frequent that other species...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433563/aryl-thiosemicarbazones-in-vitro-and-immunomodulatory-activities-against-l-amazonensis
#4
Aline Caroline da Silva, Thiago André Ramos Dos Santos, Isis Viviane Bezerra da Silva, Marcos Victor Gregório de Oliveira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães Moreira, Ana Cristina Lima Leite, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira
Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by different species of Leishmania genus. Currently, there is no vaccine available for Leishmania infections in humans and conventional treatments are limited due to side effects. Therefore, the development of new antileishmanial drugs is an urgent need. In present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity in host cells, leishmanicidal activity and immunomodulatory potential of seven aryl thiosemicarbazones. Host cell cytotoxicity was determined in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mouse, antiparasitic activity was determined against promastigotes and amastigotes of WHOM/00LTB 0016 strain of L...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431921/optimization-of-the-helmintex-method-for-schistosomiasis-diagnosis
#5
Vivian Favero, Renata Russo Frasca Candido, Carolina De Marco Verissimo, Malcolm K Jones, Timothy G St Pierre, Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Vinicius Duval Da Silva, Alessandra Loureiro Morassutti, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira
A diagnostic test that is reliable, sensitive, and applicable in the field is extremely important in epidemiological surveys, during medical treatment for schistosomiasis, and for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. The Helmintex (HTX) method is based on the use of magnetic beads to trap eggs in a magnetic field. This technique is highly sensitive, but the screening of fecal samples consumes lots of time, thus delaying the results, especially in field studies. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of incorporation of the detergent Tween-20 into the method in an attempt to decrease the final pellet volume produced by the HTX method as well as the use of ninhydrin to stain the Schistosoma mansoni eggs...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363777/dual-genetic-absence-of-stat6-and-il-10-does-not-abrogate-anti-hyperglycemic-effects-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-streptozotocin-treated-diabetic-mice
#6
Yoshio Osada, Tomohiro Fujiyama, Naoto Kamimura, Tsukushi Kaji, Susumu Nakae, Katsuko Sudo, Kenji Ishiwata, Tamotsu Kanazawa
Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) is known to exert protective effects against various allergic and autoimmune disorders. It has been reported that this parasite protects NOD mice from spontaneous type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ameliorates streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D in wild-type mice. Here, we tried to clarify the anti-diabetic mechanisms of Sm in the latter model. Sm infection partially prevented the degradation of pancreatic islets and hyperglycemia in multiple low-dose (MLD) STZ-treated mice. Neither Treg cell depletion nor genetic absences of IL-10 and/or STAT6 abrogated the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Sm...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363776/facilitating-trypanosome-imaging
#7
Marius Glogger, Ines Subota, Anna Pezzarossa, Anna-Lena Denecke, Mark Carrington, Susanne F Fenz, Markus Engstler
Research on trypanosomes as a model organism has provided a substantial contribution to a detailed understanding of basic cellular processes within the last few years. At the same time, major advances in super-resolution microscopy have been achieved, facilitating the resolution of biological structures in living cells at a scale of a few nm. However, the motility of trypanosomes has prevented access to high resolution microscopy of live cells. Here, we present a hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized with either norbornene or thiol moieties for UV induced thiol-ene crosslinking for the embedding and imaging of live trypanosomes...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351684/tissue-distribution-and-functional-analysis-of-vitellogenin-6-of-toxocara-canis
#8
Hong-Hong Zhu, Guang-Xu Ma, Yong-Fang Luo, Yong-Li Luo, Sha-Sha Yin, Yi Xiong, Rong-Qiong Zhou
Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351683/oleanolic-acid-from-antifilarial-triterpene-saponins-of-dipterocarpus-zeylanicus-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-filarial-parasite-setaria-digitata-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
K S Senathilake, E H Karunanayake, S R Samarakoon, K H Tennekoon, E D de Silva, A Adhikari
Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Two antifilarial triterpene saponins were isolated from winged seed extracts by bioactivity guided chromatographic separation and identified using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1) (IC50 = 20...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351685/transcript-and-protein-expression-analysis-of-proteases-in-the-blood-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#10
Tim Weißbach, Alexandra Golzmann, Sandra Bennink, Gabriele Pradel, Che Julius Ngwa
Proteases are crucial enzymes with varying roles in living organisms. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the role of proteases has been deciphered mainly in the asexual blood stages and shown to represent promising drug targets. However, little is known about their functions in the sexual blood stages, which are important for transmission of the disease from the human to the mosquito vector. Determination of their stage-specific expression during the malaria life-cycle is crucial for the effective design of multi-stage anti-malaria drugs aimed at eradicating the disease...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322743/an-experimental-approach-to-the-immuno-modulatory-basis-of-host-parasite-local-adaptation-in-tapeworm-infected-sticklebacks
#11
Madeleine Hamley, Frederik Franke, Joachim Kurtz, Jörn Peter Scharsack
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286326/genome-wide-analysis-of-chromatin-structures-in-trypanosoma-brucei-using-high-resolution-mnase-chip-seq
#12
Carolin Wedel, T Nicolai Siegel
Specific DNA-protein interactions are the basis for many important cellular mechanisms like the regulation of gene expression or replication. Knowledge about the precise genomic locations of DNA-protein interactions is important because it provides insight into the regulation of these processes. Recently, we have adapted an approach that combines micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion of chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we describe in detail how this method can be used to map the genome-wide distribution of nucleosomes or other DNA-binding proteins at high resolution in T...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242354/virulence-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-specific-parasite-schistocephalus-solidus-is-inherited-additively
