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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414843/isolation-and-growth-inhibition-potential-of-entomopathogenic-nematodes-against-three-public-health-important-mosquito-vectors
#1
Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Paramasivam Deepak, Dhayalan Arul, Pachiappan Perumal
The prevalence of mosquito vector borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have been of important public concern to the mosquito endemic countries. Present study was conducted to identify the native bio-larvicidal potential of the entomopathogenic nematodes; Steinernema siamkayai (KPR-4) Heterohabditis indica (KPR-8), Steinernema glaseri and Steinernema abbasi. The isolated nematodes were subsequently cultured and evaluated their larvicidal potential against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414842/paeoniflorin-in-experimental-balb-c-mansoniasis-a-novel-anti-angiogenic-therapy
#2
Naglaa Fathy Abd El-Aal, Eman Hassan Abd Elbary
Chronic hepatic schistosomiasis causes portal hypertension, fibrosis and lethal hepatosplenic complications. Previous studies focused mainly on schistosomicidal drugs and neglected the therapeutic approaches against the vascular complications after portal hypertension. Investigating a novel anti-angiogenic therapy is an urgent. The current study is to evaluate the performance of Paeoniflorin (PAE) as an anti-angiogenic therapy, being a powerful anti-fibrotic, compared to artemether (ART) and praziqantel (PZQ) in schistosomiasis mansoni BALB/c mice...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395801/in-vitro-effects-of-artemisia-sieberi-on-echinococcus-granulosus-protoscolices
#3
Zohreh Vakili, Mohammad Hossein Radfar, Farnoosh Bakhshaee, Ehsanollah Sakhaee
Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease. Surgery is one of its treatment modalities during which protoscolices are likely to be released into the peritoneal cavity and cause recurrence of the disease. Given the above problem and the complications associated with conventional anti-parasitic agents, it is imperative to find an effective and natural protoscolicidal agent. The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of Artemisia sieberi on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices were collected from slaughtered livestock in Kerman abattoir and the effect of three concentrations of aqueous extract of A...
November 2, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389531/ovicidal-and-larvicidal-activity-of-extracts-from-medicinal-plants-against-haemonchus-contortus
#4
Zora Váradyová, Jana Pisarčíková, Michal Babják, Alfred Hodges, Dominika Mravčáková, Svetlana Kišidayová, Alžbeta Königová, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Marián Várady
The use of medicinal plants (MP) containing bioactive compounds is an alternative strategy to control of parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus at various stages of their life cycle. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro anthelmintic activity of both aqueous and methanolic extracts from 13 medicinal plants typical for Central Europe, and to determine quantity of selected plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in the methanolic extracts. In vitro egg hatch test and larval development tests were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Althaea officinalis L...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385267/antileishmanial-activity-of-a-4-hydrazinoquinoline-derivative-induction-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-related-processes-and-effectiveness-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#5
Luciana Maria Ribeiro Antinarelli, Isabela de Oliveira Souza, Priscila Vanessa Zabala Capriles, Jacy Gameiro, Elizandra Aparecida Britta, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Wallace Pacienza Lima, Adilson David da Silva, Elaine Soares Coimbra
Currently, available treatment options for leishmaniasis are limited and unsatisfactory. In a previous study, a quinoline derivative (AMQ-j), exhibited a strong effect against Leishmania amazonensis and its antileishmanial activity was preliminarily associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study further explores the antileishmanial effect of this compound against L. amazonensis, as well as determines the main cellular processes involved in the death of the parasite. Moreover, this study evaluated the in vivo effect of the AMQ-j in BALB/c mice experimentally infected by L...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385266/curcumin-a-promising-treatment-for-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-immunosuppressed-balb-c-mice
#6
Mohammad Asadpour, Fatemeh Namazi, Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Saeed Nazifi
Members of the genus Cryptosporidium are frequent protozoan pathogens in humans and a wide range of animals. There is no consistently effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis, especially in immunodeficient patients. The present study was carried out to study the therapeutic effects of curcumin against cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Mice were divided into five groups and immunosuppressed by dexamethasone. Three groups were inoculated with C. parvum oocysts, administered with curcumin, paromomycin, and without treatment...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393165/potentially-pathogenic-genera-of-free-living-amoebae-coexisting-in-a-thermal-spring
#7
Luis Fernando Lares-Jiménez, Manuel Alejandro Borquez-Román, Christian Lares-García, Alejandro Otero-Ruiz, Jose Reyes Gonzalez-Galaviz, José Cuauhtémoc Ibarra-Gámez, Fernando Lares-Villa
Little is known about the prevalence of Balamuthia mandrillaris within the environment due to its difficult isolation, but once an axenic culture is established, it is relatively easy to maintain. As most of the time researchers are interested mainly in isolating B. mandrillaris from environmental samples, the flora that accompanies it becomes second in importance. Therefore, this study aimed to determine which potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae, in addition to B. mandrillaris, could be found co-inhabiting a source of natural thermal water called "Agua Caliente" (Mexico), where this amoeba has previously been detected twice by molecular methods...
