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Experimental Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146456/is-more-always-better-how-different-doses-of-exercise-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-affects-the-membrane-properties-of-deep-dorsal-horn-interneurons
#1
M M Rank, M P Galea, R Callister, R J Callister
Interneurons in the deep dorsal horn (DDH) of the spinal cord process somatosensory input, and form an important link between upper and lower motoneurons to subsequently shape motor output. Exercise training after SCI is known to improve functional motor recovery, but little is known about the mechanisms within spinal cord neurons that underlie these improvements. Here we investigate how the properties of DDH interneurons are affected by spinal cord injury (SCI) alone, and SCI in combination with different 'doses' of treadmill exercise training (3, 6, and 9wks)...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104114/newfound-sex-differences-in-axonal-structure-underlie-differential-outcomes-from-in-vitro-traumatic-axonal-injury
#2
Jean-Pierre Dollé, Andrew Jaye, Stewart A Anderson, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Vivek B Shenoy, Douglas H Smith
Since traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is implicated as a prominent pathology of concussion, we examined potential sex differences in axon structure and responses to TAI. Rat and human neurons were used to develop micropatterned axon tracts in vitro that were genetically either male or female. Ultrastructural analysis revealed for the first time that female axons were consistently smaller with fewer microtubules than male axons. Computational modeling of TAI showed that these structural differences place microtubules in female axons at greater risk of failure during trauma under the same applied loads than in male axons...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129468/inhibition-of-rac1-ameliorates-neuronal-oxidative-stress-damage-via-reducing-bcl-2-rac1-complex-formation-in-mitochondria-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#3
Yundan Pan, Na Wang, Pingping Xia, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126889/impaired-glutamatergic-projection-from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#4
Yan-Yan Wang, Yong Wang, Hai-Fei Jiang, Jun-Hua Liu, Jun Jia, Ke Wang, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo, Min-Min Luo, Xiao-Min Wang
The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#5
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126888/single-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-produces-progressive-pathology-with-ongoing-contralateral-white-matter-damage-one-year-after-injury
#6
Francesca Pischiutta, Edoardo Micotti, Jennifer R Hay, Ines Marongiu, Eliana Sammali, Daniele Tolomeo, Gloria Vegliante, Nino Stocchetti, Gianluigi Forloni, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, William Stewart, Elisa R Zanier
There is increasing recognition that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may initiate long-term neurodegenerative processes, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, insight into the mechanisms transforming an initial biomechanical injury into a neurodegenerative process remain elusive, partly as a consequence of the paucity of informative pre-clinical models. This study shows the functional, whole brain imaging and neuropathological consequences at up to one year survival from single severe TBI by controlled cortical impact in mice...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126887/combined-administration-of-resolvin-e1-and-lipoxin-a4-resolves-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Alpdogan Kantarci, Nurgul Aytan, Iro Palaska, Danielle Stephens, Leah Crabtree, Claudia Benincasa, Bruce G Jenkins, Isabel Carreras, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Dysfunction in the resolution of inflammation may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we found that the levels of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice are significantly lower than in non-transgenic littermates. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that treatment with resolvin E1 (RvE1) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) alone or in combination will reverse the neuroinflammatory process and decrease Aβ pathology. 5xFAD mice were treated intraperitoneally starting at 1month of age with RvE1 or LXA4 alone or in combination at a dose of 1...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#8
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104115/lowered-ipla2%C3%AE-activity-causes-increased-mitochondrial-lipid-peroxidation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-rotenone-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Honglu Chao, Yinlong Liu, Xian Fu, Xiupeng Xu, Zhongyuan Bao, Chao Lin, Zheng Li, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
iPLA2γ, calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ, discerningly hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids. iPLA2γ-deficiency has been associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. More importantly, the iPLA2 family is causative proteins in mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorders such as parkinsonian disorders. However, the mechanisms by which iPLA2γ affects Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unknown. Mitochondrion stress has a key part in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092800/in-vivo-imaging-of-mauthner-axon-regeneration-remyelination-and-synapses-re-establishment-after-laser-axotomy-in-zebrafish-larvae
#10
Bing-Bing Hu, Min Chen, Rong-Chen Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Yang Xu, Wu Yin, Lei Li, Bing Hu
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study central nervous system (CNS) axonal degeneration and regeneration since we can observe these processes in vivo and in real time in transparent larvae. Previous studies have shown that Mauthner cell (M-cell) axon regenerates poorly after mechanical spinal cord injury. Inconsistent with this result, however, we have found that M-cell possesses a great capacity for axon regeneration after two-photon laser ablation. By using ZEISS LSM 710 two-photon microscope, we performed specific unilateral axotomy of GFP labeled M-cells in the Tol-056 enhancer trap line larvae...
October 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092799/novel-drosophila-model-for-psychiatric-disorders-including-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-targeting-of-atp-binding-cassette-protein-a
#11
Ibuki Ueoka, Hitoshi Kawashima, Atsushi Konishi, Mikio Aoki, Ryo Tanaka, Hideki Yoshida, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interactions, as well as restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. In addition, alterations in circadian sleep-wake rhythm are common in young children with ASD. Mutations in ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 13 (ABCA13) have been recently identified in a monkey that displays behavior associated with ASD. ABCA13, a member of the ABCA family of proteins, is predicted to transport lipid molecules and is expressed in the human trachea, testis, bone marrow, hippocampus, cortex, and other tissues...
