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Experimental Parasitology

Anna Z Komisarczuk, Heidi Kongshaug, Frank Nilsen
Na+/K+-ATPase has a key function in a variety of physiological processes including membrane excitability, osmoregulation, regulation of cell volume, and transport of nutrients. While knowledge about Na+/K+-ATPase function in osmoregulation in crustaceans is extensive, the role of this enzyme in other physiological and developmental processes is scarce. Here, we report characterization, transcriptional distribution and likely functions of the newly identified L. salmonis Na+/K+-ATPase (LsalNa+/K+-ATPase) α subunit in various developmental stages...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Maysa Mohamed Kamel Sobhy, Soheir Sayed Mahmoud, Shaimaa Helmy El-Sayed, Enas Mohamed Ali Rizk, Amira Raafat, Mohamed Sherif Ismail Negm
Schistosomiasis mansoni is considered one of the most common fibrotic diseases resulting from inflammation and deposition of fibrous tissue around parasitic eggs trapped in the liver, causing morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy against schistosomiasis is largely dependent on Praziquantel (PZQ). Yet, the huge administration of it in endemic areas and its incompetence towards the immature stages have raised serious alarms against the development of drug resistance. Few drugs are directed to reverse schistosomal liver fibrosis, particularly at the chronic and advanced stages of the disease...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Shaohua Zhang, Xuepeng Cai, Xuenong Luo, Shuai Wang, Aijiang Guo, Junling Hou, Run Wu
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, EC: is an important metalloexopeptidase that catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-terminal leucine residues from polypeptides and proteins. In this study, a full length of cDNA encoding leucine aminopeptidase of Taenia pisiformis (TpLAP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA-ends using the polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) method. The full-length cDNA of the TpLAP gene is 1823 bp and contains a 1569 bp ORF encoding 533 amino acids with a putative mass of 56.4 kDa...
January 9, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Archana Nayak, Snezhana Akpunarlieva, Michael Barrett, Richard Burchmore
Axenic culture of Leishmania is generally performed in rich, serum-supplemented media which sustain robust growth over multiple passages. The use of such undefined media, however, obscures proteomic analyses and confounds the study of metabolism. We have established a simple, defined culture medium that supports the sustained growth of promastigotes over multiple passages and which yields parasites that have similar infectivity to macrophages to parasites grown in a conventional semi-defined medium. We have exploited this medium to investigate the amino acid requirements of promastigotes in culture and have found that phenylalanine and tryptophan are essential for viability in culture, while the absence of arginine, leucine, lysine, and valine results in significantly impaired, almost negligible growth...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Janine Gruber, Alena Pletzer, Michael Hess
Research on the energy metabolism of various protozoan parasites showed the essentiality and benefits of cholesterol in the cultivation of these organisms. However, not much is known about the energy metabolism of Histomonas meleagridis, although such information is of high importance to improve cultivation of the parasite for advancements in diagnostics, research and vaccine development. By supplementing a serum enriched cultivation medium with cholesterol, numbers of parasites could be doubled in comparison to unsupplemented negative controls...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Monika Derda, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Piotr Solarczyk, Marcin Cholewiński, Elżbieta Wandurska-Nowak, Paweł P Jagodziński, Edward Hadaś
The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a still a problem. Our previous studies showed that the application of extracts from Artemisia annua L. significantly prolonged the survival of mice infected by Acanthamoeba. This plant has medicinal properties in the treatment of human parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua on expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in brain of mice with Acanthamoeba infection. Mice were infected with Acanthamoeba sp. strain Ac309 (KY203908) by intranasal inoculation without and after application of A...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nawal Hijjawi, Rongchang Yang, Ma'mon Hatmal, Yasmeen Yassin, Taghrid Mharib, Rami Mukbel, Sameer Alhaj Mahmoud, Abdel-Ellah Al-Shudifat, Una Ryan
Little is known about the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in human patients in Jordan and all previous studies have used direct microscopy, which lacks sensitivity. The present study developed a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay at the β-giardin (bg) locus and evaluated its use as a frontline test for the diagnosis of giardiasis in comparison with a commercially available ELISA using nested PCR and sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus (gdh nPCR) as the gold standard. A total of 96 human faecal samples were collected from 96 patients suffering from diarrhea from 5 regions of Jordan and were screened using the ELISA and qPCR...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Vrushali Pathak, Roshan Colah, Kanjaksha Ghosh
