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Experimental Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782864/are-dopamine-receptor-and-transporter-changes-in-rett-syndrome-reflected-in-mecp2-deficient-mice
#1
Dean F Wong, Mary E Blue, James R Brašić, Ayon Nandi, Heather Valentine, Kirstie H Stansfield, Olivier Rousset, Genila Bibat, Mary E Yablonski, Michael V Johnston, Albert Gjedde, SakkuBai Naidu
In the present study we tested the claim that the dopaminergic dysfunction of Rett Syndrome (RTT) also occurs in Mecp2-deficient mice that serve as a model of the syndrome. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to image dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) and transporters (DAT) in women with RTT and in Mecp2-deficient mice, and D1 R and D2 R density was measured in postmortem human tissue by autoradiography. Results showed 1) significantly reduced D2 R density in the striatum of women with RTT compared to control subjects...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#2
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772248/scaffolds-for-peripheral-nerve-repair-and-reconstruction
#3
REVIEW
Sheng Yi, Lai Xu, Xiaosong Gu
Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772247/internode-length-is-reduced-during-myelination-and-remyelination-by-neurofilament-medium-phosphorylation-in-motor-axons
#4
Eric Villalón, Devin M Barry, Nathan Byers, Katie Frizzi, Maria R Jones, Dan S Landayan, Jeffrey M Dale, Natalie L Downer, Nigel A Calcutt, Michael L Garcia
The distance between nodes of Ranvier, referred to as internode length, positively correlates with axon diameter, and is optimized during development to ensure maximal neuronal conduction velocity. Following myelin loss, internode length is reestablished through remyelination. However, remyelination results in short internode lengths and reduced conduction rates. We analyzed the potential role of neurofilament phosphorylation in regulating internode length during remyelination and myelination. Following ethidium bromide induced demyelination, levels of neurofilament medium (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) phosphorylation were unaffected...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#5
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772245/ape1-ref-1-redox-function-contributes-to-inflammatory-pain-sensitization
#6
Amira Zaky, Rabia Bouali-Benazzouz, Alexandre Favereaux, Gianluca Tell, Marc Landry
Inflammatory pain is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), also called Redox Factor-1 (Ref-1), is constitutively expressed in the central nervous system and regulates various cellular functions including oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated APE1 modulation and associated pain behavior changes in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain in rats. In addition we tested the anti-inflammatory effects of E3330, a selective inhibitor of APE1-redox activity, in CFA pain condition...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#7
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763602/a-ketogenic-diet-reduces-metabolic-syndrome-induced-allodynia-and-promotes-peripheral-nerve-growth-in-mice
#8
Michael A Cooper, Blaise W Menta, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Megan M Jack, Zair W Khan, Janelle M Ryals, Michelle Winter, Douglas E Wright
Current experiments investigated whether a ketogenic diet impacts neuropathy associated with obesity and prediabetes. Mice challenged with a ketogenic diet were compared to mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus exercise. Additionally, an intervention switching to a ketogenic diet following 8 weeks of high-fat diet was performed to compare how a control diet, exercise, or a ketogenic diet affects metabolic syndrome-induced neural complications. When challenged with a ketogenic diet, mice had reduced bodyweight and fat mass compared to high-fat-fed mice, and were similar to exercised, high-fat-fed mice...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763601/the-p-s85c-mutation-in-matr3-impairs-stress-granule-formation-in-matrin-3-myopathy
#9
Alexander Mensch, Beate Meinhardt, Nadine Bley, Stefan Hüttelmaier, Ilka Schneider, Gisela Stoltenburg-Didinger, Torsten Kraya, Tobias Müller, Stephan Zierz
Matrin-3-related distal myopathy is characterized mainly by progressive distal weakness of the lower extremities. The mutation p.S85C in matrin-3 (MATR3) has been identified as disease-causing alteration, whereas the specific molecular mechanisms leading to the muscle disease have not been elucidated. In the present study, muscle biopsy samples from six patients and fibroblasts from four patients harboring p.S85C mutation in MATR3 were analyzed. No specific changes in matrin-3 localization or expression were observed...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753649/comparison-of-subacute-and-chronic-scar-tissues-after-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#10
Xing Li, Bin Yang, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Sufang Han, Yanyun Yin, Bing Chen, Jianwu Dai
Traditional views consider scar tissue formed in the lesion epicenter after severe spinal cord injury (SCI) as both a physical barrier and chemical impediment for axonal regeneration. Recently, a controversial opinion suggested that astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents axonal regeneration in the CNS. Here, following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord (T8) in rats, we found that scar tissue showed greater growth factor expression at 2 weeks than 8 weeks post-SCI. Further, tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that the components of scar tissue formed in the subacute phase are quite different from that formed in the chronic phase...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753648/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-regulates-cocaine-reward-through-sirtuin-1
#11
Jueying Kong, Changman Du, Linhong Jiang, Wei Jiang, Pengchi Deng, Xue Shao, Baolai Zhang, Yan Li, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengqi Fu, Hui Gu, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis in mammals, converts nicotinamide into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is subsequently converted to NAD, a component that is critical for cell energy metabolism and survival. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, plays an important role in mediating memory and synaptic plasticity. Here, we found that NAMPT was significantly upregulated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of cocaine-conditioned mice...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753647/translating-promising-strategies-for-bowel-and-bladder-management-in-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Tracey L Wheeler, William de Groat, Kymberly Eisner, Anton Emmanuel, Jennifer French, Warren Grill, Michael J Kennelly, Andrei Krassioukov, Bruno Gallo-Santacruz, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Naomi Kleitman
