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Experimental and Molecular Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108879/remyelination-modulators-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Rabeah Al-Temaimi, Jehad AbuBaker, Irina Al-Khairi, Raed Alroughani
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune neuro-inflammatory disorder characterized by persistent MS plaques in the central nervous system. Resolution of MS plaques is dependent on the remyelination competence of surviving oligodendrocytes and surrounding environment. Here, we assessed myelination modulators in a 100 MS patients against 77 healthy controls. Plasma fractions were used for the assessment of insulin growth factor binding protein1 (IGFBP1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lipocalin2 (LCN2) using a Luminex multiplex assay, whereas neurofilament light chain (NF-L) was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104012/angptl3-is-part-of-the-machinery-causing-dyslipidemia-majorily-via-lpl-inhibition-in-mastitis-mice
#2
Hong-Bo Xiao, Ji-Ying Wang, Zhi-Liang Sun
Previous investigations have shown that inflammation induces changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and increased expression of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) contributes to the development of dyslipidemia. Here we investigated whether there is a correlation between increased ANGPTL3 expression and dyslipidemia in mastitis mice. Thirty mice were divided into two groups: control group and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced mastitis mice group. Changes in the levels of blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)]; activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO); concentrations of plasma inflammation biomarkers [interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1α (IL-1α)]; concentration of plasma ANGPTL3 protein; lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in postheparin plasma; expressions of hepatic N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), hepatic ANGPTL3 and adipose LPL were determined...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126766/raman-spectroscopic-analysis-of-oral-cells-in-the-high-wavenumber-region
#3
Luis Felipe C S Carvalho, Franck Bonnier, Cláudio Tellez, Laurita Dos Santos, Kate O'Callaghan, Jeff O'Sullivan, Luis Eduardo S Soares, Stephen Flint, Airton A Martin, Fiona M Lyng, Hugh J Byrne
Raman spectroscopy can provide a molecular-level signature of the biochemical composition and structure of cells with submicrometer spatial resolution and could be useful to monitor changes in composition for early stage and non-invasive cancer diagnosis, both ex-vivo and in vivo. In particular, the fingerprint spectral region (400-1800cm(-1)) has been shown to be very promising for optical biopsy purposes. However, limitations for discrimination of dysplastic and inflammatory processes based on the fingerprint region have been demonstrated...
November 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122566/mutations-of-candidate-tumor-suppressor-genes-at-chromosome-3p-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#4
Huey-Ling You, Wan-Ting Huang, Ting-Ting Liu, Shao-Wen Weng, Hock-Liew Eng
The genetic status of candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) at chromosome 3p has not yet been elucidated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Herein, we retrospectively investigated 32 fresh iCCA case samples from a single medical institution to clarify mutations of 11 TSGs by next-generation sequencing. Validation of the mutations was performed on the MassARRAY platform or by high-resolution melting curve analysis. We then integrated the gene mutations into copy number alterations at chromosome 3p that had been generated in a previous study using the same fresh iCCA samples, and correlated the integration results with the clinicopathologic features...
November 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107050/microrna-21-and-long-non-coding-rna-malat1-are-overexpressed-markers-in-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#5
Ying-Hsia Chu, Heather Hardin, David F Schneider, Herbert Chen, Ricardo V Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are well-recognized post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. This study examines the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and lncRNA MALAT1 in medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) and their effects on tumor behavior. METHODS: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using normal thyroid (n=39), primary tumors (N=39) and metastatic MTCs (N=18) from a total of 42 MTC cases diagnosed between 1987 and 2016...
October 26, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050853/cytoplasmic-expression-of-cd133-stemness-marker-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Leili Saeednejad Zanjani, Zahra Madjd, Maryam Abolhasani, Yvonne Andersson, Arezoo Rasti, Ahmad Shariftabrizi, Mojgan Asgari
Prominin-1 (CD133) is one of the most commonly used markers for cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by their ability for self-renewal and tumorigenicity. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of CSCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in different histological subtypes of RCC. CD133 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 193 well-defined renal tumor samples on tissue microarrays, including 136 (70...
