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Experimental Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919334/failure-of-molecular-diagnostics-of-a-keratitis-inducing-acanthamoeba-strain
#1
Patrick L Scheid, Carsten Balczun
An otherwise healthy 49-year-old female patient presented at the local hospital with severe keratitis in both inflamed eyes. She was a contact lens wearer and had no history of a corneal trauma. In our laboratory for medical parasitology Acanthamoebae were detected microscopically from the cornea scraping and from the fluid of the contact lens storage case after xenical culture and showed the typical cyst morphology of Acanthamoebae group II. The diagnosis of "Acanthamoeba keratitis" was established and successful therapy was provided...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919333/status-of-the-effectiveness-of-contact-lens-disinfectants-in-malaysia-against-keratitis-causing-pathogens
#2
Farhat Abjani, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Suk Yul Jung, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
The aim of this study was (i) to assess the antimicrobial effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions marketed in Malaysia against common bacterial eye pathogens and as well as eye parasite, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and (ii) to determine whether targeting cyst wall would improve the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants. Using ISO 14729 Stand-Alone Test for disinfecting solutions, bactericidal and amoebicidal assays of six different contact lens solutions including Oxysept(®), AO SEPT PLUS, OPTI-FREE(®) pure moist(®), Renu(®) fresh™, FreshKon(®) CLEAR and COMPLETE RevitaLens™ were performed using Manufacturers Minimum recommended disinfection time (MRDT)...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919332/correlation-of-radical-scavenging-capacity-and-amoebicidal-activity-of-matricaria-recutita-l-asteraceae
#3
Soumaya Hajaji, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Ignacio A Jiménez, Isabel L Bazzocchi, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
Some Acanthamoeba strains are able to cause Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) worldwide because of their pathogenicity. The treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is complicated due to the existence of a highly resistant cyst stage in their life cycle. Therefore, the elucidation of novel sources of anti-Acanthamoeba agents is an urgent need. In the present study, an evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-Acanthamoeba activity of compounds in flower extracts of Tunisian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919331/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cathepsin-b-and-cathepsin-b-like-proteins-of-naegleria-fowleri
#4
Gi-Sang Seong, Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917711/crocodiles-and-alligators-antiamoebic-and-antitumor-compounds-of-crocodiles
#5
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Shareni Jeyamogan, Salwa Mansoor Ali, Fatima Abbas, K A Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Crocodiles exist in unsanitary environments, feed on rotten meat, are often exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, tolerate high levels of radiation, and are amid the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, nonetheless they can live for up to a 100 years. Moreover, as they live in unhygienic conditions, they regularly come across pathogens. Logically, we postulate that crocodiles have established mechanisms to defend themselves from noxious agents as well as protecting themselves from pathogens...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917710/molecular-identification-of-vermamoeba-vermiformis-from-freshwater-fish-in-lake-taal-philippines
#6
Giovanni D Milanez, Frederick R Masangkay, Rey C Thomas, Ma Olive Grace O Ordona, Gabriel Q Bernales, Vyanna Camille M Corpuz, Hannah Selina V Fortes, Charezze Margarette S Garcia, Larra Camille Nicolas, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Free Living Amoebae (FLA) are considered ubiquitous. FLAs may infect various biological organisms which act as reservoir hosts. Infected freshwater fishes can pose a public health concern due to possible human consumption. This study aims to identify possible pathogenic FLAs present in freshwater fishes. Seventy five (75) Oreochromis niloticus were studied for the presence of FLAs. Fish organs were suspended in physiologic saline pelleted and cultured in non-nutrient agar (NNA) lawned with Escherichia coli and were incubated in 33 °C for 14 days...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917709/in-vitro-interactions-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-vibrio-harveyi
#7
María Reyes-Batlle, Alberto J Martín-Rodríguez, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic protozoa widely distributed in the environment. They are frequently found in water and soil samples, but they have also been reported to be associated with bacterial human pathogens such as Legionella spp. Campylobacter spp or Vibrio cholerae among others. Including within Vibrio spp. V. harveyi (Johnson and Shunk, 1936) is a bioluminescent marine bacteria which has been found swimming freely in tropical marine waters, being part of the stomach and intestine microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917708/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-balb-c-mice-are-more-susceptible-to-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-immunohistochemical-study