Understanding the pathophysiology and associated host parasite interactions of the malaria infection is the prerequisite for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. The exact mechanism underlying malaria associated ineffective and dyserythropoiesis is not yet fully understood. Being an important protein, haemoglobin serves as the main amino acid reservoir available to the intra-erythrocytic plasmodium. It is important to check the expression profiling of globin genes which may help us to understand host parasite interactions and its potential contribution to both infection and disease...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Paula Boeira Bassi, Fernanda Fortes de Araújo, Guilherme Caetano Garcia, Marcos Vinícius da Silva, Carlo José Freire Oliveira, Eustáquio Resende Bittar, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus Fernandes Costa E Silva, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira Nascentes, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Joely Ferreira Figueiredo Bittar
Trypanosoma vivax infection causes relevant economical impact due to high morbidity and mortality leading to negative impact on local livestock. Despite parasitological and serological methods are used for the diagnosis of T. vivax infection, gaps regarding sensitivity and specificity of these methods still represent a challenge. The present study aimed to compare the kinetics of parasitological and serological parameters in cattle experimentally infected with T. vivax along with immunophenotypic analysis of whole blood leukocytes...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mariano S Picchio, Vanesa R Sánchez, Nadia Arcon, Ariadna S Soto, Matías Perrone Sibilia, María de Los Angeles Aldirico, Mariela Urrutia, Moretta Rosalía, Ignacio M Fenoy, Alejandra Goldman, Valentina Martin
The development of an effective and safe vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important aim due to the great clinical and economic impact of this parasitosis. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the serine protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) confers partial protection to C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. In order to improve the level of protection, in this work, we combined this novel antigen with ROP2 and/or GRA4 recombinant proteins (rTgPI-1+rROP2, rTgPI-1+rGRA4, rTgPI-1+rROP2+rGRA4) to explore the best combination against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H/HeN mice...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Marília de Oliveira Koch, Ana Paula B Busch, Kamila Alcalá Gonçalves, Amilcar A Cruz
Bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. Viable N. caninum has been isolated from brains of fetuses and neonatal calves, and there is no report of isolation of tachyzoites from kidney. Also, detailed information about the genetic diversity of N. caninum is scarce. N. caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the kidney and the brain of an aborted 4-month-old bovine foetus. The parasite was confirmed to be N. caninum by PCR. The tachyzoites of the new isolate, named BNC-PR4, were propagated in Vero cell cultures...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mamoru Niikura, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Junya Yamagishi, Hiroko Asahi, Fumie Kobayashi
Plasmodium berghei (Pb) XAT, a rodent malaria parasite, is an irradiation-attenuated variant derived from the lethal strain Pb NK65. Differences in genome sequence, protein structure and function between Pb XAT and Pb NK65 are currently unknown. In this study, to investigate genetic alterations in Pb XAT, we performed comparative genomics and proteomics analyses of nonlethal and lethal strains of Pb. We found mutations, such as a deletion mutation in rhoptry-associated protein (rap) 1, and deletion of rap2/3 and skeleton-binding protein 1 (sbp1), in Pb XAT...
January 4, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Gerson Zanusso Junior, Miyoko Massago, Danielle Kian, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem. One of the causes of the high morbidity and mortality in patients is the lack of an effective drug therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole (BZ) in mice orally inoculated with strain of T. cruzi IV obtained from oral CD outbreak occurred in Western Brazilian Amazonia. All the animals inoculated with metacyclic trypomastigote forms (AM14 strain, BZ resistant), derived from the insect Rhodnius robustus, became infected and there was no difference in the mortality rate between the experimental groups...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Yaqiong Guo, Na Li, Ynes R Ortega, Longxian Zhang, Dawn M Roellig, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging pathogen that is endemic in developing countries and responsible for many large foodborne cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America since 1990s. Because of the lack of typing targets, the genetic diversity and population genetics of C. cayetanensis have not been investigated. In this study, we undertook a population genetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data we recently collected from 64 C. cayetanensis specimens. Despite the extensive genetic heterogeneity in the overall C...
