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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710007/chronic-toxoplasmosis-treatment-with-diphenyl-diselenide-in-infected-mice-modulates-the-activity-of-purinergic-enzymes-and-reduces-inflammation-in-spleen
#1
Pedro H Doleski, Maura V Ten Caten, Daniela F Passos, Lívia G Castilhos, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa S Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Fernanda F Vogel, Ricardo E Mendes, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan, may cause chronic infection in the brain tissue of the host inducing a systemic pro-inflammatory profile. Chronic infections can induce numerous physiological changes, such as alterations in the immune and oxidative profiles. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound, has shown antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities in recent studies. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of purinergic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum and spleen of mice chronically infected by T...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690071/plasmodium-vivax-rhomboid-like-protease-1-gene-diversity-in-thailand
#2
Touchchapol Mataradchakul, Chairat Uthaipibull, Francois Nosten, Joel Vega-Rodriguez, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, Usa Lek-Uthai
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infection remains a major public health problem, especially along the Thailand border regions. We examined the genetic diversity of this parasite by analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the P. vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene (Pvrom1) in parasites collected from western (Tak province, Thai-Myanmar border) and eastern (Chanthaburi province, Thai-Cambodia border) regions. METHODS: Data were collected by a cross-sectional survey, consisting of 47 and 45 P...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668253/expression-and-secretion-of-the-giardia-duodenalis-variant-surface-protein-9b10a-by-transfected-trophozoites-causes-damage-to-epithelial-cell-monolayers-mediated-by-protease-activity
#3
Ariana Cabrera-Licona, Eduardo Solano-González, Rocío Fonseca-Liñán, Ma Luisa Bazán-Tejeda, Raúl Argüello-García, Rosa Ma Bermúdez-Cruz, Guadalupe Ortega-Pierres
Giardia duodenalis is the protozoan parasite responsible for most cases of parasitic diarrhea worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms of giardiasis have not yet been fully characterized. In this context parasite's excretory/secretory products have been related to the damage induced by the parasite on enterocytes. Among these is the Variable Surface Proteins (VSPs) family involved in antigenic variation and in the induction of protective response. In proteomic analyses carried out to identify the proteases with high molecular weight secreted by Giardia trophozoites during the initial phase of interaction with IEC-6 cell monolayers we identified the VSP9B10A protein...
June 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655585/igm-and-igg-responses-in-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice-using-egg-and-worm-antigens-does-response-vary-with-parasitic-burden-and-phase-of-infection
#4
Miguel Cosenza, Emilia Barrios, Pimali Felibertt, Angel Castillo-Corujo, Génesis Ochoa, Eva Velasquez, Alejandra Rojas
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The hepatic pathology of this parasitic disease could develop complications, such as fibrosis and cirrhosis, which can be fatal. The Venezuelan endemic area is considered as one of low transmission, which complicates the detection of infected individuals and signals the importance of improving the sensitivity of immunodiagnostic methods. Using ELISA, an evaluation was conducted of IgM and IgG responses to soluble antigens of eggs and female worms (SEA and SFWA) and excretion-secretion products of eggs and female worms (ESPE and ESPAW) in infected Balb/c mice with different parasitic burden and infection times...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655584/biological-biochemical-and-histological-features-of-bradybaena-similaris-gastropoda-pulmonata-infected-by-heterorabditis-indica-rhabditida-heterorhabditidae-strain-lpp1
#5
Victor Menezes Tunholi, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Caio Oliveira Monteiro, Lidiane Cristina da Silva, Cláudia de Melo Dolinski, Rosane Nora Castro, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt, Jairo Pinheiro da Silva, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
This study investigated the possible biological, biochemical and histological changes in Bradybaena similaris(Gastropoda: Pulmonata) infected by Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), strain LPP1. Two groups of 16 snails were formed: the control group (unexposed) and the treated group, which was exposed for three weeks to infective juveniles (J3) of H. indica LPP1. The experiment was conducted in duplicate, using a total of 64 snails. After the exposure period, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and tissues, for evaluation of the physiological changes caused by the infection...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655583/evaluation-of-the-inhibitory-effect-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-babesia-and-theileria-parasites
#6
