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Experimental Parasitology

Carolin Wedel, T Nicolai Siegel
Specific DNA-protein interactions are the basis for many important cellular mechanisms like the regulation of gene expression or replication. Knowledge about the precise genomic locations of DNA-protein interactions is important because it provides insight into the regulation of these processes. Recently, we have adapted an approach that combines micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion of chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we describe in detail how this method can be used to map the genome-wide distribution of nucleosomes or other DNA-binding proteins at high resolution in T...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Qing Liu, Fa-Cai Li, Chun-Xue Zhou, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins (TgMICs), secreted by micronemes upon contact with host cells, are reported to play important roles in multiple stages of the T. gondii life cycle, including parasite motility, invasion, intracellular survival, and egress from host cells. Meanwhile, during these processes, TgMICs participate in many protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions, such as undergoing proteolytic maturation, binding to aldolase, engaging the host cell receptors and forming the moving junction (MJ), relying on different types of ectodomains, transmembrane (TM) domains and cytoplasmic domains (CDs)...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Shinuo Cao, Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Akram Salama, Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Artemis Efstratiou, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi, Xuenan Xuan
Theileria equi and Babesia caballi are the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis (EP), which affects equine production in various parts of the world. However, a safe and effective drug is not currently available for treatment of EP. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is the fourth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway and has been known as a novel drug target for several apicomplexan protozoan parasites. In this study, we evaluated four DHODH inhibitors; atovaquone (ATV), leflunomide (LFN), brequinar (Breq), and 7-hydroxy-5-[1,2,4] triazolo [1,5,a] pyrimidine (TAZ) on the growth of T...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Jing Xu, Zhong Liang Duan, Zhi Xun Guan, Yan Yan Wang, Cai Lin, Ting Ting Zhang, Hui Qin Zhang, Ximei Qian, Chao Ming Xia
Currently in China, the schistosomiasis control program has shifted its focus from transmission control to the elimination of the disease. Effective forecast and surveillance systems of schistiosomiasis are of great importance for issuing timely and early warnings on risk of infection, and therefore implementing preventive measures to avoid infection. There is great demand in more sensitive and specific methods to improve the surveillance system for early detection of S. japonicum infection in sentinel mice...
March 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Neeloo Singh, Shyam Sundar
Resistance of human pathogens like Leishmania to drugs is a growing concern where the multidrug-resistant phenotype renders chemotherapy ineffective. The acquired resistance of Leishmania to antimony has promoted intense research on the mechanisms involved but the question has not been resolved yet. In this study we have explored host-pathogen- drug interactions leading to identification of pharmacological determinants of host macrophages that resist the sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) mediated intracellular parasite killing...
March 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Nicole D Marino, John C Boothroyd
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of infecting virtually all nucleated cell types in almost all warm-blooded animals. Interestingly, Toxoplasma has a relatively full repertoire of amino acid biosynthetic machinery, perhaps reflecting its broad host range and, consequently, its need to adapt to a wide array of amino acid resources. Although Toxoplasma has been shown to be auxotrophic for tryptophan and arginine, it has not previously been determined if Toxoplasma is also auxotrophic for tyrosine...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Neeradi Dinesh, Soumya Neelagiri, Vinay Kumar, Sushma Singh
In the present study, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) the main component of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its efficacy as antileishmanial agent and its mode of action explored. GA inhibits promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in a dose dependent manner at an IC50 value of 34 ± 3.0 μM and 20 ± 4.2 μM respectively. GA was non-toxic against THP-1 macrophage host cell line. GA was found to inhibit recombinant Leishmania donovani HMG-CoA reductase (LdHMGR) enzyme at the half-maximum inhibitory concentration of 24 ± 4...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Mateus Fracasso, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Matheus D Baldissera, Nathieli B Bottari, Mateus E Gabriel, Manoela M Piva, Fernanda A Stedille, Ricardo Christ, Leandro A Rhoden, Luan C Henker, Vera M Moresch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Ricardo E Mendes
The enzymatic activities of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are important in regulating the concentration of adenine nucleotides, molecules known to be involved on platelet aggregation. Fasciolosis causes coagulation disorders that have not been completely elucidated. Taking into consideration the association between the purinergic system and hemostasis, this study aimed to evaluate the enzymatic activities of NTPDase (hydrolyze ATP and ADP), 5'-nucleotidase (hydrolyze AMP) and ADA (deamination of adenosine) in platelets from cattle experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica on days 20, 40, 60 and 80 post-infection (PI)...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Marc Ritter, Martin Kalbe, Tina Henrich
Parasite virulence is a key trait in host-parasite interactions and plays a crucial role in infection dynamics. Our study system offers the rare opportunity to study the virulence of an individual macroparasite (Schistocephalus solidus) in its vertebrate fish host (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The size of the tapeworm in the fish can be regarded as a good proxy for individual parasite virulence, as parasite size correlates negatively with fitness traits of the stickleback host (i.e. the bigger the parasite, the lower the host's reproductive success) as well as directly with the number of parasite offspring to be expected...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Cletus A Wezena, Johannes Krafczyk, Verena Staudacher, Marcel Deponte