October 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393118/the-intake-of-dry-cashew-apple-fiber-reduced-fecal-egg-counts-in-haemonchus-contortus-infected-sheep
#8
Louyse G Lopes, Matheus H Silva, Amanda Figueiredo, Kirley M Canuto, Edy S Brito, Paulo R V Ribeiro, Ana S Q Souza, Waldomiro Barioni-Júnior, Sérgio N Esteves, Ana Carolina S Chagas
Helminthiasis is a common disease in which parasite resistance is frequently caused by inadequate administration of anthelmintics in small ruminant production. Since phytotherapy may be an adjuvant for parasite control, we assessed whether the ingestion of cashew apple fiber (Anacardium occidentale) would reduce Haemonchus contortus infection in Santa Inês sheep. Twenty-one male sheep with mean age of 240 ± 9.7 days were dewormed, infected with 4000 L3 of H. contortus Embrapa2010 (day 0 - D0) and on D28 were divided into three equally sized experimental groups: 1) control (no treatment), 2) treated with anthelmintic (monepantel, 2...
October 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401655/biological-and-histological-changes-in-reproductive-patterns-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-experimentally-co-infected-by-echinostoma-paraensei-and-angiostrongylus-cantonensis
#9
Tatiane Cristina Dos Santos Bonfim, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Florence Gonçalves Martins, Ester Maria Mota, Arnaldo Maldonado, Jairo Pinheiro, Juberlan Silva Garcia
Investigation of co-infection by different helminths in snails can provide essential information about the biology of parasites co-existence under natural conditions. This study aimed to investigate the reproductive and histological changes of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally co-infected with Echinostoma paraensei and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Five groups of snails i.e. uninfected, with single and double infections, either E. paraensei first (E + A) or A. cantonensis first (A + E) were followed; three times a week during four weeks the numbers of egg masses, eggs and hatched snails were counted...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339984/could-araucaria-heterophylla-resin-extract-be-used-as-a-new-treatment-for-toxoplasmosis
#10
Nora L El-Tantawy, Amal F Soliman, Aida Abdel-Magied, Doaa Ghorab, Ashraf T Khalil, Zein M Naeem, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Saleh H El-Sharkawy
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic disease responsible for serious health problems to human. The currently available drugs used for toxoplasmosis treatment showed a limited efficacy and cause serious host toxicity. The in vitro screening for toxoplasmicidal activity of Araucaria heterophylla resin (AHR) extract and its major component 13-epi-cupressic acid (CUP) showed that both AHR (EC50  = 3.90) and CUP (EC50  = 3.69) have high toxoplasmicidal activity in comparison with standard cotrimoxazole (EC50  = 4...
October 16, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336121/identification-of-free-living-amoebae-isolated-from-tap-water-in-istanbul-turkey
#11
Miray Üstüntürk-Onan, Julia Walochnik
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and also known to cause rare but often serious infections. The present work focuses on a local survey on FLA. It is essential to know the prevalence and distribution of these microorganisms in order to get infections caused by them under control. In this study, FLA isolated from domestic tap water samples from homes of contact lens wearers were identified by morphology and by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and Vermamoeba vermiformis in the investigated tap water samples...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316775/immunomodulatory-effects-of-trichinella-spiralis-excretory-secretory-antigens-on-macrophages
#12
Caixia Han, Jie Yu, Ziqun Zhang, Peng Zhai, Yan Zhang, Shi Meng, Yang Yu, Xiaoyun Li, Mingxin Song
Helminths and their products can suppress the host immune response and other immunopathologies which may benefit parasite survival. Parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) exert immunomodulatory effect on the host immune response through excretory-secretory (ES) products. However, the immunomodulatory mechanism is not yet completely understood or defined. Macrophages play a key role in modulating the host immune response to helminth parasite infection. Here, we focus on the effect of T. spiralis ES antigens on the immune response by studying the effect of ES antigens on RAW264...
October 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266573/prophylactic-treatment-of-l-arg-improves-malaria-outcomes-by-regulating-host-immune-responses-during-plasmodium-yoelii-17xl-infection
#13
Qiubo Wang, Yonghui Feng, Xiaodan Sun, Wei Pang, Weixin Fu, Yaming Cao
L-arginine (L-Arg), the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), plays multiple, important roles in nutrient metabolism and immune regulation. Hypoargininemia is one of the distinctive features of malaria patients in endemic areas. To understand the immunoregulatory function of L-Arg in malaria, we investigated the effects of L-Arg, pre- or/and post-treatment, on the cellular/humoral immune response during Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P.y17XL) infection in DBA/2 mice. Populations of splenic CD4+ T-bet+ IFN-γ+ T cells (Th1), F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ GATA-3+ IL-4+ T cells (Th2), B220+ CD138+ plasmacytes and antibody-producing cells (IgG+ /IgG1+ -plasma cells) were assessed by flow cytometry...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261189/a-canine-model-of-experimental-infection-with-cryptosporidium-canis
#14
Zhaohui Cui, Heping Dong, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Sumei Zhang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoal parasites that affects the gastrointestinal epithelium of a variety of hosts. Several models of experimental infection have been described to study the susceptibility, infectivity and pathogenicity among different Cryptosporidium species and isolates. This study aimed to establish an experimental infection of Cryptodporidium canis in canids. Infectivity and pathogenicity have been measured by evaluating the clinical status, pattern of oocyst excretion and histological examination...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261188/lipoproteins-from-vertebrate-host-blood-plasma-are-involved-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-epimastigote-agglutination-and-participate-in-interaction-with-the-vector-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#15
Carlos José De Carvalho Moreira, Nuccia Nicole Theodoro De Cicco, Tainah Silva Galdino, Denise Feder, Marcelo Salabert Gonzalez, Renata Bortolasse Miguel, José Rodrigues Coura, Helena Carla Castro, Patricia Azambuja, Georgia Corrêa Atella, Norman Arthur Ratcliffe, Cicero Brasileiro Mello
Chagas disease, infecting ca. 8 million people in Central and South America, is mediated by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of blood sucking triatomine insects, such as Rhodnius prolixus, that had previously fed on parasite-infected vertebrate blood and voided their contaminated feces and urine into the wound. The stages of the parasite life cycle in both the insect vector and human host are well-known, but determinants of infection in the insect gut are complex and enigmatic...