October 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986246/sphingosine-1-phosphate-alleviates-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis-by-increasing-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells
#7
Xinggang Wang, Yong Yu, Minghui Li, Ying Yu, Guijian Liu, Yeqing Xie, Yuxi Liu, Xiangdong Yang, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge, Ruizhen Chen
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), via binding to its specific receptors of S1PR1, participates in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Recent reports have identified S1P as a messenger mediating inflammation. However, roles of S1P in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis were largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of S1P treatment on CVB3-induced myocarditis in vivo. We found that CVB3 infection downregulated S1PR1 expression in spleen and decreased the proportion of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) in CD3 positive T cells both in spleen and in blood from left ventricle, which accompanied by severe inflammation lesions and more virus capsid protein (VP1) expression in heart tissue...
October 3, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941732/the-adaptor-protein-alpha-syntrophin-is-reduced-in-human-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-but-is-unchanged-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Thomas S Weiss, Christa Buechler
The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is differentially expressed in varying types of cancer and affects triglyceride levels, inflammatory response and cell proliferation. However, little is known about the expression of SNTA in liver diseases. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and eventually fibrosis, and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, SNTA mRNA was analyzed in liver tissues from 71 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients and 32 controls to assess associations with disease characteristics...
September 21, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939161/t-cell-mediated-antitumor-immune-response-eliminates-skin-tumors-induced-by-mouse-papillomavirus-mmupv1
#9
Joongho Joh, Paula M Chilton, Sarah A Wilcher, Maryam Zahin, Jino Park, Mary L Proctor, Shin-Je Ghim, Alfred B Jenson
Previous studies of naturally occurring mouse papillomavirus (PV) MmuPV1-induced tumors in B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu/nu) mice suggest that T cell deficiency is necessary and sufficient for the development of such tumors. To confirm this, MmuPV1-induced tumors were transplanted from T cell-deficient mice into immunocompetent congenic mice. Consequently, the tumors regressed and eventually disappeared. The elimination of MmuPV1-infected skin/tumors in immunocompetent mice was consistent with the induction of antitumor T cell immunity...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939160/hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-a-case-report
#10
Jiajie G Lu, M Aabid Farukhi, Donna Mayeda, Samuel W French
Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, where tumor cells stain for both hepatocellular and neuroendocrine markers, is extremely rare. We report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a 14-cm rapidly growing mass in the right lobe of his liver with local extension into the gallbladder and portal vein. Serum AFP was 4625ng/mL. Liver biopsy showed a poorly differentiated neoplasm with cells showing nuclear pleomorphism, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells stain for AFP, glutamine synthase, arginase, and glypican-3...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935394/case-report-an-hiv-patient-presenting-with-pancytopenia-hepatic-failure-and-coagulopathy-a-rare-small-cell-liver-carcinoma-with-diffuse-splenic-and-bone-marrow-metastasis-diagnosed-at-autopsy
#11
Joshua T Byers, Alejandro Mendoza, Daniel Wu, Jason S Kahlon, Xin Qing, Samuel W French
A 34-year old male with a giant condyloma acuminatum of the anus secondary to HIV infection presented to the emergency department with a persistent nose bleed lasting 2-3days, acute anemia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. The patient also had significant hepatosplenomegaly and elevated liver enzymes which were a new finding since the patient's last hospitalization 1-2month prior to the current admission. A bone marrow biopsy showed diffuse infiltration by carcinoma with neuroendocrine features. The patient quickly developed multi-organ injury, decompensated, and died...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843649/change-in-nomenclature-for-the-immunologic-synapse-from-troxis-necrosis-to-trogocytosis
#12
Samuel W French
The immunologic synapse mechanism of liver necrosis was termed Troxis Necrosis meaning "nibbling". (Wang MX et al. and French SW. Exp Mol Pathol 2001, 71: 137-146). This mechanism of liver injury was first named "Piecemeal Necrosis" by Hans Popper. It is involved in autoimmune hepatitis, HCV, HBV, primary biliary cirrhosis and steatohepatitis. This process involves the T cell receptor (TCR) which binds to the hepatocyte antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the hepatocytic plasma membrane which quickly leads to the removal of the complex from the liver and uptake by the CD4 lymphocyte...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843648/5-gene-differential-expression-predicts-stability-of-human-intestinal-allografts
