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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527905/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-polarization-of-macrophages-in-neospora-caninum-infection
#1
Xuexiu He, Pengtao Gong, Zhengkai Wei, Weijian Liu, Weili Wang, Jianhua Li, Zhengtao Yang, Xichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related Toxoplasma gondii, which causes neurological disease and abortion in multiple animal species. Macrophage polarization plays an important role in host immune responses to parasites infection, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible mechanism that regulate macrophage polarization, during N. caninum infection remains unclear...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526337/construction-of-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-secreted-and-anchored-eimeria-tenella-3-1e-protein-and-comparison-of-protective-immunity-against-homologous-challenge
#2
Chunli Ma, Lili Zhang, Mingyang Gao, Dexing Ma
Two novel plasmids pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E and pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA were constructed. The plasmids were respectively electrotransformed into L. lactis NZ9000 to generate strain of L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E in which 3-1E protein was expressed in secretion, and L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA on which 3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells. The expression of target proteins were examined by Western blot. The live lactococci expressing secreted 3-1E protein, anchored 3-1E protein, and cytoplasmic 3-1E protein was administered orally to chickens respectively, and the protective immunity and efficacy were compared by animal experiment...
May 16, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483658/anthelmintic-effect-of-2h-chromen-2-one-isolated-from-gliricidia-sepium-against-cooperia-punctata
#3
Elke von Son-de Fernex, Miguel Ángel Alonso-Díaz, Braulio Valles-de la Mora, Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, Manases González-Cortazar, Alejandro Zamilpa
Gliricidia sepium is a tropical legume with known anthelmintic-like properties. The aim of this study was to: (1) perform a bio-guided fractionation of an acetonic extract of G. sepium leaves using the egg hatch assay (EHA); (2) elucidate the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemical using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); and (3) assess the ultrastructural damage of the Cooperia punctata treated eggs. The anthelmintic activity of G. sepium was traced from an acetonic extract using the EHA. Phytochemicals were isolated through silica gel columns and elucidated through spectroscopic measurements (1H and 13C)...
May 5, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479276/viability-assessment-of-ascaris-suum-eggs-stained-with-fluorescent-dyes-using-digital-colorimetric-analysis
#4
Magdalena Włodarczyk, Jolanta Zdybel, Marek Próchniak, Zbigniew Osiński, Jacek Karamon, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457995/schistosoma-mansoni-off-target-analyses-using-nonspecific-double-stranded-rnas-as-control-for-rnai-experiments-in-schistosomula
#5
Sandra Grossi Gava, Naiara Clemente Tavares, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Flávio Marcos Gomes de Araújo, Guilherme Oliveira, Marina Moraes Mourão
RNA interference is a well established and widely used reverse genetic tool available for gene functional studies in trematodes. This technique requires the use of nonrelevant double-stranded RNA as control. However, several authors have reported inconsistencies associated with RNAi. We used RNASeq to analyze genes affected by nonspecific dsRNA exposure. We found only few genes presenting altered expression in schistosomula exposed to GFP or mCherry nonspecific-dsRNAs, most of them encoding uncharacterized proteins...
