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Experimental and Molecular Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843649/change-in-nomenclature-for-the-immunologic-synapse-from-troxis-necrosis-to-trogocytosis
#1
Samuel W French
The immunologic synapse mechanism of liver necrosis was termed Troxis Necrosis meaning "nibbling". (Wang MX et al. and French SW. Exp Mol Pathol 2001, 71: 137-146). This mechanism of liver injury was first named "Piecemeal Necrosis" by Hans Popper. It is involved in autoimmune hepatitis, HCV, HBV, primary biliary cirrhosis and steatohepatitis. This process involves the T cell receptor (TCR) which binds to the hepatocyte antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the hepatocytic plasma membrane which quickly leads to the removal of the complex from the liver and uptake by the CD4 lymphocyte...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843648/5-gene-differential-expression-predicts-stability-of-human-intestinal-allografts
#2
Paloma Talayero, Lola Alonso-Guirado, Guillermo Padilla, Haydee Artaza, Ana Dopazo, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Sarbelio Rodríguez-Muñoz, Jorge Calvo-Pulido, Esther Mancebo, Mario García de Lacoba, Estela Paz-Artal
In intestinal allografts, endoscopy and histology detect the injury once changes in the bowel wall architecture have occurred. We aimed to identify a molecular signature that could predict early deterioration, within histologically indistinguishable biopsies with "minimal changes" (MC) pathology. Sixty biopsies from 12 adult recipients were longitudinally taken during 8years post-transplant. They were classified as either stable (STA) or non-stable (NSTA) according to the prospectively recorded number, frequency and severity of rejection events of the allograft...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823898/can-ocimum-basilicum-relieve-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression-in-mice
#3
Nasra Naeim Ayuob, Alaa El-Din L Firgany, Ahmed A El-Mansy, Soad Ali
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the important world-wide health problems. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil on the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes resulted from exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). It also aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism in an animal model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n=10): control, CUMS (exposed to CUMS for 4weeks), CUMS plus fluoxetine, and CUMS plus OB...
August 18, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#4
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822769/somatic-mutation-analysis-in-melanoma-using-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#5
Allen P Miraflor, Francine B de Abreu, Jason D Peterson, Scott A Turner, Christopher I Amos, Gregory J Tsongalis, Shaofeng Yan
Advanced stage malignant melanoma often responds poorly to therapy with low survival rates. New therapeutic approaches are based upon a growing understanding of the underlying molecular abnormalities. We demonstrate the feasibility of a next generation sequencing (NGS) assay, which targets hotspots in 50 cancer genes, to assess genotypes that may influence therapeutic selection and response. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) melanoma specimens to create multiplexed libraries which were sequenced...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818508/the-role-of-the-il-8-signaling-pathway-in-the-infiltration-of-granulocytes-into-the-livers-of-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
S W French, A S Mendoza, N Afifiyan, B Tillman, E Vitocruz, B A French
BACKGROUND AND AIM: IL-8 (C-X-L motif chemokine ligase 8) and CXCR2 (C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 2) are up regulated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) liver biopsies. One of the consequences is the attraction and chemotactic neutrophilic infiltrate seen at the AH stage of alcoholic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies from patients who have AH were studied by (2.1) RNA sequencing, (2.2) PCR and (2.3) semi quantitation of specific proteins in biopsy sections using immunohistochemical measurements of antibody fluorescent intensity with morphometric technology...
August 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807543/is-the-diagnosis-of-acute-luminal-appendicitis-clinically-meaningful
#7
Joshua T Byers, Samuel W French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797846/african-medicinal-plants-and-their-derivatives-current-efforts-towards-potential-anti-cancer-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Mzwandile Mbele, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The current review reports on the role of African medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer, and also outlines methodologies that can also be used to achieve better outcomes for cancer treatment...
