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Experimental and Molecular Pathology

Hong Ye, Yali Wang, Jun Yan, A Bennett Jenson
A broad range of cytokines are secreted during the inflammatory response by the immune system. Some cytokines promote inflammation, while others inhibit inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines work in harmony when they encounter external pathogens or internal dangers. Inflammation is resolved after the cause is eliminated. However, if the cause persists, it can lead to significant diseases. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα is a biomarker for the inflammatory response. The AO herbal mixture extracted from 10 medicinal herbs has been investigated for its ability to control the inflammatory process and to inhibit TNFα activity...
November 20, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Yan Shen, Yan Wu, Yong Zheng, Feng Ao, Kai Kang, Yu Wan, Jian Song
Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34(+) vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC(+) SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU(+) cells, whereas the CD34(+) cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC(+) SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34(+) VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker)...
November 14, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Svetozar S Damjanovic, Bojana B Ilic, Bojana B Beleslin Cokic, Jadranka A Antic, Jovana Z Bankovic, Ivana T Milicevic, Gordana S Rodic, Dusan S Ilic, Vera N Todorovic, Nela Puskas, Cane D Tulic
Alterations in von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) do not determine deregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). Their effects on tuberous sclerosis proteins (TSC1/2) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expressions in sporadic ccRCC are unknown. Therefore, we analyze the impact of VHL alterations and HIF-α production on the expression of TSC proteins and Hsp90 in these tumors. Alterations in VHL gene region exhibited 37/47 (78.7%) tumors. Monoallelic inactivation (intragenic mutation or LOH) was found in 10 (21...
November 12, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Michele Matthews, Scott Nelson, Danielle Hari, Samuel French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Luan V Nguyen, Maryam Masoumania, Junko-Ozao Choy, Shi K Peng, Ping Ji, Samuel W French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Galinos Fanourakis, Konstantinos Tosios, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Marios Xydous, Sofia Tseleni-Balafouta, Alexandra Sklavounou, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, Heleni Vastardis
It has been demonstrated that APOBEC3B possesses cytidine deaminase activity, which is likely to result in C-to-T signature mutations. Increased expression of the APOBEC3B gene has been shown to correlate with higher incidence of such mutations in various cancer types, such as breast, bladder, lung, and head and neck carcinomas. In the current study, we used in silico methods, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR to detect the presence of APOBEC3B signature mutations and examine the levels and patterns of APOBEC3B expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs)...
November 4, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Harm HogenEsch, Mario Sola, Timothy M Stearns, Kathleen A Silva, Victoria E Kennedy, John P Sundberg
Angiogenesis is a common feature of pathological processes including wound healing, tumor formation, and chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation can also be associated with dilation or proliferation of lymph vessels. We examined blood vessels and lymphatics and the expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic genes in the skin of SHARPIN-deficient mice which spontaneously develop a chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm). The number of blood vessels in the dermis of cpdm mice increased with age as the inflammation progressed...
October 26, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Guanmin Tang, Lei Peng, Gang Qian, Shijun Wang, Huilin Hu, Xiaoping Zhang, Guojie Song, Ming Yao, Changlin Zhai
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol, a polyphenol of natural compounds, has beneficial cardiovascular effects. Increased expression of miR-130a has been reported to attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that resveratrol via an miR-130a-dependent mechanism promotes angiogenesis and improves heart functions in mice after MI. METHODS: The MI model was established in mice by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. The expression of miR-130a was examined by RT-qPCR...
October 24, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Ya Li, Lu Han, Wen-Yuan Ding, Yun Ti, Yi-Hui Li, Meng-Xiong Tang, Zhi-Hao Wang, Yun Zhang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Jeffrey A Gross, Corina Nagy, Li Lin, Éric Bonneil, Marissa Maheu, Pierre Thibault, Naguib Mechawar, Peng Jin, Gustavo Turecki
There has been a growing interest in the study of epigenetic mechanisms to elucidate the molecular bases of human brain-related diseases and disorders. Frequently, researchers utilize post-mortem tissue with the assumption that post-mortem tissue decay has little or no effect on epigenetic marks. Although previous studies show no effect of post-mortem interval on certain epigenetic marks, no such research has been performed on cytosine modifications. In this study, we use DNA from the brains of adult Sprague Dawley rats subjected to post-mortem intervals at room temperature, ranging from 0 to 96h, to assess the stability of cytosine modifications, namely 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine...
October 13, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Rafael Carvalho Torres, Nathalia Santos Magalhães, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats...
