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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778466/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-to-selected-essential-oils-and-their-major-components
#1
Sonya Costa, Cláudia Cavadas, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria do Céu Sousa
Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750967/evaluation-of-four-novel-isothermal-amplification-assays-towards-simple-and-rapid-genotyping-of-chloroquine-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum
#2
Madhvi Chahar, Anup Anvikar, Rajnikant Dixit, Neena Valecha
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is sensitive, prompt, high throughput and field deployable technique for nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions. In this study, we have developed and optimized four different visualization methods of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect Pfcrt K76T mutants of P. falciparum and compared their important features for one-pot in-field applications. Even though all the four tested LAMP methods could successfully detect K76T mutants of P...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730454/phase-solubility-studies-and-anti-trichomonas-vaginalis-activity-evaluations-of-metronidazole-and-methylated-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-complexes-comparison-of-crysmeb-and-rameb
#3
Sophia Malli, Christian Bories, Gilles Ponchel, Philippe M Loiseau, Kawthar Bouchemal
Metronidazole (MTZ) is a 5-nitroimidazole drug used for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitic infection. Aqueous formulations containing MTZ are restricted because apparent solubility in water of this drug is low. In this context, two methylated-β-cyclodextrins (CRYSMEB and RAMEB) were used as a tool to increase apparent solubility of MTZ in water. CRYSMEB was limited by its own solubility in water (15% w/w, 12.59 mM), while RAMEB at a concentration of 40% w/w (300.44 mM) allowed a maximal increase of apparent solubility of MTZ (3...
April 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729492/naltrexone-as-an-efficient-adjuvant-in-induction-of-th1-immunity-and-protection-against-fasciola-hepatica-infection
#4
Hakim Azizi, Hadi Mirzaeei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Ali Bazi, Aliyar Mirzapour, Mehrdad Khatami, Kareem Hatam Nahavandi, Ako Azimi, Hajar Yaghoobi
Toxic effects of available therapeutics are major drawbacks for conventional management approaches in parasitic infections. Vaccines have provided a promising opportunity to obviate such unwanted complications. In present study, we examined immune augmenting capacities of an emerging adjuvant, Naltrexone, against Fasciola hepatica infection in BALB/c mice. Seventy BALB/c mice were divided into five experimental groups (14 mice per group) including 1- control (received PBS), 2- vaccine (immunized with F. hepatica E/S antigens), 3- Alum-vaccine (immunized with Alum adjuvant and E/S antigens), 4- NLT-vaccine (immunized with NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens), and 5- Alum-NLT-vaccine (immunized with mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens)...
April 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702111/new-advances-in-scanning-microscopy-and-its-application-to-study-parasitic-protozoa
#5
REVIEW
Wanderley de Souza, Marcia Attias
Scanning electron microscopy has been used to observe and study parasitic protozoa for at least 40 years. However, field emission electron sources, as well as improvements in lenses and detectors, brought the resolution power of scanning electron microscopes (SEM) to a new level. Parallel to the refinement of instruments, protocols for preservation of the ultrastructure, immunolabeling, exposure of cytoskeleton and inner structures of parasites and host cells were developed. This review is focused on protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary relevance, e...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726395/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-drug-combination-for-the-treatment-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-a-multivariate-approach
#6
Mariana Strauss, Jean Henrique S Rodrigues, María Silvina Lo Presti, Paola Carolina Bazán, Alejandra Lidia Báez, Patricia Paglini-Oliva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Juan Manuel Bustamante, Héctor Walter Rivarola
Combination therapies based on the available drugs have been proposed as promising therapeutic alternatives for many diseases. Clomipramine (CLO) has been found to modify the evolution of the experimental infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of benznidazole (BZ) and clomipramine (CLO) against different life-stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and their efficacy in a murine model. Life-stages of T. cruzi, BZ-partially-resistant (Y) strain, were incubated with BZ and CLO and isobolograms and combination index (CI) were obtained...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702355/synthesis-and-activity-of-benzopiperidine-benzopyridine-and-phenyl-piperazine-based-compounds-against-leishmania-infantum
#7
Subhash Chander, Penta Ashok, Rosa M Reguera, M Yolanda Perez-Pertejo, Ruben Carbajo-Andres, Rafael Balana-Fouce, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar, Murugesan Sankaranarayanan