April 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456693/in%C3%A2-vitro-predatory-activity-of-arthrobotrys-oligospora-and-after-passing-through-gastrointestinal-tract-of-small-ruminants-on-infective-larvae-of-trichostrongylides
#6
Kui-Zheng Cai, Feng-Hui Wang, Bo-Bo Wang, Jun-Lin Liu, Kang-Ying Wang, Qiang Xu, Yu-Jia Xue, Fan Wang, Chao Zhang, Wen-Xiu Fang, Bin Cai, Yan-Qiu Liu, Xin Cao, Zhong-Ren Ma
In vitro predatory activity of 157 native isolates of Arthrobotrys oligospora from China on larvae of trichostrongylides (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus) in feces of sheep were assessed. The results showed that 135 of tested isolates of A. oligospora reduced the development of trichostrongylide larvae in feces by 90-99.99%, 11 isolates by 80-89.46% and 11 isolates by 14.58-78.82%. To understand their capacity of passing through gastrointestinal tract of sheep, 50 native isolates of A...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456692/parasites-as-drivers-of-key-processes-in-aquatic-ecosystems-facts-and-future-directions
#7
B Sures, M Nachev, M Pahl, D Grabner, C Selbach
Despite the advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of parasites that we have made in recent years, we are still far away from having a complete picture of the ecological implications connected to parasitism. In the present paper we highlight key issues that illustrate (1) important contributions of parasites to biodiversity, (2) their integral role in ecosystems, (3) as well as their ecological effects as keystone species (4) and in biological invasion processes. By using selected examples from aquatic ecosystems we want to provide an insight and generate interest into the topic, and want to show directions for future research in the field of ecological parasitology...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456691/a-new-thioredoxin-reductase-with-additional-glutathione-reductase-activity-in-haemonchus-contortus
#8
Agustín Plancarte, Gabriela Nava, Javier A Munguía
We report, herein, the purification to homogeneity and the biochemical and kinetic characterization of HcTrxR3, a new isoform of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from Haemonchus contortus. HcTrxR3 was found to have a relative molecular weight of 134,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 67,000. By peptide mass spectrophotometric analysis, HcTrxR3 was determined to have 99% identity with the H. contortus HcTrxR1 although, and most importantly, they are different in their amino acid sequence in two amino acid positions: 48 (isoleucine instead of leucine) and 460 (leucine instead of proline)...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456690/standardization-of-dna-extraction-from-sand-flies-application-to-genotyping-by-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Aline Etelvina Casaril, Liliane Prado de Oliveira, Diego Peres Alonso, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Suellem Petilim Gomes Barrios, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Standardization of the methods for extraction of DNA from sand flies is essential for obtaining high efficiency during subsequent molecular analyses, such as the new sequencing methods. Information obtained using these methods may contribute substantially to taxonomic, evolutionary, and eco-epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to standardize and compare two methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from sand flies for obtaining DNA in sufficient quantities for next-generation sequencing...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455119/changes-of-cecal-microflora-in-chickens-following-eimeria-tenella-challenge-and-regulating-effect-of-coated-sodium-butyrate
#10
Zuoyong Zhou, Kui Nie, Qingzhou Huang, Kai Li, Yingying Sun, Rongqiong Zhou, Zhiying Wang, Shijun Hu
Eimeria tenella, one of the most important parasitic protozoa in the genus Eimeria, is responsible for chicken caecal coccidiosis resulting in huge economic losses to poultry industry. The present study investigated the changes in caecal microflora of E. tenella-infected chickens and the regulating effect of coated sodium butyrate, a potential alternative to antibiotics. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA V3-V4 region of bacteria we found significant changes in caecal microflora of E. tenella-infected chickens indicated by an increase of Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and vadin BB60) and Proteobacteria (mainly Enterobacteriaceae) and a decrease of Bacteroidetes (predominantly Bacteroidaceae)...
April 25, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450049/survival-physical-and-physiological-changes-of-taenia-hydatigena-eggs-under-different-conditions-of-water-stress
#11
Paula Sánchez Thevenet, Hector Manuel Alvarez, Juan Angel Basualdo
Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438522/detection-of-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-conjunctival-swabs-of-cats-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#12
Julia Cristina Benassi, Graziella U Benvenga, Helena Lage Ferreira, Vanessa F Pereira, Lara B Keid, Rodrigo Soares, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira
Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a method that permits quantitative analysis of a large number of samples, resulting in more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible measurements of specific DNA present in the sample...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438521/modified-dot-elisa-for-diagnosis-of-human-trichinellosis
#13
Eman E Taher, Eman M H Méabed, Dina M H El Akkad, Nancy O Kamel, Maha A Sabry
This study aimed to modify Dot-Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis and to compare its performance with indirect ELISA and Western-blot assay (EITB). A total of 175 human serum samples were enrolled in the study. Indirect ELISA was used for the primary diagnosis. EITB versus fractionated 1st larval stage excretory-secretory antigens (TL-1 ESA) revealed three specific protein fractions at MW of 45, 50, and 55 kDa (kDa). Dot-ELISA was performed in two ways. In the first one, sera were dotted on the separated three specific protein fractions, while in the second one the three fractions were eluted, concentrated at one pooled antigen that used in classic dot-ELISA...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433562/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-khawia-sinensis-belongs-among-platyhelminths-cestodes