October 8, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Wei Li, Hongjia Yang, Dimiter S Dimitrov
CD16A (FcγRIIIA) is an activating receptor mostly expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes/macrophages. It can mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) through low-affinity interaction with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc. It can also mediate cell lysis if NK cells are guided by bispecific killer cells engagers (BiKEs). BiKEs showed some success in clinical trials of cancer and are promising candidate therapeutics. However, currently reported BiKEs are based on antibody fragments (scFvs) of relatively large size...
October 3, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Defeng Kuang, Xiaoping Zhang, Shaofang Hua, Wei Dong, Zhiguo Li
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, and recent studies have highlighted the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cancer development. However, the role of lncRNAs in ovarian cancer is largely unclear. In this study, we focused on the taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) and examined its molecular mechanism in ovarian cancer. Here, we reported that TUG1 was up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cells, and TUG1 expression was positively correlated with tumor grade and FIGO stage...
September 28, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Wu Yan, Haoxiang Zhang, Jingwen Li, Caifei Shen, Yiju Xia, Pu Wang, Yafei Zhang, Ji Feng, Shunzi Shao, Xiaona Yu, Dianchun Fang
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus is a metaplastic lesion. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of KLF4 and BMP4 in the pathogenesis of Barrett's epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the expression of KLF4, BMP4, CDX2, MUC2 and MUC5AC in human esophageal specimens. Human esophageal squamous epithelial cells were subjected to bile acid treatment and used in transfection experiments...
September 28, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Paola Carolina Bazán, María Silvina Lo Presti, Mariana Strauss, Alejandra Lidia Báez, Noemí Miler, Patricia Adriana Paglini, Héctor Walter Rivarola
Clomipramine (CLO), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, has been used for the treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work we evaluated the effectiveness of CLO treatment upon T. cruzi-infected mice in the chronic phase of the experimental infection using Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and recombinant ELISA. Sixty Swiss albino mice were inoculated with 50 trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain). CLO treatment consisted of 5mg/kg/day during 60days by intraperitoneal injection, beginning on day 90 post infection (p...
September 24, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Xing Mao, Weili Luo, Jianyong Sun, Nianji Yang, Linda Wei Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Zhigang Zhang, Huijuan Wu
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells (MCs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-dependent stimulation of abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. We previously showed that Decorin--a leucine-rich proteoglycan inhibiting the progression of glomerulonephritis and glomerular sclerosis--can be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and deubiquitinated and stabilized by ubiquitin-specific processing protease 2-69(Usp2-69). Usp2-69 is highly expressed in the kidney and has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis...
September 15, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Lin Su, Zhen Zhang, Liang Gan, Qian Jiang, Ping Xiao, Jizhen Zou, Qi Li, Hong Jiang
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the lower intestine. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disease are under active investigation. As core genes in the planar cell polarity pathway, Celsr3 and Fzd3 are believed to play vital roles in the development of the murine enteric nervous system. The potential association of CELSR3 and FZD3 with the development of HSCR in humans, however, is still unknown. We determined the genotypes of eight CELSR3 and FZD3 polymorphisms in 113 patients...
September 13, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Sonia I Vlaicu, Alexandru Tatomir, Dallas Boodhoo, Takahiro Ito, Matthew Fosbrink, Cornelia Cudrici, Armugam P Mekala, Jonathan Ciriello, Doiniţa Crişan, Emil Boţan, Violeta Rus, Horea Rus
The complement system is an important player in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously reported as a cell cycle regulator, RGC-32 is an essential effector of the terminal complement complex, C5b-9. In this study, our aims were to determine the expression of RGC-32 in the human atherosclerotic arterial wall and to delineate the mechanisms through which RGC-32 affects C5b-9-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. We now demonstrate that RGC-32 is expressed in human aortic atherosclerotic wall and that RGC-32 expression increases with the progression of atherosclerosis...
September 13, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
M Masouminia, S Samadzadeh, A Ebaee, B A French, B Tillman, S W French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
The relative resistance of fibroblasts to hypoxia and their remarkable adaptive plasticity in response to rapid changes in local tissue microenvironment made interstitial cardiac fibroblasts to be a key player in post-myocardial infarction myocardial repair. Cardiac fibroblasts are abundantly presented in the interstitial and perivascular extracellular matrix. These cells can be rapidly mobilized in response to cardiac injury. Inflammatory activation of fibroblasts leads to the loss of their quiescent phenotype and inhibition of matrix-producing capacity...
September 9, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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