Mohamed Abdo Rizk, Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Mahmoud AbouLaila, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the in vitro inhibitory effect of this hit was evaluated in the present study on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia divergens, Theileria equi, and Babesia caballi that were tested was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine was synergistically potentiated when used in combination with diminazene aceturate on B...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625894/evaluation-of-protective-immunity-induced-by-dna-vaccination-with-genes-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-gra17-and-gra23-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#7
Wei-Ning Zhu, Jin-Lei Wang, Kai Chen, Dong-Mei Yue, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Si-Yang Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Two novel dense granule proteins (GRA17 and GRA23) were recently identified as T. gondii-secreted proteins which are localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and can mediate the movement of small molecules between the host cell and parasitophorous vacuole (PV). In the present study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination with genes encoding GRA17 and GRA23 against acute toxoplasmosis in mice...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587841/3-nucleotidase-nuclease-in-protozoan-parasites-molecular-and-biochemical-properties-and-physiological-roles
#8
Anita Leocadio Freitas-Mesquita, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'NT/NU) is a bi-functional enzyme that is able to hydrolyze 3'-monophosphorylated nucleotides and nucleic acids. This review summarizes the major molecular and biochemical properties of this enzyme in different trypanosomatid species. Sequence analysis of the gene encoding 3'NT/NU in Leishmania and Crithidia species showed that the protein possesses five highly conserved regions that are characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. 3'NT/NU presents a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa, which is conserved among the studied species...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552792/plasmodium-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-a-potential-malaria-diagnostic-target
#9
Robert G E Krause, Ramona Hurdayal, David Choveaux, Jude M Przyborski, Theresa H T Coetzer, J P Dean Goldring
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456692/parasites-as-drivers-of-key-processes-in-aquatic-ecosystems-facts-and-future-directions
#10
B Sures, M Nachev, M Pahl, D Grabner, C Selbach
Despite the advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of parasites that we have made in recent years, we are still far away from having a complete picture of the ecological implications connected to parasitism. In the present paper we highlight key issues that illustrate (1) important contributions of parasites to biodiversity, (2) their integral role in ecosystems, (3) as well as their ecological effects as keystone species (4) and in biological invasion processes. By using selected examples from aquatic ecosystems we want to provide an insight and generate interest into the topic, and want to show directions for future research in the field of ecological parasitology...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552794/front-line-glioblastoma-chemotherapeutic-temozolomide-is-toxic-to-trypanosoma-brucei-and-potently-enhances-melarsoprol-and-eflornithine
#11
Dietmar Steverding, Stuart A Rushworth
Sleeping sickness is an infectious disease that is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The second stage of the disease is characterised by the parasites entering the brain. It is therefore important that sleeping sickness therapies are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. At present, only three medications for chemotherapy of the second stage of the disease are available. As these trypanocides have serious side effects and are difficult to administer, new and safe anti-trypanosomal brain-penetrating drugs are needed...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552793/artichoke-leaf-extract-protects-liver-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice-through-modulation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-recruitment
#12
Shaimaa Ahmed Sharaf El-Deen, Reham Mustafa Brakat, Asmaa Shams El Dein Mohamed
Schistosomiasis is the second most common human parasitic disease worldwide. It is responsible for 300000 deaths per year. Liver fibrosis is the main pathology of schistosomiasis and its complications are the major cause of death in infected cases. Unfortunately, the therapeutic dose of praziquantel (PZQ) - the main drug treatment - doesn't markedly affect fibrosis. In the present study, antiparasitic and hepatoprotective properties of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) were tested on mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533110/excretory-secretory-products-from-the-gastrointestinal-nematode-trichuris-muris
#13
Lucienne Tritten, Mifong Tam, Mireille Vargas, Armando Jardim, Mary M Stevenson, Jennifer Keiser, Timothy G Geary
To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533109/lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-chronically-infected-by-schistosoma-mansoni
#14
Amanda Esteves Rocha Pereira, Maria Ângela Rodrigues, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Ivo Santana Caldas, Raquel Lopes Martins Souza, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira
