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Experimental Parasitology

Wesley C Van Voorhis, J Stone Doggett, Marilyn Parsons, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Samuel Arnold, Michael W Riggs, Andrew Hemphill, Daniel K Howe, Robert H Mealey, Audrey O T Lau, Ethan A Merritt, Dustin J Maly, Erkang Fan, Kayode K Ojo
Many life-cycle processes in parasites are regulated by protein phosphorylation. Hence, disruption of essential protein kinase function has been explored for therapy of parasitic diseases. However, the difficulty of inhibiting parasite protein kinases to the exclusion of host orthologues poses a practical challenge. A possible path around this difficulty is the use of bumped kinase inhibitors for targeting calcium dependent protein kinases that contain atypically small gatekeeper residues and are crucial for pathogenic apicomplexan parasites' survival and proliferation...
January 5, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Franck Boué, Ikhlass El Berbri, Vanessa Hormaz, Jean-Marc Boucher, Ahmed Bezeid El Mamy, Abdallah Traore, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Anne-Françoise Petavy, Allal Dakkak, Gérald Umhang
Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus widely distributed in Africa. Monitoring of this parasite requires access to cyst samples on intermediate hosts observed at the slaughterhouse. In order to facilitate sampling in the field and analysis, the French National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp. has developed a tissue derived from DNA sampling with FTA(®) card technology. The DNA samples were taken by applying the FTA(®) paper on the germinal layer after opening the cysts...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
C Buro, C Burmeister, T Quack, C G Grevelding
In eukaryotes the roles of protein kinases (PKs) regulating important biological processes such as growth and differentiation are well known. Molecular, biochemical, and physiological analyses trying to unravel principles of schistosome development have substantiated the importance for PKs also in this parasite. Amongst others the role of SmTK3 was studied, one of the first cellular PKs characterized from Schistosoma mansoni. Its function was demonstrated in mitogenic and differentiation processes in the gonads...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Juan Salvador Valle-Reyes, Valery Melnikov, Oxana Dobrovinskaya, Alejandrina Rodriguez-Hernández, Cristina Wookee-Zea, Víctor Pimientel-Rodrigez, Gabriela Rueda-Valdovinos, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Uriel A López-Lemus, Francisco Espinoza-Gómez
Chagas' disease is caused by unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic throughout Latin America, but nowadays has become a global challenge due to tourism and migration. Non-treated infection may result in health-threatening complications and lead to death. Current medications for this infection are nifurtimox (NFT) and benznidazol. Both drugs may cause side effects and are ineffective in the chronic phase. Therefore, new antichagasic compounds are urgently required. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad spectrum antiparasitic drug, proposed recently as a potential candidate to be added to the list of essential medicines for integrated neglected tropical disease control and elimination...
December 21, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
C Ferreira, C L A Passos, D C Soares, K P Costa, M J C Rezende, A Q Lobão, A C Pinto, L Hamerski, E M Saraiva
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and includes cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral clinical forms. The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment are pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B and miltefosine, which present high toxicity, elevated cost and development of parasite resistance. The natural products constitute an important source of substances with leishmanicidal potential. Here we evaluated in vitro the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of crude extracts of branches, leaves and fruits of Guatteria latifolia...
December 21, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Christoph-Martin Ufermann, Florian Müller, Nora Frohnecke, Michael Laue, Frank Seeber
Lytic growth of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite stages over a period of days results in plaques within mononolayers of host cells. Plaque assays are in frequent use to isolate single clones and to investigate invasion, replication and egress over a longer time frame. To allow correlating plaque morphology and/or size with ultrastructural examination of individual parasites we introduce a simple protocol for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) of entire plaques. We also illustrate the advantages of visualizing only the boundaries of plaques by staining for infected cells ('positive staining') rather than the traditional staining of the intact cell monolayer, thus outlining the area of lysed cells ('negative staining')...
December 21, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Monica Namayanja, Yan Dai, Barbara Nerima, Enock Matovu, Zhao-Rong Lun, George W Lubega, Chen Zhengjun
Trypanosoma brucei are extracellular hemoflagellate protozoan parasites and one of the causative agents of a devastating zoonotic disease called African Trypanosomiasis. In humans, the disease is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) causing neurological disorders which culminate in death if untreated. In some domestic animals and laboratory rodents, Trypanosoma brucei brucei causes a disease similar to that in humans. The mechanism by which Trypanosoma brucei brucei invade biological barriers including the BBB has not been fully elucidated...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Hyolanda M Grosskopf, Rhayana K Grosskopf, Angelisa H Biazus, Marta L R Leal, Nathieli B Bottari, Mariana S Alves, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Vera M Morsch, Gustavo Machado, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper edetate on biochemical parameters, oxidative profile, cholinesterase's activities, as well as its capacity to control gastrointestinal parasites in infected sheep. Thus, Lacaune sheep (n = 18) infected by Haemonchus contortus were used and divided into three groups of six animal each: the group A was composed of untreated animals (the control group), the group B was formed by animals treated with 0.3 mg/kg of copper edetate, and the group C was composed of animals treated with 0...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Birgitte K Hønsvall, Lucy J Robertson
Both Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are often associated with cryptosporidiosis in humans, but whereas humans are the main host for C. hominis, C. parvum is zoonotic and able to infect a variety of species. The oocyst transmission stages of both species of parasites are morphologically identical and molecular techniques, usually polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are required to distinguish between oocysts detected by standard methods in environmental samples, such as water. In this study, we developed two primer sets for real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), targeting the MIC1 transcript in C...