August 8, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757388/effects-of-single-or-combined-induction-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-knee-osteoarthritis-on-some-biochemical-and-haematological-parameters-in-rats
#9
Wale J Adeyemi, Luqman A Olayaki
Clinical evidences on the coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and osteoarthritis (OA) dated back to the 1960s. Therefore, the study investigated the effects of induced DM and/or knee osteoarthritis (KOA) on some biochemical and haematological parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Twenty rats were used for this study. They were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=5 rats) which included: Normal control; Osteoarthritic (OA) control; Diabetic control; and, Diabetic+Osteoarthritic (D+OA) control. DM was induced in overnight fasted rats by the administration of streptozotocin (65mg/kg b...
July 28, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736214/genetic-variants-in-gastric-cancer-risks-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Carolina Oliveira Gigek, Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen, Leonardo Caires Santos, Mariana Ferreira Leal, Fernanda Wisnieski, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Laercio Gomes Lourenço, Gaspar Jesus Lopes-Filho, Marilia Arruda Cardoso Smith
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that involves many molecular alterations. Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. GC is a highly heterogeneous disease with different molecular and genetics features. Therefore, this review focuses on an overview of the genetic aspects of gastric cancer by highlighting the important impact and role of deletions and/or duplications of chromosomal segments, genomic variants, H. pylori infection and interleukin variants, as found in gene expression and newly proposed molecular classification studies...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716574/foregut-duplication-cyst-with-pseudostratified-columnar-ciliated-epithelium-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Joshua T Byers, Dingle Foote, Patrick Choi, Samuel W French
Foregut duplication cysts are extremely rare congenital malformations. Herein we report a case of 73 year old male with a left upper quadrant abdominal lesion identified on CT scan.
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716573/htra3-stromal-expression-is-correlated-with-tumor-budding-in-stage-ii-colorectal-cancer
#12
Catherine L Forse, Mahdi Rahimi, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Naziheh Assarzadegan, Heather Dawson, Andrea Grin, Erin Kennedy, Brenda O'Connor, David E Messenger, Robert H Riddell, Richard Kirsch, George S Karagiannis
Tumor budding is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). It may represent a form of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. High-temperature requirement A3 (HtrA3) is an inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, the suppression of which has been linked to EMT. Since HtrA3 is highly expressed in the desmoplastic stroma at the CRC invasive front, we sought to evaluate the relationship between tumor budding and HtrA3 expression in 172 stage II CRC resection specimens...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711544/concordance-of-dna-methylation-profiles-between-breast-core-biopsy-and-surgical-excision-specimens-containing-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis
#13
Youdinghuan Chen, Jonathan D Marotti, Erik G Jenson, Tracy L Onega, Kevin C Johnson, Brock C Christensen
The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684217/nkg2d-ligand-expression-in-crohn-s-disease-and-nkg2d-dependent-stimulation-of-cd8-t-cell-migration
#14
Kasper Vadstrup, Elisabeth Douglas Galsgaard, Helle Jensen, Lewis L Lanier, James C Ryan, Shih-Yu Chen, Garry P Nolan, Marianne Kajbæk Vester-Andersen, Julie Steen Pedersen, Jens Gerwien, Teis Jensen, Flemming Bendtsen
Interaction between the activating NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes and its ligands MICA, MICB, and ULBP1-6 modulate T and NK cell activity and may contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). NKG2D ligands are generally not expressed on the cell surface of normal, non-stressed cells, but expression of MICA and MICB in CD intestine has been reported. In this exploratory study, we further characterize the expression of NKG2D and its ligands, including the less well-described ULBP4-6, in CD, and test if NKG2D ligand interactions are involved in the migration of activated T cells into the affected mucosal compartments...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684216/evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-wistar-rat-tissues-with-hyperlipidemia-induced-by-tyloxapol
#15
Joubert Aires de Sousa, Patrícia Pereira, Mariangela da Costa Allgayer, Norma Possa Marroni, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