We used a murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (SM) infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxicity to investigate if these conditions can interact to modify the pathological manifestations typically observed in each condition. Swiss mice were randomized into four groups: SAL, uninfected; SM, infected; LPS, uninfected + LPS; and SM + LPS, infected + LPS. S. mansoni infection developed over 120 days, after which blood samples and lungs were collected, peritoneal leukocytes were isolated and cultivated for 6 and 24 h after LPS inoculation (1 mL/kg)...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527905/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-polarization-of-macrophages-in-neospora-caninum-infection
#15
Xuexiu He, Pengtao Gong, Zhengkai Wei, Weijian Liu, Weili Wang, Jianhua Li, Zhengtao Yang, Xichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related Toxoplasma gondii, which causes neurological disease and abortion in multiple animal species. Macrophage polarization plays an important role in host immune responses to parasites infection, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible mechanism that regulate macrophage polarization, during N. caninum infection remains unclear...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526337/construction-of-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-secreted-and-anchored-eimeria-tenella-3-1e-protein-and-comparison-of-protective-immunity-against-homologous-challenge
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chunli Ma, Lili Zhang, Mingyang Gao, Dexing Ma
Two novel plasmids pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E and pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA were constructed. The plasmids were respectively electrotransformed into L. lactis NZ9000 to generate strain of L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E in which 3-1E protein was expressed in secretion, and L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA on which 3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells. The expression of target proteins were examined by Western blot. The live lactococci expressing secreted 3-1E protein, anchored 3-1E protein, and cytoplasmic 3-1E protein was administered orally to chickens respectively, and the protective immunity and efficacy were compared by animal experiment...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483658/anthelmintic-effect-of-2h-chromen-2-one-isolated-from-gliricidia-sepium-against-cooperia-punctata
#17
Elke von Son-de Fernex, Miguel Ángel Alonso-Díaz, Braulio Valles-de la Mora, Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, Manases González-Cortazar, Alejandro Zamilpa
Gliricidia sepium is a tropical legume with known anthelmintic-like properties. The aim of this study was to: (1) perform a bio-guided fractionation of an acetonic extract of G. sepium leaves using the egg hatch assay (EHA); (2) elucidate the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemical using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); and (3) assess the ultrastructural damage of the Cooperia punctata treated eggs. The anthelmintic activity of G. sepium was traced from an acetonic extract using the EHA. Phytochemicals were isolated through silica gel columns and elucidated through spectroscopic measurements (1H and 13C)...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479276/viability-assessment-of-ascaris-suum-eggs-stained-with-fluorescent-dyes-using-digital-colorimetric-analysis
#18
Magdalena Włodarczyk, Jolanta Zdybel, Marek Próchniak, Zbigniew Osiński, Jacek Karamon, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457995/schistosoma-mansoni-off-target-analyses-using-nonspecific-double-stranded-rnas-as-control-for-rnai-experiments-in-schistosomula
#19
Sandra Grossi Gava, Naiara Clemente Tavares, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Flávio Marcos Gomes de Araújo, Guilherme Oliveira, Marina Moraes Mourão
RNA interference is a well established and widely used reverse genetic tool available for gene functional studies in trematodes. This technique requires the use of nonrelevant double-stranded RNA as control. However, several authors have reported inconsistencies associated with RNAi. We used RNASeq to analyze genes affected by nonspecific dsRNA exposure. We found only few genes presenting altered expression in schistosomula exposed to GFP or mCherry nonspecific-dsRNAs, most of them encoding uncharacterized proteins...
June 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456693/in%C3%A2-vitro-predatory-activity-of-arthrobotrys-oligospora-and-after-passing-through-gastrointestinal-tract-of-small-ruminants-on-infective-larvae-of-trichostrongylides
#20
Kui-Zheng Cai, Feng-Hui Wang, Kang-Ying Wang, Jun-Lin Liu, Bo-Bo Wang, Qiang Xu, Yu-Jia Xue, Fan Wang, Chao Zhang, Wen-Xiu Fang, Bin Cai, Yan-Qiu Liu, Xin Cao, Zhong-Ren Ma
In vitro predatory activity of 157 native isolates of Arthrobotrys oligospora from China on larvae of trichostrongylides (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus) in feces of sheep were assessed. The results showed that 135 of tested isolates of A. oligospora reduced the development of trichostrongylide larvae in feces by 90-99.99%, 11 isolates by 80-89.46% and 11 isolates by 14.58-78.82%. To understand their capacity of passing through gastrointestinal tract of sheep, 50 native isolates of A...
June 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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