December 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Elis Domingos Ferrari, Alex Akira Nakamura, Ana Rita Moraes Nardi, Bruna Nicoleti Santana, Vinicius da Silva Camargo, Walter Bertequini Nagata, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and diagnostic methods for Cryptosporidium spp. in caged adult exotic parrots from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Oocysts were purified from fecal samples from 463 psittacines by centrifugal-flotation in Sheather's sugar solution. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected by malachite green negative staining and nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium species were identified by sequencing nested PCR amplicons. Samples were also tested by duplex real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Tatiane Marques, Gustavo Caetano Silva, Priscila Moraes Henrique Paiva, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira Nascentes, Luis Eduardo Ramirez, Karen Norris, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira Meira
Experimental Chagas disease has been used as a model to identify several host/parasite interaction factors involved in immune responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. One of the factors inherent to this parasite is the complement regulatory protein (Tc-CRP), a major epitope that induces production of lytic antibodies during T. cruzi infections. Previous studies have evaluated the function of Tc-CRP as an antigenic marker via ELISAs, which demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity when compared to other methods...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Xuan Zhang, Xiao-Kun Hong, Su-Jin Li, De-Hua Lai, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, Yan-Zi Wen
Trypanosoma musculi, a common blood flagellate found in mice, is similar in morphology and life cycle to the rat trypanosome T. lewisi. Both species belong to the subgenus Herpetosoma, and as T. lewisi has recently been shown to be a zoonotic pathogen, there is concern that T. musculi could also be potentially infective to humans. To test this hypothesis, a well-established method, the normal human serum (NHS) incubation test, was carried out which distinguishes human and non-human infective trypanosomes...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Jun-Feng Gao, Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Yan Zhang, Ming Fang, Chun-Ren Wang
Metorchis orientalis is a neglected zoonotic parasite, living in the gallbladder and bile duct of poultry and some mammals as well as humans. In spite of its economic and medical importance, the information known about the transcriptome and genome of M. orientalis is limited. In this study, we performed de novo sequencing, transcriptome assembly and functional annotations of the adult M. orientalis, obtained about 77.4 million high-quality clean reads, among which the length of the transcript contigs ranged from 100 to 11,249 nt with mean length of 373 nt and N50 length of 919 nt...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Katarína Trnková, Martina Kotrbancová, Margita Špaleková, Miriam Fulová, Jana Boledovičová, Matej Vesteg
Legionellae, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, are human bacterial hydrophilic facultative pathogens causing pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease). Free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as natural hosts and thus as reservoirs of many amoebae-resistant bacteria. An encysted amoeba can contribute to the resistance of intracellular L. pneumophila to various chemical and physical treatments. Humans can be infected by droplets containing bacteria from an environmental source or human-made devices such as shower heads, bathtubs, air-conditioning units or whirlpools...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Rocío Nieto-Meneses, Rafael Castillo, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Armando Maldonado-Rangel, Jeferson B Mateus-Ruiz, Pedro Josué Trejo-Soto, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Ma Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Francisco Bolás-Fernández, Carlos Méndez-Cuesta, Lilián Yépez-Mulia
The identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of new drugs against leishmaniasis are urgently needed, since chemotherapy currently available for its treatment has several problems including many adverse side effects. In an effort to develop new antileishmanial drugs, in the present study a series of 28 N-benzyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-amine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Compounds 7 and 8 with the highest antileishmanial activity (micromolar) and lower cytotoxicity than miltefosine and amphotericin B were selected to evaluate their activity against L...
November 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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