In the present study, anti-leishmanial evaluation of twenty four structurally diverse compounds based on benzopiperidine, benzopyridine and phenylpiperazine nucleuses against Leishmania infantum has been reported. Cytotoxicity studies of all the compounds were performed on murine non-infected splenocytes. Tested compounds exhibited weak to potent activity against promastigote (IC50 3.21 ± 1.40 to >100 μM) as well as amastigote (IC50 6.84 ± 2.5 to 92.47 ± 17.61 μM) forms of tested strains...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679595/utilization-of-real-time-pcr-for-the-assessment-of-egg-burden-in-the-organs-of-schistosoma-japonicum-experimentally-infected-mice
#8
Minh-Anh Dang-Trinh, Jose Ma M Angeles, Kharleezelle J Moendeg, Adrian Miki C Macalanda, Luna Higuchi, Chiho Oto, Masashi Kirinoki, Yuichi Chigusa, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
Schistosoma japonicum, causing zoonotic intestinal schistosomiasis, is found in China, the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. Severe disease manifestations are basically due to the deposition of eggs in some vital organs such as the liver, spleen and brain. Traditionally, histopathological microscopic examination of the egg burden was used to evaluate the intensity of infection in the affected organs. However, this technique is laborious, time-consuming and requires trained personnel. In this study, real time PCR targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene was used to compare with microscopic examination of tissue sections in evaluating the egg burdens in different affected organs...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679594/design-and-synthesis-of-a-new-peptide-derived-from-fasciola-gigantica-cathepsin-l1-with-potential-application-in-serodiagnosis-of-fascioliasis
#9
Behnam Meshgi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Saeid Fathi, Zahra Jahani
Fascioliasis is a global parasitic disease that affects domestic animals and causes considerable economic losses in the process of domestic animal breeding in endemic regions. The cause of the disease involves a liver trematode of the genus Fasciola, which secretes materials into a host's body (mainly proteins) in order to protect it from the host's immune system. These materials can be involved in the migration, growth, and nutrition of the parasite. Among the expressive proteins of Fasciola, proteases have been introduced as the appropriate targets for diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination against parasites...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679593/experimental-and-field-investigatio-n-of-non-biting-flies-as-potential-mechanical-vectors-of-echinococcus-granulosus-eggs
#10
Sahel Hemmati, Abbas Aghaei Afshar, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Ali Afgar, Saeid Nasibi, Majid Fasihi Harandi
Synanthropic fly species can be potential mechanical vectors of many infectious agents. The potential of the flies to carry Echinococcus granulosus eggs is not fully documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of non-biting flies to carry taeniid eggs. A total of 210 flies were collected from seven selected sites in areas of Kerman city, southeastern Iran from November 2016 to May 2017. Adult flies were live-caught using sweeping nets. Flies were placed individually in small glass bottles and transported to the laboratory...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673623/detection-of-serum-antibodies-in-children-and-adolescents-against-balamuthia-mandrillaris-naegleria-fowleri-and-acanthamoeba-t4
#11
Luis Fernando Lares-Jiménez, Manuel Alejandro Borquez-Román, Rosalía Alfaro-Sifuentes, María Mercedes Meza-Montenegro, Ramón Casillas-Hernández, Fernando Lares-Villa
The presence of free-living amoebae of the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia, which contain pathogenic species for humans and animals, has been demonstrated several times and in different natural aquatic environments in the northwest of Mexico. With the aim of continuing the addition of knowledge about immunology of pathogenic free-living amoebae, 118 sera from children and adolescents, living in three villages, were studied. Humoral IgG response against B. mandrillaris, N. fowleri and Acanthamoeba sp...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656102/activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-of-a-furofuran-lignan-isolated-from-piper-jericoense
#12
Paola García-Huertas, Francisco Olmo, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Jorge Dominguez, Rachid Chahboun, Omar Triana-Chávez
Piperaceae species are abundant in the tropics and are important components of secondary vegetation. Many of these plants have received considerable attention due to their wide range of biological activities. Here, the trypanocidal activity of extracts and fractions with different polarities obtained from Colombian Piper jericoense plant was evaluated. A furofuran lignan, (1S,3aS,4S,6aS)-1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3″,4″-methylendioxyphenyl)hexahydrofuro[3,4-c]furan, (1), was isolated from Colombian Piper jericoense leaves ethyl acetate extract...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684665/anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-action-of-a-new-benzofuran-derivative-based-on-amiodarone-structure
#13
Andrea Pinto-Martinez, Vanessa Hernández-Rodríguez, Jessica Rodríguez-Durán, Elżbieta Hejchman, Gustavo Benaim
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical affection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. There is no current effective treatment since the only two available drugs have a limited efficacy and produce side effects. Thus, investigation efforts have been directed to the identification of new drug leads. In this context, Ca2+ regulating mechanisms have been postulated as targets for antiparasitic compounds, since they present paramount differences when compared to host cells. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic with demonstrated trypanocidal activity acting through the disruption of the parasite intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684664/secnidazole-for-control-of-giardiasis-in-dairy-calves