The redox metabolism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its human host has been suggested to play a central role for parasite survival and clearance. A common approach to test hypotheses in redox research is to challenge or rescue cells with pro- and antioxidants. However, quantitative data on the susceptibility of infected erythrocytes towards standard redox agents is surprisingly scarce. Here we determined the IC50 values of P. falciparum strains 3D7 and Dd2 for a set of redox agents using a SYBR green-based growth assay...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Ruqiang Cui, Lei Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Wenkun Huang, Chengming Fan, Qingsong Wu, Deliang Peng, Washington da Silva, Xiaotang Sun
The full cDNA of Mi-ace-3 encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Meloidogyne incognita was cloned and characterized. Mi-ace-3 had an open reading frame of 1875 bp encoding 624 amino acid residues. Key residues essential to AChE structure and function were conserved. The deduced Mi-ACE-3 protein sequence had 72% amino acid similarity with that of Ditylenchus destructor Dd-AChE-3. Phylogenetic analyses using 41 AChEs from 24 species showed that Mi-ACE-3 formed a cluster with 4 other nematode AChEs. Our results revealed that the Mi-ace-3 cloned in this study, which is orthologous to Caenorhabditis elegans AChE, belongs to the nematode ACE-3/4 subgroup...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Camila Piva Abegg, Ana Paula de Abreu, Juliane Lopes da Silva, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Érika Cristina Ferreira, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis has broad biological and genetic diversity. Remaining to be studied are polymorphisms of the blood forms and metacyclogenesis of different T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs). Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between T. cruzi DTUs, the morphology of blood trypomastigotes, and in vitro metacyclogenesis. T. cruzi strains that pertained to DTUs TcI, TcII, and TcIV from different Brazilian states were used. Parameters that were related to the morphology of eight strains were assessed in thin blood smears that were obtained from mice that were inoculated with blood or culture forms, depending on strain...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Diego Otoniel Ortiz Pérez, Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadúa, José Luis Cruz López, María Eréndira Reyes García, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
The reduction of the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) larvae population in faeces of cattle treated with Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on a farm under an organic production system in Chiapas, Mexico, was assessed. Seventeen Cebu/Swiss crossbreed grazing calves naturally infected with GIN, were randomly distributed into two groups and treated as follows: Group 1, an oral administration of 2 × 10(6)D. flagrans chlamydospores/kg BW, every two days for 30 days; group 2, Control, without any treatment...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Kristina Sumpf, Roswitha Nast, Bryan Downie, Gabriela Salinas, Carsten G K Lüder
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
C E S Carvalho, E P C Sobrinho-Junior, L M Brito, L A D Nicolau, T P Carvalho, A K S Moura, K A F Rodrigues, S M P Carneiro, D D R Arcanjo, A M G L Citó, F A A Carvalho
Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl.) Fr. All., commonly known as "aroeira-do-sertão", is a medicinal plant from Anacardiaceae family. In this study, the chemical composition of M. urundeuva essential oil (MuEO) was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as its anti-Leishmania potential, cytotoxicity, and macrophage activation capability as possible antiprotozoal mechanism of action were assessed. Fourteen compounds were identified, which constituted 94.87% of total oil composition. The most abundant components were monoterpenes (80...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Chandrajit Dohutia, Dipak Chetia, Kabita Gogoi, Kishore Sarma
The polyphenolic compound curcumin has been reported for its antimalarial properties in various scientific studies. Plasmodium falciparum ATP6, the parasite orthologue of mammalian sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) has been identified as a key molecular target of both artemisinin and curcumin. The work was thereby undertaken to study the anti-malarial properties of two different series of curcumin analogues based on their docking interactions with PfATP6 and correlating the results with their anti-malarial activity...
February 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Xi Zhang, Jiang Yang Duan, Zhong Quan Wang, Peng Jiang, Ruo Dan Liu, Jing Cui
Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Andreza Veiga, Kelly Albuquerque, Maria Elinete Corrêa, Helliton Brigido, João Silva E Silva, Marliane Campos, Fernando Silveira, Lourivaldo Santos, Maria Dolabela
Virola species have been used in traditional medicine as healing in skin infections. From V. surinanensis oil were isolated several sesquiterpene as the nerolidol which showed activity against species of Leishmania. The current study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicide activity and toxicity of extracts, fractions and surinamesin obtained from leaves of Virola surinamensis. Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, and Methanol extracts were obtained from powder of dry leaves of V. surinamensis. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and increasingly polar gradient...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Manoj Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Subir Karmakar, Joydeep Paul, Sudeshna Sawoo, Hemanta K Majumder, Amit Roy
In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. A dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight per mice on alternate days (5 doses) gives ∼97% protection in both liver and spleen. Moreover, CuSAL potentially inhibits the catalytic activity of LdTOPILS and causes apoptosis of Leishmania parasites through induction of intracellular ROS generation and activation of caspase-like proteases...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Morgana V de Araújo, Cibelle Cabral David, José Clementino Neto, Luiz A P L de Oliveira, Karoline Cristina Jatobá da Silva, Jefferson Miguel Dos Santos, João Kayke S da Silva, Victoria B C de A Brandão, Tania M S Silva, Celso A Camara, Magna S Alexandre-Moreira
Parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans, a disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. In this study was evaluated in vitro leishmanicidal activity of 2-N,N'-dialkylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, covering a series of fourteen 2-N-morpholino-, 2-N-thiomorpholino, 2-N-piperidino, 2-N-(N(4)-methyl)-piperazino naphthoquinones (1a-n) derived from nor-lapachol and lawsone, belong to some other di-alkyaminoderivatives. At the cytotoxicity assay on peritoneal macrophages, the compounds possessing larger alkyl groups and N-methyl-piperazino moiety (1d, 1h, 1i and 1k), showed toxic effects similar to the standard drug used pentamidine...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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