October 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111308/inhibition-of-microrna-210-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-acute-brain-injury-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#12
Lei Huang, Qingyi Ma, Yong Li, Bo Li, Lubo Zhang
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and chronic neurologic disability. Yet, the successful treatment remains limited. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and the mechanism of a novel treatment, microRNA-210 (miR-210) inhibition, in protecting acute ischemic brain injury in adult mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult male C57BL/6 mice. MiR-210-LNA (miR-210 inhibitor) or the negative control was administered via intracerebroventricular injection 24h prior or 4h after MCAO...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106981/zinc-chelation-and-klf9-knockdown-cooperatively-promote-axon-regeneration-after-optic-nerve-injury
#13
Ephraim F Trakhtenberg, Yiqing Li, Qian Feng, Janice Tso, Paul A Rosenberg, Jeffrey L Goldberg, Larry I Benowitz
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106982/distinct-trka-and-ret-modulated-negative-and-positive-neuropathic-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-resiniferatoxin-induced-small-fiber-neuropathy
#14
Yu-Lin Hsieh, Hung-Wei Kan, Hao Chiang, Yi-Chen Lee, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Neurotrophic factors and their corresponding receptors play key roles in the maintenance of different phenotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the axons of which degenerate in small fiber neuropathy, leading to various neuropathic manifestations. Mechanisms underlying positive and negative symptoms of small fiber neuropathy have not been systematically explored. This study investigated the molecular basis of these seemingly paradoxical neuropathic behaviors according to the profiles of TrkA and Ret with immunohistochemical and pharmacological interventions in a mouse model of resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced small fiber neuropathy...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106980/pericyte-implantation-in-the-brain-enhances-cerebral-blood-flow-and-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology-in-amyloid-model-mice
#15
Masaya Tachibana, Yu Yamazaki, Chia-Chen Liu, Guojun Bu, Takahisa Kanekiyo
Pericytes are a major component of cerebrovasculature playing a key role in maintaining cerebrovascular homeostasis. These cells have also been suggested to regulate brain metabolism of amyloid-β (Aβ), disturbances of which are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the effects of pericytes on brain Aβ metabolism, C3H/10T1/2 mouse mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into pericytes and stereotaxically injected into the brains of amyloid AD model APP/PS1 mice at the age of 18 to 20months...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080793/chemokines-and-cytokines-on-the-neuroimmunoaxis-inner-ear-neurotrophic-cytokines-in-development-and-disease-prospects-for-repair
#16
REVIEW
Kate F Barald, Yu-Chi Shen, Lynne M Bianchi
The earliest stages of neuronal and sensory cell development in vertebrate sensory organs depend on "inflammatory" immune system neurotrophic cytokines/chemokines. Although classical nerve growth factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factors and glial growth factors play critical roles at various stages, the earliest directive roles belong to immune system cytokines. In frogs, fishes, birds and mammals, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and RANTES, components of the "otocyst-derived factor", are involved in sorting, morphogenesis, providing directional neuronal outgrowth cues as well as survival factors for both neurons and sensory cells...
October 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074417/multiple-mechanisms-underlying-neuroprotection-by-secretory-phospholipase-a2-preconditioning-in-a-surgically-induced-brain-injury-rat-model
#17
Yuechun Wang, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Onat Akyol, Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intra-operative bleeding, post-operative brain edema and neuroinflammation are major complications in patients with surgical brain injury (SBI). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the upstream enzyme which initiates the PLA2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) inflammatory pathway. We hypothesized PLA2preconditioning (PPC) prior to SBI can activate endogenous anti-inflammatory responses to protect against SBI. This study evaluated if PPC can ameliorate neurosurgical complications and elucidated PPC-mediated possible protective mechanisms in a rat SBI model...
October 24, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069573/sulforaphane-restores-acetyl-histone-h3-binding-to-bcl-2-promoter-and-prevents-apoptosis-in-ethanol-exposed-neural-crest-cells-and-mouse-embryos
#18
Fuqiang Yuan, Xiaopan Chen, Jie Liu, Wenke Feng, Lu Cai, Xiaoyang Wu, Shao-Yu Chen
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables. SFN's cytoprotective properties have been demonstrated in several models associated with a variety of disorders. Our recent studies have shown that SFN protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in neural crest cells (NCCs), an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study is designed to test the hypothesis that SFN can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs by inhibiting HDAC and increasing histone acetylation at the Bcl-2 promoter...
October 22, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066322/alterations-in-mesoscopic-oscillations-affecting-episodic-memory-following-developmental-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Chaitali Biswas, Dejan Marković, Christopher C Giza
Certain deficits of episodic memory among young adults are the delayed consequences of an earlier mild or moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). We examined alterations in hippocampal Local Field Oscillations (LFOs) of equivalently-impaired juvenile rodents to identify reliable functional markers of single-incidence mTBI. Two persistent, behavior-dependent, electrophysiological markers of injury were identified in the absence of external physiological symptoms by the analysis of wirelessly-transmitted hippocampal LFOs (3-80Hz) during repeat measures of the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) paradigm...
October 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056364/apolipoprotein-e-as-a-novel-therapeutic-neuroprotection-target-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Xiaoxin Cheng, Yiyan Zheng, Ping Bu, Xiangbei Qi, Chunling Fan, Fengqiao Li, Dong H Kim, Qilin Cao
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a plasma lipoprotein well known for its important role in lipid and cholesterol metabolism, has also been implicated in many neurological diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of apoE on the pathophysiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). ApoE-deficient mutant (apoE(-/-)) and wild-type mice received a T9 moderate contusion SCI and were evaluated using histological and behavioral analyses after injury. At 3days after injury, the permeability of spinal cord-blood-barrier, measured by extravasation of Evans blue dye, was significantly increased in apoE(-/-) mice compared to wild type...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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