#13
Marc Ritter, Martin Kalbe, Tina Henrich
Parasite virulence is a key trait in host-parasite interactions and plays a crucial role in infection dynamics. Our study system offers the rare opportunity to study the virulence of an individual macroparasite (Schistocephalus solidus) in its vertebrate fish host (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The size of the tapeworm in the fish can be regarded as a good proxy for individual parasite virulence, as parasite size correlates negatively with fitness traits of the stickleback host (i.e. the bigger the parasite, the lower the host's reproductive success) as well as directly with the number of parasite offspring to be expected...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242353/growth-inhibitory-effects-of-standard-pro-and-antioxidants-on-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#14
Cletus A Wezena, Johannes Krafczyk, Verena Staudacher, Marcel Deponte
The redox metabolism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its human host has been suggested to play a central role for parasite survival and clearance. A common approach to test hypotheses in redox research is to challenge or rescue cells with pro- and antioxidants. However, quantitative data on the susceptibility of infected erythrocytes towards standard redox agents is surprisingly scarce. Here we determined the IC50 values of P. falciparum strains 3D7 and Dd2 for a set of redox agents using a SYBR green-based growth assay...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189488/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-ms-275-augments-expression-of-a-subset-of-ifn-%C3%AE-regulated-genes-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-macrophages-but-does-not-improve-parasite-control
#15
Kristina Sumpf, Roswitha Nast, Bryan Downie, Gabriela Salinas, Carsten G K Lüder
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167206/optimized-dexamethasone-immunosuppression-enables-echinococcus-multilocularis-liver-establishment-after-oral-egg-inoculation-in-a-rat-model
#16
Deborah Elisabeth Joekel, Peter Deplazes
Comparable with immunocompetent humans, rats are considered highly resistant to Echinococcus multilocularis oncosphere invasion, both in nature and after experimental oral inoculation with eggs. Pharmacological immunosuppression with dexamethasone (DMX) was shown to abrogate the resistance of RccHan™:WIST rats, but due to weight losses >20%, many animals had to be excluded from previous experiments. The optimized DXM (Dexafort, MSD Animal Health, Germany) dosage regime presented in this study (each animal: 750 μg DXM at day -13 and 600 μg DXM at day -9 before inoculation) applied subcutaneously to RccHan™:WIST rats, resulted in weight losses ≤20%, but led to liver alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in all eight inoculated animals...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327439/an-in-silico-functional-annotation-and-screening-of-potential-drug-targets-derived-from-leishmania-spp-hypothetical-proteins-identified-by-immunoproteomics
#17
Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Mônica S Schneider, Daniela P Lage, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Eduardo A F Coelho
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan of the Leishmania genus. While no human vaccine is available, drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine and amphotericin B are used for treat the patients. However, the high toxicity of these pharmaceutics, the emergence of parasite resistance and/or their high cost have showed to the urgent need of identify new targets to be employed in the improvement of the treatment against leishmaniasis. In a recent immunoproteomics approach performed in the Leishmania infantum species, 104 antigenic proteins were recognized by antibodies in sera of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs...
May 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286325/research-advances-in-interactions-related-to-toxoplasma-gondii-microneme-proteins
#18
REVIEW
Qing Liu, Fa-Cai Li, Chun-Xue Zhou, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins (TgMICs), secreted by micronemes upon contact with host cells, are reported to play important roles in multiple stages of the T. gondii life cycle, including parasite motility, invasion, intracellular survival, and egress from host cells. Meanwhile, during these processes, TgMICs participate in many protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions, such as undergoing proteolytic maturation, binding to aldolase, engaging the host cell receptors and forming the moving junction (MJ), relying on different types of ectodomains, transmembrane (TM) domains and cytoplasmic domains (CDs)...
May 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286324/effects-of-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-dhodh-inhibitors-on-the-growth-of-theileria-equi-and-babesia-caballi-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Shinuo Cao, Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Akram Salama, Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Artemis Efstratiou, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi, Xuenan Xuan
Theileria equi and Babesia caballi are the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis (EP), which affects equine production in various parts of the world. However, a safe and effective drug is not currently available for treatment of EP. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is the fourth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway and has been known as a novel drug target for several apicomplexan protozoan parasites. In this study, we evaluated four DHODH inhibitors; atovaquone (ATV), leflunomide (LFN), brequinar (Breq), and 7-hydroxy-5-[1,2,4] triazolo [1,5,a] pyrimidine (TAZ) on the growth of T...
May 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268185/early-detection-of-circulating-dna-of-schistosoma-japonicum-in-sentinel-mice-models
#20
Jing Xu, Zhong Liang Duan, Zhi Xun Guan, Yan Yan Wang, Cai Lin, Ting Ting Zhang, Hui Qin Zhang, Ximei Qian, Chao Ming Xia
Currently in China, the schistosomiasis control program has shifted its focus from transmission control to the elimination of the disease. Effective forecast and surveillance systems of schistiosomiasis are of great importance for issuing timely and early warnings on risk of infection, and therefore implementing preventive measures to avoid infection. There is great demand in more sensitive and specific methods to improve the surveillance system for early detection of S. japonicum infection in sentinel mice...
May 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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