#14
Yan Feng, Han-Li Feng, Yi-Hui Fang, Ying-Bing Su
Khawia sinensis is an important species in freshwater fish causing considerable economic losses to the breeding industry. This is the first mt genome of a caryophyllidean cestode characterised. The entire mt genome of K. sinensis is 13,759 bp in length. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the K. sinensis mt genome is the same as other tapeworms, however, the incomplete stop codon (A) is more frequent that other species...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433563/aryl-thiosemicarbazones-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-immunomodulatory-activities-against-l-%C3%A2-amazonensis
#15
Aline Caroline da Silva, Thiago André Ramos Dos Santos, Isis Viviane Bezerra da Silva, Marcos Victor Gregório de Oliveira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães Moreira, Ana Cristina Lima Leite, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira
Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by different species of Leishmania genus. Currently, there is no vaccine available for Leishmania infections in humans and conventional treatments are limited due to side effects. Therefore, the development of new antileishmanial drugs is an urgent need. In present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity in host cells, leishmanicidal activity and immunomodulatory potential of seven aryl thiosemicarbazones. Host cell cytotoxicity was determined in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mouse, antiparasitic activity was determined against promastigotes and amastigotes of WHOM/00LTB 0016 strain of L...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431921/optimization-of-the-helmintex-method-for-schistosomiasis-diagnosis
#16
Vivian Favero, Renata Russo Frasca Candido, Carolina De Marco Verissimo, Malcolm K Jones, Timothy G St Pierre, Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Vinicius Duval Da Silva, Alessandra Loureiro Morassutti, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira
A diagnostic test that is reliable, sensitive, and applicable in the field is extremely important in epidemiological surveys, during medical treatment for schistosomiasis, and for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. The Helmintex (HTX) method is based on the use of magnetic beads to trap eggs in a magnetic field. This technique is highly sensitive, but the screening of fecal samples consumes lots of time, thus delaying the results, especially in field studies. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of incorporation of the detergent Tween-20 into the method in an attempt to decrease the final pellet volume produced by the HTX method as well as the use of ninhydrin to stain the Schistosoma mansoni eggs...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363777/dual-genetic-absence-of-stat6-and-il-10-does-not-abrogate-anti-hyperglycemic-effects-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-streptozotocin-treated-diabetic-mice
#17
Yoshio Osada, Tomohiro Fujiyama, Naoto Kamimura, Tsukushi Kaji, Susumu Nakae, Katsuko Sudo, Kenji Ishiwata, Tamotsu Kanazawa
Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) is known to exert protective effects against various allergic and autoimmune disorders. It has been reported that this parasite protects NOD mice from spontaneous type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ameliorates streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D in wild-type mice. Here, we tried to clarify the anti-diabetic mechanisms of Sm in the latter model. Sm infection partially prevented the degradation of pancreatic islets and hyperglycemia in multiple low-dose (MLD) STZ-treated mice. Neither Treg cell depletion nor genetic absences of IL-10 and/or STAT6 abrogated the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Sm...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363776/facilitating-trypanosome-imaging
#18
Marius Glogger, Ines Subota, Anna Pezzarossa, Anna-Lena Denecke, Mark Carrington, Susanne F Fenz, Markus Engstler
Research on trypanosomes as a model organism has provided a substantial contribution to a detailed understanding of basic cellular processes within the last few years. At the same time, major advances in super-resolution microscopy have been achieved, facilitating the resolution of biological structures in living cells at a scale of a few nm. However, the motility of trypanosomes has prevented access to high resolution microscopy of live cells. Here, we present a hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized with either norbornene or thiol moieties for UV induced thiol-ene crosslinking for the embedding and imaging of live trypanosomes...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351684/tissue-distribution-and-functional-analysis-of-vitellogenin-6-of-toxocara-canis
#19
Hong-Hong Zhu, Guang-Xu Ma, Yong-Fang Luo, Yong-Li Luo, Sha-Sha Yin, Yi Xiong, Rong-Qiong Zhou
Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351683/oleanolic-acid-from-antifilarial-triterpene-saponins-of-dipterocarpus-zeylanicus-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-filarial-parasite-setaria-digitata-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
K S Senathilake, E H Karunanayake, S R Samarakoon, K H Tennekoon, E D de Silva, A Adhikari
Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Two antifilarial triterpene saponins were isolated from winged seed extracts by bioactivity guided chromatographic separation and identified using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1) (IC50 = 20...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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