Hyperlipidemia is characterized by high levels of plasma triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, accompanied by reduced HDL-cholesterol levels, and is often associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, few studies have shown the effects of hyperlipidemia on genomic stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage provided by tyloxapol induced hyperlipidemia. Tyloxapol, a non-ionic surfactant, which increases the activity of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase and decreases clearance of lipoproteins, was used to induce hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663031/mutational-analysis-in-bcr-abl1-positive-leukemia-by-deep-sequencing-based-on-nanopore-minion-technology
#16
Crescenzio F Minervini, Cosimo Cumbo, Paola Orsini, Luisa Anelli, Antonella Zagaria, Luciana Impera, Nicoletta Coccaro, Claudia Brunetti, Angela Minervini, Paola Casieri, Giuseppina Tota, Antonella Russo Rossi, Giorgina Specchia, Francesco Albano
We report a third-generation sequencing assay on nanopore technology (MinION) for detecting BCR-ABL1 KD mutations and compare the results to a Sanger sequencing(SS)-based test in 24 Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia cases. Our data indicates that MinION is markedly superior to SS in terms of sensitivity, costs and timesaving, and has the added advantage of determining the clonal configuration of multiple mutations. We demonstrate that MinION is suitable for employment in the hematology laboratory for detecting BCR-ABL1 KD mutation in Ph+ leukemias...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663030/early-experience-with-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-ffpe-based-commercial-clinical-genomic-profiling-of-gliomas-robust-and-informative-with-caveats
#17
Masoud Movassaghi, Maryam Shabihkhani, Seyed A Hojat, Ryan R Williams, Lawrance K Chung, Kyuseok Im, Gregory M Lucey, Bowen Wei, Sergey Mareninov, Michael W Wang, Denise W Ng, Randy S Tashjian, Shino Magaki, Mari Perez-Rosendahl, Isaac Yang, Negar Khanlou, Harry V Vinters, Linda M Liau, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Timothy F Cloughesy, William H Yong
BACKGROUND: Commercial targeted genomic profiling with next generation sequencing using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue has recently entered into clinical use for diagnosis and for the guiding of therapy. However, there is limited independent data regarding the accuracy or robustness of commercial genomic profiling in gliomas. METHODS: As part of patient care, FFPE samples of gliomas from 71 patients were submitted for targeted genomic profiling to one commonly used commercial vendor, Foundation Medicine...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655519/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-ameliorates-testicular-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-induction-of-nrf2-and-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-rats
#18
Xiaokang Qi, Zhiqiang Qin, Jingyuan Tang, Peng Han, Qianwei Xing, Kunpeng Wang, Junjie Yu, Guangchen Zhou, Min Tang, Wei Wang, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on testicular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: A total of 24 rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: Group A (Control group, n=8), Group B (I/R group, n=8), Group C (I/R group treated with n-3 PUFAs, n=8). Histological examination was used to assess changes in testicular structure. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as Superoxide, and antioxidant indexes, including total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC); catalase (CAT); glutathione (GSH); glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG); superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655518/effects-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-and-microrna-let7a-expression-on-thyroid-cancer-prognosis
#19
Na Liu, Qi Zhou, Yan-Hua Qi, Hua Wang, Li Yang, Qing-Yu Fan
This study aims to explore the effects of long non-coding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) and microRNA let7a (miRNA let7a) expression on the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC). This may aid in the discovery of more effective treatment and prognosis approaches for TC. Between January 2008 and January 2011, 131 TC tissues and adjacent tissues were obtained from TC patients. An additional 122 normal thyroid tissues were also collected as normal controls from patients with benign thyroid lesions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect lncRNA H19 and miRNA let7a mRNA expression...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645884/investigation-of-the-effects-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-against-cadmium-induced-damage-in-testis
#20
Maria Vittoria Varoni, Sergio Domenico Gadau, Valeria Pasciu, Elena Baralla, Elisa Serra, Domenico Palomba, Maria Piera Demontis
This study describes the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on testicular damage induced by cadmium (Cd). Adult male rats were i.p. injected with CdCl2 (4mg/Kg, once) with or without LBP pretreatment (300mg/Kg orally, once a day, for 30days). Testis weight, morphological/histological structure and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Several adverse effects were observed after CdCl2 injection, with a significant decrease in body/testis weight ratio (P<0.05), gross morphological changes with hyperemia of the parenchyma, increased volume and alteration in the structure of the seminiferous tubules...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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