#8
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Miriam Romero Grijalva, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Imelda Juarez-Avelar, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Arturo Gonzalez-Robles, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Ismael Castelan-Ramirez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a chronic, difficult to resolve infection caused by amphizoic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba, which in most cases occurs in immunosuppressed persons or with chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we describe the early events of A. culbertsoni infection of GAE in diabetic mice model. Diabetes was induced in male BALB/c mice, with a dose of streptozotocin (130 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic mice were inoculated via intranasal with 1 × 10(6) trophozoites of A...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917707/amoebicidal-antimicrobial-and-in-vitro-ros-scavenging-activities-of-tunisian-rubus-ulmifolius-schott-methanolic-extract
#9
Soumaya Hajaji, Mohamed Amine Jabri, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Fatma B'chir, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of methanolic extract of Rubus ulmifolius Schott against the Acanthamoeba castellani Neff Strain as well as its antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. The tested extract has a good amoebicidal activity with low IC50 (61.785 ± 1.322 μg/ml) and also has significant activity against both Gram-positive (S. aureus, S. agalactiae) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. typhimurium) and against C. albicans. The inhibition zones diameters (IZD) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were in the range of 22...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916460/the-effect-of-viroid-infection-of-citrus-trees-on-the-amoebicidal-activity-of-maltese-half-blood-citrus-sinensis-against-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#10
Ghaya Zouaghi, Asma Najar, Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Jacob Lorenzo Morales
In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916459/variation-in-campylobacter-jejuni-culturability-in-presence-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#11
María Reyes-Batlle, Cecilia Girbau, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Aurora Fernández-Astorga, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916458/molecular-identification-of-waterborn-free-living-amoebae-acanthamoeba-naegleria-and-vermamoeba-isolated-from-municipal-drinking-water-and-environmental-sources-north-half-of-iran
#12
Ehsan Javanmard, Maryam Niyyati, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Hamed Behniafar, Hamed Mirjalili
The present study tested 80 samples of municipal, geothermal and recreational water samples for the occurrence of waterborn free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Vahlkampfiids and Vermamoeba in Semnan province, North half of Iran. Four sets of primers including JDP1,2 primers, ITS1,2 primers (Vahlkampfiids), 16S rRNABal primers (Balamuthia mandrillaris) and NA1,2 primers (Vermamoeba) were used to confirm the morphological identification. From the 80 water samples tested in the present study, 16 (20%) were positive for the outgrowth of free living amoebae based on the morphological page key...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916457/in-vitro-activity-of-1h-phenalen-1-one-derivatives-against-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-their-mechanisms-of-cell-death
#13
Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Mónica Blanco Freijo, Grant McNaughton-Smith, Patricia Martín-Rodríguez, Leandro Fernández-Pérez, Ines Sifaoui, Carolina Wagner, Ana B García-Méndez, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt-Estrella, Teresa Abad-Grillo, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen which is the causal agent of a sight-threatening ulceration of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and, more rarely, an infection of the central nervous system called "granulomatous amoebic encephalitis" (GAE). The symptoms of AK are non-specific, and so it can be misdiagnosed as a viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis. Furthermore, current therapeutic measures against AK are arduous, and show limited efficacy against the cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. 1H-Phenalen-1-one (PH) containing compounds have been isolated from plants and fungi, where they play a crucial role in the defense mechanism of plants...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916456/acanthamoebicidal-activity-of-periglaucine-a-and-betulinic-acid-from-pericampylus-glaucus-lam-merr-in-vitro
#14
Tooba Mahboob, Abdul-Majid Azlan, Fiona Shilpton, Patchraporn Beekoom, Nadiah Syafiqah Nor Azman, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Init Ithoi, Tian-Chye Tan, Chandramathi Samudi, Christophe Wiart, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Acanthamoeba species are pathogenic protozoa which account for amoebic keratitis, conjunctivitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. These amoebae form cysts which resist drugs and more effective acanthamoebicidal agents are needed. Medicinal plants could be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for Acanthamoeba infections. In the present study, we examined the amoebicidal effects of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr., a medicinal plant used for the treatment of conjunctivitis in Malaysia...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916455/essential-oil-composition-and-anti-acanthamoeba-studies-of-teucrium-ramosissimum