#13
Paloma Talayero, Lola Alonso-Guirado, Guillermo Padilla, Haydee Artaza, Ana Dopazo, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Sarbelio Rodríguez-Muñoz, Jorge Calvo-Pulido, Esther Mancebo, Mario García de Lacoba, Estela Paz-Artal
In intestinal allografts, endoscopy and histology detect the injury once changes in the bowel wall architecture have occurred. We aimed to identify a molecular signature that could predict early deterioration, within histologically indistinguishable biopsies with "minimal changes" (MC) pathology. Sixty biopsies from 12 adult recipients were longitudinally taken during 8years post-transplant. They were classified as either stable (STA) or non-stable (NSTA) according to the prospectively recorded number, frequency and severity of rejection events of the allograft...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935395/the-role-of-tec-kinase-signaling-pathways-in-the-development-of-mallory-denk-bodies-in-balloon-cells-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#14
N Afifiyan, B Tillman, B A French, O Sweeny, M Masouminia, S Samadzadeh, S W French
Several research strategies have been used to study the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). These strategies have shown that various signaling pathways are the target of alcohol in liver cells. However, few have provided specific mechanisms associated with Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) formed in Balloon cells in AH. The formation of MDBs in these hepatocytes is an indication that the mechanisms of protein quality control have failed. The MDB is the result of aggregation and accumulation of proteins in the cytoplasm of balloon degenerated liver cells...
October 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#15
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
October 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823898/can-ocimum-basilicum-relieve-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression-in-mice
#16
Nasra Naeim Ayuob, Alaa El-Din L Firgany, Ahmed A El-Mansy, Soad Ali
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the important world-wide health problems. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil on the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes resulted from exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). It also aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism in an animal model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n=10): control, CUMS (exposed to CUMS for 4weeks), CUMS plus fluoxetine, and CUMS plus OB...
August 18, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822769/somatic-mutation-analysis-in-melanoma-using-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#17
Allen P Miraflor, Francine B de Abreu, Jason D Peterson, Scott A Turner, Christopher I Amos, Gregory J Tsongalis, Shaofeng Yan
Advanced stage malignant melanoma often responds poorly to therapy with low survival rates. New therapeutic approaches are based upon a growing understanding of the underlying molecular abnormalities. We demonstrate the feasibility of a next generation sequencing (NGS) assay, which targets hotspots in 50 cancer genes, to assess genotypes that may influence therapeutic selection and response. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) melanoma specimens to create multiplexed libraries which were sequenced...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818508/the-role-of-the-il-8-signaling-pathway-in-the-infiltration-of-granulocytes-into-the-livers-of-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#18
S W French, A S Mendoza, N Afifiyan, B Tillman, E Vitocruz, B A French
BACKGROUND AND AIM: IL-8 (C-X-L motif chemokine ligase 8) and CXCR2 (C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 2) are up regulated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) liver biopsies. One of the consequences is the attraction and chemotactic neutrophilic infiltrate seen at the AH stage of alcoholic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies from patients who have AH were studied by (2.1) RNA sequencing, (2.2) PCR and (2.3) semi quantitation of specific proteins in biopsy sections using immunohistochemical measurements of antibody fluorescent intensity with morphometric technology...
August 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807543/is-the-diagnosis-of-acute-luminal-appendicitis-clinically-meaningful
#19
Joshua T Byers, Samuel W French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797846/african-medicinal-plants-and-their-derivatives-current-efforts-towards-potential-anti-cancer-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Mzwandile Mbele, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The current review reports on the role of African medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer, and also outlines methodologies that can also be used to achieve better outcomes for cancer treatment...
August 8, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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