Loss of control over voiding following spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts autonomy, participation and dignity, and can cause life-threatening complications. The importance of SCI bowel and bladder dysfunction warrants significantly more attention from researchers in the field. To address this gap, key SCI clinicians, researchers, government and private funding organizations met to share knowledge and examine emerging approaches. This report reviews recommendations from this effort to identify and prioritize near-term treatment, investigational and translational approaches to addressing the pressing needs of people with SCI...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752944/targeting-the-cytoskeleton-with-an-fda-approved-drug-to-promote-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Alicia N Vagnozzi, Jerry Silver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729250/application-of-optogenetics-in-the-study-of-pain-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Feng Xie, Jing Wang, Robert P Bonin
Intractable pain is the single most common cause of disability, affecting more than 20% of the population world-wide. There is accordingly a global effort to decipher how changes in the activity of nociceptive sensory afferents and dorsal horn cell populations contribute to the onset and maintenance of chronic pain. Through the application of advances in genetic techniques, there has been a surge in the success of efforts along this front. In particular, the past several years have brought rapid progress in the adaptation of optogenetic approaches to study and manipulate the activity of sensory afferents and spinal cord neurons in freely behaving animals...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729249/neurosteroid-allopregnanolone-reduces-ipsilateral-visual-cortex-potentiation-following-unilateral-optic-nerve-injury
#15
Elena G Sergeeva, Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Fahim Atif, Machelle T Pardue, Donald G Stein
In adult mice with unilateral optic nerve crush injury (ONC), we studied visual response plasticity in the visual cortex following stimulation with sinusoidal grating. We examined visually evoked potentials (VEP) in the primary visual cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the crushed nerve. We found that unilateral ONC induces enhancement of visual response on the side ipsilateral to the injury that is evoked by visual stimulation to the intact eye. This enhancement was associated with supranormal spatial frequency thresholds in the intact eye when tested using optomotor response...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729248/stimulation-dependent-remodeling-of-the-corticospinal-tract-requires-reactivation-of-growth-promoting-developmental-signaling-pathways
#16
Neela Zareen, Shahid Dodson, Kristine Armada, Rahma Awad, Nadia Sultana, Erina Hara, Heather Alexander, John H Martin
The corticospinal tract (CST) can become damaged after spinal cord injury or stroke, resulting in weakness or paralysis. Repair of the damaged CST is limited because mature CST axons fail to regenerate, which is partly because the intrinsic axon growth capacity is downregulated in maturity. Whereas CST axons sprout after injury, this is insufficient to recover lost functions. Chronic motor cortex (MCX) electrical stimulation is a neuromodulatory strategy to promote CST axon sprouting, leading to functional recovery after CST lesion...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729247/ionic-plasticity-and-pain-the-loss-of-descending-serotonergic-fibers-after-spinal-cord-injury-transforms-how-gaba-affects-pain
#17
Yung-Jen Huang, James W Grau
Activation of pain (nociceptive) fibers can sensitize neural circuits within the spinal cord, inducing an increase in excitability (central sensitization) that can foster chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. In adult animals, the co-transporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular concentration of the anion Cl- . As a result, when the GABA-A receptor is engaged, Cl- flows in the neuron which has a hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) effect...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729246/oligodendrocyte-specific-loss-of-cdk5-disrupts-the-architecture-of-nodes-of-ranvier-as-well-as-learning-and-memory
#18
Fucheng Luo, Jessie Zhang, Kathryn Burke, Rita R Romito-DiGiacomo, Robert H Miller, Yan Yang
Myelination of the central nervous system is important for normal motor and sensory neuronal function and recent studies also link it to efficient learning and memory. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is required for normal oligodendrocyte development, myelination and myelin repair. Here we show that conditional deletion of Cdk5 by targeting with CNP (CNP;Cdk5 CKO) results in hypomyelination and disruption of the structural integrity of Nodes of Ranvier. In addition, CNP;Cdk5 CKO mice exhibited a severe impairment of learning and memory compared to controls that may reflect perturbed neuron-glial interactions...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715476/epigenetic-upregulation-of-cxcl12-expression-contributes-to-the-acquisition-and-maintenance-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#19
Huan Liu, Jiayou Wei, Meng Liu, Shaoling Wu, Chao Ma, Cuicui Liu, Kangmei Huang, Xueqin Zhang, Ruixian Guo, Kuibo Zhang, Wenjun Xin
Addiction and rewarding effect is a primary side effect of morphine, which is commonly used to relieve the acute or chronic pain. Several lines of evidence have suggested that inflammation response in the VTA contributes to morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference, CPP), while the mechanism are poorly understood. The present study showed that repeated morphine conditioning persistently increased the expression of CXCL12 mRNA and protein in VTA. Furthermore, inhibition of CXCL12 prevented the acquisition and maintenance, but not the expression, of morphine-induced CPP in rodent...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715474/trpv4-inhibition-prevents-paclitaxel-induced-neurotoxicity-in-preclinical-models
#20
Wolfgang Boehmerle, Petra Huehnchen, Sabrina Lin Lin Lee, Christoph Harms, Matthias Endres
Paclitaxel is a cytotoxic drug which frequently causes sensory peripheral neuropathy in patients. Increasing evidence suggests that altered intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. In the present study, we examined the interplay between Ca2+ release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca2+ permeable channels in the plasma membrane in the context of paclitaxel mediated neurotoxicity. We observed that in small to medium size dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGN) the inositol-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3 R) type 1 was often concentrated in the periphery of cells, which is in contrast to homogenous ER distribution...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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