#15
Nessrine Ghazouani, Ines Sifaoui, Olfa Bachrouch, Manef Abderrabba, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of T. ramosissimum by hydrodistillation and to investigate their anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Identification and quantification were realized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection by (GC-FID). Sixty-eight compounds representing 97.78% of the essential oil were identified, of which δ-cadinene (18.63%), δ-cadinol (18.70%), β-eudesmol (12...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916454/anti-acanthamoeba-activity-of-tunisian-thymus-capitatus-essential-oil-and-organic-extracts
#16
Salma Saoudi, Ines Sifaoui, Nadia Chammem, María Reyes-Batlle, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Idaira Pacheco-Fernández, Verónica Pino, Moktar Hamdi, Ignacio A Jiménez, Isabel L Bazzocchi, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae widely distributed in the environment and which cause serious human infections. The treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is always very difficult and not constantly effective. More efficient drugs against Acanthamoeba must be developed and medicinal plants can be useful in this case. Our research focused on the examination of the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of the essential oil and the ethanolic-aqueous extract from Thymus capitatus L. The essential oil showed best activity with an IC50 of 2...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867354/development-of-a-simple-and-economical-diagnostic-test-for-canine-leishmaniasis
#17
Valeria S García, Verónica D G Gonzalez, Luis Gugliotta, Alexis Burna, Ana Demonte, Diego G Arias, Matías S Cabeza, Sergio A Guerrero
Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem worldwide. The early diagnosis in dogs is crucial, since they are an epidemiologically relevant reservoir of the disease. The aim of a field study is to early identify the disease allowing rapid intervention to reduce its effects. We propose an immunoagglutination test as a visual in situ method for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Latex-protein complexes were sensitized by covalent coupling of a chimeric recombinant antigen of Leishmania spp. onto polystyrene latex with carboxyl functionality...
September 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823705/acanthamoeba-castellanii-interactions-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-streptococcus-pyogenes
#18
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Suk Yul Jung, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Among the genus Streptococcus, S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae are the major causes of pharyngitis, impetigo, pneumonia and meningitis in humans. Streptococcus spp. are facultative anaerobes that are nutritionally fastidious, yet survive in the environment and target the predisposed population. Antibacterial disinfectants have been partially effective only, indicating the need for novel preventative measures and to understand mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist that is known to harbour microbial pathogens, provide shelter, and assist in their transmission to susceptible population...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821422/adhesion-molecules-chemokines-and-matrix-metallo-proteinases-response-after-albendazole-and-albendazole-plus-steroid-therapy-in-swine-neurocysticercosis
#19
Satyendra K Singh, Kashi N Prasad, Aloukick K Singh, Kamlesh K Gupta, Amrita Singh, Mukesh Tripathi, Rakesh K Gupta
The treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) varies with location, number and stage of the Taenia solium cysticerci (cysts). Albendazole (ABZ) effectively kills cysticerci, and subsequently induces neuro-inflammation facilitated by leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesize that immune response varies around drug responder (degenerating/dying) and non-responder (viable) cysts after ABZ and ABZ plus steroid (ABZS) therapy, which may determine the disease pathogenesis. Twenty cysticercotic swine were treated with ABZ (n = 10; group1) and ABZS (n = 10; group2)...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811103/identification-and-phylogenetic-position-of-naegleria-spp-from-geothermal-springs-in-italy
#20
M Montalbano Di Filippo, A Novelletto, D Di Cave, F Berrilli
Naegleria spp. are free-living amoebae belonging to the family Vahlkampfiidae, in the class Heterolobosea. Among the recognized species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while two other species, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria italica, have been reported as pathogenic in experimental animals. Due to the thermotolerance properties of some species, geothermal water sources including hot springs represent suitable habitats for their proliferation. The main aim of this study was a year-round sampling in two geothermal springs in Central Italy, to investigate the presence of Naegleria spp...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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