September 24, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248330/characterization-of-an-antigenic-serine-protease-in-the-trichinella-spiralis-adult
#16
He Gao, Bin Tang, Xue Bai, Libo Wang, Xiuping Wu, Haining Shi, Xuelin Wang, Xiaolei Liu, Mingyuan Liu
Serine proteases have been identified as important molecules that are involved in many parasitic infections, and these molecules have also been suggested to play important roles in Trichinella spiralis infections. In the present study, the antigenic serine protease gene Ts-ADSp-7, which was screened from a cDNA library of Trichinella spiralis Adults at 3 days post-infection (p.i.), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded protein, Ts-ADSp-7, revealed a potential trypsin-like serine protease domain but lacked substrate banding site at position 227 and protease activity...
September 21, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237049/effective-eradication-of-pinworms-syphacia-obvelata-and-aspiculuris-tetraptera-with-polygonum-cognatum-meissn
#17
Fatma Tuğçe Gürağaç Dereli, Mert Ilhan, Esma Kozan, Esra Küpeli Akkol
Polygonum cognatum Meissn. (Polygonaceae) is a wild edible plant known locally as "solucanotu, madimak" in Turkey and it has been used for various purposes, such as diuretic and antidiabetic, as well to treat oxyuris and worms internally in humans. The present study was carried out to investigate the anthelmintic activity of various extracts were obtained from the aerial parts of P. cognatum in order to justify its traditional usage in Turkish folk medicine. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared from the aerial parts of the plant, successively...
September 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268422/anti-infective-activities-of-11-plants-species-used-in-traditional-medicine-in-malaysia
#18
Nadiah Syafiqah Nor Azman, Md Shahadat Hossan, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Chairat Uthaipibull, Parichat Prommana, Khoo Teng Jin, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Tooba Mahboob, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Hassan Mahmood Jindal, Banasri Hazra, Mohd Ridzuan Mohd Abd Razak, Vijay Kumar Prajapati, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Norhaniza Aminudin, Khozirah Shaari, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Mark S Butler, Vladimir V Zarubaev, Christophe Wiart
Treatment of drug resistant protozoa, bacteria, and viruses requires new drugs with alternative chemotypes. Such compounds could be found from Southeast Asian medicinal plants. The present study examines the cytotoxic, antileishmanial, and antiplasmodial effects of 11 ethnopharmacologically important plant species in Malaysia. Chloroform extracts were tested for their toxicity against MRC-5 cells and Leishmania donovani by MTT, and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain by Histidine-Rich Protein II ELISA assays...
November 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266572/dna-vaccination-using-recombinant-schistosoma-mansoni-fatty-acid-binding-protein-smfabp-gene
#19
Ibrahim Aly, Gehan ELnain, Rabab S Hamad, Mona Kilany, Hamed A Ghramh, Aly Alshehri, Saad M Dajem, Essam H Ibrahim
Schistosomiasis is a fatal disease that has a negative impact on health and economics. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis treatment, but it has no prophylactic effect; therefore, vaccination is an essential requirement in schistosomiasis control. This work was carried out to investigate the possible effect of DNA vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni infection using recombinant S. mansoni fatty acid binding protein (rsmFABP). The smFABP gene was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNAI/Amp in order to obtain an smFABP-pcDNAI recombinant plasmid (DNA vaccine) and was used for the intramuscular DNA vaccination of out-bread Swiss albino mice prior to infection with S...
November 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257189/photodynamic-therapy-using-ultradeformable-liposomes-loaded-with-chlorine-aluminum-phthalocyanine-against-l-v-braziliensis-experimental-models
#20
Patricia Escobar, Angélica M Vera, Laura F Neira, Alex O Velásquez, Heider Carreño
Ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) containing sodium cholate as edge activator could be an appropriate skin drug-delivery system for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) during photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this work was to study cell internalization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and toxicity/genotoxicity and transdermal delivery of UDL-ClAlPc, and to determine whether PDT was able to induce anti-leishmanial activity in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis experimental models...
November 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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