December 18, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Shima Mahmoudi, Setareh Mamishi, Xun Suo, Hossein Keshavarz
Antibody-based serological tests are currently the most common diagnostic methods for detection of Toxoplasma gondii; however, these tests bear several limitations. Recently, Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), a T-cell-based test, was introduced as an in vitro test for detection of T. gondii infection. Few studies have investigated the potential role of cell immunity in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. IGRA accurately distinguished infected from uninfected individuals, showing strong lymphocyte activation after in vitro stimulation with T...
December 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Rodrigo Vieira-Bernardo, André Luiz Gomes-Vieira, Luiz Fernando Carvalho-Kelly, Thais Russo-Abrahão, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms because it is required for a variety of biochemical processes, such as signal transduction and the synthesis of phosphate-containing biomolecules. Assays of (32)Pi uptake performed in the absence or in the presence of Na(+) indicated the existence of a Na(+)-dependent and a Na(+)-independent Pi transporter in Phytomonas serpens. Phylogenetic analysis of two hypothetical protein sequences of Phytomonas (EM1) showed similarities to the high-affinity Pi transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Pho84, a Na(+)-independent Pi transporter, and Pho89, a Na(+)-dependent Pi transporter...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Nícolas Luiz Feijó Silva, Denise Brentan Silva, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Alexandre Gomes da Silva, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Jaume Bastida, Alexandre José Macedo, Tiana Tasca
Tritrichomonas foetus infects the bovine urogenital tract, causing bovine trichomoniasis. Significant economic losses may occur due to infertility and abortion among cattle. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human and bovine trichomoniasis present treatment restrictions and efforts to identify new alternatives are essential. The present study evaluated the anti-trichomonads activities of seven fractions from northwest endemic plant Manilkara rufula...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Daniel Droguett, Ileana Carrillo, Christian Castillo, Fresia Gómez, Miguel Negrete, Ana Liempi, Lorena Muñoz, Norbel Galanti, Juan Diego Maya, Ulrike Kemmerling
Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is partially responsible for the progressive globalization of Chagas disease. During congenital transmission the parasite must cross the placental barrier where the trophoblast, a continuous renewing epithelium, is the first tissue in contact with the parasite. The trophoblast turnover implies cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic cell death. The epithelial turnover is considered part of innate immunity. We previously demonstrated that T...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
S Umair, C L G Bouchet, J S Knight, A Pernthaner, H V Simpson
A 1299 bp full length cDNA encoding Teladorsagia circumcincta enolase (TeciENO) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified and its kinetic properties determined. Helminth enolase sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The predicted protein consisted of 433 amino acids and was present as a single band of about 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Multiple alignments of the protein sequence of TeciENO with homologues from other helminths showed 98% similarity with Haemonchus contortus enolase, 78-95% similarity to other nematode sequences and 72-75% similarity to cestode and trematode enolases...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Uriel Koziol
Cestodes (tapeworms) have complex adaptations to their obligatory parasitic life-style. Among these adaptations, they show many evolutionary innovations in their development, including complex life-cycles with multiple hosts and life-stages, several independent origins of asexual reproduction, and the evolution of segmentation as a mean to generate massive reproductive output. Therefore, cestodes offer many opportunities for the investigation of the evolutionary origins of developmental novelties (evo-devo)...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Tegegn G Jaleta, Christian Rödelsperger, Adrian Streit
The nematode genus Strongyloides consists of fairly species-specific small intestinal parasites of various vertebrates, among them the human pathogen S. stercoralis. Between the parthenogenetic parasitic generations these worms can also form single facultative sexual free-living generations. In addition to their primary hosts, several species can also live more or less well in other permissive hosts, which are sometimes not very closely related with the normal host. For example, S. stercoralis can also infect dogs and non-human primates...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Bing-Bing Zhang, Xin Su, Xue Fu, Dong-Mei Yue, Chun-Ren Wang
Cylicocyclus nassatus is a common and important parasite in the large intestine of equine. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of C. nassatus was determined and comparatively analyzed with Cylicocyclus insigne. The mt genome size of C. nassatus was 13,846 bp, 18 bp longer than that of C. insigne. The circular mt genome includes 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two non-coding regions. All the genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangement is consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3)...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
José Navarrete-Perea, Bárbara Moguel, Raúl José Bobes, Nelly Villalobos, Julio César Carrero, Edda Sciutto, Xavier Soberón, Juan Pedro Laclette
Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
G Schares, D C Herrmann, P Maksimov, B Matzkeit, F J Conraths, G Moré, R Preisinger, S Weigend
Three genetically different clones of Toxoplasma gondii, also different in mouse virulence, were studied by experimental infection in chickens. For the experiments, four chicken lines were used, which differed in phylogenetic origin and performance level: two white egg layer lines, one with high laying performance (WLA), one with low (R11) and two brown layer lines, also displaying high (BLA) and low (L68) egg number. Chickens were intraperitoneally infected with three different T. gondii isolates representing type IIxIII recombinant clones, i...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Carolina Miguel Fraga, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Olivia Reynoso-Ducoing, Javier Ambrosio, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Rafael Castillo, Marina Clare Vinaud
Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is unusual; however, it is an useful experimental model for cysticercosis studies. Benzimidazole derivatives are important antihelminthic drugs widely used against helminths. A novel compound 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy) -2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB20) is a benzimidazole derivative less polar and more lipophilic. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of the RCB20 on the in vitro energetic metabolism of T. crassiceps cysticerci. For this, products of the metabolism both produced and secreted/excreted (S/E) by the parasite were detected through spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography after exposure to 6...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
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