#14
Andreia Volpato, Bruno F Fortuoso, Gabriela Campigotto, Patrícia Glombowsky, Nathieli B Bottari, Leandro S Lopes, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
The aim of this study was to verify whether secnidazole, given in a single oral dose (10 mg/kg), decreases or eliminates the excretion of Giardia duodenalis cysts. Holstein calves were raised from birth to 15 ± 2 days of age in individual stalls. Subsequently, 12 calves were grouped and housed in collective stalls. After seven days (day of life 21), we collected stool samples directly from the rectal ampulla in order to determine the degree of parasitic infection. Fecal examination was performed by a centrifugal-flotation technique, which allows for visualization and quantification of G...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627329/molecular-identification-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-two-cities-of-the-colombian-caribbean-coast
#15
Vivian Villalba-Vizcaíno, Yaleyvis Buelvas, Barbara Arroyo-Salgado, Lyda R Castro
INTRODUCTION: Parasitoses are an important health problem and its post-infectious consequences can cause high morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Epidemiological data is scarce in our region. We aimed to obtain frequency and circulating genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in two cities of the Caribbean Coast. METHODS: To identify parasites in samples, a fecal concentration and microscopical examination were performed. For further identification and genotyping of G...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625099/sinergism-between-alkaloids-piperine-and-capsaicin-with-meglumine-antimoniate-against-leishmania-infantum
#16
Francisco Marcelo Vieira-Araújo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto Vieira, Francisca Noelia Pereira Mendes, José Caludio Carneiro de Freitas, Selene Maia de Morais
The primary choice of drugs to treat Leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimony-based compounds, nevertheless these drugs presented undesirable side effects. However, safe natural compounds could be used in combination with these drugs to enhance their activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sinergism of capsaicin and piperine, isolated from Capsicum frutescens and Piper nigrum, respectively, in combination with meglumine antimoniate against Leishmania infantum promastigote and amastigote forms...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625098/evaluation-of-kinase-inhibitors-nilotinib-and-everolimus-against-alveolar-echinococcosis-in-vitro-and-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Deborah E Joekel, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Beat Müllhaupt, Andrew Hemphill, Peter Deplazes
Infection with the larval stage (metacestode) of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis leads to a primary hepatic disease referred to as alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The progressive disease can be lethal if untreated. In cases where complete parasite resection by surgery is not feasible, the current treatment regimens of AE consist of chemotherapy with the parasitostatic benzimidazoles albendazole or mebendazole over decades. Kinase-inhibitors currently administered in various cancer treatments are of increasing interest also as anti-parasitic drugs due to previous promising in vitro results...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625097/chloroquine-as-a-possible-disinfection-adjunct-of-disinfection-solutions-against-acanthamoeba
#18
Eun-Kyung Moon, Seungeun Lee, Fu-Shi Quan, Hyun-Hee Kong
Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting lenses are multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS). However, almost all MPDS retailed in Korea are ineffective in killing Acanthamoeba. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba, especially the cyst...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625096/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-components-of-the-tor-pathway-of-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838
#19
Liv Sandlund, Heidi Kongshaug, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepods, Caligida) is a marine ectoparasite infecting salmonid fishes in the northern hemisphere. At present, salmon lice infections are the most severe disease problem in the salmon farming industry causing significant economic losses. Due to development of resistance towards available chemotherapeutants, it is clear that new chemotherapeutants or non-chemical control methods are essential to manage the parasite in the future. The TOR signaling pathway is present in all metazoans and is a major regulator of cellular activity according to nutrient availability...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601792/effects-of-iridoid-anthocyanin-extract-of-cornus-mas-l-on-hematological-parameters-population-and-proliferation-of-lymphocytes-during-experimental-infection-of-mice-with-trichinella-spiralis
#20
Jolanta Piekarska, Marianna Szczypka, Alicja Z Kucharska, Michał Gorczykowski
The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3+ , CD4+ cells and CD4+ /CD8+ ratio and decreased total count of CD8+ and CD19+ splenocytes (5th dai)...
March 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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